Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology by zku40248

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Preface v                                                         Exercise 27   Reflex Arc and Reflexes 39
An Overview vi                                                    Exercise 28   Brain and Cranial Nerves 40
Instructional Approaches vii                                      Exercise 29   Dissection of the Sheep Brain 42
Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Laboratory Exercises         General and Special Senses
                                                                  Exercise 30   Receptors and General Senses 43
Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Supplemental
                                                                  Exercise 31   Smell and Taste 44
          Frog Laboratory Exercises x
                                                                  Exercise 32   Ear and Hearing 45
Suggested Time Schedule xi
                                                                  Exercise 33   Equilibrium 46
Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and                                 Exercise 34   Eye Structure 47
     Physiology                                                   Exercise 35   Visual Tests and Demonstrations 49
Exercise 1    Scientific Method and Measurements 1                Endocrine System
Exercise 2    Body Organization and Terminology 2                 Exercise 36   Endocrine Histology and Diabetic
Exercise 3    Chemistry of Life 4                                               Physiology 50
Exercise 4    Care and Use of the Microscope 5                    Cardiovascular System
Cells                                                             Exercise 37   Blood Cells 51
Exercise 5    Cell Structure and Function 6                       Exercise 38   Blood Testing—A Demonstration 52
Exercise 6    Movements Through Cell Membranes 8                  Exercise 39   Blood Typing 53
Exercise 7    Cell Cycle 10                                       Exercise 40   Heart Structure 54
Tissues                                                           Exercise 41   Cardiac Cycle 56
Exercise 8    Epithelial Tissues 11                               Exercise 42   Blood Vessels 57
Exercise 9    Connective Tissues 12                               Exercise 43   Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure 59
Exercise 10   Muscle and Nervous Tissues 13                       Exercise 44   Arteries and Veins 60
                                                                  Exercise 45   Cat Dissection: Cardiovascular
Integumentary System
                                                                                System 63
Exercise 11   Integumentary System 14
                                                                  Lymphatic System
Skeletal System
                                                                  Exercise 46   Lymphatic System 64
Exercise 12   Bone Structure and Classification 16
                                                                  Digestive System
Exercise 13   Organization of the Skeleton 17
Exercise 14   Skull 18                                            Exercise 47   Digestive Organs 65
Exercise 15   Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage 21               Exercise 48   Cat Dissection: Digestive System 68
Exercise 16   Pectoral Girdle and Upper                           Exercise 49   Action of a Digestive Enzyme 69
              Limb 23                                             Respiratory System
Exercise 17   Pelvic Girdle and Lower                             Exercise 50   Respiratory Organs 70
              Limb 25                                             Exercise 51   Cat Dissection: Respiratory System 72
Exercise 18   Joints 27                                           Exercise 52   Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and
Muscular System                                                                 Capacities 73
Exercise 19   Skeletal Muscle Structure 29                        Exercise 53   Control of Breathing 74
Exercise 20   Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck 30              Urinary System
Exercise 21   Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper           Exercise 54   Kidney Structure 75
              Limb 31                                             Exercise 55   Urinalysis 76
Exercise 22   Muscles of the Deep Back, Abdominal Wall,           Exercise 56   Cat Dissection: Urinary System 77
              and Pelvic Outlet 33                                Reproductive Systems and Development
Exercise 23   Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb 34
                                                                  Exercise 57   Male Reproductive System 78
Exercise 24   Cat Dissection: Musculature 36
                                                                  Exercise 58   Female Reproductive System 79
Nervous System                                                    Exercise 59   Cat Dissection: Reproductive Systems 81
Exercise 25   Nervous Tissue and Nerves 37                        Exercise 60   Fertilization and Early Development 82
Exercise 26   Meninges and Spinal Cord 38                         Exercise 61   Genetics 83

Supplemental Frog Laboratory Exercises                      Appendices
Exercise 62   Skeletal Muscle Contraction 86                Appendix 1   Materials Needed 89
Exercise 63   Nerve Impulse Stimulation 87                  Appendix 2   Laboratory Suppliers 93
Exercise 64   Factors Affecting the Cardiac Cycle 88        Appendix 3   Student Safety Contract 94
                                                            Appendix 3   Student Informed Consent Form 95


This instructor's manual is designed to assist those who are using the Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole's Human Anatomy
and Physiology, eleventh edition by Terry R. Martin. It describes the purpose of the laboratory manual and its special features, and
provides suggestions for presenting the laboratory exercises to students. The instructor's manual also parallels the laboratory
manual, exercise by exercise, providing labels for unlabeled diagrams and answers to questions that appear in the laboratory
reports. For some exercises, special instructional suggestions that propose alternative procedures, laboratory equipment, or
laboratory techniques are provided.

           Most of the illustrations and labels parallel the textbook very closely as requested by many of the users of the laboratory
manual. Many of the leader lines are arranged differently than the textbook, and several illustrations are different than the textbook.
This has been requested also by many of the users of the laboratory manual. I have attempted to reach a balance that will be beneficial
for all students and instructors.

                                                                                                          AN OVERVIEW

The Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, eleventh edition, was written to accompany the
textbook Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, eleventh edition, by Shier, Butler, and Lewis. As in the case of the textbook, the
laboratory manual is planned for students pursuing careers in allied health fields who have minimal backgrounds in the physical
and biological sciences.

         The manual contains sixty-four laboratory exercises that are closely integrated with the content of the textbook. Three of
these exercises only appear in the text website. The exercises are designed to review and illustrate various anatomical and
physiological facts and principles presented in the textbook and to help students investigate some of these ideas in more detail.

          The laboratory exercises include a variety of special features that are designed to stimulate student interest in the subject
matter, to involve students in the learning process, and to guide them through the planned experiences. These features include the

Materials Needed. The laboratory materials listed are those that students require to complete the exercise and to perform the
demonstrations and learning extensions.

Safety. If the laboratory exercise requires special safety guidelines, this section is included. General safety guidelines also appear
inside the front cover.

           Some institutions might have committees for reviewing labs using live animals, biohazards, and physiology experiments
performed on students. Be sure your labs conform to their guidelines. You might find the forms available in Appendix 3 and 4
useful at your school.

Introduction. The introduction briefly describes the subject of the exercise or the ideas that will be investigated.

Purpose of the Exercise. The purpose provides a statement concerning the intent of the exercise—that is, what will be

Learning Objectives. The learning objectives list in general terms what a student should be able to do after completing the exercise.

Procedure. The procedure provides a set of detailed instructions for accomplishing the planned laboratory activities. Usually these
instructions are presented in outline form so that a student can proceed through the exercise in stepwise fashion. Frequently, the
student is referred to particular sections of the textbook for necessary background information or for review of subject matter
presented in some previous part of the course.

          The procedures include a wide variety of laboratory activities and, from time to time, direct the student to complete
various tasks in the laboratory reports.

Demonstrations. Demonstrations appear in separate boxes. They describe specimens, specialized laboratory equipment, or other
materials of interest that the instructor may want to display to enrich the student's laboratory experience.

Learning Extensions. Learning extensions also appear in separate boxes. They are planned to encourage students to extend their
laboratory experiences. Some of these activities are open-ended in that they suggest how a student can plan an investigation or
experiment and carry it out after receiving approval from the laboratory instructor.

Illustrations. Diagrams from the textbook often are used as aids for reviewing subject matter. Other illustrations provide visual
instructions for performing steps in procedures or are used to identify parts of instruments or specimens. Micrographs often are
included to help students identify microscopic structures or to evaluate student understanding of tissues.

          Some figures, such as those involving the skull, are presented so that they are suitable for coloring. You may want to
have your students use colored pencils to highlight various parts of these illustrations. This activity should enhance their ability to
observe the figures more carefully and help them locate and identify important anatomical features.

Laboratory Reports. Immediately following each exercise, there is a laboratory report to be completed by the student. These reports
include various types of review activities, spaces for sketches of microscopic objects, tables for recording observations and
experimental results, and questions dealing with the analysis of such data.

          As a result of these laboratory exercises, students should develop a better understanding of the structural and functional
characteristics of their bodies. In addition, their skills in gathering information by observation and experimentation should increase.

                                                                        INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES

Exercise Selection
Although the laboratory manual contains sixty-four separate exercises, it may not be possible to include all of them in any one
program. However, because many of the exercises are relatively short and because the procedures of others are divided into
sections, an instructor can easily select those exercises or parts of exercises that best meet the needs of a particular class.

         These exercises also vary in the quantities of equipment needed to complete them; if necessary, an instructor can make
some selection based upon the amount of laboratory equipment available for use by a class.

Animal Dissection
In the laboratory manual, the preserved cat is used as the major animal to be dissected. Detailed instructions for dissecting certain
organs, such as the sheep brain, sheep heart, pig kidney, and mammalian eye are also included.

        If an instructor prefers to have students dissect some other animal, appropriate sections of a specialized dissectional
manual may be substituted for those exercises dealing with the preserved cat.

          A laboratory option is to obtain a cadaver as a demonstration specimen. If this is not possible, consider a field trip to a
location that has a prosected cadaver. A minimum of two viewings is recommended~ one during muscle study and the other near
the end of the course.

The Use of Animals in Biology Education*
The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman animals, is
essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use of animals in the life science
classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology teachers also should teach about the
interrelationship and interdependency of all things.

           Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from observation to dissection. NABT supports these
experiences so long as they are conducted within the long-established guidelines of proper care and use of animals, as developed by
the scientific and educational community.

          As with any instructional activity, the use of nonhuman animals in the biology classroom must have sound educational
objectives. Any use of animals, whether for observation or dissection, must convey substantive knowledge of biology. NABT
believes that biology teachers are in the best position to make this determination for their students.

          NABT acknowledges that no alternative can substitute for the actual experience of dissection or other use of animals and
urges teachers to be aware of the limitations of alternatives. When the teacher determines that the most effective means to meet the
objectives of the class do not require dissection, NABT accepts the use of alternatives to dissection including models and the
various forms of multimedia. The Association encourages teachers to be sensitive to substantive student objections to dissection
and to consider providing appropriate lessons for those students where necessary.

         To implement this policy, NABT endorses and adopts the “Principle and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege
Education” of the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (National Research Council). Copies of the “Principle and
Guidelines” may be obtained from the ILAR (2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418; 202 334-2590).

*Adopted by the Board of Directors in October 1995. This policy supersedes and replaces all previous NABT statements regarding
animals in biology education.

Background Information
The procedures of many exercises begin by suggesting that students review specific sections of the textbook. If the subject matter
involved in a particular exercise has been covered recently in lecture, the students may be able to accomplish such a review rather
quickly. On the other hand, if the material has not been presented previously, this part of a procedure may be used as a means of
introducing information needed to understand the ideas presented in the exercise.
When the procedure is used to introduce new material, an instructor may ask students to complete the first section before coming to the
laboratory. Following this, some portion of the laboratory time may be needed for class discussion of the new material.

                                  CORRELATION OF TEXTBOOK CHAPTERS AND
                                                  LABORATORY EXERCISES

Textbook Chapters                                         Related Laboratory Exercises
Ch. 1     Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology    Ex. 1     Scientific Method and Measurements
                                                          Ex. 2     Body Organization and Terminology

Ch. 2    Chemical Basis of Life                           Ex. 3     Chemistry of Life

Ch. 3    Cells                                            Ex. 4     Care and Use of the Microscope
                                                          Ex. 5     Cell Structure and Function
                                                          Ex. 6     Movements Through Cell Membranes
                                                          Ex. 7     Cell Cycle

Ch. 4    Cellular Metabolism

Ch. 5    Tissues                                           Ex. 8    Epithelial Tissues
                                                           Ex. 9    Connective Tissues
                                                           Ex. 10   Muscle and Nervous Tissues

Ch. 6    Integumentary System                              Ex. 11   Integumentary System

Ch. 7    Skeletal System                                   Ex. 12   Bone Structure and Classification
                                                           Ex. 13   Organization of the Skeleton
                                                           Ex. 14   Skull
                                                           Ex. 15   Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage
                                                           Ex. 16   Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
                                                           Ex. 17   Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

Ch. 8    Joints of the Skeletal System                     Ex. 18   Joints

Ch. 9    Muscular System                                   Ex. 19   Skeletal Muscle Structure
                                                           Ex. 20   Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck
                                                           Ex. 21   Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb
                                                           Ex. 22   Muscles of the Deep Back, Abdominal Wall, and
                                                                    Pelvic Outlet
                                                           Ex. 23   Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb
                                                           Ex. 24   Cat Dissection: Musculature

Ch. 10   Nervous System I: Basic Structure and Function    Ex. 25   Nervous Tissue and Nerves

Ch. 11   Nervous System II: Divisions of the Nervous       Ex. 26   Meninges and Spinal Cord
                                                           Ex. 27   Reflex Arc and Reflexes
                                                           Ex. 28   Brain and Cranial Nerves
                                                           Ex. 29   Dissection of the Sheep Brain

Ch. 12   Nervous System III: Senses                  Ex. 30   Receptors and General Senses
                                                     Ex. 31   Smell and Taste
                                                     Ex. 32   Ear and Hearing
                                                     Ex. 33   Equilibrium
                                                     Ex. 34   Eye Structure
                                                     Ex. 35   Visual Tests and Demonstrations

Ch. 13   Endocrine System                            Ex. 36   Endocrine Histology and Diabetic Physiology

Ch. 14   Blood                                       Ex. 37   Blood Cells
                                                     Ex. 38   Blood Testing–A Demonstration
                                                     Ex. 39   Blood Typing

Ch. 15   Cardiovascular System                       Ex. 40   Heart Structure
                                                     Ex. 41   Cardiac Cycle
                                                     Ex. 42   Blood Vessels
                                                     Ex. 43   Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure
                                                     Ex. 44   Arteries and Veins
                                                     Ex. 45   Cat Dissection: Cardiovascular System

Ch. 16   Lymphatic System and Immunity               Ex. 46   Lymphatic System

Ch. 17   Digestive System                            Ex. 47   Digestive Organs
                                                     Ex. 48   Cat Dissection: Digestive System
                                                     Ex. 49   Action of a Digestive Enzyme

Ch. 18   Nutrition and Metabolism

Ch. 19   Respiratory System                          Ex. 50   Respiratory Organs
                                                     Ex. 51   Cat Dissection: Respiratory System
                                                     Ex. 52   Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
                                                     Ex. 53   Control of Breathing

Ch. 20   Urinary System                              Ex. 54   Kidney Structure
                                                     Ex. 55   Urinalysis
                                                     Ex. 56   Cat Dissection: Urinary System

Ch. 21   Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Ch. 22   Reproductive Systems                        Ex. 57   Male Reproductive System
                                                     Ex. 58   Female Reproductive System
                                                     Ex. 59   Cat Dissection: Reproductive System

Ch. 23   Human Growth and Development                Ex. 60   Fertilization and Early Development

Ch. 24   Genetics and Genomics                       Ex. 61   Genetics

                             CORRELATION OF TEXTBOOK CHAPTERS AND

Ch. 9    Muscular System                                  Ex. 62   Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Ch. 10   Nervous System I: Basic Structure and Function   Ex. 63   Nerve Impulse Stimulation

Ch. 15   Cardiovascular System                            Ex. 64   Factors Affecting the Cardiac Cycle

                                                                        SUGGESTED TIME SCHEDULE

 Different instructional programs provide different lengths of time for laboratory preparations, work activities, and follow-up
 discussions. Other factors that influence the time required for each exercise are the availability and variety of laboratory equipment
 and materials. Consequently, it is difficult to make precise suggestions for the amounts of time that should be set aside for
 particular laboratory exercises.

           The suggested time schedule was prepared with these limitations in mind. The hours listed for each exercise indicate the
 minimal time that probably will be needed for students who are acquainted with the subject matter of the exercise to complete the
 laboratory work. Students who lack background information and who have to read various sections of the textbook before
 beginning an exercise probably will require additional time. Similarly, students who are expected to complete the laboratory reports
 in class may need more time.

Laboratory Exercise                 Minimal Time              Laboratory Exercise                 Minimal Time
Ex. 1   Scientific Method and Measurements 2 hr               Ex. 33   Equilibrium 1 hr
Ex. 2   Body Organization and Terminology 2 hr                Ex. 34   Eye Structure 3 hr
Ex. 3   Chemistry of Life 2 hr                                Ex. 35   Visual Tests and Demonstrations 2 hr
Ex. 4   Care and Use of the Microscope 2 hr                   Ex. 36   Endocrine Histology and Diabetic Physiology          2 hr
Ex. 5   Cell Structure and Function 2 hr                      Ex. 37   Blood Cells 2 hr
Ex. 6   Movements Through Cell Membranes 3 hr                 Ex. 38   Blood Testing—A Demonstration 2 hr
Ex. 7   Cell Cycle        1 hr                                Ex. 39   Blood Typing 1 hr
Ex. 8   Epithelial Tissues 2 hr                               Ex. 40   Heart Structure 2 hr
Ex. 9   Connective Tissues 2 hr                               Ex. 41   Cardiac Cycle      3 hr
Ex. 10 Muscle and Nervous Tissues 1 hr                        Ex. 42   Blood Vessels 1 hr
Ex. 11 Integumentary System 1 hr                              Ex. 43   Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure 2 hr
Ex. 12 Bone Structure and Classification 1 hr                 Ex. 44   Arteries and Veins         2 hr
Ex. 13 Organization of the Skeleton 1 hr                      Ex. 45   Cat Dissection: Cardiovascular System 3 hr
Ex. 14 Skull 3 hr                                             Ex. 46   Lymphatic System 1 hr
Ex. 15 Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage 2 hr                Ex. 47   Digestive Organs 2 hr
Ex. 16 Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 2 hr                    Ex. 48   Cat Dissection: Digestive System 2 hr
Ex. 17 Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 2 hr                      Ex. 49   Action of a Digestive Enzyme 2 hr
Ex. 18 Joints 2 hr                                            Ex. 50   Respiratory Organs 2 hr
Ex. 19 Skeletal Muscle Structure 1 hr                         Ex. 51   Cat Dissection: Respiratory System 2 hr
Ex. 20 Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck 1 hr               Ex. 52   Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and
Ex. 21 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb                  Capacities 1 hr
        2 hr                                                  Ex. 53     Control of Breathing 1 hr
Ex. 22   Muscles of the Deep Back, Abdominal Wall, and        Ex. 54     Kidney Structure 2 hr
         Pelvic Outlet 1 hr                                   Ex. 55     Urinalysis 3 hr
Ex. 23   Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb 2 hr               Ex. 56     Cat Dissection: Urinary System 1 hr
Ex. 24   Cat Dissection: Musculature 6 hr                     Ex. 57     Male Reproductive System 2 hr
Ex. 25   Nervous Tissue and Nerves 2 hr                       Ex. 58     Female Reproductive System            2 hr
Ex. 26   Meninges and Spinal Cord 1 hr                        Ex. 59     Cat Dissection: Reproductive Systems 2 hr
Ex. 27   Reflex Arc and Reflexes 1 hr                         Ex. 60     Fertilization and Early Development 2 hr
Ex. 28   Brain and Cranial Nerves 2 hr                        Ex. 61     Genetics      2 hr
Ex. 29   Dissection of the Sheep Brain 2 hr                   Ex. 62     Skeletal Muscle Contraction     3 hr
Ex. 30   Receptors and General Senses 2 hr                    Ex. 63     Nerve Impulse Stimulation 3 hr
Ex. 31   Smell and Taste 2 hr                                 Ex. 64     Factors Affecting the Cardiac Cycle 3 hr
Ex. 32   Ear and Hearing 2 hr

                                                       LABORATORY EXERCISE 1
                                         SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND MEASUREMENTS

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Answers and data will vary.

Laboratory Report Answers

1.       (experimental results)
2.       (experimental results)
3.       Answers will vary, however many students will conclude that the data will support the original hypothesis.
1–6.      Answers will vary.

                                                           LABORATORY EXERCISE 2
                                               BODY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY

Instructional Suggestions
If a dissectible human torso model (manikin) is not available, you might want to have students consult the figures in various
sections of the textbook, particularly the body sections in the reference plates following chapter 1, to gain some understanding of
the organizational pattern of the human body.

Figure Labels
FIG. 2.1

1.        Thoracic cavity                                              4.        Pelvic cavity
2.        Abdominal cavity                                             5.        Cranial cavity
3.        Abdominopelvic cavity                                        6.        Vertebral canal (spinal cavity)
FIG. 2.2a
1.        Visceral pleura                                              4.        Visceral pericardium (epicardium)
2.        Pleural cavity                                               5.        Pericardial cavity
3.        Parietal pleura                                              6.        Parietal pericardium
FIG. 2.2b
7.        Visceral peritoneum                                          9.        Parietal peritoneum
8.        Peritoneal cavity
FIG. 2.5
1.        Sagittal plane (midsagittal plane)                           3.        Transverse (horizontal) plane
2.        Coronal (frontal) plane
FIG. 2.6a
1.        Epigastric region                                            6.        Left hypochondriac region
2.        Right hypochondriac region                                   7.        Left lumbar region
3.        Right lumbar region                                          8.        Left iliac region (left inguinal region)
4.        Umbilical region                                             9.        Hypogastric region
5.        Right iliac region (right inguinal region)
FIG. 2.6b
10.       Right upper quadrant (RUQ)                                   12.       Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
11.       Right lower quadrant (RLQ)                                   13.       Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
FIG. 2.7a
1.        Nasal                      6.        Mammary                 11.       Carpal                 16.     Tarsal
2.        Oral                       7.        Brachial                12.       Palmar                 17.     Cephalic
3.        Cervical                   8.        Antecubital             13.       Digital                18.     Frontal
4.        Acromial                   9.        Abdominal               14.       Genital                19.     Orbital
5.        Axillary                   10.       Antebrachial            15.       Crural                 20.     Buccal

21.    Mental                 23.   Pectoral        25.   Inguinal      27.   Patellar
22.    Sternal                24.   Umbilical       26.   Coxal         28.   Pedal
FIG. 2.7b
29.    Otic                   33.   Brachial        37.   Sacral        41.   Popliteal
30.    Occipital              34.   Dorsum          38.   Gluteal       42.   Sural (calf) or
31.    Acromial               35.   Cubital         39.   Perineal            crural (leg)
32.    Vertebral              36.   Lumbar          40.   Femoral       43.   Plantar

Laboratory Report Answers
1.     a                      5.    b               9.    d
2.     d                      6.    c               10.   e
3.     a                      7.    a               11.   d
4.     a                      8.    c               12.   a
1.     c                      4.    g               7.    e             10.   b
2.     d                      5.    j               8.    f             11.   a
3.     h                      6.    i               9.    k
1.     inferior               4.    anterior        7.    distal        10.   (correct)
2.     (correct)              5.    (correct)       8.    (correct)     11.   contralateral
3.     (correct)              6.    (correct)       9.    superficial   12.   deep
1.     e                      5.    l               9.    d
2.     k                      6.    j               10.   h
3.     b                      7.    g               11.   f
4.     i                      8.    c               12.   a
1.     h                      5.    l               9.    d
2.     c                      6.    f               10.   a
3.     i                      7.    k               11.   b
4.     j                      8.    g               12.   e

      Critical Thinking Application Answers

1.     LUQ                                          4.    RUQ
2.     RLQ                                          5.    LUQ or LLQ
3.     any or all quadrants                         6.    LUQ

                                                                                LABORATORY EXERCISE 3
                                                                                     CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

Instructional Suggestions
1.   The 7 assorted common liquids for the pH tests could include among the following: orange juice, lemon juice, milk, bottled
     water, baking soda solution, aspirin solution, borax solution, ammonia, vinegar, antacid, liquid soap, cola, and diluted catsup.
     Any beverage can be used, and any household product, even solids if they can be dissolved.

2.   The unknown compounds could include among the following: diluted milk, diluted corn syrup, chicken or beef broth, diluted
     potato soup, diluted pudding, salad dressing, egg substitute, and diluted yogurt. It is very important to use some numbering
     code to keep track of which unknown is which. The unknowns often look alike and are easily confused. The students need to
     be instructed to take care not to contaminate their unknown. They need to be reminded to perform all tests, as students often
     think if they get one positive result they can stop. Be aware that different brands of food products can contain different
     ingredients. Inform the students when heating the samples using Benedict’s solution, if there is a protein present it may
     denature or become solid, which should not be interpreted as a positive result.

Laboratory Report Answers
PART A (matching)
1.         b                         5.         f                         9.       k
2.         e                         6.         i                         10.      g
3.         h                         7.         c                         11.      a
4.         j                         8.         d                         12.      l

PART A (molecules and bonding)
1.         1; 1                      3.          (sketches)               5.       ionic
2.         17; 7                     4.          no; no                   6.       (sketches)

1.         (experimental results)    4.          Various substances 5.             (experimental results)
2.         (experimental results)                dissolved in tap water
                                                 will influence the pH
3.         no

1.         (experimental results)    3.          (experimental results)
2.         (experimental results)    4.          (experimental results)

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
Answers will vary. However, albumin has the highest protein value along with the lowest amount of carbohydrates (starch and

1–4. (experimental results) Answers will vary depending upon the unknown compound selected.

                                                                 LABORATORY EXERCISE 4
                                                        CARE AND USE OF THE MICROSCOPE

Instructional Suggestions
     1.   To stimulate student interest in use of the microscope, you may want to have students prepare wet mounts of pond water
          and observe the various forms of life present. A plankton net is a helpful device to concentrate pond organisms. Students
          can be encouraged to bring samples of pond water to class in preparation for this experiment.
     2.   You may want to provide students with prepared slides of major human organs to examine as a way of increasing
          their experience with using the microscope.
     3.   If oil-immersion objectives are available, you may want to provide students with prepared slides of various forms of
          bacteria to observe using these objectives.

             Critical Thinking Application Answer
Answers will vary depending upon the order of the three colored threads. However, the colored thread on the top will be in focus
first, the middle one second, and the bottom one last as the student continues to turn the fine adjustment the same direction.

Laboratory Report Answers
1.           100×
                                                                         2.        1,000×
1.          (sketch)
                                                                         4.        About 2.2 mm
2.          About 4.5 mm for scanning power (using 4×                    5.        About 2,200 micrometers
3.          About 4,500 micrometers
1.          (sketch)                                                     5.        Light intensity is decreased when high-power
2.          About 1.7 mm (using a 10× objective)                                   objective is used.
                                                                         6.        (sketch)
3.          The diameter of the scanning-power field of view is
            about 2.6 times greater than that of the low-power           7.        Upside down and reversed from right to left
            field of view.                                               8.        Left
4.          Student is unable to see two adjacent mm lines on            9.        Toward the observer
            the scale in a high-power field of view.

1.           f                                                          6.         j
2.           i                                                          7.         d
3.           c                                                          8.         b
4.           a                                                          9.         g
5.           h                                                          10.        e

                                                                       LABORATORY EXERCISE 5
                                                                 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Instructional Suggestions
     1.   Instead of preparing cheek cell slides, you may want to have students prepare slides of plant cells using Elodea leaves
          or onion skin.
     2.   If live frogs are available, you may want to pith the frogs and have students prepare wet mounts using small samples
          of the ciliated epithelium that lines the oral cavity. They also can prepare smears of frog blood and stain the cells with
          methylene blue, and prepare wet mounts of sperm cells from the testes of the male frogs. You then might provide
          students with prepared slides of human ciliated epithelium, blood, and sperm cells and have the students compare the
          frog cells with the human cells.

Figure Labels
FIG. 5.1
1.           Flagellum                                         6.           Nuclear envelope
2.           Centrioles                                        7.           Mitochondrion
3.           Golgi apparatus                                   8.           Ribosomes
4.           Smooth endoplasmic reticulum                      9.           Cell membrane
5.           Nucleus                                           10.          Cilia

             Critical Thinking Application Answer
The outer body surface is the same tissue as inside the cheek, however outer surface cells are dead from drying out.

Laboratory Report Answers
1.           a                        5.         i                          9.         d
2.           g                        6.         f                          10.        e
3.           k                        7.         c                          11.        h
4.           l                        8.         b                          12.        j
1.           (sketch)                                         3.            Yes. The stained cheek cells are essentially
2.           The wet-mount cells look like shells or “ghosts”               the same size and shape; however, the
             The stained cells made the nucleus and other                   process of cell removal may cause many of
             cellular components more clearly visible.                      the cells to become folded and distorted.

1.           (sketches)                                    3.               Answers will vary.
2.           They should always notice cytoplasm, nucleus,
             nuclear envelope, and cell membrane

PART D (FIG. 5.4)
1.     Ribosomes                       7.        Endoplasmic reticulum
2.     Nuclear envelope                8.        Nuclear envelope
3.     Golgi apparatus                 9.        Nucleolus
4.     Mitochondrion (cross section)   10.       Chromatin
5.     Chromatin                       11.       Centrioles
6.     Mitochondria                    12.       Cell membrane
1.       Answers will vary.            2.        Only nonliving cells can be observed, and
                                                 only sections of a cell can be observed.

                                                      LABORATORY EXERCISE 6
                                          MOVEMENTS THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES

Instructional Suggestion
Instead of using human blood for Procedure C, you may want to substitute some other type of animal blood obtained
from a meat packing house, a veterinarian, or a biological supplier. The hemolysis experiment, using RBCs from a
save source, demonstrates concepts of osmosis, tonicity, and membrane characteristics.

Laboratory Report Answers
1.       (experimental results)                              4.       Diffusion is the movement of a substance
2.       (experimental results)                                       from an area of higher concentration to an
                                                                      area of lower concentration as a result of
3.       Answers will vary.                                           molecular motion.

         Critical Thinking Application Answer
1.       yes                                                 4.       no
2.       yes                                                 5.       yes
3.       no
1.       Answers will vary.                                  4.       Osmosis is the movement of water molecules
2.       Answers will vary.                                           from an area of higher concentration to an area of
                                                                      lower concentration through a selectively
3.       A greater volume of fluid is in the thistle tube.            permeable membrane.

         Critical Thinking Application Answers
1.       yes                                                 4.       yes
2.       yes                                                 5.       yes
3.       no
1.       (sketches)                                    3.             Tube 1. There was a net movement of water into
2.       Tube 3. There was a net movement of water out                the cells.
         of the cells.                                 4.             Tube 2. There was no net movement of water
                                                                      into or out of the cells.

1.   Water, glucose, and starch.                       6.       Filtration is the movement of substances through
2.   The tests for glucose and starch were positive.            a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure
                                                                that is greater on one side of the membrane than
3.   Gravity                                                    on the other side.
4.   Charcoal
5.   Pore in the filter paper were too small.

     Critical Thinking Application Answers
1.   no                                                4.       no
2.   yes                                               5.       yes
3.   no

                                                                               LABORATORY EXERCISE 7
                                                                                         CELL CYCLE
Figure Labels
FIG. 7.2
1.           Chromosome (chromatid)                                       3.        Centriole
2.           Centromere                                                   4.        Spindle fiber (microtubules)

             Critical Thinking Application Answer
 Interphase. Even in rapidly dividing cells interphase is the most prevalent because it requires the longest period of time for
 growth and duplication of cell structures.

Laboratory Report Answers


     Stage                        Major Events Occurring
     Interphase                   Growth, duplication of cell structures, and normal metabolism take place.
     Prophase                     Nuclear envelope disappears; chromatin fibers condense, forming chromosomes (paired chromatids);
                                  centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell.
     Metaphase                    Chromosomes align midway between centrioles.
     Anaphase                     Microtubules pull chromosomes toward centrioles.
     Telophase                    Chromosomes elongate and become chromatin fibers; nuclear envelopes reappear.
     Cytoplasmic division         Cell membrane constricts, dividing cell into new cells (daughter cells).

1.           Each new cell contains identical chromosomes.              3.        Mitosis involves the division of the nuclear
2.           They may be slightly different in size and                           contents and the distribution of identical sets of
             numbers of organelles.                                               chromosomes to the new cells; cytoplasmic
                                                                                  division (cytokinesis) involves the division of the
                                                                                  cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles.

PART D (figure 7.5a–d)
a.           Metaphase                                                  c.        Prophase
b.           Telophase                                                  d.        Anaphase
PART E (figure 7.5a–d)
1.           Chromosome (chromatid)                                     4.        Nuclear envelope
2.           Cytokinesis (cleavage furrow)                              5.        Centrioles/centrosome
3.           Cell membrane                                              6.        Spindle fibers (microtubules)

                                                                             LABORATORY EXERCISE 8
                                                                                 EPITHELIAL TISSUES
Laboratory Report Answers

1.        f                        4.        d                        7.        e                         10.       a
2.        d                        5.        c                        8.        f                         11.       a
3.        c                        6.        d                        9.        b                         12.       e

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Stratified squamous epithelium would have excellent protection as it is several cells thick. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
with cilia would provide good movement of mucus and trapped particles away from the lungs.

                                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 9
                                                                                 CONNECTIVE TISSUES
Laboratory Report Answers

1.           e                     5.         i                         9.         g
2.           a                     6.         d                         10.        c
3.           b                     7.         a                         11.        f
4.           c                     8.         h                         12.        j

             Critical Thinking Application Answer
The spleen is composed of reticular connective tissue. This type of tissue contains only short, thin, collagenous fibers (reticular
fibers) that are widely scattered. The result is a delicate distribution of fibers among cells and a fluid ground substance. (Spleen
repair is almost impossible due to the short reticular fibers. A ruptured spleen is usually removed in surgery.)

                                    LABORATORY EXERCISE 10
                                MUSCLE AND NERVOUS TISSUES
Laboratory Report Answers

1.           b      5.      c        9.    d
2.           a      6.      b        10.   b
3.           d      7.      c
4.           a      8.      a

                                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 11
                                                                               INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Figure Labels

FIG. 11.1
1.        Epidermis                            5.         Stratum corneum                        9.        Hair follicle
2.        Dermis                               6.         Stratum basale                         10.       Sweat gland (eccrine
3.        Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)      7.         Sebaceous gland                                  gland)

4.        Hair shaft                           8.         Arrector pili muscle                   11.       Blood vessels
FIG. 11.2
1.        Stratum corneum                      3.         Stratum granulosum                     5.        Stratum basale
2.        Stratum lucidum                      4.         Stratum spinosum
FIG. 11.3
1.        Arrector pili muscle                 4.         Sebaceous gland                        6.        Sweat gland (eccrine
2.        Region of cell division              5.         Hair follicle                                    gland)

3.        Hair shaft

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Melanin granules are concentrated within some of the most superficial living cells of the body. Because melanin absorbs the
ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, minimal damaging wavelengths reach the living cells of the dermis. (Most of the melanin granules
are oriented on the superficial side of the nucleus that serve as a protective shield of the nucleus of the epidermal cells.)

Laboratory Report Answers
1.        j                                    5.        c                                      9.        g
2.        l                                    6.        d                                      10.       k
3.        a                                    7.        e                                      11.       f
4.        h                                    8.        i                                      12.       b
1.        Answers will vary.                                             4.      The pigment melanin is produced by melanocytes.
2.        Answers will vary.
3.        Epidermal cells at the base of the hair follicle divide
          and grow, pushing older cells outward; as these cells
          die, they become keratinized parts of the hair.
1.         Epidermis is the outer layer of the skin, whereas             3.      Melanin is found in the stratum basale.
           dermis is the inner layer; the subcutaneous layer
           binds the dermis to the underlying organs.

2.         Cells of the stratum basale are living and reproduce          4.      It contains both elastic and collagenous fibers that
           actively; cells of the stratum corneum are dead and                   give the dermis the qualities of elasticity and
           keratinized and form the surface layer of the skin.                   strength.

1.         Hair root        3.   Sebaceous glands are usually connected to hair
2.         Dermis                follicles and secrete sebum into the follicles.
                            4.   Dermis

                                                          LABORATORY EXERCISE 12
                                                BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION
Figure Labels
FIG. 12.1
1.        Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)                        6.          Periosteum
2.        Spongy bone (red marrow)                                       7.          Proximal epiphysis
3.        Medullary cavity                                               8.          Diaphysis
4.        Yellow marrow                                                  9.          Distal epiphysis
5.        Compact bone
FIG. 12.2
1.        Spongy bone                                                     6.         Perforating canal
2.        Compact bone                                                   7.          Blood vessels
3.        Osteon                                                         8.          Nerve
4.        Periosteum                                                     9.          Canaliculus
5.        Central canal                                                  10.         Osteocyte

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
The closest blood supply to an osteocyte is located in the central canal of an osteon unit. Nutrients and wastes can move from one
cell to another via small cellular processes located in minute tubes in the matrix called canaliculi. In this way, all of the osteocytes
of one osteon are tied together to a blood source.

Laboratory Report Answers
1.         flat                                               8.              Hyaline cartilage covers the articular ends of a
2.         short                                                              long bone.
3.         long                                               9.              Dense connective tissue comprises the
                                                                              periosteum that encloses the bone except for its
4.         irregular
                                                                              articular ends
5.         round or sesamoid
6.         flat                                               10.             Periosteum forms the outer covering of a bone,
           Epiphysis refers to the expanded end of a long                     whereas endosteum lines its hollow, internal
           bone; diaphysis refers to the shaft between the                    chambers.
           ends of such a bone.

1.         Compact bone has osteons closely packed                            reduces the weight of the bone and provides
           together, and spongy bone has large spaces                         spaces occupied by red marrow.
           between thin bony plates called trabeculae.
                                                              3.              The marrow in the medullary cavity of an adult is
           Compact bone provides strength in the shaft and                    yellow, but marrow in the spaces of spongy bone
           along the borders of the bone. Spongy bone                         is red.

PART C (figure 12.5a and b)
1.         Epiphysis (distal)                                 4.              Medullary cavity
2.         Diaphysis                                          5.              Compact bone
3.         Epiphysis (proximal)                               6.              Spongy bone

                                                               LABORATORY EXERCISE 13
                                                          ORGANIZATION OF THE SKELETON

Figure Labels
FIG. 13.1a
1.        Cranial bones (cranium) 5.        Sternum                   9.         Carpals                    13.        Tarsals
2.        Facial bones (face)     6.        Rib                       10.        Metacarpal                 14.        Metatarsal
3.        Skull                   7.        Vertebral column          11.        Phalanx                    15.        Phalanx
4.        Clavicle                          (vertebra)                12.        Patella
                                  8.        Coxa (hipbone)
FIG. 13.1b
16.       Scapula                 19.       Radius                    22.        Fibula                     24.        Sacrum
17.       Humerus                 20.       Femur                     23.        Vertebral column           25.        Coccyx
18.       Ulna                    21.       Tibia

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The largest foramen in the skull is the foramen magnum in the occipital bone. The largest foramen in the human body is the
obturator foramen in the coxae (hipbones).

Laboratory Report Answers
1.        sutural bones (wormian bones)       6.        sternum                                  11.       sacrum
2.        sesamoid                            7.        twelve                                   12.       pelvis
3.        skull                               8.        pectoral girdle                          13.       patella
4.        hyoid                               9.        ulna                                     14.       tarsals
5.        coccyx                              10.       carpals                                  15.       phalanges
1.        c                  3.         a                  5.         g                    7.          d
2.        f                  4.         e                  6.         b
1.        c                  3.         g                  5.         b                    7.          f
2.        a                  4.         e                  6.         d
PART D (figure 13.2)
1.        Coxa (hipbone;     4.         Fibula             8.         Clavicle             12.         Tibia
          innominate)        5.         Ulna               9.         Humerus              13.         Rib
2.        Sternum            6.         Scapula            10.        Patella
3.        Sacrum             7.         Radius             11.        Femur

                                                                     LABORATORY EXERCISE 14

Instructional Suggestion
You might want to have the students use colored pencils to color the bones in figures 14.1 and 14.2. They should use a
different color for each of the individual bones in the series. This activity should cause the students to observe the
figures more carefully and help them to locate the various bones that are shown from different views in the figures.
The students can check their work by referring to the corresponding full-color figures in the textbook.

Figure Labels
FIG. 14.1
1.       Parietal bone                                        9.       Supraorbital foramen
2.       Frontal bone                                         10.      Nasal bone
3.       Coronal suture                                       11.      Sphenoid bone
4.       Temporal bone                                        12.      Zygomatic bone
5.       Perpendicular plate (of ethmoid bone)                13.      Middle nasal concha (of ethmoid bone)
6.       Infraorbital foramen                                 14.      Inferior nasal concha
7.       Vomer bone                                           15.      Maxilla
8.       Mandible                                             16.      Mental foramen
FIG. 14.2
1.       Parietal bone                                         12.     Coronal suture
2.       Squamous suture                                       13.     Frontal bone
3.       Lambdoid suture                                       14.     Sphenoid bone
4.       Temporal bone                                         15.     Lacrimal bone
5.       Occipital bone                                        16.     Nasal bone
6.       Temporal process (of zygomatic bone)                  17.     Zygomatic bone
7.       External acoustic meatus                              18.     Maxilla
8.       Mastoid process                                       19.     Mandible
9.       Styloid process                                       20.     Coronoid process
10.      Mandibular condyle
11.      Zygomatic process (of temporal bone)
FIG. 14.3
1.       Maxilla                                              8.       Occipital condyle
2.       Zygomatic bone                                       9.       Temporal bone
3.       Sphenoid bone                                        10.      Palatine process (of maxilla)
4.       Vomer bone                                           11.      Palatine bone
5.       Zygomatic arch                                       12.      Foramen magnum
6.       Styloid process                                      13.      Lambdoid suture
7.       Mastoid process                                      14.      Occipital bone

FIG. 14.4
1.        Ethmoid bone                                              6.        Sphenoid bone
2.        Foramen magnum                                            7.        Temporal bone
3.        Crista galli                                              8.        Sella turcica
4.        Cribriform plate (olfactory foramina)                     9.        Parietal bone
5.        Frontal bone                                              10.       Occipital bone
FIG. 14.5
1.        Coronal suture                                             10.      Lambdoid suture
2.        Frontal bone                                               11.      Occipital bone
3.        Sphenoid bone                                              12.      Sella turcica
4.        Frontal sinus                                              13.      Styloid process
5.        Nasal bone                                                 14.      Sphenoidal sinus
6.        Maxilla                                                    15.      Vomer bone
7.        Parietal bone                                              16.      Mandible
8.        Temporal bone
9.        Squamous suture

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone with numerous olfactory foramina is a weak location of the cranium. Excessive pressure
on the cribiform plate could result in a skull fracture.

Laboratory Report Answers
1.        d                  4.         f                 7.         f                 10.        e
2.        a                  5.         c                 8.         a                 11.        f
3.        a                  6.         f                 9.         c                 12.        b
1.        coronal                                         4.         squamous
2.        sagittal                                        5.         frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid
3.        lambdoid                                        6.         maxillary bone
1.        e                  4.         h                 7.         h                 10.        c
2.        c                  5.         d                 8.         a                 11.        f
3.        c                  6.         g                 9.         d                 12.        b
1.        c                  3.         g                 5.         d                 7.         e
2.        a                  4.         f                 6.         b

PART E (figures 14.7–14.11)
FIG. 14.7
1.     Frontal bone                    6.    Mandible
2.     Nasal bone                      7.    Middle nasal concha (of ethmoid bone)
3.     Zygomatic bone                  8.    Inferior nasal concha
4.     Infraorbital foramen            9.    Mental foramen
5.     Maxilla

FIG. 14.8
1.     Parietal bone                   8.    Mandibular condyle
2.     Squamous suture                 9.    Coronal suture
3.     Temporal bone                   10.   Frontal bone
4.     Lambdoid suture                 11.   Zygomatic process (of temporal bone)
5.     Occipital bone                  12.   Zygomatic bone
6.     External acoustic meatus        13.   Maxilla
7.     Mastoid process                 14.   Mandible
FIG. 14.9
1.     Maxilla                         7.    Palatine process of maxilla
2.     Zygomatic bone                  8.    Palatine bone
3.     Sphenoid bone                   9.    Vomer bone
4.     Temporal bone                   10.   Occipital condyle
5.     Occipital bone                  11.   Foramen magnum
6.     Incisive foramen
FIG. 14.10
1.     Frontal bone                    5.    Ethmoid bone
2.     Temporal bone                   6.    Sphenoid bone
3.     Parietal bone                   7.    Sella turcica
4.     Occipital bone                  8.    Foramen magnum
FIG. 14.11
1.     Parietal bone                   5.    Maxilla
2.     Sphenoid bone                   6.    Frontal bone
3.     Temporal bone                   7.    Mandible
4.     Zygomatic bone

                                                     LABORATORY EXERCISE 15
                                         VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND THORACIC CAGE
Figure Labels
FIG. 15.1
1.        Cervical vertebrae                                          5.        Coccyx
2.        Thoracic vertebrae                                          6.        Intervertebral foramina
3.        Lumbar vertebrae                                            7.        Intervertebral discs
4.        Sacrum
FIG. 15.2a and b
1.        Facet that articulates with occipital condyle               5.        Body
2.        Transverse process                                          6.        Superior articular facet
3.        Transverse foramen                                          7.        Fovea dentis (facet for dens)
4.        Dens (ordontoid proces)                                     8.        Transverse foramen
FIG. 15.3a–c
1.        Lamina                                                      6.        Lamina
2.        Spinous process (bifid)                                     7.        Vertebral foramen
3.        Lamina                                                      8.        Superior articular process
4.        Pedicle                                                     9.        Body
5.        Body
FIG. 15.4
1.        Superior articular process                                  5.        Superior articular process
2.        Anterior sacral foramen                                     6.        Tubercle
3.        Coccyx                                                      7.        Posterior sacral foramen
4.        Sacral canal                                                8.        Sacral hiatus

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The four curvatures allow more resiliency and flexibility, which will enable the vertebral column to function more like a spring
instead of a rigid rod.

FIG. 15.5
1.        True ribs                                                    6.       Xiphoid process
2.        False ribs                                                   7.       Sternum
3.        Thoracic vertebra                                            8.       Costal cartilage
4.        Manubrium                                                    9.       Floating ribs
5.        Body

Laboratory Report Answers

1.         spinal cord                                  9.      axis
2.         26                                           10.     dens
3.         bodies                                       11.     lumbar
4.         intervertebral discs                         12.     five
5.         spinous process                              13.     sacroiliac
6.         spinal nerves                                14.     sacral promontory
7.         vertebral arteries                           15.     sacral hiatus
8.         atlas

Vertebra                 Number   Size           Body                Spinous Process                Transverse
Cervical                 7        Smallest       Smallest            C2 through C5 are forked       Present
Thoracic                 12       Intermediate   Intermediate        Pointed and angled             Absent
Lumbar                   5        Largest        Largest             Short, blunt, and nearly       Absent

1.         206                                             5.   clavicles
2.         floating                                        6.   a. supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs
3.         transverse                                           b. protects visceral organs
4.         hyaline cartilage                                    c.     functions in breathing
PART D (figure 15.6)
1.         Spinous process                                 4.   Transverse process
2.         Atlas                                           5.   Intervertebral disc
3.         Axis                                            6.   Body (of sixth cervical vertebra)

                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 16
                                                       PECTORAL GIRDLE AND UPPER LIMB
Figure Labels
FIG. 16.1
1.        Clavicle                                                    7.        Ulna
2.        Rib                                                         8.        Radius
3.        Sternum                                                     9.        Acromion process
4.        Costal cartilage                                            10.       Head
5.        Scapula                                                     11.       Coracoid process
6.        Humerus
FIG. 16.2
1.        Acromion process                                            6.        Glenoid cavity
2.        Coracoid process                                            7.        Acromion process
3.        Spine                                                       8.        Coracoid process
4.        Supraspinous fossa                                          9.        Glenoid cavity
5.        Infraspinous fossa

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The clavicles brace the freely movable scapulae, helping to hold the shoulders in place. If an excessive lengthwise force occurs on
this structurally weak bone, as when a person breaks a fall with an outstretched rigid upper limb, it is likely to fracture.
FIG. 16.3a and b
1.        Head                                                        8.        Capitulum
2.        Greater tubercle                                            9.        Trochlea
3.        Lesser tubercle                                             10.       Greater tubercle
4.        Deltoid tuberosity                                          11.       Anatomical neck
5.        Medial epicondyle                                           12.       Surgical neck
6.        Coronoid fossa                                              13.       Medial epicondyle
7.        Lateral epicondyle                                          14.       Olecranon fossa
FIG. 16.4
1.        Head of radius                                              5.        Trochlear notch
2.        Radial tuberosity                                           6.        Coronoid process
3.        Styloid process                                             7.        Head of ulna
4.        Olecranon process
FIG. 16.5
1.        Olecranon process                                           4.        Head of radius
2.        Humerus                                                     5.        Radius
3.        Olecranon fossa                                             6.        Ulna

FIG. 16.6
1.     Scaphoid                       5.    Carpals (carpus)                 9.     Triquetrum
2.     Capitate                       6.    Metacarpals (metacarpus)         10.    Proximal phalanx
3.     Trapezoid                      7.    Phalanges                        11.    Middle phalanx
4.     Trapezium                      8.    Lunate                           12.    Distal phalanx
Laboratory Report Answers
1.     scapulae                                         5.       spine
2.     manubrium (clavicular notch)                     6        acromion process
3.     acromion processes                               7.       coracoid process
4.     clavicle                                         8.       head
1.     a                              5.    c                               9.      b
2.     b                              6.    d                               10.     e
3.     b                              7.    b                               11.     a
4.     b                              8.    a                               12.     f
PART C (figures 16.7, 16.8, and 16.9)
1.     Ulna                           7.    Head of humerus                 13.     Metacarpals
2.     Humerus                        8.    Humerus                         14.     Carpals
3.     Olecranon process              9.    Clavicle                        15.     Distal phalanx
4.     Head of radius                 10.   Scapula                         16.     Proximal phalanx
5.     Radius                         11.   Rib
6.     Acromion process               12.   Phalanges
PART D (figure 16.10)
1.     Scaphoid                       5.    Hamate                          9.      Metacarpals
2.     Lunate                         6.    Capitate                        10.     Proximal phalanges
3.     Triquetrum                     7.    Trapezoid                       11.     Middle phalanges
4.     Pisiform                       8.    Trapezium                       12.     Distal phalanges

                                                                    LABORATORY EXERCISE 17
                                                               PELVIC GIRDLE AND LOWER LIMB
Figure Labels
FIG. 17.1
1.        Coxa (hipbone; pelvic bone; innominate)                       3.        Coccyx
2.        Sacrum
FIG. 17.2a
1.        Ilium                                                         7.        Ischial tuberosity
2.        Posterior superior iliac spine                                8.        Iliac crest
3.        Greater sciatic notch                                         9.        Anterior superior iliac spine
4.        Ischial spine                                                 10.       Acetabulum
5.        Lesser sciatic notch                                          11.       Pubis
6.        Ischium                                                       12.       Obturator foramen
FIG. 17.2b
13.       Anterior superior iliac spine                                 17.       Iliac fossa
14.       Ilium                                                         18.       Posterior superior iliac spine
15.       Pubis                                                         19.       Ischial spine
16.       Iliac crest                                                   20.       Ischium

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
All the features examined are wider in the female pelvis which will result in a larger pelvic cavity and must also serve as a birth
canal for a vaginal delivery.
FIG. 17.3a and b
1.        Head                                                          5.        Lateral epicondyle
2.        Fovea capitis                                                 6.        Lesser trochanter
3.        Greater trochanter                                            7.        Lateral condyle
4.        Neck                                                          8.        Medial condyle
FIG. 17.4
1.        Head of fibula                                                5.        Tibial tuberosity
2.        Fibula                                                        6.        Tibia
3.        Lateral malleolus                                             7.        Medial malleolus
4.        Medial condyle

FIG. 17.5
1.     Medial condyle                                        4.     Fibula
2.     Femur                                                 5.     Tibia
3.     Lateral condyle
FIG. 17.6
1.     Calcaneus                                             8.     Proximal phalanx
2.     Talus                                                 9.     Middle phalanx
3.     Cuboid                                                10.    Distal phalanx
4.     Navicular                                             11.    Tarsals (tarsus)
5.     Lateral cuneiform                                     12.    Metatarsals (metatarsus)
6.     Intermediate cuneiform                                13.    Phalanges
7.     Medial cuneiform

Laboratory Report Answers

1.     coxae (hipbones)         4.   ischial spines          7.     tuberosity                 10.    sacroiliac
2.     acetabulum               5.   symphysis pubis         8.     pubic arch
3.     ilium                    6.   iliac crest             9.     obturator foramen
1.     e                        4.   a                       7.     g                          10.    b
2.     a                        5.   f                       8.     f                          11.    d
3.     g                        6.   f                       9.     a                          12.    c
PART C (figures 17.7, 17.8, and 17.9)
1.     Obturator foramen                 7.    Femur                             13.      Tibia
2.     Symphysis pubis                   8.    Tibia                             14.      Talus
3.     Ilium                             9.    Lateral epicondyle                15.      Calcaneus
4.     Sacrum                            10.   Lateral condyle                   16.      Metatarsal
5.     Head of femur                     11.   Head of fibula                    17.      Proximal phalanx
6.     Pubis                             12.   Fibula                            18.      Distal phalanx
PART D (figure 17.10)
1.     Distal phalanges                  5.    Intermediate cuneiform            9.       Middle phalanges
2.     Proximal phalanges                6.    Lateral cuneiform                 10.      Cuboid
3.     Metatarsals                       7.    Navicular                         11.      Calcaneus
4.     Medial cuneiform                  8.    Talus

                                                                           LABORATORY EXERCISE 18

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Maximum flexion of body parts can occur when in fetal position or performing a cannon ball into a swimming pool.
Laboratory Report Answers
1.        b                                                          4.        e
2.        c                                                          5.        a
3.        d
PART B (figure 18.6)
1.        Suture (fibrous)                                           6.        Pivot (synovial)
2.        Symphysis (cartilaginous)                                  7.        Condyloid; ellipsoid (synovial)
3.        Symphysis (cartilaginous)                                  8.        Saddle (synovial)
4.        Gliding; plane (synovial)                                  9.        Ball-and-socket (synovial)
5.        Hinge (synovial)
1.        a                                                          6.        a
2.        b                                                          7.        d (b and c also present)
3.        e                                                          8.        f
4.        d                                                          9.        c
5.        d                                                          10.       c
PART D (figure 18.7)
1.        Rotation                                                   15.       Extension
2.        Elevation                                                  16.       Flexion
3.        Depression                                                 17.       Extension
4.        Supination                                                 18.       Flexion
5.        Pronation                                                  19.       Flexion
6.        Abduction                                                  20.       Extension
7.        Adduction                                                  21.       Flexion
8.        Flexion                                                    22.       Extension
9.        Extension                                                  23.       Flexion
10.       Abduction                                                  24.       Extension
11.       Adduction                                                  25.       Flexion
12.       Circumduction                                              26.       Extension
13.       Protraction                                                27.       Dorsiflexion
14.       Retraction                                                 28.       Plantar flexion

 Type of Joint                     Bones Included               Types of Movement Possible
Ball-and-socket                    Humerus, scapula             Movements in all planes and rotation
Hinge, gliding, and pivot          Humerus, radius, ulna        Flexion and extension between humerus and ulna;
                                                                         twisting movements occur between humerus
                                                                         and radius; rotation between radius and ulna
Ball-and-socket                    Femur, coxa                  Movements in all planes and rotation
Hinge (modified), condyloid, and   Femur, tibia, patella        Flexion and extension between femur and tibia and
          gliding                                                        slight rotation when flexed; sliding (gliding)
                                                                         movements occur between femur and patella

                                                                     LABORATORY 19
                                                         SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE
Figure Labels
FIG. 19.2
1.        Fascicle                                  5.        Epimysium
2.        Sarcolemma (cell membrane)                6.        Perimysium
3.        Sarcoplasmic reticulum                    7.        Nucleus
4.        Tendon                                    8.        Myofibrils
FIG. 19.4
1.        Coracoid process                          4.        Radius
2.        Origins of biceps brachii (tendons)       5.        Insertion of biceps brachii (tendon)
3.        Biceps brachii                            6.        Ulna

Laboratory Report Answers

1.    l                               5.        g                    9.        j
2.    i                               6.        b                    10.       k
3.    c                               7.        h                    11.       e
4.    f                               8.        a                    12.       d
PART B (figure 19.5)
1.    Sarcomere                                     3.        I band (light)
2.    Z line                                        4.        A band (dark)
1.    origin               3.      two heads        5.        prime mover          7.        prime movers
2.    insertion            4.      biceps brachii   6.        synergists

                                                     LABORATORY EXERCISE 20
                                         MUSCLES OF THE FACE, HEAD, AND NECK

Figure Labels
FIG. 20.1
1.     Temporalis                                      6.         Frontalis (epicranius)
2.     Occipitalis (epicranius)                        7.         Orbicularis oculi
3.     Masseter                                        8.         Zygomaticus major
4.     Sternocleidomastoid                             9.         Orbicularis oris
5.     Platysma                                        10.        Buccinator
FIG. 20.2
1.     Lateral pterygoid                               2.         Medial pterygoid
FIG. 20.3
1.     Longissimus capitis (erector spinae)            3.         Splenius capitis
2.     Semispinalis capitis

Laboratory Report Answers
1.     zygomaticus major                               7.         lateral
2.     buccinator                                      8.         orbicularis oculi
3.     orbicularis oris                                9.         sternocleidomastoid
4.     lateral pterygoid                               10.        splenius capitis
5.     raise the jaw/elevate mandible (as in biting)   11.        platysma
6.     medial                                          12.        zygomaticus
1.     epicranius                                      6.         buccinator
2.     zygomaticus major                               7.         platysma
3.     masseter                                        8.         temporalis
4.     lateral pterygoid                               9.         splenius capitis
5.     sternocleidomastoid                             10.        semispinal capitis

       Critical Thinking Application Answers
PART C (figure 20.4)
1.     Epicranius (frontalis)                          4.         Orbicularis oris
2.     Zygomaticus major                               5.         Platysma
3.     Orbicularis oculi

                                    LABORATORY EXERCISE 21

Figure Labels
FIG. 21.1
1.     Trapezius                              6.   Infraspinatus
2.     Deltoid                                7.   Teres minor
3.     Latissimus dorsi                       8.   Teres major
4.     Levator scapulae                       9.   Rhomboid major
5.     Supraspinatus
FIG. 21.2
1.     Pectoralis minor                       4.   Deltoid
2.     Internal intercostal                   5.   Serratus anterior
3.     Pectoralis major
FIG. 21.3a
1.     Levator scapulae                       4.   Teres minor
2.     Supraspinatus                          5.   Teres major
3.     Deltoid                                6.   Triceps brachii
FIG. 21.3b
1.     Deltoid                                3.   Biceps brachii
2.     Subscapularis                          4.   Brachialis
FIG. 21.4a
1.     Pronator teres                         3.   Flexor carpi radialis
2.     Brachioradialis                        4.   Palmaris longus
FIG. 21.4b
1.     Flexor carpi ulnaris                   3.   Extensor carpi radialis longus
2.     Extensor carpi ulnaris                 4.   Extensor digitorum
Laboratory Report Answers
1.      c                       5.   h             9.           l
2.      g                       6.   j             10.          k
3.      e                       7.   a             11.          d
4.      i                       8.   b             12.          f

1.     rhomboid major                          7.    teres minor
2.     serratus anterior                       8.    brachialis
3.     pectoralis minor                        9.    pronator teres
4.     coracobrachialis                        10.   brachioradialis
5.     teres major                             11.   flexor carpi radialis
6.     subscapularis                           12.   palmaris longus

       Critical Thinking Application Answers
PART C (figure. 21.5)
1.     Trapezius                               12.   Biceps brachii
2.     Deltoid                                 13.   Triceps brachii
3.     Pectoralis major                        14.   Latissimus dorsi
4.     Rectus abdominis                        15.   Pectoralis major
5.     Sternocleidomastoid                     16.   Serratus anterior
6.     Biceps brachii                          17.   Biceps brachii
7.     Serratus anterior                       18.   Trapezius
8.     External oblique                        19.   Deltoid
9.     Deltoid                                 20.   Triceps brachii
10.    Trapezius                               21.   Brachioradialis
11.    Infraspinatus

                                      LABORATORY EXERCISE 22
                                                PELVIC OUTLET
Figure Labels

FIG. 22.1
1.        Longissimus (intermediate group)               3.           Iliocostalis (lateral group)
2.        Spinalis (medial group)
FIG. 22.2
1.        External oblique                               3.           Transversus abdominis
2.        Internal oblique                               4.           Rectus abdominis
FIG. 22.3
1.        Bulbospongiosus                                4.           Levator ani
2.        Ischiocavernosus                               5.           Gluteus maximus
3.        Superficial transversus perinei                6.           External anal sphincter
FIG. 22.4
1.        Ischiocavernosus                               4.           Levator ani
2.        Bulbospongiosus                                5.           Gluteus maximus
3.        Superficial transversus perinei                6.           External anal sphincter

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
An appendectomy incision would involve the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles from
superficial to deep.
Laboratory Report Answers
1.        linea alba                                      4.          tense the abdominal wall and compress the
2.        rectus abdominis                                            contents of the abdominal cavity
3.        transversus abdominis                           5.          tense the abdominal wall and flex the
                                                                      vertebral column

                                                         6.          erector spinae group
1.        pelvic diaphragm                               5.          constrict the vagina
2.        anal canal and vagina                          6.          ischial tuberosity
3.        support the pelvic viscera and provide          7.          levator ani
          sphincterlike action in the anal canal and
                                                          8.          support the pelvic viscera
          vagina (aid the levator ani)
                                                          9.          ischial spine
4.        bulbospongiosus                                10.         sphincter urethrae

                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 23
                                     MUSCLES OF THE HIP AND LOWER LIMB
Figure Labels
FIG. 23.1
1.     Tensor fasciae latae                     6.    Psoas major
2.     Sartorius                                7.    Iliacus
3.     Rectus femoris                           8.    Adductor longus
4.     Vastus lateralis                         9.    Gracilis
5.     Vastus medialis
FIG. 23.2
1.     Gluteus medius                           4.    Tensor fasciae latae
2.     Gluteus maximus                          5.    Rectus femoris
3.     Biceps femoris                           6.    Vastus lateralis
FIG. 23.3
1.     Adductor magnus                          5.    Biceps femoris
2.     Gracilis                                 6.    Semitendinosus
3.     Gluteus medius                           7.    Semimembranosus
4.     Gluteus maximus
FIG. 23.4
1.     Fibularis (peroneus) longus              3.    Extensor digitorum longus
2.     Tibialis anterior
FIG. 23.5
1.     Gastrocnemius                            4.    Tibialis anterior
2.     Soleus                                   5.    Extensor digitorum longus
3.     Fibularis (peroneus) longus              6.    Fibularis (peroneus) brevis
FIG. 23.6
1.    Gastrocnemius                             2.    Soleus
Laboratory Report Answers

1.     e                                        6.    d
2.    b                                         7.    j
3.    f                                         8.    a
4.    h                                         9.    g
5.     c                                        10.   i

1.     gluteus medius and gluteus minimus   6.              vastus lateralis
2.     adductor magnus                      7.              vastus medialis
3.     sartorius                            8.              semitendinosus
4.     gastrocnemius                        9.              flexor digitorum longus
5.     tensor fasciae latae                 10.             tibialis anterior

       Critical Thinking Application Answer
PART C (figure 23.7)
1.     Rectus femoris                                  5.           Vastus medialis
2.     Vastus medialis                                 6.           Tibialis anterior
3.     Vastus lateralis                                7.           Gastrocnemius
4.     Sartorius                                       8.           Soleus

                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 24
                                                         CAT DISSECTION: MUSCULATURE

Instructional Suggestions
1.    You may want to provide the students with preserved cats that have been preskinned. Such cats are available from
      various biological supply companies. The use of preskinned cats will save about an hour of class time and avoid the
      unpleasantness that some students associate with the skinning procedure.
2.    You may want to reduce the amount of time spent in dissecting the cat muscles by having the students dissect only
      selected areas of the cat. For example, you might have them complete Procedure D (muscles of the thorax), Procedure E
      (muscles of the abdominal wall), Procedure F (muscles of the shoulder and back), and Procedure H (muscles of the hip
      and hindlimb), omitting the other sections.
Laboratory Report Answers
1.    sternocleidomastoid                                        3.        sternohyoid, mylohyoid
2.    masseter
1.    pectoantebrachialis                                        5.        external oblique
2.    xiphihumeralis                                             6.        internal oblique
3.    pectoralis major                                           7.        transversus abdominis
4.    pectoralis minor                                           8.        rectus abdominis
1.    clavotrapezius                                             6.        spinodeltoid
2.    acromiotrapezius                                           7.        supraspinatus
3.    spinotrapezius                                             8.        infraspinatus
4.    clavodeltoid (clavobrachialis)                             9.        infraspinatus
5.    acromiodeltoid                                             10.       teres major
1.    biceps brachii                                             3.        epitrochlearis
2.    brachialis                                                 4.        triceps brachii
PART E (FIG. 24.24)
1.    Pectoralis major                                           9.        Infraspinatus
2.    Biceps brachii                                             10.       Teres major
3.    External oblique                                           11.       Triceps brachii
4.    Rectus abdominis                                           12.       Latissimus dorsi
5.    Sartorius                                                  13.       Gluteus medius
6.    Rectus femoris                                             14.       Gluteus maximus
7.    Vastus medialis                                            15.       Biceps femoris
8.    Tibialis anterior                                          16.       Gastrocnemius

                                               LABORATORY EXERCISE 25
                                            NERVOUS TISSUE AND NERVES
Figure Labels
FIG. 25.1
1.     Nucleus                        5.            Dendrites
2.     Nucleolus                      6.            Cell body
3.     Nodes of Ranvier               7.            Axon (nerve fiber)
4.     Schwann cell
FIG. 25.2
1.     Schwann cell nucleus           3.            Axon (nerve fiber)
2.     Myelin (of Schwann cell)       4.            Neurilemma (of Schwann cell)

Laboratory Report Answers
1.     g                  3.      h   5.        e                   7.       a
2.     c                  4.      f   6.        d                   8.       b
1.     d                  3.      h   5.        e                   7.       c
2.     f                  4.      g   6.        a                   8.       b
1.     (sketch)                       3.            (sketch)
2.     (sketch)
1.     (sketch)                       2.            (sketch)

                                                      LABORATORY EXERCISE 26
                                                     MENINGES AND SPINAL CORD

Figure Labels
FIG. 26.1
1.     Subarachnoid space                 5.             Body of vertebra
2.     White matter                       6.             Epidural space
3.     Dorsal root of spinal nerve        7.             Gray matter
4.     Ventral root of spinal nerve
FIG. 26.2
1.     Posterior horn                     6.             Central canal
2.     Lateral funiculus                  7.             Gray commissure
3.     Anterior horn                      8.             Anterior median fissure
4.     Posterior funiculus                9.             Anterior funiculus
5.     Posterior median sulcus

Laboratory Report Answers
1.     b                   3.         d   5.         g                      7.     e
2.     c                   4.         f   6.         a
1.     spinal nerves                      7.             gray commissure
2.     cervical enlargement               8.             central canal
3.     lumbar enlargement                 9.             funiculi
4.     posterior median sulcus            10.            nerve tracts
5.     horns                              11.            meninges
6.     anterior
1.     b                                  4.             d
2.     e                                  5.             c
3.     a
PART D (figure. 26.4)
1.     Dorsal root of spinal nerve        5.             Gray matter
2.     White matter                       6.             Dorsal root ganglion
3.     Ventral root of spinal nerve       7.             Anterior median fissure
4.     Posterior median sulcus            8.             Central canal

                                                                            LABORATORY EXERCISE 27
                                                                           REFLEX ARC AND REFLEXES

Figure Labels
FIG. 27.1
5                                                            1
3                                                            2

Laboratory Report Answers
1.         Nerve pathways                                    7.            quadriceps femoris
2.         central nervous system (spinal cord)              8.            upright posture
3.         Reflexes                                          9.            skin
4.         muscles                                           10.           Flexor
5.         sensory                                           11.           flexion
6.         quadriceps femoris                                12.           Babinski
1.         Table:
 Response Observed                                                 Efector Involved
 Extension of leg at the knee joint                                Quadriceps femoris
 Plantar flexion of the foot                                       Gastrocnemius and soleus
 Flexion of forearm at the elbow joint or slight biceps twitch     Biceps brachii
 Extension of forearm at the elbow joint or slight triceps         Triceps brachii
 Plantar flexion of foot and flexion of toes                       Gastrocnemius, soleus, and flexor digitorum longus
2.         The quadriceps femoris is stretched, stimulating stretch receptors (muscle spindles) within the muscle. As a result,
           impulses pass along sensory neurons into the spinal cord and synapse with a motor neuron. Motor impulses travel out of
           the cord on nerve fibers that lead to the quadriceps femoris. Muscle fibers contract, and the leg is extended at the
           knee joint.

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
All of these reflexes are rapid, subconscious responses to physical stimuli.

                                                         LABORATORY EXERCISE 28
                                                        BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES
Figure Labels
FIG. 28.1
12                             10                 6                                  7
1                              4                  11                                 9
8                              3                  5                                  2
FIG. 28.2
1.     Frontal lobe                               3.       Parietal lobe
2.     Temporal lobe                              4.       Occipital lobe
FIG. 28.3
1.     Motor area for voluntary muscle control    4.       Cutaneous sensory area
2.     Motor speech area (Broca’s area)           5.       General interpretative area
3.     Auditory area                              6.       Visual area
FIG. 28.4
1.    (I) Olfactory nerve                         7.       (VII) Facial nerve
2.    (II) Optic nerve                            8.       (VIII) Vestibulocochlear nerve
3.    (III) Oculomotor nerve                      9.       (IX) Glossopharyngeal nerve
4.    (IV) Trochlear nerve                        10.      (X) Vagus nerve
5.    (V) Trigeminal nerve                        11.      (XI) Accessory nerve
6.    (VI) Abducens nerve                         12.      (XII) Hypoglossal nerve
Laboratory Report Answers
1.    j                                           7.       i
2.    f                                           8.       l
3.    k                                           9.       h
4.    d                                           10.      e
5.     c                                          11.      g
6.    a                                           12.      b

Location                                                Major Functions
Anterior to primary motor cortex (frontal lobe)         Coordinates speech
Medulla oblongata                                       Regulates heartbeat
Between cerebellum and brainstem                        Relays impulses to and from cerebellum
Midbrain                                                Provides motor pathways between cerebrum and lower parts
Midbrain                                                Contains visual and auditory reflex centers
Frontal lobe superior to Broca's area                   Controls voluntary movements of eyes and eyelids
Diencephalon                                            Regulates body temperature and many visceral activities
Diencephalon floor and associated inner cerebrum        Controls emotional feelings
Medulla oblongata                                       Regulates rate and depth of breathing
Brainstem                                               Activates state of wakefulness
Diencephalon                                            Relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex
Medulla oblongata                                       Controls diameter of blood vessels and blood pressure

PART C (figure 28.5)
1.         Corpus callosum                               6.        Pons
2.         Thalamus                                      7.        Medulla oblongata
3.         Hypothalamus                                  8.        Brainstem
4.         Diencephalon                                  9.        Cerebrum
5.         Midbrain                                      10.       Cerebellum
1.         vestibulocochlear (VIII)                      9.        oculomotor (III)
2.         facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX)           10.       oculomotor (III)
3.         optic (II)                                    11.       oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI)
4.         olfactory (I)                                 12.       facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX)
5.         vestibulocochlear (VIII)                      13.       accessory (XI)
6.         trigeminal (V)                                14.       vagus (X), accessory (XI), hypoglossal (XII)
7.         trigeminal (V)                                15.       glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), accessory (XI),
8.         oculomotor (III)                                        hypoglossal (XII)

                                                                 LABORATORY EXERCISE 29
                                                           DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP BRAIN

Instructional Suggestion
Rather than have students dissect sheep brains, you might want to provide the class with samples of whole sheep
brains and sectioned brains for examination. This should extend the use of the available specimens.

Laboratory Report Answers

1.       The human cerebral hemispheres are relatively           5.         The olfactory bulbs of the sheep brain are larger
         larger than those of the sheep.                                    than those of the human brain.
2.       There are more convolutions and sulci in the            6.         The olfactory, optic, and trigeminal nerves seem
         human cerebrum.                                                    to be most highly developed in the sheep brain.

3.       The human cerebrum with its larger size and             7.         The senses of smell and sight and the sensory
         greater number of convolutions is more complex                     functions associated with the trigeminal nerve are
         and thus able to carry on more complex                             highly developed.

4.       The human cerebellum is divided in the midline
         (vermis) into two hemispheres, whereas the
         sheep cerebellum is not divided.

         Critical Thinking Application Answers
1–6.    Answers will vary. The sheep brain and the human brain features are more similar than different. Therefore a complete
        list of similar features would be very long. Among similar features include two cerebral hemispheres, medulla oblongata,
        pineal gland, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, olfactory bulb, four ventricles, and others. (Note only 6 answers are
        needed.) Mammal brains have more similarities than differences.

                                     LABORATORY EXERCISE 30
                               RECEPTORS AND GENERAL SENSES

Laboratory Report Answers
1.    chemoreceptors            7.         pressure
2.    pain                      8.         25°C (77°F) and 45°C (113°F)
3.    thermoreceptors           9.         10°C (50°F) and 20°C (68°F)
4.    photoreceptors            10.        brain
5.    sensory adaptation        11.        referred pain
6.    touch
1.    (experimental results)    3.         Answers will vary.
2.    (experimental results)
1.    (experimental results)    3.         Answers will vary.
1.    (experimental results)    3.         Answers will vary.
2.    (experimental results)

                                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 31
                                                                                    SMELL AND TASTE

Figure Labels
FIG. 31.1
6                                                                      1
5                                                                      2
3                                                                      4
FIG. 31.3
6                                                                      3
1                                                                      5
4                                                                      2
Laboratory Report Answers
1.         bipolar                                          6.              olfactory tracts
2.         cilia                                            7.              frontal
3.         water                                            8.              sensory adaptation
4.         cribriform plate                                 9.              outside environment
5.         crista galli                                     10.             odorless
1.         (experimental results)                           3.              Answers will vary.
2.         (experimental results)

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Answers will vary. Any variation in time for sensory adaptation could be a result of the concentration of the test substance,
volatility of the test substance, or the number of receptors for the test substance.

1.        epithelial                                                   5.             receptor
2.        taste pore                                                   6.             acids
3.        taste hairs (microvilli)                                     7.             salts
4.        water                                                        8.             bitter
1.        (experimental results)                                        2(a–d).       Answers will vary.

                                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 32
                                                                                    EAR AND HEARING

Figure Labels
FIG. 32.1
1.        Auricle                                                      7.         Vestibulocochlear nerve
2.        Malleus                                                      8.         Oval window
3.        Incus                                                        9.         Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
4.        Semicircular canals                                          10.        Auditory (eustachian) tube
5.        Stapes                                                       11.        External acoustic meatus
6.        Cochlea
FIG. 32.2
4                                       5                              1
6                                       3                              2

FIG. 32.3
1.        Tectorial membrane                                           3.         Branch of cochlear nerve
2.        Hair cells (receptor cells)                                  4.         Basilar membrane

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The largest ear structure is the auricle which is able to trap and funnel a minute sound wave into the middle and inner ear structures.
This will allow a concentration of the vibrations making the sound detection more likely to occur.
Laboratory Report Answers
1.        d                         5.        c                         9.       e
2.        k                         6.        b                         10.      f
3.        j                         7.        l                         11.      a
4.        h                         8.        i                         12.      g
PART B (figure 32.8)
1.        Cochlear duct                                                 4.       Basilar membrane
2.        Tectorial membrane                                            5.       Scala tympani
3.        Hair cells (receptor cells)
1.        (experimental results)                                        3.       (experimental results)
2.        (experimental results)                                        4.       Answers will vary.

                                                                            LABORATORY EXERCISE 33

Laboratory Report Answers
1.        utricle                                           6.         ampulla
2.        temporal                                          7.         crista ampullaris
3.        macula                                            8.         cupula
4.        calcium carbonate                                 9.         inertia
5.        vestibulocochlear (vestibular branch)             10.        cerebellum
1.        a. The eyes, inner ears, and proprioceptors                  c. With the eyes closed, such a person would
          provide information needed to maintain                       receive very little sensory information needed
          equilibrium when the eyes are open.                          to maintain equilibrium.

          b. The inner ears and proprioceptors provide 3.              a.    (experimental results)
          such information when the eyes are closed.
                                                                       b.    Answers will vary.
2         a.   (experimental results)
          b. Probably yes; this demonstrates the
          importance of visual information in maintaining

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Vision, touch, and proprioception would all supplement equilibrium.

                                                                             LABORATORY EXERCISE 34
                                                                                     EYE STRUCTURE
Figure Labels
FIG. 34.1
1.        Lacrimal gland                                     3.           Lacrimal sac
2.        Superior and inferior canaliculi                   4.           Nasolacrimal duct
FIG. 34.2
1.        Superior oblique                                   4.           Lateral rectus
2.        Superior rectus                                    5.           Inferior rectus
3.        Medial rectus                                      6.           Inferior oblique
FIG. 34.3
1.        Pupil                                              9.           Retina
2.        Iris                                               10.          Choroid coat
3.        Ciliary body                                       11.          Sclera
4.        Suspensory ligaments                               12.          Vitreous humor
5.        Lens                                               13.          Fovea centralis
6.        Cornea                                             14.          Optic nerve
7.        Aqueous humor                                      15.          Optic disc
8.        Anterior cavity                                    16.          Posterior cavity

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The delicate retina is only located next to the choroid coat by the pressure maintained by the vitreous humor. Any alteration of this
pressure could allow the retina to detach as was easily observed during the dissection. No connective tissue was observed between
the inner and middle tunics of the eye.
Laboratory Report Answers
1.         b                                                 10.         i
2.         j                                                 11.         k
3.         e                                                 12.         c
4.         d                                                 13.         Cornea, aqueous humor, pupil of iris, lens,
                                                                         vitreous humor, retina
5.         g
6.         l                                                 14.         More rods than cones; rods stimulated by dim
                                                                         light; cones enable perception of color [other
7.         h
                                                                         answers could be acceptable].
8.         f
9.         a

1.     The outer tunic/layer (sclera) is toughest.               5.    The dark pigment absorbs excess light and keeps
2.     Dense (fibrous) connective tissue.                              the eye dark inside.
3.     The pupil of the dissected eye probably was               6.    The lens is biconvex, flexible, and transparent. It
       elliptical in shape, and the human pupil is round.              may be firm and opaque in a preserved eye.
4.     Aqueous humor occurs between the cornea and               7.    The vitreous humor is a transparent, jellylike
       the lens.                                                       fluid.
PART C (figure 34.10)
1.     Aqueous humor                                             7.    Vitreous humor
2.     Lens                                                      8.    Optic disc
3.     Cornea                                                    9.    Optic nerve
4.     Iris                                                      10.   Choroid coat/middle tunic
5.     Conjunctiva                                               11.   Sclera/outer tunic
6.     Retina/inner tunic

                                                                LABORATORY EXERCISE 35
                                                      VISUAL TESTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
When using both eyes for observations, if the image of a small object falls on the optic disc of one eye, the object is still seen by the
other eye. This can be confirmed because the blind-spot demonstration will not work with both eyes open.

Laboratory Report Answers
1.         (experimental results)                                                     c. Astigmatism results in blurred vision because
                                                                                      some parts of the image on the retina are in focus,
2.        (experimental results)
                                                                                      while other parts are not in focus.
3.        (experimental results)
                                                                                      d. The elastic quality of the lens tends to
4.        (experimental results)                                                      decrease with age.
5.        a. A person with 20/70 vision can see from 20                               e. The retina is lacking cones that are
          feet what the normal eye sees from 70 feet. This                            sensitive to red or green wave lengths (an X-
          person has less than normal vision.                                         linked/sexlinked trait).
          b. A person with 20/10 vision can see from 20
          feet what the normal eye sees from 10 feet. This
          person has better than normal vision.


1.        (experimental results)                                           4.         The photopupillary reflex occurs in both eyes even
                                                                                      when one eye is shielded from the light; however,
2.        The optic disc lacks receptors (rods and cones)
                                                                                      the shielded eye may not show as much change as
          and thus
                                                                                      the exposed one.
3.        The photopupillary reflex involves the
                                                                           5.         When an eye is focused on a close object, the
          construction of the pupil in response to exposure
                                                                                      pupil constricts.
          to bright light.
                                                                           6.         When the eyes are focused on a close object, they
                                                                                      converge toward the midline.

                                            LABORATORY EXERCISE 36

Instructional Suggestions
1.          The responses and recovery to insulin shock work faster if the fish selected is very small (total length about 1”). The
            species of fish selected does not seem significant so try a fish species that is readily available.
2.          HumulinR administered in 200 units usually will suffice to induce insulin shock within about 5 minutes. If responses are
            too slow, try an increase to 400 units. Consult with your local pharmacist or veterinarian to purchase insulin.
3.          If the recovery from insulin shock it too prolonged using a 10% glucose solution, try a 20% glucose solution.

Figure Labels
FIG. 36.1
1.           Hypothalumus                                    6.            Thyroid gland
2.           Pituitary gland                                 7.            Thymus
3.           Parathyroid gland                               8.            Adrenal gland
4.           Testis (male)                                   9.            Pancreas
5.           Pineal gland                                    10.           Ovary (female)

Laboratory Report Answers
     Characteristic                      Type 1 Diabetes           Type 2 Diabetes
     Onset age                           Early age or adult        Usually over 40
     Onset of symptoms                   Rapid                     Slow
     Percentage of diabetics             10—15%                    85—90%
     Natural insulin levels              Below normal              Normal or increased
     Beta cells of pancreatic islets     Destroyed                 Not destroyed
     Pancreatic islet cell antibodies    Present                   Absent
     Risk factors of having the disease Heredity                   Heredity, obesity, lack of exercise
     Typical treatments                 Insulin administration     Avoid foods that stimulate insulin production, weight control,
                                                                   exercise, medications
     Untreated blood sugar levels       Hyperglycemia              Hyperclycemia
     PART C
     1.       (experimental results)
     2.       (experimental results)
              The amount of time until insulin shock occurs varies with the type of insulin used and the size of the fish
              selected for the experiment. Rapid and irregular swimming, gill cover, and mouth movements usually are noted
              within about 5–10 minutes.
     3.       (experimental results)
              Recovery from insulin shock usually occurs within about 5–10 minutes.

             Critical Thinking Application Answer
The main hormone regulating blood sugar is insulin. A normal person’s insulin level will adjust the blood sugar homeostasis level
according to changes in daily diets and exercise levels. A person with type 1 diabetes needs to attempt to have similar daily diets
and exercise to correlate with the designated daily insulin administered.

                                                                               LABORATORY EXERCISE 37
                                                                                        BLOOD CELLS

Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood slides are prepared in
the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood slides be used in this exercise. The instructor, however, may wish
to demonstrate the procedure for preparing such a slide. Mammal blood other than human or contaminant-free human blood is
suggested as a substitute for collected blood.

Laboratory Report Answers


1.        erythrocytes                                                   10.       neutrophil
2.        biconcave                                                      11.       neutrophils
3.        transporting and exchanging gases (O2 and CO2)                 12.       eosinophils
4.        hemoglobin                                                     13.       basophils
5.        oxyhemoglobin                                                  14.       monocytes
6.        nuclei                                                         15.       lymphocytes
7.        leukocytes                                                     16.       collagen
8.        granulocytes                                                   17.       serotonin
9.        agranulocytes                                                  18.       hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells)

1.        (experimental results)                                         2.        Answers will vary.

             Critical Thinking Application Answer
A total white blood cell count provides the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood; a differential white blood cell
count gives the relative percentages of types of white blood cells in a blood sample.

                                                             LABORATORY EXERCISE 38
                                                      BLOOD TESTING–A DEMONSTRATION

Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another during blood-testing procedures,
it is suggested that the following demonstrations be performed by the instructor. Mammal blood other than human or contaminant-
free human blood is suggested as a substitute for collected blood.

Laboratory Report Answers

(demonstration results)
1.         Answers will vary.                            3.             Polycythemia, due to dehydration, shock, or
2.         Various forms of anemia and severe hemorrhage                excessive production of red blood cells, will
           will produce a decreased red blood cell                      produce an increased percentage of red
           percentage.                                                  blood cells

1.         Answers will vary.                              3.           Polycythemia, obstructive pulmonary
2.         Iron-deficiency anemia, lack of certain amino                diseases, congestive heart failure, and living
           acids or vitamin B12, pregnancy, severe                      at high altitudes may cause an increased
           hemorrhage, excessive menstrual flow, or                     hemoglobin content.
           excessive fluid intake may cause a decreased
           hemoglobin content.

1.         Answers will vary.                              3.           Severe dehydration, diarrhea, exercise,
2.         Anemia, leukemia, and severe hemorrhage                      living at high altitudes, rise in temperature,
           may cause a decreased red blood cell count.                  or polycythemia may cause an increased red
                                                                        blood cell count.

1.         Answers will vary.                              3.           Acute infections, leukemia, infectious
2.         Aplastic anemia and adverse drug reactions                   mononucleosis, and menstruation may cause
           may cause a decreased white blood cell count.                an increased white blood cell count.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
RBC percentage (hematocrit), hemoglobin, and RBC count are all blood tests that could indicate anemia.

                                                                           LABORATORY EXERCISE 39
                                                                                    BLOOD TYPING

Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood-testing is performed in
the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood-typing kits, containing virus-free human blood, be used for ABO
blood typing. The instructor may wish to demonstrate Rh blood typing. Simulated blood-typing kits are suggested as a substitute for
collected blood.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The anti-A serum would contain anti-A antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type A blood. The anti-B serum
would contain anti-B antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type B blood.
Laboratory Report Answers
1.        red blood cell membranes                                    6.       anti-A
2.        four                                                        7.       AB
3.        A                                                           8.       O
4.        B                                                           9.       two to eight months
5.        anti-B
1.        (experimental results)
2–5.      Answers will vary.
1.        rhesus monkey                                               4.       Rh-negative
2.        antigen D                                                   5.       clump (agglutinate)
3.        Rh-negative                                                 6.       Rh-positive
1.        (demonstration results)
2–5.      Answers will vary.

                                                                         LABORATORY EXERCISE 40
                                                                              HEART STRUCTURE

Instructional Suggestions
1.     You may want to have the students use colored                3.      To reduce the cost of specimens used, you might
       pencils to color the features of the heart and blood                 provide predissected, preserved sheep hearts for
       vessels in figure 40.3. This activity should help                    observation and save the specimens for use with
       them observe the illustrations more carefully and                    other classes.
       locate the various features shown from different             4.      Fresh beef hearts are sometimes available from
       views in the figures. They can check their work by                   meat-packing houses. You might want to
       referring to the corresponding figures in the                        demonstrate the dissection of this large heart. Try
       textbook, which are presented in full color.                         to make sure that the atria and large blood vessels
2.     Instead of using preserved sheep hearts, you might                   are left attached for this purpose.
       want to provide fresh pig hearts for dissection.

Figure Labels
FIG. 40.1
1.     Aorta                                                       7.      Pulmonary trunk (artery)
2.     Superior vena cava                                          8.      Left atrium
3.     Right atrium                                                9.      Left coronary artery
4.     Right coronary artery                                       10.     Great cardiac vein
5.     Right ventricle                                             11.     Left ventricle
6.     Inferior vena cava
FIG. 40.2
1.     Aorta                                                       6.      Apex of the heart
2.     Left pulmonary artery                                       7.      Superior vena cava
3.     Left pulmonary veins                                        8.      Right atrium
4.     Left atrium                                                 9.      Inferior vena cava
5.     Left ventricle                                              10.     Right ventricle
FIG. 40.3
1.     Aorta                                                       10.     Left pulmonary veins
2.     Superior vena cava                                          11.     Left atrium
3.     Aortic valve                                                12.     Pulmonary valve
4.     Right atrium                                                13.     Mitral (bicuspid) valve
5.     Tricuspid valve                                             14.     Papillary muscle
6.     Chordae tendineae                                           15.     Interventricular septum
7.     Inferior vena cava                                          16.     Left ventricle
8.     Left pulmonary artery                                       17.     Right ventricle
9.     Pulmonary trunk

Laboratory Report Answers
1.         h                                                             7.               e
2.         l                                                             8.               g
3.         j                                                             9.               i
4.         f                                                             10.              b
5.         k                                                             11.              c
6.         d                                                             12.              a

PART B (figure 40.6)
1.        Superior vena cava                    5.        Tricuspid valve                        9.         Mitral (bicuspid) valve
2.        Aorta                                 6.        Right ventricle                        10.        Left ventricle
3.        Right atrium                          7.        Interventricular septum                11.        Apex
4.        Aortic valve                          8.        Left atrium
1.        The tricuspid valve is composed of three relatively            4.         The thicker wall of the aorta allows it to withstand
          large cusps that contain chordae tendineae; the                           the higher pressure of the blood pumped out from
          pulmonary valve is made up of three smaller                               the left ventricle. The thinner wall of the pulmonary
          pocketlike cusps that lack chordae tendineae.                             trunk (artery) is related to the lower pressure of the
2.        The cusps of the tricuspid valve move upward                              blood that leaves the right ventricle.
          into a horizontal position and close the opening               5.         Vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right
          between the right atrium and the right ventricle.                         ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk,
3.        The chordae tendineae and papillary muscles                               pulmonary artery, capillary of lungs, pulmonary
          prevent the cusps of the tricuspid and mitral                             vein, left atrium, mitral (bicuspid) valve, left
          (bicuspid) valves from swinging into the atria                            ventricle, aortic valve, aorta
          when the ventricles contract.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The thicker wall of the left ventricle allows it to contract with greater force and create the high pressure needed to move blood to all
parts of the body (systemic circuit) except the lungs. The thinner wall of the right ventricle creates the lower pressure needed to
move blood a relatively short distance to the lungs (pulmonary circuit).

                                                                       LABORATORY EXERCISE 41
                                                                               CARDIAC CYCLE
Laboratory Report Answers
1.    70                                                       6.    ventricles
2.    systole                                                  7.    vibrations
3.    diastole                                                 8.    A-V valves
4.    closed                                                   9.    pulmonary and aortic valves (semilunar valves)
5.    open                                                     10.   murmur
1.    (experimental results)                                   2.    (experimental results)
1.    cardiac muscle                                           9.    ventricles
2.    S-A (sinoatrial; sinu-atrial)                            10.   ventricles
3.       A-V (atrioventricular)                                11.   Atrial repolarization occurs at the same time that
                                                                     the ventricular fibers depolarize. The QRS
4.       A-V bundle (bundle of His)
                                                                     complex indicting ventricular depolarization
5.       Purkinje fibers                                             obscures any recording of the atrial
6.       electrocardiogram                                           repolarization

7.       polarized
8.    atria                                                    12.   tachycardia; bradycardia
1.       (labeled ECG recordings)                              5.    Because each QRS wave in the pattern indicates a
2.       Answers will vary.                                          ventricular contraction, the heart rate can be
                                                                     determined by counting the QRS waves that
3.       Normal is 0.12-0.20 sec.                                    occur in a minute.
4.       The P-Q (P-R) interval indicates the time it takes
         for the atria to depolarize and the cardiac impulse
                                                               6.    (experimental results)
         to reach the A-V node.

      Critical Thinking Application Answer

                                                                             LABORATORY EXERCISE 42
                                                                                     BLOOD VESSELS

Instructional Suggestions
If live frogs are not available for the microscopic observation of blood vessels, you might want to provide small goldfish. The head
of a fish can be wrapped loosely in wet cotton to keep its gills moist, and the fish can be placed on a glass plate on the stage of a
microscope. If its tail is spread out beneath a microscope slide, the blood vessels can be observed with low- and high-power
magnification. However, if the fish is not returned to water within a few minutes, it will likely die.

Figure Labels
FIG. 42.1
1.         Tunica interna                                      3.          Tunica externa
2.         Tunica media
FIG. 42.2
1                                                              3
4                                                              2
Laboratory Report Answers
1.         endothelium                                         9.          precapillary sphincters
2.         tunica media (middle layer)                         10.         diffusion
3.         tunica externa (outer layer)                        11.         lipid
4.         vasoconstriction                                    12.         pores
5.         vasodilation                                        13.         hydrostatic
6.         capillaries                                         14.         osmotic
7.         blood-brain barrier                                 15.         valves
8.         greater                                             16.         veins
1.         (sketch)                                                        artery contains relatively greater amounts of
                                                                           smooth muscles and elastic tissue than that
2.         (sketch)
                                                                           of the vein.
3.         The tunica interna and tunica externa are similar
           in the artery and vein. The tunica media of the

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Because arteries are under higher pressure than veins, the thicker arterial walls help to maintain the strength and elasticity
necessary against their walls.

1.   The blood in an arteriole moves with a pulsating         3.   Blood moves fastest in arterioles, somewhat
     rapid flow, whereas that in a venule moves with a             slower in venules, and slowest in capillaries.
     steady slower flow.
                                                              4.   If noted, the flow from an arteriole into a
2.   A capillary could be identified by its small                  capillary will change from continuous flow to an
     diameter and the presence of blood cells moving               interrupted flow and may cease flow for brief
     in single file.                                               periods of time. This irregular flow into the
                                                                   capillary is a result of changes caused by the
                                                                   precapillary sphincter.

                                                                 LABORATORY EXERCISE 43
                                                          PULSE RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

Instructional Suggestions
The following suggestions should be considered when trying to obtain an accurate blood pressure:

1.        The room environment should have a moderate temperature and be quiet (no talking).
2.        The client needs to be relaxed and comfortable. A temporary increase in blood pressure could exist from smoking, pain,
          anxiety, or a full urinary bladder.
3.        Palpate the pulse first so that you are certain to pump the cuff high enough to not miss the first tapping sound. It also
          assures that you do not pump the cuff so high that we alter the blood pressure when releasing air.

Laboratory Report Answers

1.         arterial                                            7.           millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
2.         systolic                                            8.           systolic
3.         diastolic                                           9.           pulse pressure
4.         heart                                               10.          brachial
5.         pressure
6.         sphygmomanometer
1.         (test results)                                      2.           Answers will vary.
1.         (test results)                                      2.           Answers will vary.
3.         (test results)                                      4.           Answers will vary.

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
A palpated pulse would be characteristic of the systolic pressure as the arterial wall is expanding at that moment under the higher

                                                                            LABORATORY EXERCISE 44
                                                                                ARTERIES AND VEINS

Figure Labels

FIG. 44.1
1.        Superior vena cava                                           4.        Pulmonary veins
2.        Pulmonary trunk                                              5.        Pulmonary artery
3.        Inferior vena cava                                           6.        Aorta

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The left ventricle wall is thicker which provides a more powerful contraction to force the blood through the longer distance of the
systemic circuit.

FIG. 44.2
1.        Superficial temporal artery                                  5.        Subclavian artery
2.        Internal carotid artery                                      6.        Facial artery
3.        External carotid artery                                      7.        Common carotid artery
4.        Vertebral artery                                             8.        Brachiocephalic artery
FIG. 44.3
1.        Subclavian artery                                            4.        Brachial artery
2.        Axillary artery                                              5.        Radial artery
3.        Deep brachial artery                                         6.        Ulnar artery
FIG. 44.4
1.        Celiac artery                                                5.        Left gastric artery
2.        Hepatic artery                                               6.        Superior mesenteric artery
3.        Renal artery                                                 7.        Inferior mesenteric artery
4.        Splenic artery                                               8.        Common iliac arteries
FIG. 44.5
1.        Right common iliac artery                                    6.        Internal iliac artery
2.        External iliac artery                                        7.        Femoral artery
3.        Deep femoral artery                                          8.        Anterior tibial artery
4.        Popliteal artery                                             9.        Dorsalis pedis artery
5.        Abdominal aorta
FIG. 44.6
1.        External jugular vein                                        4.        Vertebral vein
2.        Subclavian vein                                              5.        Brachiocephalic vein
3.        Internal jugular vein

FIG. 44.7
1.     Internal jugular vein              5.    Brachiocephalic veins
2.     Axillary vein                      6.    Subclavian vein
3.     Cephalic vein                      7.    Superior vena cava
4.     External jugular vein              8.    Azygos vein
FIG. 44.8
1.     Subclavian vein                    6.    Brachial vein
2.     Right brachiocephalic vein         7.    Median cubital vein (antecubital vein)
3.     Axillary vein                      8.    Radial vein
4.     Cephalic vein                      9.    Ulnar vein
5.     Basilic vein
FIG. 44.9
1.     Hepatic portal vein                4.    Splenic vein
2.     Superior mesenteric vein           5.    Inferior mesenteric vein
3.     Gastric vein (right)
FIG. 44.10
1.     Common iliac vein                  5.    Femoral vein
2.     External iliac vein                6.    Great saphenous vein
3.     Inferior vena cava                 7.    Popliteal vein
4.     Internal iliac vein                8.    Anterior tibial vein
Laboratory Report Answers
1.     d                                  7.    k
2.     j                                  8.    h
3.     b                                  9.    e
4.     a                                  10.   f
5.     g                                  11.   l
6.     c                                  12.   i
1.     right subclavian artery            6.    vertebral artery
2.     aortic arch                        7.    facial artery
3.     superior mesenteric artery         8.    brachial artery
4.     inferior mesenteric artery         9.    external iliac artery
5.     right common carotic artery        10.   left and right pulmonary arteries

1.     a                                 5.    h
2.     b                                 6.    c
3.     d                                 7.    g
4.     e                                 8.    f
1.     right brachiocephalic vein        6.    femoral vein
2.     popliteal vein                    7.    hepatic portal vein
3.     common iliace vein                8.    pulmonary veins
4.     basilic vein                      9.    renal vein
5.     anterior tibial vein
PART E (figure 44.11)
1.     Common carotid artery             9.    Subclavian vein
2.     Brachiocephalic vein              10.   Pulmonary vein
3.     Superior vena cava                11.   Inferior vena cava
4.     Femoral vein                      12.   Aorta
5.     Great saphenous vein              13.   Common iliac vein
6.     Internal jugular vein             14.   Common iliace artery
7.     External jugular vein             15.   Femoral artery
8.     Subclavian artery

                                                 LABORATORY EXERCISE 45
                                 CAT DISSECTION: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Laboratory Report Answers


1.   The parietal pericardium forms a relatively thick, tough sac that encloses the heart. It is attached to the large blood
     vessels at the base of the heart and to the diaphragm.
2.   The walls of the atria are much thinner than those of the ventricles. The wall of the left ventricle is much thicker than that
     of the right ventricle.
3.   Wall thickness is related to the force of its contraction and the amount of pressure it imparts to the blood inside a heart
     chamber. The left ventricle has the thickest wall, contracts with the greatest force, and creates the greatest amount of
     blood pressure in the heart chambers. The left ventricle is the pump for the systemic circuit.
4.   In the human, the right common carotid artery branches from the brachiocephalic artery, whereas the left common
     carotid artery comes directly from the aortic arch. In the cat, both common carotid arteries branch from the
     brachiocephalic artery.
5.   In the human, the aorta divides to form the two common iliac arteries, which in turn give rise to external and internal
     iliac arteries. In the cat, the aorta divides to form the external iliac arteries, and the internal iliac arteries branch from
     the aorta independently.
1.   In the human, the brachiocephalic vein is formed by the union of the internal jugular and the subclavian vein on each
     side. In the cat, the brachiocephalic vein is formed by the union of the external jugular and the subclavian vein on each side.
2.   In the human, the internal jugular vein is somewhat larger than the external jugular vein. In the cat, the external jugular vein
     is larger.
3.   Answers will vary.

                                                           LABORATORY EXERCISE 46
                                                                LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Figure Labels
FIG. 46.1
6                                             8
3                                             1
2                                             5
4                                             7
FIG. 46.2
1                                             6
2                                             3
4                                             5

Laboratory Report Answers
1.           lymphatic capillaries            6.         lymph nodes
2.           squamous epithelial              7.         intestinal
3.           lymph                            8.         jugular
4.           veins                            9.         thoracic (left lymphatic) duct
5.           valves
1.           lymphocytes                      6.         tonsils
2.           hilum                            7.         Peyer’s patches
3.           nodules                          8.         scalp, face, nasal cavity, and pharynx
4.           lymph sinuses                    9.         inguinal
5.           afferent
1.           mediastinum                      7.         hilum
2.           puberty                          8.         blood
3.           adipose and connective tissues   9.         white pulp
4.           bone marrow                      10.        red pulp
5.           thymosins                        11.        macrophages
6.           spleen

                                                                  LABORATORY EXERCISE 47
                                                                       DIGESTIVE ORGANS

Figure Labels

FIG. 47.1
1.     Lip                                                   5.     Palatine tonsil
2.     Hard palate                                           6.     Tongue
3.     Soft palate                                           7.     Vestibule
4.     Uvula
FIG. 47.2
1.     Parotid gland                                         4.     Sublingual gland
2.     Masseter muscle                                       5.     Submandibular gland
3.     Tongue
FIG. 47.3
1.     Enamel                                                4.     Crown
2.     Dentin                                                5.     Gingiva
3.     Root                                                  6.     Root canal
FIG. 47.5
1.     Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)                         5.     Oropharynx
2.     Opening of auditory tube (eustachian tube)            6.     Lingual tonsils
3.     Nasopharynx                                           7.     Epiglottis
4.     Palatine tonsils                                      8.     Laryngopharynx
FIG. 47.7
1.     Esophagus                                             6.     Fundic region
2.     Rugae                                                 7.     Cardiac region
3.     Pyloric sphincter                                     8.     Body region
4.     Duodenum                                              9.     Pyloric region
5.     Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)
FIG. 47.8
4                                                            1
2                                                            3
5                                                            7
FIG. 47.10
1.     Cystic duct                                           5.     Common bile duct
2.     Gallbladder                                           6.     Pancreatic duct
3.     Duodenum                                              7.     Hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi)
4.     Hepatic duct (common)

FIG. 47.11
10                            7                             9                               4
1                             2                             8
3                             6                             5

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
The small intestine, which is much longer than the large intestine and contains villi, provides more surface area for absorption than
the large intestine.

Laboratory Report Answers

1.         c                       5.          h                          9.        l
2.         j                       6.          k                         10.        e
3.         f                       7.          i                         11.        a
4.         g                       8.          d                         12.        b
1.         nasopharynx                                      4.           mucus
2.         oropharynx                                       5.           esophageal hiatus
3.          laryngopharynx                                  6.           The esophagus provides a passageway for food
                                                                         from the pharynx to the stomach.

1.         cardiac, fundic, body, and pyloric regions       6.           intrinsic factor
2.         pyloric sphincter                                7.           gastrin
3.         chief cells                                      8.           chyme
4.          parietal cells                                  9.           The stomach receives food from the esophagus,
                                                                         mixes it with gastric juice, initiates the digestion
5.          pepsin
                                                                         of protein, does limited amount of absorption,
                                                                         and moves food (chyme) into the small intestine.

1.         d                       4.          a                         7.         c
2.         b                       5.          f                         8.         h
3.         e                       6.          i                         9.         g
( sketch)


1.   duodenum, jejunum, ileum                                         5.   ileocecal sphincter (valve)
2.   A mesentery supports and suspends organs. It contains            6.   vermiform appendix
     blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves that supply         7.   The small intestine receives secretions from the
     the organs.                                                           pancreas and liver, completes digestion of nutrients,
3.   lacteal                                                               absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the
4.   peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, intestinal lipase,             residues to the large intestine.
     enterokinase (only 5 of 6 needed to answer the                   8.   The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes, and
     question)                                                             forms and stores feces.

                                                           LABORATORY EXERCISE 48
                                                   CAT DISSECTION: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Laboratory Report Answers

1.   The major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) in the human and the cat occupy similar locations.
2.   The jaw of the cat has six incisors, two canines, six premolars, and two molars; the jaw of the human has four incisors, two
     canines, four premolars, and six molars.
3.   The cat's canine teeth are adapted for stabbing and holding prey whereas its rear molars are adapted for cutting meat.
4.   The uvula is missing in the cat.
5.   The transverse ridges help to hold food.
6.   Many of the papillae on the cat's tongue have spiny projections that help the cat to clean its fur. These are lacking on the
     human tongue.
1.   The peritoneum is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. Double-layered
     folds in this membrane form the mesentery that supports the abdominal organs.
2.   The inner lining of the stomach is folded to form many ridges called rugae.
3.   The cat's liver has five lobes; the human liver has four.
4.   The cat's pancreas is relatively smaller than that of the human and it is double-lobed. One lobe lies along the
     duodenum, and the other extends behind the stomach toward the spleen.
5.   The appendix is missing in the cat.

                                                                      LABORATORY EXERCISE 49
                                                                 ACTION OF A DIGESTIVE ENZYME

Instructional Suggestion
For this experiment to work, it is very important to obtain amylase that is free of sugar. Some of the amylase sold by laboratory
suppliers in 2005 contained sugar, as can be determined by the control in tube 1 of this experiment. Ward's Natural Science does
handle amylase (alpha amylase from Bacillus subtilis; catalog #944W4602) that is free of sugar, and several other companies plan
to add this product to their catalogs. If in doubt, call the supply company and consult with a person in technical support. Keep any
of the unused amylase frozen.

Laboratory Report Answers


1.   Expected experimental results:
     Tube       Starch               Sugar
     1          0                    0
     2          +                    0
     3          (varies)             +
2.   a.    Testing the amylase solution for the presence of starch and sugar demonstrates the negative results of the tests.
     b.    Tube 2 demonstrates that starch will not change to sugar when warmed to 37°C (98.6°F).
     c.    The change of starch to sugar is a result of the action of the amylase in tube 3.


1.   Expected experimental results:
     Tube      Starch               Sugar
     4         +                    (varies)
     5         (varies)             +
     6         +                    0
2.   a.    Amylase is slow to act or inactive in low temperature and high temperature. Its optimum temperature is near
           37°C (98.6°F).
     b.    The tubes in which digestion failed to occur could be placed in the 37°C (98.6°F) water bath. If digestion
           occurred at this temperature, the enzyme was not destroyed by the previous treatment.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The test would show a positive result for sugar. The experiment would not be valid as it would not show a change from starch to
sugar when sugar is already present. (Note: some amylase sold is contaminated with sugar.)

                                                                                 LABORATORY EXERCISE 50
                                                                                    RESPIRATORY ORGANS

Figure Labels
FIG. 50.1
1.           Nostril (external naris)                           7.             Frontal sinus
2.           Oral cavity                                        8.             Nasal cavity
3.           Epiglottis                                         9.             Pharynx
4.           Larynx                                             10.            Trachea
5.           Bronchus (right primary)                           11.            Left lung
6.           Right lung
FIG. 50.2
1.           Frontal sinus                                      8.             Superior nasal concha
2.           Nostril (external naris)                           9.             Middle nasal concha
3.           Auditory (eustachian) tube opening                 10.            Inferior nasal concha
4.           Uvula                                              11.            Sphenoidal sinus
5.           Palatine tonsil                                    12.            Nasopharynx
6.           Epiglottis                                         13.            Oropharynx
7.           Trachea                                            14.            Laryngopharynx
FIG. 50.3
1.           Epiglottis (epiglottic cartilage)                  4.             Epiglottis (epiglottic cartilage)
2.           Thyroid cartilage                                  5.             Thyroid cartilage
3.           Cricoid cartilage                                  6.             Cricoid cartilage
FIG. 50.4
1.           Epiglottis                                         3.             False vocal cord (vestibular fold)
2.           Glottis                                            4.             True vocal cord (vocal fold)

Laboratory Report Answers
1.           h                    4.         a                  7.         j                       10.       c
2.           b                    5.         e                  8.         f
3.           i                    6.         d                  9.         g

1.               The sticky mucus is secreted into the upper     3.            If the smooth muscle of the bronchial tree relaxes, the air
                 and lower respiratory tract, which will trap                  passages dilate, which allows a greater volume of air
                 particles of dust and microorganisms.                         movement.
2.               The cilia create a current of mucus toward
                 the pharynx. The mucus contains entrapped
                 particles that are usually swallowed.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
The simple squamous epithelial cells allow for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the alveolar air.

                                                        LABORATORY EXERCISE 51
                                            CAT DISSECTION: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Laboratory Report Answers
1.   The auditory tube allows air to pass between the cavity of the middle ear and the outside environment. As a result, air
     pressure normally remains equal on both sides of the eardrum.
2.   The glottis is the opening at the superior (anterior in cats) end of the larynx. The epiglottis is a flaplike structure that
     shunts food and liquid away from the glottis during swallowing.
3.   The tracheal rings are incomplete as they are in the human.
4.   The structure of the primary bronchi and the trachea are similar.
5.   The cat has three main lobes in each lung (anterior, middle, and posterior). The posterior lobe on the right side has an
     accessory lobe associated with it, making a total of four lobes on the right lung. The human has three lobes in the right
     lung and two in the left.
6.   The diaphragm is attached to the lower rim of the thorax and to a central tendon.
7.   The heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland are found in the mediastinum. These are the same major structures
     found in the human mediastinum.

                                                                     LABORATORY EXERCISE 52
                                                                  BREATHING AND RESPIRATORY
                                                                     VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Aging results in some natural loss of elasticity of the lungs as well as the muscles (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) used in
breathing. This can be measured by a vital capacity test.

Laboratory Report Answers

1.        ventilation                                                  8.        visceral pleura
2.        atmospheric                                                  9.        surfactant
3.        760                                                          10.       elastic recoil
4.        atmospheric pressure                                         11.       less
5.        phrenic                                                      12.       internal intercostal
6.        increases                                                    13.       abdominal wall
7.        external intercostal
1.         a                     3.      e                  5.          d                  7.           c
2.         g                     4.      f                  6.          h                  8.           b
1.        (experimental results)                                       3.        Answers will vary.
2.        a.   Answers will vary.
          b.   Answers will vary.
          c.   A measurement of residual volume is needed.

                                                                             LABORATORY EXERCISE 53
                                                                              CONTROL OF BREATHING

Laboratory Report Answers
1.         pons, medulla oblongata                            7.           bicarbonate ions
2.         dorsal                                             8.           reduced
3.         ventral                                            9.           carotid
4.         hydrogen                                           10.          increases
5.         increases                                          11.          vagus
6.         carbon dioxide                                     12.          increased
 1.       (experimental results)

 2.       a.     Hyperventilation lowers blood carbon dioxide levels, and the breathing center is stimulated to a lesser degree.

          b.     Air that is rebreathed has a higher concentration of carbon dioxide, and thus the breathing center is stimulated to a
                 greater degree.
          c.     Breath holding causes the blood carbon dioxide concentration to increase, stimulating the breathing center to a
                 greater degree.
          d.     Exercise causes an increase in the breathing rate. This is due in part to the joint reflex and in part to an increasing
                 concentration of blood carbon dioxide.

 3.       a.     It is difficult for a person to breathe normally while thinking about it.

          b.     Depth of breathing can be measured by breathing into an instrument that measures air volumes.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
A person who has hyperventilated may lose consciousness under water because of changes in the blood carbon dioxide and oxygen
levels causing respiratory alkalosis. This is accompanied by arteriole vasoconstriction to the brain, which deprives the brain tissue
of oxygen. Hyperventilation has a minimal influence on oxygen carrying capacity on the hemoglobin which is normall nearly
saturated (about 97.5%) in lung capillaries. However, hyperventilation can decrease the carbon dioxide enough during breath-
holding that depleted oxygen to the brain could cause unconsciousness. This loss of consciousness could occur before the urge to
take the next breath takes place.

                                                                                LABORATORY EXERCISE 54
                                                                                     KIDNEY STRUCTURE

Figure Labels

FIG. 54.1
1.         Kidney                                                         3.        Urinary bladder
2.         Ureter                                                         4.        Urethra
FIG. 54.2
1.         Minor calyx                                                    6.        Renal pyramid
2.         Major calyx                                                    7.        Renal column
3.         Renal pelvis                                                   8.        Renal capsule
4.         Renal papilla                                                  9.        Renal medulla
5.         Ureter                                                         10.       Renal cortex
FIG. 54.4
1          Glomerular capsule                                             7.        Interlobular vein
2.         Proximal convoluted tubule                                     8.        Afferent arteriole
3.         Glomerulus                                                     9.        Distal convoluted tubule
4.         Efferent arteriole                                             10.       Peritubular capillary
5.         Descending limb of the nephron loop                            11.       Collecting duct
6.         Ascending limb of the nephron loop
Laboratory Report Answers

1.         e                                                              6.        c
2.         a                                                              7.        d
3.         h                                                              8.        g
4.         f                                                              9.        b
5.         i
1.         A renal corpuscle is the cluster of capillaries (glomerulus) and the saclike structure (glomerular capsule) that surrounds
           it; a renal tubule is the coiled tube that leads away from the glomerular capsule and empties into a collecting duct.
2.         3               5              2               4               1              6
3.         1              3              2               4                5
4.         Blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole and leaves through the efferent arteriole. Because the afferent
           vessel has a somewhat greater diameter than the efferent one, blood pressure is increased in the glomerulus.
5.         The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a structure composed of epithelial cells within the distal convoluted tubule and
           smooth muscle cells within the walls of arterioles near the glomerulus that regulates the flow of blood through certain
           renal blood vessels.

                                                                              LABORATORY EXERCISE 55

Instructional Suggestion
Because most students’ urine will produce negative results for glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin, you may want
to provide samples of “artificial urine” (distilled water that contains weak concentrations of some of these substances). By
performing the urinalysis tests on such samples, students will be able to obtain some positive results. Normal and abnormal
simulated urine specimens are suggested as a substitue for collected urine.

Laboratory Report Answers


1.        (test results)
2.        Answers will vary.

           Critical Thinking Application Answer
If urine is not refrigerated, substances within it will begin to change as a result of bacterial action, and the composition of the urine
will be altered.

1.        (sketch)
2.        Answers will vary.

                                                             LABORATORY EXERCISE 56
                                                      CAT DISSECTION: URINARY SYSTEM

Laboratory Report Answers
1.   In the human, the kidneys are located between the levels of the twelfth thoracic and the third lumbar vertebrae; in the
     cat, the kidneys are found at the level of the third to the fifth lumbar vertebrae. In the human, the left kidney is usually
     higher than the right one; in the cat, the right kidney is usually somewhat anterior to the left one. In both cases, the
     kidneys are retroperitoneal.
2.   In the human, the adrenal glands are located on the superior ends of the kidneys; in the cat, the adrenal glands are
     located anteriorly and medially to the kidneys.

3.   In the cat, the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder are retroperitoneal.
4.   The wall of the urinary bladder is relatively thick, tough, and somewhat elastic. Its inner surface is irregular.
5.   In the human kidney, there are about twelve renal pyramids that communicate with the renal pelvis by calyces. Each
     calyx bears one or more papillae. In the cat kidney, there is a single pyramid and one papilla.

                                                                     LABORATORY EXERCISE 57
                                                                   MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Figure Labels
FIG. 57.1
1.     Ductus deferens (vas deferens)                         7.             Scrotum
2.     Urethra                                                8.             Seminal vesicle
3.     Penis                                                  9.             Prostate gland
4.     Glans penis                                            10.            Bulbourethral gland
5.     Prepuce                                                11.            Epididymis
6.     Testis
FIG. 57.2
6                                                             7
1                                                             5
4                                                             2
Laboratory Report Answers
1.             spermatic cord                                  11.           acrosome
2.             testosterone                                    12.           epididymis
3.             gubernaculum                                    13.           fructose
4.             inguinal canal                                  14.           alkaline
5.             lobules                                         15.           bulbourethral
6.             epididymis                                      16.           alkaline
7.             spermatogenic                                   17.           scrotum
8.             meiosis (spermatogenesis)                       18.           glans penis
9.             spermatids                                      19.           emission
10.            23                                              20.           ejaculation
1.              (sketch)
2.             (sketch)
3.             (sketch)
4.             a. Sustentacular cells support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells.
               b. Spermatogenic cells give rise to sperm cells by meiosis (spermatogenesis).
               c. Interstitial cells produce and secrete male sex hormones.
               d. The epididymis stores sperm cells while they mature and propels them into the vas deferens.
               e. The corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum form three columns of erectile tissue that
                     contain vascular spaces (sinuses) that become engorged with blood during an erection. They
                     also form most of the body of the penis.

                                                LABORATORY EXERCISE 58
                                            FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Figure Labels
FIG. 58.1
1.     Suspensory ligament of ovary              5.    Fimbriae of uterine tube
2.     Uterine tube                              6.    Broad ligament
3.     Ovarian ligament                          7.    Left ovary
4.     Round ligament of uterus                  8.    Uterus
FIG. 58.2
1.     Uterine tube                              6.    Labium majus
2.     Ovary                                     7.    Vaginal orifice
3.     Uterus                                    8.    Fimbriae
4.     Clitoris                                  9.    Cervix
5.     Labium minus                              10.   Vagina
FIG. 58.3
1.     Clitoris                                  5.    Labium majus
2.     External urethral orifice (meatus)        6.    Labium minus
3.     Vaginal orifice/vestibule                 7.    Perineum
4.     Mons pubis                                8.    Anus
FIG. 58.4
5                                                8
10                                               1
9                                                2
4                                                7
3                                                6
FIG. 58.5
1.    Areola                                     4.    Alveolar glands (mammary glands)
2.    Nipple                                     5.    Adipose tissue
3.    Lactiferous duct
Laboratory Report Answers

1.    pelvic                                     11.   round
2.    broad                                      12.   cervix
3.    ovarian follicles                          13.   endometrium
4.    oogenesis                                  14.   smooth muscle
5.    follicular                                 15.   hymen
6.    first polar body                           16.   vulva
7.    FSH                                        17.   mons pubis
8.    ovulation                                  18.   clitoris
9.    fallopian tubes or oviducts                19.   vestibular glands
10.    infundibulum                              20.   sacral

1.   (sketch)
2.   (sketch)
3.   (sketch)
4.   (sketch)
     a. A mature follicle swells and ruptures under the influence of certain hormones. As this happens, the
     secondary oocyte (egg cell) and follicular fluid escape from the ovary.
     b. The cilia that line the uterine tube beat toward the uterus and help draw the secondary oocyte into the
     infundibulum of the tube and continue to move it toward the uterus.
     c. The uterine lining thickens and then it becomes glandular and vascular. If fertilization does not occur, the lining
     disintegrates and sloughs away, creating the menstrual flow.

                                                  LABORATORY EXERCISE 59
                                    CAT DISSECTION: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

Laboratory Report Answers
1.   The cat uterine tubes are small, coiled tubes near the ovaries that travel relatively short distances to join the uterine
     horns. The human uterine tubes are much larger and longer, traveling from the region of the ovaries to the uterine body.
2.   The human uterus contains a single chamber in which the offspring develop. The cat uterus is Y-shaped with branches,
     forming right and left uterine horns.
3.   The uterine horns of the cat provide room for many offspring to develop at one time.
4.   In the cat, the vagina and urethra open into a common urogenital sinus; in the human each of these organs has a
     separate opening to the outside.
1.   The glans of the cat has small spines on its surface, whereas that of the human does not.
2.   In the cat, the prostate gland is relatively small and is located some distance from the urinary bladder (it does not surround
     the urethra). In the human, the prostate gland is relatively larger and surrounds the urethra near the base of the bladder.
3.   The seminal vesicles are lacking in the cat.
4.   The prepuce of the cat encloses the entire penis for protection. In the human, the prepuce or foreskin is vestigial and only
     covers the glans of the penis. A circumcision is commonly performed on humans to remove the prepuce for sanitation and
     other reasons.

                                                      LABORATORY EXERCISE 60
                                        FERTILIZATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT

Instructional Suggestions
Sea urchin egg and sperm suspensions can be obtained from ripe sea urchins. The “Sea Urchin Embryology Kit” from Carolina
Biological Supply Company is one source of these materials.

Figure Labels
FIG. 60.1
1.     Ovulation                 2.     Zygote                       3.   Morula (late)               4.      Blastocyst
FIG. 60.2
1.     Yolk sac                  3.     Endoderm                     5.   Amnion                      7.      Connecting stalk
2.     Mesoderm                  4.     Chorion                      6.   Chorionic villi

FIG. 60.3
1.     Umbilical cord                        3.    Amniochorionic membrane
2.     Amniotic fluid
Laboratory Report Answers
1.     oocyte (egg cell)                     5.    cleavage                                 9.    embryo
2.     acrosome                              6.    cilia                                    10.   fetus
3.     zygote                                7.    three
4.     mitosis                               8.    blastocyst
1.     h                                5.         j                                        9.    c
2.     f                                6.         i                                        10.   d
3.     g                                7.         e
4.     a                                8.         b
1.     placental membrane               5.         yolk sac                                 9.    embryonic
2.     amnion                           6.         yolk sac                                 10.   amniotic
3.     umbilical arteries               7.         allantois
4.     amniochorionic membrane          8.         eighth

                                                                          LABORATORY EXERCISE 61
Laboratory Report Answers

1.   (experimental results)
2.   (experimental results) Answers will vary.

1.   Probability: 10/20 heads; 10/20 tails
     (experimental results)

2.   Probability: 8/24 number below 3
     (experimental results)

3.   Probability: 8/32 of two heads; 16/32 of a heads and a tails; 8/32 of two tails
     (experimental results)

4.   Probability: 8/32 of two odd numbers; 16/32 of an odd and an even number; 8/32 of two even numbers
     (experimental results)

5.               O           E

      O          OO          OE        O = odd numbers

      E          OE          EE        E = even numbers

6.   a.         yes
                The results are closer to expected probabilities as trial numbers increase.
     b.         no
                Each toss of a coin is an independent event.
     c.         ½ or 50%
                Each fertilization is a separate, independent event.
     d.         1/16
                Each fertilization has the probability of ½ for a girl. Therefore, the chances are
                ½ · ½ ·½ ·½ = 1/16

1.   a.            Rr × rr
     b and c.                     R         r

                       r          Rr       rr

                       r          Rr       rr

     d.            Genotypes: 50% Rr; 50% rr (1:1 genotypic ratio)
                   Phenotypes: 50% tongue rollers; 50% nonrollers (1:1 phenotypic ratio)

2.   a.         Ff × Ff
     b and c.                 F       f

                    F        FF      Ff

                    f         Ff     ff

     d.         Genotypes: 25% FF; 50% Ff; 25% ff (1:2:1 genotypic ratio)
                Phenotypes: 75% freckles; 25% no freckles (3:1 phenotypic ratio)

3.   a.         IBi × IAIA
     b and c.                 IB      i

                   IA        IA IB   IAi

                   IA        IA IB   IAi

     d.         Genotypes: 50% IA IB; 50% IAi (1:1 genotypic ratio)
                Phenotypes: 50% AB; 50% A (1:1 phenotypic ratio)
4.   a.         IAi × IBi
     b and c.                  IA          i

                   IB        IA IB        IBi

                    i         IAi         ii

     d.         Genotypes: 25% IA IB; 25% IAi; 25% IBi; 25% ii (1:1:1:1 genotypic ratio)
                Phenotypes: 25% AB; 25% A; 25% B; 25% O (1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio)

5.   a.         XHXh × XHY
     b and c.                 XH          Xh

                   XH        XH XH   XH Xh

                    Y        XHY      XhY

     d.         Genotypes: 25% XH XH; 25% XH Xh; 25% XH Y; 25% XhY (1:1:1:1 genotypic ratio)
                Phenotypes: 50% normal females; 25% normal males; 25% males with hemophilia (2:1:1
                phenotypic ratio). Note that all females will have normal blood clotting.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
1.       WwEe × WwEe
2 – 3.               WE        We         wE        we

           WE      WWEE       WWEe      WwEE      WwEe

           We      WWEe       WWee      WwEe      Wwee

           wE      WwEE       WwEe      wwEE      wwEe

           we      WwEe       Wwee      wwEe       wwee

4.       Genotypes: 1 WWEE; 2 WWEe; 2 WwEE; 4 WwEe; 1 WWee; 2 Wwee; 1 wwEE; 2 wwEe; 1
                     wwee (1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1 genotypic ratio)
         Phenotypes: 9 widow’s peak, free earlobe; 3 widow’s peak, attached earlobe; 3 straight hairline,
                  free earlobe; 1 straight hairline, attached earlobe (9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio)

                                                                  LABORATORY EXERCISE 62
                                                            SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION
Laboratory Report Answers
1.        h                                                              6.        f
2.        a                                                              7.       g
3.        c                                                              8.       d
4.        i                                                              9.       e
5.        b
1.        Answers will vary.
2.        Answers will vary.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
Probably not; differences in electrolyte concentrations and various other factors would probably result in slightly different values.

1.        (attached myogram)                                            3.        Answers will vary.
2.        (labels for myogram)
1.        (attached myogram)                                            4.         Answers will vary.
2.        (labels for myogram)                                          5.         Answers will vary.
3.        Answers will vary.                                            6.         Answers will vary.

                                   LABORATORY EXERCISE 63
                                 NERVE IMPULSE STIMULATION

Laboratory Report Answers

1.   potassium                   8.    repolarization
2.   sodium                      9.    refractory period
3.   potassium                   10.   all-or-none
4.   resting potential           11.   lipid
5.   depolarized                 12.   Schwann cells
6.   summation                   13.   saltatory
7.   repolarized                 14.   faster
1.   Answers will vary.          3.    Answers will vary.
2.   Answers will vary.          4.    Answers will vary.

                                                       LABORATORY EXERCISE 64
                                           FACTORS AFFECTING THE CARDIAC CYCLE

Laboratory Report Answers

1.        pump the blood to the lungs and body cells        7.          medulla oblongata
2.        S-A node                                          8.          blood pressure (stretch)
3.        vagus                                             9.          sympathetic (accelerator)
4.        acetylcholine                                     10.         increase
5.        accelerator                                       11.         potassium (K+)
6.        norepinephrine (noradrenalin)                     12.
1.        The atria contract as a unit followed by the      3.          (experimental results)
          contraction of the ventricle (single in frogs).
2.        (experimental results)                            4.          The S-A node activity at room temperature
                                                                        is slower than the human resting heart rate.
                                                                        Colder temperatures slow the rate; warmer
                                                                        temperatures increase the rate.
1.        The force (amplitude) of the contractions        2.           Normally the rate and force of contractions
          normally increases as calcium ions help initiate              decrease by altering the usual polarized state
          muscle contractions. There is danger of                       of cardiac muscle cells. Excessive potassium
          prolonged contraction.                                        ions may result in cardiac arrest.

          Critical Thinking Application Answer
This will allow the ionization to occur providing K+ and Ca++ when in a solution of water.

                                                             APPENDIX 1: MATERIALS NEEDED

This is a composite list of materials needed for the entire lab manual. The amount or number of each item will depend upon the
laboratory size and the number of students working as a group. The laboratory manual lists the materials needed at the beginning of
each lab, as some of these materials might not be needed if certain labs, demonstrations, or learning extensions are not attempted.
Items indicated with an (*) are either demonstration, learning extension, or alternative materials.

Prepared Microscope Slides
Three colored threads                                                Taste buds*
Mitosis (whitefish blastula)                                         Semicircular canal (cross section through ampulla)*
Human chromosomes from leukocytes in mitosis*                        Mammalian eye (sagittal section)
Simple squamous epithelium (lung)                                    Pituitary gland
Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)                                  Thyroid gland
Simple columnar epithelium (small intestine)                         Parathyroid gland
Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelium (trachea)            Adrenal gland
Stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)                           Pancreas (normal)
Transitional epithelium (urinary bladder)                            Pancreas of diabetic*
Loose (areolar) connective tissue                                    Pathological blood, such as eosinophilia, leukocytosis,
                                                                                leukopenia, and lymphocytosis*
Dense connective tissue
                                                                     Artery cross section
Adipose tissue
                                                                     Vein cross section
Elastic connective tissue
                                                                     Lymph node section
Hyaline cartilage
                                                                     Human thymus section
Elastic cartilage
                                                                     Human spleen section
                                                                     Parotid gland (salivary gland)
Bone tissue
Blood smear (Wright's stain)
Skeletal muscle tissue (cross section and longitudinal               Stomach (fundus)
           section)                                                  Small intestine (jejunum)
Smooth muscle tissue                                                 Large intestine
Cardiac muscle tissue                                                Trachea (cross section)
Nervous tissue (spinal cord smear and cerebellum)                    Lung, human (normal)
Human scalp or axilla                                                Lung tissue (smoker)*
Heavily pigmented human skin*                                        Lung tissue (emphysema)* Kidney section
Thick skin (plantar or palmar)                                       Testis section
Tattoo*                                                              Epididymis, cross section
Dorsal root ganglion (section)                                       Penis, cross section
Neuroglial cells (astrocytes)                                        Ovary section with maturing follicles
Peripheral nerve (cross section and longitudinal section)            Uterine tube, cross section
Spinal cord cross section with spinal nerve roots                    Uterine wall section
Cochlea (section)*                                                   Uterine wall, early proliferative phase*
Tactile (Meissner's) corpuscle*                                      Uterine wall, secretory phase*
Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle*                                     Uterine wall, early menstrual phase*
Olfactory epithelium*                                                Sea urchin embryos (early and late cleavage)


Safety equipment (first aid kit, disposable latex and vinyl        Large plastic bags
           gloves, safety glasses, laboratory coats, and
                                                                   Bone shears
           disinfectant solution)
                                                                   Glass rod
Compound light microscopes
                                                                   Glass plate
Micrometer scale on microscope*
                                                                   Bunsen burner
Oil immersion objective on microscope*
                                                                   Marking pen (washable)
Stereomicroscopes (dissecting microscopes)
                                                                   Forceps (fine points)
Lens paper
                                                                   Blunt metal probes
Microscope slides
                                                                   Watch that ticks
Depression microscope slides
                                                                   Tuning fork (128 or 256 cps)
                                                                   Sterile cotton
Transparent plastic millimeter ruler
Medicine dropper
Dissecting needle (needle probe)
Toothpicks (flat)
                                                                   Snellen eye chart
Single-edged razor blade*
                                                                   3" × 5" cards
Petri dish
                                                                   Astigmatism chart
                                                                   Pen flashlight
Thistle tube
                                                                   Ichikawa's color plates or other color-blindness test
Molasses (or Karo dark corn syrup)
                                                                   Small fish net
Dialysis tubing of 1 5/16-inch diameter or greater
                                                                   Laboratory thermometer
Ring stand and clamp
                                                                   Cotton swabs (sterile; disposable)
Beakers (assorted sizes)
                                                                   Paper cups (small)
Rubber bands
                                                                   Swivel chair
Corn syrup (Karo)*
                                                                   Bright light
Laboratory balance*
                                                                   Sterile disposable blood lancets*
                                                                   Slide staining rack and tray*
Test tubes
                                                                   Heparinized microhematocrit capillary tube*
Marking pen
                                                                   Sealing clay (or Critocaps)*
Test-tube rack
                                                                   Microhematocrit centrifuge*
Graduated cylinder (10 mL)
                                                                   Microhematocrit reader*
Glass funnel
Filter paper
                                                                   Hemolysis applicator*
Hand magnifier
Radiographs of skeletal structures and joints*
                                                                   Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting red blood
Kymograph recording system                                                    cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of Unopette
Electronic stimulator (or inductorium)                                        systems)
Physiograph                                                        Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting white
                                                                              blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of
Myograph and stand
                                                                              Unopette systems)
Heavy thread
                                                                   Hand counter (tally)*
Rubber percussion hammer
                                                                   ABO blood-typing kit
Anatomical charts of various systems
                                                                   Anti-D serum*
Dissection instruments (scalpel, probe, scissors, and
           forceps)                                                Slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or view box)*
Dissecting trays                                                   Stethoscope
                                                                   Electrocardiograph (or other instrument for recording an
Long knife
Identification tags

Cot or table                                               Spirometer, handheld (dry portable)
Electrode cream (paste)                                    Disposable mouthpieces for the spirometer
Plate electrodes and cables                                Paper bags, small
Lead selector switch                                       Flasks*
Paper towels                                               Glass tubing*
Frog board                                                 Rubber tubing*
Dissecting pins                                            Rubber stoppers, two-hole*
Thread                                                     Pneumograph*
Masking tape                                               Disposable urine-collecting container
Ice                                                        Urinometer cylinder
Hot plate                                                  Urinometer hydrometer
Clock with second hand or timer                            pH test paper
Sphygmomanometer                                           Reagent strips (individual or combination) to test for the
Pulse pickup transducer or plethysmogram*                            presence of glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin,
                                                                     and hemoglobin/occult blood in the urine
Physiological recording apparatus*
Test-tube clamps
                                                           Centrifuge tubes
Wax marker
                                                           Normal and abnormal simulated urine specimens*
Porcelain test plate
                                                           Paper cups
Pipets (1 mL and 10 mL)
Pipet rubber bulbs
                                                           PTC paper
Pennies (or other coins)
                                                           Syringe for U-100 insulin

Dissectible human torso model with musculature             Cat skeleton*
Animal cell                                                Neuron
Animal mitosis                                             Spinal cord
Human long bone, sectioned longitudinally                  Dissectible human brain
Articulated human skeleton                                 Dissectible ear
Disarticulated human skull (Beauchene)                     Dissectible eye
Human skull, sagittal section                              Dissectible human heart
Fetal skull*                                               Teeth, sectioned
Disarticulated human skeleton                              Tooth model, sectioned
Vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar examples)        Larynx model
Male and female pelves*                                    Thoracic organs model
Synovial joints (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee)           Kidney model
Skeletal muscle fiber model                                Model of male reproductive system
Muscular model of the upper limb                           Model of female reproductive system
Muscular model of the lower limb                           Lung function model*
Muscular models of male and female pelves                  Models of human embryos

Preserved Materials
Spinal cord with meninges intact*
                                                           Pig or sheep kidneys
Human brain
                                                           Animal lung with trachea*
Sheep brains
Beef or sheep eyes
                                                           Mammalian embryos*
Sheep or other mammalian hearts

Living Specimens/Fresh Material
Amoeba culture*
                                                               Fresh animal bones, sectioned longitudinally and
Paramecium culture*
Plant materials such as leaves, soft stems, fruits, and        Fresh round beefsteak*
                                                               Fresh animal joint (knee joint preferred)*
Uncoagulated animal blood
Fresh chicken bones (radius and ulna from wings)*              Sea urchin egg and sperm suspensions (these can be
Fresh chicken eggs*                                                     obtained by using Sea Urchin Embryology Kits
Fish (small goldfish, guppy, or other)                                  sold by Carolina Biological Supply Company)

Chemicals, Reagents, and Biologicals
(This incudes any ingredients needed to mix solutions          Bacterial amylase powder (store in a freezer) (see Appendix
described in Appendix 1 of the laboratory manual.)                        2 for a supplier of amylase that is free of sugar)
 Distilled water                                               Glucose
Methylene blue (dilute)                                        Sodium chloride
Iodine-potassium-iodide (IKI) stain                            Cornstarch
Potassium permanganate crystals                                Potassium iodide
0.9% NaCl (aqueous solution)                                   Iodine
3% NaCl (aqueous solution)                                     95% ethyl alcohol
Powdered charcoal (or ground pepper)                           Potassium hydroxide
1% glucose solution                                            Sodium bicarbonate
10% glucose solution                                           Potassium chloride
1% starch solution                                             Calcium chloride
10% starch solution                                            Stopper bottles of cinnamon, sage, garlic powder, oil of
                                                                          clove, oil of wintergreen, and perfume
1% HCl solution
                                                               5% sucrose solution
1% NaCl solution
                                                               5% NaCl solution
2% Novocain solution (procaine hydrochloride)*
                                                               1% acetic acid or lemon juice
Benedict's solution
                                                               0.5% quinine sulfate solution or 0.1% Epsom salt solution
Baking soda
                                                               Epinephrine, 1:10,000 solution
Biuret reagent
                                                               Acetylcholine, 1:10,000 solution
                                                               Caffeine, 0.2% solution
Wright's stain*
                                                               Calcium hydroxide solution (limewater)*
70% alcohol
                                                               Insulin (regular U-100) (HumulinR in 10 mL vial – store in
Frog Ringer's solution                                                    refrigerator)
0.5% amylase solution (must be free of sugar)
0.5% starch solution
Clear carbonated soft drink

                                                 APPENDIX 2: LABORATORY SUPPLIERS
This list is not complete, but it does contain well-established names recognized by most anatomy and physiology instructors.
Additional suppliers often advertise in scientific journals or have booths at scientific association meetings. Some of these
companies also have regional offices.

Bio Corporation                                              Frey Scientific
3911 Nevada Street                                           100 Paragon Pkwy.
Alexandria, MN 56308                                         Mansfield, OH 44903                     

Carolina Biological Supply Company                           Nasco, Inc.
2700 York Road                                               901 Janesville Ave.
Burlington, NC 27215                                         Fort Atkinson, WI 53538                            

                                                             Nebraska Scientific
Connecticut Valley Biological Supply Co.                     3823 Leavenworth St.
82 Valley Road; P.O. Box 326                                 Omaha, NE 68105
Southampton, MA 01073                              
                                                             Phipps & Bird/Intelitool
Cynmar Corporation                                           P.O. Box 7475
21709 Route 4 North                                          Richmond, VA 23221
P.O. Box 530                                       
Carlinville, IL 62626                                        Sargent-Welch Scientific Company                                        P.O. Box 4130
                                                             Buffalo, NY 14217
Fisher Scientific
U.S. Headquarters
2000 Park Lane                                               Science Kit & Boreal Laboratories
Pittsburgh, PA 15275                                         777 East Park Drive                                     P.O. Box 5003
(Fisher Scientific is a supplier of Becton Dickinson         Tonawanda, NY 14151
Unopette blood counting systems. For cases of 200, the
RBC Unopette system catalog number is 13-680-23; the
WBC Unopette system catalog number is 13-680-1.)             The Scope Shoppe
                                                             113 Read St., P.O. Box 1208
Flinn Scientific
                                                             Elburn, IL 60119
P.O. Box 219
Batavia, IL 60510                                      Ward's Natural Science
                                                             5100 West Henrietta Road
                                                             P.O. Box 92912
                                                             Rochester, NY 14692
                                                             (Ward's Natural Science Establishment is a supplier of the enzyme
                                                             amylase that is free of sugar. The catalog number is 944 W4602.)

                                                                     APPENDIX 3

                    Student Safety Contract
I have read all of the “Laboratory Safety Guidelines” inside the front cover of the
laboratory manual. I agree to follow these guidelines, and any additional safety
guidelines included in individual labs, to insure my own personal safety as well as
the safety of all persons in the laboratory. I will inform my instructor of any safety
violations and any health condition changes that might impact the safety of anyone
in the laboratory.

Signature                                             Date

                                                                     APPENDIX 4

             Student Informed Consent Form
My participation in a particular lab that has any safety or privacy concerns is
voluntary; I may choose not to participate in that specific lab, and be required to do
an alternative project. The potential risks have been included in the laboratory
manual and/or explained to me by my instructor. My individual personal data will
be confidential although a summary of class results may be included in a review of
the laboratory exercise. I have no known health condition that would prohibit me
from participating in this laboratory exercise.

Signature                                             Date


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