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General principles of first aid

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									General principles of first aid
Any emergency, the first heavy maintenance of vital signs, observe the three
principles of ABC:
A (Airway) B (Breathing) C (Circulation)

Damage require special first aid measures:
◆ chest trauma:
If it causes the chest and the outside world, can cause fatal tension pneumothorax and
died suddenly, wounded chance of survival may depend closely on the speed of
wound closure. So that the injured as breath, breath, respiratory rate finished as far as
possible, then rescue the patient as soon as possible the wound closed (airtight).
◆ abdominal trauma:
Dressing wounds, treating shock. When the intestines or other abdominal organs by
the prominent abdominal wounds, do not try to push them back. Necessary to carry
prominent intestines in order to cover the wound. Remove the sterile dressing covered
from the first-aid kit, and will use saline wet dressing poured, and then fixed with a
bandage around your abdomen.
! Non-injured eating any food or liquid. Best to use the side to prevent inhalation of
vomit asphyxiation.
◆ abdominal stab wounds:
Penetrate matter and not immediately pull out, on both sides of the wound with a
dressing oppression, fixed with tape compression dressing or bandage after doing to
my eyes, and the immediate evacuation side of the position.
◆ head trauma:
Watch for with cervical spine injuries, the neck should be fixed if in doubt. Remember
not to give morphine.
If the following conditions should be checked for head trauma:
◎ unconscious now or recently had
◎ ear, nose and blood flow
◎ pulse is slow
◎ headache
◎ vomiting
◎ had cramps
◎ very slow breathing

Site hemostasis
Blood for normal human physiology is very important. The blood of normal adult
body weight accounted for 8%. When the wound is small, less blood loss, the injured
were no significant changes in the body. When blood loss after injury over 20% of
total blood volume, will appear pale, hands and feet cold, such as shock pulse
performance thin. When blood loss reached 40% of the total blood volume, the
patients will have life-threatening. After trauma, blood loss, the faster, the greater the
threat to human life. 1000 ml blood loss within a few minutes can be deadly.
Therefore, according to the wound site in the first aid location, size, depth, and
bleeding of color, speed, and quickly determine 出血 nature, Jueding bleeding
Fangfa, is to save the wounded lives of Guan Jian. If the wound with the heartbeat
rhythm of a Unit, the blood spray out of the bright red, this case was arterial bleeding;
if slower wound bleeding, bloody dark, continuous emission was venous bleeding.
Here is the site of bleeding and foreign aid haemostasis. The organs of internal
bleeding caused by rupture of the hospital treatment is necessary.
(1) Direct compression hemostasis: an accident injury in the wild, and if not for the
superficial wound, blood flow is slow, directly or with a clean soft towel pressure
dressings to stop bleeding in wounds. If this law is invalid, then use other methods to
stop bleeding.
(2) means the pressure method:
First aid at the scene of the most rapid and most effective method is the pressure to
stop bleeding artery hemostasis. The method according to the body surface projection
of the main artery position, with one or more finger pressure to the skeleton direction
to close arterial pressure to stop massive bleeding wound. Means the pressure to stop
bleeding as long as Mozhun position, compression strength enough, can produce
immediate hemostasis. The disadvantage of this method is limited effect can not be
sustained, but in the event of bleeding when used to find first aid materials or other
methods to gain time to stop bleeding.

Disease and accident scene to deal with
Points
● to help patients maintain the most comfortable position to alleviate pain.
● Move the patient do not force hard to move, can ask us to help, be careful
coordination.
● Let the patient lie down or move, be careful not to aggravate disease.
◆ on a clear consciousness, normal face, keep warm
Low pad pillow, find a flat place, the patient lying down.
Face was normal, as long as the warm blanket cover on the line.
Clear consciousness, no shock symptoms, allowing patients to maintain their
position-is not moving.
◆ on the very heart and chest pain patients
Pad with a blanket behind the patient, the patient was supine position.
Facing the back seat, so that foot out, with his head back in the chair, in a position to
help alleviate breathing difficulties.
◆ exception of the face, with shock symptoms, patients with lower extremity
hemorrhage
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