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The Butterfly Effect, the phenomenon of the frog, crocodile law, catfish effect, herd
behavior, hedgehogs rule, watch law, broken windows theory, 28 law, barrel theory,
Matthew, which is something you understand? -
1, the butterfly effect: 70 years of last century, the United States a 名叫洛伦兹
meteorologist in the Air system theory, said that occasionally the Amazon rain forest a
butterfly wing vibration, and perhaps two weeks would cause the United States, Texas
State of a tornado. -
The butterfly effect is that very small changes in initial conditions continue to enlarge
after its future status will result in very significant difference. Some small things can
be confusing, and some small things such as amplified by the system, then an
organization, a country is very important, it can not confused. -
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2, frog phenomenon: a frog into hot water directly into the pot, because of its adverse
reactions are very sensitive environment, will quickly jump out of pot outside. If you
put a frog into a pot of cold water and slowly heated, the frog will not immediately
jump out of pot, the water temperature gradually increased the ultimate outcome is to
be boiled frog is dead, because the water temperature so high that the frog can not
stand, it has been too late, or is unable to jump out the pot outside. -
Frog told us that some mutation events, they often cause people to alert, and prone to
cause deadly is the feel-good cases, the actual situation deteriorating, there is no clear
detection. -
3, crocodiles rule: its intent is to assume that a crocodile bite your feet, if you hand to
try to break away from your feet, while crocodile will bite your feet and hands. The
more you struggle, it was the more bite. In the event that crocodile bite your feet, your
only solution is to sacrifice one foot. -
For example, the stock market, the crocodile rule is: when you find yourself trading a
departure from the direction of the market, must immediately stop, without any delay,
shall not have any luck. -
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4 catfish effect: In the past, sardines low survival rate during transportation. After it
was found that, if put in the sardines in a catfish, the situation is somewhat improved,
the survival rate will be greatly enhanced. This is Why? -
Catfish in the original to a strange environment, the will "brash",
everywhere, travel, which for a lot of quiet, the sardine run, no doubt played a mixed
role; and sardines found in such a " dissent ", naturally, very
nervous, speed swimming. This problem will be solved oxygen sardines, a nd sardines,
will not die. -
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5, Herding: sheep where to go, where to go behind the sheep to follow. -
Herding is the first equity investment in a term, the main investor in the transaction
process is the existence of learning and imitation in the phenomenon of
"suit" blindly follow others, leading them to the same period of
time the shares traded on . -
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6, hedgehogs rule: two sleepy hedgehog, as cold and crowded in. Because their body
can have a long a thorn, so they left some distance, but could not stand cold, then
conspire together. After a series of two hedgehog finally found a suitable distance: not
only the warmth of each other have the person who was not subject to binding. -
Hedgehog law mainly refers to interpersonal communication in the
"psychological distance effect." -
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7, watches Law: Law Watch is a man with one watch, you can know it is a few
minutes, and when he has two Shique can not be determined. 2 table and can not tell a
person a more accurate time, so they will watch people lose confidence in accurate
time. -
Watch Law in business administration gives us a very intuitive inspiration, is the same
individual or an organization can not simultaneously with two different methods, can
not set two different goals simultaneously, and even each individual can not be two
people to At the same time command, or will the business or personal loss. -
-
8, broken window theory: a house if the windows broke, no one to repair Shortly
afterward, other windows will be broken somehow; a wall, if there had not been
washed a number of graffiti, and soon, the wall on the full of mess things unsightly; a
very clean place, people taking out the trash sorry, but once there is garbage on the
ground there, the people will not hesitate to throw, no blind. -
9, 28 laws (more than Bale's Law): the late 19th century early 20th century
Italian economist Bale more than that in any group of things, the most important and
only a small part, about 20%, the remaining 80% Although the majority, but it is
secondary. About 80% of social wealth is concentrated in the hands of 20%, while
80% of people with only 20% of the social wealth. This statistical imbalance in the
social, economic and life everywhere, this is the 28 rule. -
28 law tells us not to the average analysis, processing and look at the problem,
business and management to grasp the crucial few; to identify those who can provide
a 80% profit, but only 20% of the total key customers to enhance services to achieve a
multiplier effect; business leaders to work seriously classification analysis, are the
principal energy to solve the main problem, focus on major projects. -
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10, barrel theory: the composition of the board if the length of the missing barrels,
then the barrel of containing water that is not determined by the longest piece of wood,
but it depends on the shortest piece of wood.
11, Matthew: "Bible? Matthew" in a famous saying:
"Whoever has will be given to him and told him to spare; not, even what
he has will be taken from him."
Sociologists derive from the "Matthew Effect" concept, to
describe the areas of social life in common polarization.
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1, Birdcage logic -
A beautiful bird cage hanging in the room where the most prominent, had a few days,
the owner will make one of the following two options: to throw away cage, or buy a
bird cage on the back. This is the logic cage. The process is simple, imagine you are
the owner of the room, as long as people entered the room, see the cage, you can not
help but ask you: "bird? Is not dead?" When you answer:
"I never or raise birds. "People will ask:" So, do you
need a bird cage? "Finally you have to choose one of two options in the
second, because this ratio is much easier to endless interpretation. Cage logic of the
reason is simple: most of the time people are thought to inertia. So visible in the life
and work culture of thinking how important it is. -
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2, broken window effect -
The study of psychology has a phenomenon called the "broken window
effect", that is, a house if the windows broke, no one to repair Shortly
afterward, other windows will be broken inexplicable; a wall, if some graffiti is not
washed, and soon, the wall and covered with a mess, unsightly things. A very clean
place, people will shy disposal of waste, but when there is garbage on the ground
there, the people will not hesitate to throw, did not feel ashamed. This is really a very
strange phenomenon. -
Psychologists study is the "tipping point", how to how dirty the
ground, people will think anyway, so dirty, dirty little longer does not matter, what
will be bad and to what extent, people will give up on themselves and let it rot in the
end. -
No bad thing, if not blocked off at the beginning, into a trend, change it Gaibu Diao,
as if the river bank, a small gap is not timely repair, dams can collapse, causing the
loss of millions of times. -
Crime is actually the result of disorder, the New York City in the 80's when
the real presence rob, not kill every day, walking in the street in broad daylight to be
afraid of. Not to mention the subway, car dirty, foul words plastered everywhere,
sitting in the subway, and everyone feels insecure. Although I have not been looted,
but the professors have been in broad daylight, knocked one lose their eye sight, from
the end of his research career, so I talk about Tiger color for many years, not alone to
New York. New York city and the city recently raised a lot of reputation, so I am quite
surprised that a city has been sinking, can escape from the dead, moving upward. -
So when I went out to meet, and met a criminologist, one immediately to him for
advice, the original New York City is the last book with a sense of the broken window
effect of the theory, first to improve the criminal environment in which it is not easy
crime, then Once upon a Budao slowly return to order. -
Although this approach was criticized as being slow, the "ship to be sunk
still wash the deck," but New York City subway cars or from the
maintenance of a clean start, and do not buy tickets white people who ride with
handcuffs chained row into a standing on the platform, open to the public to announce
the government's determination to rectify was found very effective. -
Police found that people do not really compare the situation of crime in a clean, also
found that grasping Riders rewarding, because each of those seven Riders have one is
wanted, there is a 20 in the carrying of weapons, so the police are willing to seriously
grab Riders, Riders making criminals afraid, afraid to go out with weapons to avoid
more harm than good, runs the risk. This New York City, from the smallest, the easiest
place to proceed to break the criminal link of (chain), so this vicious cycle can not
continue -
3, separation of duty effect -
At 3:20 p.m. on the March 13, 1964, outside an apartment in New York before a man
named Juno young women than the white bar at the end of the way home from work
between the assassination. When she cried in despair: "Some people want
to kill it! Help! Help!" Heard shouting nearby residents lit the lamp,
opened the window, the attackers ran away. When everything is calm, the killer
returned to commit crimes. When she yelled, the nearby residents then the light
switch, the attackers then fled. That has nothing to do when she returned to her home
upstairs, the killer once again appeared before her, to kill her on the stairs. In the
process, even though she shouted for help, her neighbors in the window at least 38 to
watch, but no one to rescue her, or no one call the police. This incident caused a stir in
New York society, but also attracted the attention of social workers in psychology and
thinking. It is considered a large number of bystander phenomenon known as the
responsibility of neglecting the dispersion effects. -
The responsibility of spreading and the formation of the reasons, psychologists have
done a lot of experiments and surveys, found that: this phenomenon can not just say
that everyone's callous, or moral decay of the performance increased. For
different occasions, people really are different acts of assistance. When a person in an
emergency situation, if only he can provide help, he would clearly aware of their
responsibilities, provide assistance to the victims. If he is refusing to produce feelings
of guilt, feelings of guilt, it need to pay a high psychological cost. If there are many
people present, then the responsibility to help callers shared by everyone, resulting in
fragmentation of responsibility, shared responsibility for each person rarely,
bystanders and even with his own share of the responsibility also unaware, resulting
in an "I do not save, save by someone else" mentality, resulting
in "collective indifference" of the situation. How to break this
situation, this is a research psychologist is an important issue. -
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4, Parkinson's Law -
Well-known British historian Nuosigude Parkinson through long-term research, write
a book called "Parkinson's Law" book. In his book,
agency staff explained the reasons for and consequences of inflation: an incompetent
official, there may be three ways, first for his resignation, the seat vacate competent
person; the second is for a competent person to assist their work; third appointment of
two levels lower than they were when the assistant. This first way is absolutely Zou
Bude, because that would lose many of the rights; The second way can not go,
because that would be capable of their opponents; seems that only a third way the
most suitable. Thus, two mediocre assistant shared his work, his own orders from high
above, they will not pose a threat to their rights. Two assistants as incompetent, they
are calling the shots, then found himself two more incompetent assistant. And so on,
to form a body bloated, overstaffed, and mutual wrangling, inefficient leadership
system. -
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5, the halo effect -
The famous Russian literary giant Pushkin Zengyin halo effect suffered a great deal.
He feverishly in love with is called "Moscow the first beauty"
of Natan Li, and married her. Natan Li looks amazing, but different puhi Jin-Zhi Road
substandard. When Pushkin's poem written for each to read it to her when.
She always covered their ears and said: "Do not listen! Do not
listen!" On the contrary, she always Pushkin play with her, attended some
luxurious party, dance, Pushkin created this leave, which makes debt, and finally her
duel to death, so that a literary superstar prematurely fallen. Appears in Pushkin, a
beautiful woman is also inevitably have great wisdom and noble character, however,
is not the case, a phenomenon known as the halo effect. -
The so-called halo effect, that is, interpersonal communication, people who show the
characteristics of a particular area, cover the other features, resulting in interpersonal
cognitive obstacles. In daily life, "halo effect" often quietly
influence our perception and evaluation of others. For instance, some elderly to young
people's individual shortcomings, or dress, habits find it unacceptable to
think that they must unpromising; some young friends, one thing about due
admiration, will see him everywhere lovely, really called "a cover 100 Jun
ugly." Halo effect is a sweeping subjective psychological speculation, the
error is: First, it is easy to grasp the individual characteristics and habits in order to
promote individual and general, as Mangrenmoxiang as a point on behalf of the face;
second It is no inherent relationship to some personality or physical characteristics
associated with, the assertion that such features are bound to have other characteristics;
third, it said, certainly good on all that bad on all the negative, this is a absolute
domination by the tendency of subjective bias. In short, the halo effect is the
interpersonal relationships in a great psychological impact on people with cognitive
impairment, we have contacts to try to avoid and overcome the side effects of halo
effect. -
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6, Hawthorne effect (Hawthorne effect) -
An experimenter effect in psychology. 20-30 years of the 20th century, American
research company in Chicago Western Electric Hawthorne plant of the working
conditions, social factors and production benefit relationship made You wood effect
experiment showed, Chen Hawthorne effect. -
The first phase of the experiment in November 1924 from the beginning of the
working conditions and productivity of the relationship between the test group and
control group. Increase or control the results regardless of illumination in the
experimental group had increased production, and constant illumination output of the
control group also increased. In addition, tests of the wages paid, rest breaks, the daily
work of length and number of days per week, and other factors, can not see these
working conditions, there is a direct impact on production efficiency. The second
phase of the trial is led by the United States, Harvard University professor Mayo, the
focus of social factors and the relationship between production efficiency, increase
production efficiency was found mainly caused by the experimenter in spirit, great
changes have taken place. Participate in the trial of the workers were placed in a
special laboratory research led by their social situation has changed, by the concerns
of all sides, creating a feeling of participating, feel that they are an important part of
the company, so workers From the social point of view has been encouraging,
promoting increased production. -
This effect tells us that when students or their attention or attention by the public, the
study and would greatly increase the efficiency of communication. Therefore, in our
daily lives to learn to live in friendship with others, understand what kind of behavior
is accepted by students and teachers and appreciation, we can only live and learn and
continually increase their good behavior, it may be more people's attention
and appreciation, but also can allow us to study progresses, full of confidence! -
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7, learned helplessness experiments -
The earliest effects of learned helplessness and Xiligeman Overmyer found later in
animal and human studies has been widely discussed. In short, many experiments
show that trained dogs can cross the barriers or engage in other behavior to avoid the
shock the experimenter added to it. However, if the dogs are not expected before (do
not know when to come) and can not be controlled by electric shock (such as
interruption of electric shock or not depends on the dog's behavior), when
the dog was an opportunity to escape electric shock, they also change was unable to
escape. Moreover, the dogs also showed other defects, such as frustration and
depression, decreased initiative and so on. -
The reason a dog show this situation is due early in the experiment learned a sense of
hopelessness. That is, they recognize their own, whatever is done can not control the
termination shock. In each experiment, the electric shocks were terminated under
experimenter control, and the dog will recognize their inability to change the control
of the outside world, which learned a sense of hopelessness. -
If he had learned helplessness, they become a deep despair and sadness. Therefore, we
should study and life in the open their eyes that can see behind the events of the real
determining factor, do not make our own despair. -
-
8, the witness's memory -
Witness, in our understanding of where, usually with some objective evidence, is to
put himself saw and hear what people who speak out honestly. However,
psychological research shows that the testimony of many witnesses are not accurate,
or is a personal preference, with personal views and awareness. -
Witness confidence in their testimony and their testimony can not decide the accuracy
of the results of this study is surprising. Mrs fees can be special and the psychologist
Howard Springs decided that further study conclusions. In order to investigate
whether the testimony of a witness something special, they will witness's
memory and the memory of general knowledge were compared. -
They made were shown a short video, is about the kidnapping of a girl. The next day,
to answer some of the subjects in the content of the video and asked them to tell their
own level of confidence to answer, and then make a recognition memory test. Next,
using the same method, the content of popular literature from the encyclopedia and
general knowledge of selected issues. -
The same place as before, Perkin fees can be special, and Howard Springs also found
that the accuracy of the witness recalled, the confidence that their answers do not
actually have the confidence of the people than those who are not greater, but general
knowledge , the situation is not the case, people with high confidence in memories of
people who score better than the lack of confidence. -
People in the general knowledge about their strengths and weakness with
self-knowledge. Therefore, tend to modify their test results for the confidence scale.
General knowledge is a database, is shared between the individual, it has recognized
the right answer can be tested to measure. For example, people will know whether the
issue in sports better than others or more almost. However, the event witnessed the
impact from such self-knowledge. For example, on the whole, they are unlikely to
know others in the memory of the incident than the participants in hair color side
better or worse. -
-
9, Rosenthal effect -
American psychologists in 1968, Rosenthal and others conducted a famous
experiment. Them to a primary election in the three sixth grade classes of all apparent
seriousness, children's, "predict the future development of the
test", then the experimenter would be considered "excellent
development possible" list of students to inform teachers. In fact, this list is
not determined according to test results, but randomly selected. It is based on
"authoritative lie" implies teachers to mobilize the teachers, the
students on the list some anticipation. 8 months later, another intelligence test results
showed that the list of general improvement in student achievement, teachers also
gave their good conduct reviews. This experiment has achieved miraculous results, It
is considered by teachers to students the subtle influence of psychology, so that
teachers expect students to achieve the progress of the phenomenon, known as the
"Rosenthal Effect", also known as customary Pygmalion
(Pygmalion of Cyprus in ancient Greek mythology, the king, he created a statue of
love for young girls, and his ultimate desire to make the statue into a real person, the
two fall in love combined). -
Educational practice also shows that: if a teacher like some of the students, they will
have high expectations, after a period of time, students feel the teachers care, love and
encouragement; often a positive attitude towards teachers, towards learning and their
behavior towards the students more self-esteem, confidence, self-love, self-induce a
kind of positive passion, the teachers of these students often get the desired progress.
On the contrary, teachers who are ignored, discriminated against students from the
teacher's discourse over time, behavior, facial expressions of teachers feel
the "eccentric", will take a negative attitude towards teachers,
towards their own learning, to ignore or refuse to obey the teacher requirements;
These students often worse day by day, and finally reduced to the bad elements of
society. Despite some exceptions, but the trend is that, while it also sounded the alarm
for teachers. -
-
10, false share deviation (false consensus bias) -
We usually believe that our love is the same with most people. If you like playing
computer games, so it may overestimate the number of people like computer games.
You will usually overestimate the students to vote for their favorite numbers,
overestimate their own prestige in the population and leadership and so on. This
overestimation of your behavior and your attitude to the inclination of the same
number of features is called the "false sympathy bias." Some
factors will affect your share of this false bias strength: -
(1) When the external time due to strong internal attribution; -
(2) the current behavior or events when a person is very important; -
(3) When your own point of view is to determine when or conviction; -
(4) When your status or some kind of normal life and learning are threatened; -
(5) when it comes to a positive quality or individuality; -
(6) When you and other people as when they are similar. -

								
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