Underground thermal energy storage The hidden key to sustainable by aci86998

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									       Underground thermal energy storage
The hidden key to sustainable energy infrastructure




  EurIng Richard Shennan Bsc(Eng) CEng MCIBSE MInstE
                 Fulcrum Consulting
 UTES; The Principle

UTES is a system which utilises Inter-Seasonal Heat Storage. This involves
the storage of excess energy from summer for use in winter heating
applications, and the storage of cooling potential from winter for free
cooling in summer.

       Heat Gain          Cooling Buildings
                                                    Free Cooling




        Warm Store                                   Cool Store




     Heat Pump            Warming Buildings            Heat Losses
Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage
typical operation




        Cooling to Building   Ventilation & Floor Heating
Urban heat networks and ATES
 •   Many cities demonstrate simultaneous heat demand from some
     buildings and heat excess in others.
Matching load profiles
 •   By introducing ATES, simultaneous heat sharing opportunities
     can be substantially increased by looking for heat balance over a
     year.
The Dutch Experience
•   The work of IF Technology in Holland
    has explored the potential in both new
    developments and existing campuses.
•   At passenger terminal “Oostelijke
    Handelskade” in Amsterdam, the load
    profiles of the various buildings in a
    single development are summated
    over a year.



•   At Eindhoven University, new
    buildings with interseasonal net
    cooling requirement are connected
    into a site-wide heat network along
    with older buildings with net heating
    requirement.
              ATES – London Hydrogeology




www.iftech.co.uk         undergroundthermalenergystorage   +44 (0) 20 7278 3982
Borehole Geological Sequence Leamouth




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                      Isotherms end of Winter




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                      Isotherms end of Summer




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Drilling Rig




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The 1851 Commission carbon masterplan
The Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park, London was the world’s
first international trade fair, and is thought to be the only one ever to
have made a profit.
The profit was invested in the purchase of land adjacent to Hyde Park,
and the 1851 Commission was established to oversee the process of
development of the world’s largest integrated cultural and academic
estate, under the patronage of Prince Albert.
The Carbon Masterplan Project

 •   Over the years the several great institutions that occupy the 1851
     commission land have become largely independent, although a
     number of heat sharing networks remain in place, particularly
     amongst the Museums.




 •   These institutions are now coming together again in the spirit of
     the Victorians to invest in the development of a Carbon
     Masterplan. This project is supported by grant funding from the
     UK Government, from the Treasury via the Department of Culture
     Media and Sport.
Overall project objectives
•   Record and log data for heat and power energy consumption
    throughout the estate

•   Provide local feedback and carbon awareness training to staff and
    students throughout the estate.

•   Investigate the potential for an urban heat sharing network using
    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

•   Investigate the potential for increasing the overall efficiency of
    Combined Heat and Power by combining loads and by using ATES as
    a means of using excess summer heat to meet winter space heating
    demand.

•   Investigate the feasibility of off-site carbon offset by electricity
    generation from renewable sources.

•   Disseminate the work and the results through the worldwide cultural
    and academic status of the participating institutions.
The problem of existing building stock
 •   At a conventional rate of building
     replacement in the UK, it would
     take hundreds of year to replace all
     buildings with those that meet
     stringent new Building Regulations
     introduced in 2006.

 •   The targets for major reductions in
     emissions are in the 30 to 40 year
     range at present, and may get
     shorter if global warming effects
     become more marked.

 •   The option of overcladding would
     be suitable for many buildings, but
     many of our cities are defined by
     their architecture and overcladding
     would destroy the heritage.
The site
 •   The architectural heritage of the 1851 Commission estate is
     priceless. However new buildings are constantly being added.
The proposition

•   New buildings can be purpose-
    designed to act as a heat source for
    existing buildings with a net annual
    heat demand.

•   They can collect heat through passive
    solar gain, human activity or waste
    heat from essential commercial
    activity.

•   This heat can be stored using ATES
    to be used when required.

•   The older buildings reject heat from
    the ATES system, recharging the cold
    store for the following summer, but
    the heat passes through the buildings
    on the way out.
Overview of methodology – Year 1

     •   Identify best value metering strategy

     •   Install metering

     •   Establish compatibility of existing systems with ATES or CHP option

     •   Determine anticipated commercially driven construction projects,
         either new build or refurbishment over coming 10 years.

     •   Assess future trends in load profiles.

     •   Set up internal and external communications mechanisms

     •   Carry out testing of aquifer potential
Overview of methodology – Year 2

•   Collate detailed load profiles from metering outputs

•   Build ATES design model based on integrated offset load profiles of
    participating or projected buildings.

•   Determine potential physical locations of boreholes taking into
    consideration potential aquifer heat flux interaction.
Overview of methodology – Year 3
•   Overlay programme for parallel or future projects across the Estate on to the Carbon
    Masterplan programme to determine the most cost-effective way of making progress
    over the coming 10 years.

•   Set out parameters for individual building works, both refurbishment and new build,
    in order to move towards annual balance for heating and cooling demands across
    the neighbourhood as a whole

•   Correlate carbon reduction and cost parameters to allow sequential decision making
    over the medium term in order to move towards carbon emissions minimisation
    within a fundamentally cost driven environment.

•   Define residual Carbon balance and provide model of anticipated reductions in
    balance over the period of the Carbon Master plan.

•   Based on projected Carbon balance, identify most cost-effective Carbon offset
    arrangements.

•   Design and present project output dissemination material for use in conjunction with
    project partner web sites and exhibitions.

•   Provide structure for and deliver staff training for key staff in all partner
    organisations.
Contents of 10 year carbon masterplan
•   Provide 10 year Carbon Masterplan building in the following factors

•   Projected growth

•   Opportunities to reduce emissions through ATES

•   Opportunities to increase primary energy efficiency through optimum
    application of CHP, in conjunction with ATES where the study
    suggests

•   Predicted application of on or off-site renewable energy technologies
    as identified by research partner

•   Collection and use of feedback data

•   Simple and intuitive engagement of staff within partner organisations

•   Adaptability to different methods of procuring capital works, operation
The Application of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage to a City Centre
Carbon Emissions Reduction Programme at the South Kensington
         Cultural and Academic Estate, London, England




    EurIng Richard Shennan Bsc(Eng) CEng MCIBSE MInstE
GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER CPD
RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CONTROLLED VENTILATION

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           LEARNING OBJECTIVES
           CPD AGENDA




          • Introduction to REHAU

          • How a Ground-air Heat Exchanger (GAHE) works

          • Requirements for GAHE pipe material

          • Design / installation criteria

          • Design software for GAHE

          • Case studies




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           REHAU COMPANY HISTORY
           UK LOCATIONS



    Private Company

    -     1948 Founded in the Bavarian town of REHAU
    -     1962 First UK Sales Office and Warehouse
               opened in Slough
    -     1975 First Manufacturing Plant was opened in
               Amlwch
    -     1995 Opening of the new headquarters in
               Ross-on-Wye
    -     2003 REHAU celebrated its 40th anniversary
               trading in the UK




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           REHAU WORLDWIDE
           THINK GLOBALLY – ACT LOCALLY




     6 CONTINENTS                174 LOCATIONS   OVER 15,000 EMPLOYEES
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           REHAU DIVISIONS
           UNLIMITED POLYMER SOLUTIONS




                                         FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES,
  Industry
                                         HOSES AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPEMENTS




                                         EXTERIOR, WATER MANAGEMENT, AIR
Automotive                               MANAGEMENT & SEALING




                                         WINDOW AND CURTAIN WALLING
 Building                                TECHNOLOGY, BUILDING TECHNOLOGY,
 Solutions                               CIVIL ENGINEERING


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           INTRODUCTION
           WHAT TYPES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ARE THERE?




   Deep geothermal (from within the ground) (> 400m)

       - Hydrothermal systems (using water stores)
       - Petrothermal systems (artificially pumping water deep underground)
       - Deep geothermal probes (using a closed loop system)




   Ground-source (from the sun and rain) (< 400m)

       -   Ground-source collectors (sub-surface, at a depth of 1.5m)
       -   Ground-source probes (depthS of around 100m)
       -   Ground-source energy piles (using the building foundations)
       -   Ground water bore holes (using ground water)
       -   Ground-air heat exchanger (controlled ventilation)




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          INTRODUCTION
           THE ADVANTAGES OF GROUND-SOURCE ENERGY




    -     Renewable and sustainable energy source

    -     Year round usage – independent from climate & season

    -     Energy savings for heating of <75% and for cooling <85%

    -     Future-proof source

    -     Reduces CO2 emissions

    -     Hidden from view




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            INTRODUCTION
            HOW A GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER WORKS




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            TEMPERATURE PROFILE
            EFFECT OF GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER



           ‘Contraction’ of the annual temperature profile

           Example:
              Winter: Pre-warming of 9 K
              Summer: Pre-cooling of 14 K


                  30 °C (Summer)
                                         Pre-cooling of              Saving of cooling
                                         eg. 14 K                    energy
                  16° C
                               „contracted“ temperature profile
                   4° C
                                           Pre-warming of e.g. 9 K
                                                                     Saving of heating
                                                                     energy
                  -5° C (Winter)

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         EXAMPLE OF A DOMESTIC APPLICATION
         COMBINATION WITH HEAT RECOVERY UNIT



                                                   1   Suction of fresh air
                                                       Pre-warming of fresh air by
                                                   2
                                                       ground
                                        5              Ventilation appliance incl.
                                                   3
                                                       heat recovery
                                                       Distribution of fresh air
                            4                      4

                                                       Warm internal air extracted
                                                   5
                                    6                  from the rooms

                                                   6   Expel the extracted air
                                                       from the building (after
                                               3
                  2                                    heat recovery)

                                        1


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            OPTIMUM ENERGY EFFICIENCY
            COMBINATION WITH A HEAT RECOVERY UNIT



   Expelled warm, stale air from inside the house passes alongside the external pre-
   warmed air drawn into the house (from ground-air heat exchanger)



                             Outside        Inside
                                                             Heat recovery unit


   Pre-warmed external air                                        Warm, stale air from
       (from G.A.H.E)                                                the building

                                                                      Warmed, fresh
              Expelled air                                            ventilation air


                                                     Heat exchanger


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            INTRODUCTION
            WHAT IS CONTROLLED VENTILATION?




        Controlled ventilation is required
        when there is not enough air
        exchange between the air inside the
        building and the outside air.


        For low-energy and passive houses
        is controlled ventilation is
        considered essential due to
        excellent insulation standards.




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            INTRODUCTION
            WHY CONTROLLED VENTILATION?


    Disadvantages of natural ventilation

    -   Poor air quality (e.g. odours, air humidity too high/low)
    -   High CO2 concentration
    -   Noise pollution
    -   Window ventilation can be hazardous (security and
        height risk)

    Advantages of controlled ventilation

    - Constant filtered, fresh air supply
    - Savings of up to 20% of heating energy and 80% of
      cooling energy
    - Ventilation in noisy areas possible
    - No mould growth and inhibited dust mite growth


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            PIPE REQUIREMENTS
            FOR OPTIMUM G.A.H.E PERFORMANCE




      -     No condensation accumulation

      -     No microbial growth

      -     Good heat conductivity

      -     Radon-proof system

      -     Rigid pipe to prevent root growth




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            CONDENSATION DISCHARGE
            WHY CONDENSATION BUILDS UP




     Cooling of air from approx. 30°C to 16°C produces
     significant amounts of condensation in the pipe
     system, especially in summer.


     This must be removed to:

 -     Ensure the continual
       performance of the G.A.H.E

 -     To avoid microbial growth

 -     Avoid potential musty smells




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             CONDENSATION DISCHARGE
             CONDENSATION DISCHARGE WITH BALL SIPHON




       For buildings with basements, the condensation
       can be expelled via a drain to the building inlet


         -        Drainage of condensation at the lowest point
                  of the GAHE pipe System
         -        Built in ball siphon between the condensation
                  discharge and building inlet to avoid
                  unpleasant smells




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            ANTI-MICROBIAL INNER LAYER
            THE HISTORY OF SILVER AS AN ANTI-MICROBIAL AGENT



   •    Egypt 4000 BC.:
        Silver vessels are used to treat drinking water in
        ancient Egypt.
   •    11th Century:
        Chalices are made from silver for hygiene reasons.
   •    20th Century:
        There are annually just in the USA alone over 3 million
        formulas for drugs containing silver
   •    2002
        Bosch and Siemens introduce the first anti-microbial
        fridges
   •    2003
        REHAU develops the first G.A.H.E pipe




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            ANTI-MICROBIAL INNER LAYER
            INTERGRATION OF SILVER PARTICLES



    An antimicrobial effect is achievable via integration of silver
    particles into the pipe inner layer.
    An experiment by the Institut Fresenius (Jan 2003) confirmed
    a significant reduction in microbe growth using this method:

                                                                          Standard PP




                                                                      Antimicrobial inner layer



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            ANTI-MICROBIAL INNER LAYER
            RESULTS OF INDEPENDENT TESTING




                                             Source: Ergebnis Institut
                                             Fresenius Jan 2003


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            HEAT CONDUCTIVITY
            POLYPROPYLENE‘S HEAT TRANSFER ABILITY



                                                    Thermal
                                                    conductivity
-   Polypropylene has a higher heat conductivity
    than PVC


-   Optimal heat transfer from ground through
    the pipe into the air


-   For core-foamed PVC pipes and outside
    corrugated connecting pipes, there is a high
    insulating effect.                                             PVC   PP    PP for
                                                                              G.A.H.E




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             POLYPROPYLENE PIPE SYSTEM
             JOINTING SYSTEM




         The jointing system must also be radon-proof.
         The required impermeability can be achieved
         with the safety joint.


         -        Permanently secure seal ring
         -        No pushing/pulling out of seal ring
                  possible
         -        Density proven at forming and processing
         -        Pressure tested to EN 1610 with air or
                  water without any problems




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            RADON-PROOF SYSTEM
            RADON IN THE UK


                                                     Radon Affected Areas in
                                                     England, Wales and
                                                     Northern Ireland
   Radon is a naturally-occurring radioactive gas.


      -     Found in stones and the ground,
            comes from the radioactive decay of
            uranium and thorium

      -     Diffused into the ground, dissolved in
            water and escapes out the earth‘s
            upper surface into the atmosphere.




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         AIR INLET TOWER
         INLET TOWER MADE OF STAINLESS STEEL



         Pre-filtering of the supply air is done using a G4
         filter according to DIN EN 779.
                                                                     DN 200-500



    -     Improves the air quality by filtering dust and pollen

    -     Minimises contamination of G.A.H.E pipe system

    -     Corrosion resistant stainless steel

                                                                     DN 800-1200




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          SYSTEM DESIGN
           PIPE LAYOUT




   Domestic:
         - Air flow rate between 150 - 300 m³/h
         - Pipe size DN 200 sufficient                       Building
         - Usually pipes laid as a ring in an existing
         trench

                                                         Air inlet       Pipe
  Commercial / industrial:
        - Air flow rate > 300m³/h
        - DN 250 – 500 pipes are normally used                            Building
        - Usually pipes laid in a Tichelmann layout
        - Pipe size of distribution pipe DN 800-1200


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             SYSTEM DESIGN
             INTRODUCTION




         -        Laying depth approx. 1.5 m to 2 m
         -        Gradient of around 2 % to the
                  condensation discharge
         -        Lay in existing backfill, do not backfill
                  with sand
         -        Distance between pipes is at least 1m
                  (between each pipe, not pipe centres)
         -        Air velocity between 1-3 m/s
         -        Pressure losses must also be
                  considered (20-30Pa optimal)




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             SYSTEM DESIGN
             VARIABLE FACTORS




         Output of G.A.H.E is dependent on:

         -        Weather region
         -        Thermal properties of the ground
         -        Water content of the ground
         -        Air flow rate
         -        Pipe length
         -        Pipe material
         -        Installation depth
         -        Distance between pipes




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            SYSTEM DESIGN
            DESIGN SOFTWARE



        REHAU have bespoke design software to calculate the following:
        The software can be obtained on a CD free from REHAU.


        Requirements for calculation:

        • Air flow rate
              OR
         building volume + air change rate

        • Location / weather region

        • Laying depth

        • Laying pattern

        • Area for laying


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          SYSTEM DESIGN
          DESIGN SOFTWARE




      Weather region:


     - Climate data



     - Choose:

                  Region
                   or
                  Location




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          SYSTEM DESIGN
          DESIGN SOFTWARE




      Ground:


     Select soil parameters on main
             screen


     Choose
           1. Soil group
           2. Soil type


              optionally:
              Enter manually the soil
              parameters




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           SYSTEM DESIGN
           DESIGN SOFTWARE



         Either enter:

     -        Building volume + Air
              change rate
                  or
     -        Air flow rate



     -        Nominal duct diameter



     -        Laying depth (Ground water
              lever are not considered)



     -        Fan efficiency



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          SYSTEM DESIGN
          DESIGN SOFTWARE




     -        Choose operation
              (summer/winter)



     -        Laying pattern



     -        Calculation of min/max
              outlet temperature at set
              duct length



     -        Go to calculation




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          SYSTEM DESIGN
          DESIGN SOFTWARE




  -       Start calculation



  -       Minimum outlet
          temperature (i.e. worst case
          scenario)

  -       Graphic
          Red: Ground temperature
          Green: Outlet temperature
          Black: Temperature at the end of
                 the GAHE


  -       Net heating / Net cooling

  -       Coefficient of Performance



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           SYSTEM DESIGN
          AIR FLOW RATE PARAMETERS




                                                  Distribution duct   Maximum air flow
     -     Aim: to avoid noise                                        rate
                                                  DN 200 / ID 186                  650 m³/h
     -     Maximum air velocity in distribution
           ducts should be below 6 m/s            DN 250 / ID 232               1.000 m³/h

                                                  DN 315 / ID 293               1.500 m³/h
     -     Air velocity in each GAHE-pipe must    DN 400 / ID 373               2.500 m³/h
           not exceed 3 m/s
                                                  DN 500 / ID 466               3.500 m³/h
     -     If there is enough laying space,       DN 800 / ID 678               8.500 m³/h
           DN200/250 should be used
                                                  DN 1000 / ID 851             13.000 m³/h

                                                  DN 1200 / ID 1030            20.000 m³/h




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            CASE STUDIES
            GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER



         Haus des Sports in Stuttgart
         - Flow rate: 9,200 m3/h
         - 3 RAUVIA header pipes 1000 OD
         - 40 AWADUKT Thermo runs of 200 OD
         - Total length of 800 m




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          CASE STUDIES
           GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER



       Tesco supermarket in Poland

    - Air flow rate 2,700 m³/h
    - Distribution pipes AWADUKT Thermo 500 OD
    - 20 x 35m runs of 200 OD pipe = 700m
    - Energy saving: 20,500 kWh/a
    - 1 year research of system by University of Poznan




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          CASE STUDIES
           GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER RESULT DATA


  Air humidity (%)
                                                   Air velocity (m/s)
  Air temperature (°C)




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            CASE STUDIES
            GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER



         Ards Business Centre, Belfast

       - Flow rate: 4,300 m3/h
       - 3 RAUVIA header pipes 800 OD
       - 6 AWADUKT Thermo runs of 315 OD
       - Total length of 448 m




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          CASE STUDIES
           GROUND-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER



         BASF House, University of Nottingham

       - Air flow rate = 174 m³/h
                                                www.house.basf.co.uk
       - AWADUKT Thermo 200/250 OD
       - 34m of 200 OD in meander pattern
       - 1 air inlet – 2 air outlets




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          G.A.H.E GUIDELINES
           GERMAN STANDARDS




         VDI Guidelines 4640: Thermal Use of
                Underground: Part 4

            Covers:
            - Definitions of G.A.H.E
            - System design
            - Performance factors
            - Maintenance of systems
            - Pipe materials


            Dual Language – German/English



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             RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLUTIONS
             RELIABILITY FOR GENERATIONS


                                                           Solar thermal / PV
              Low energy
              windows / curtain
              walling
                                                                                District heating

Ground-air heat
exchanger




Underfloor
heating/cooling


                                                                                Rainwater
                                                                                harvesting
                                                      Stormwater
                                  Ground-source       management
                                  probes/collectors

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
ANY QUESTIONS?


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Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
             Dr Mark Skelly
               Founding Partner

              Skelly & Couch LLP
              www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




                                           Project undertaken by Mark Skelly
                                         Whilst a Partner at Max Fordham LLP




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway
                                                             7

                                                             6




                                         .
                                                             5




                                         Efficiency Rating
                                                             4
                                                                                                                      8
                                                             3
                                                                                                                      25
                                                             2

                                                             1

                                                             0
                                                                  0   0.2   0.4   0.6       0.8   1   1.2   1.4
                                                                                  Pipe Diameter




                                                             12


                                                             10
                                   Cooling Capacity (C) .




                                                              8

                                                                                                                  8
                                                              6
                                                                                                                  25

                                                              4


                                                              2


                                                              0
                                                                  0   0.2   0.4   0.6       0.8   1   1.2   1.4
                                                                                  Pipe Diameter


Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  241 The Broadway




                                         Expected Values




                                            Logged Values




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




                                           Project undertaken by Mark Skelly
                                         Whilst a Partner at Max Fordham LLP


Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
  Wembley Manor Primary School




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
                                     Thank you




Experience of Ground Coupled Air Pipes
www.skellyandcouch.com
              INTERSEASONAL HEAT TRANSFER

              Mark Hewitt, Director




Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
ICAX - Who We Are
Specialists in the modelling and design and delivery of patented Interseasonal Heat
Transfer Applications




   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
ICAX - How it works




       During the summer time the playground collects heat energy which is transferred to the store




 Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
ICAX - How it works




       During the winter the heat is retrieved and transferred to the school




 Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Where Can IHT be Applied?
By using built fabric (buildings and urban infrastructure) IHT is useful at the urban
and building scale.




   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School



     Summer heat collection                                    Winter heat retrieval




   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School



     Winter ‘coolth’ collection                                Summer cooling




   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School




   icax for schools:
   Demonstration project for the the Carbon Trust: Howe Dell School: 3484m2
   Collector area: 551m2, Store area: 750m2

   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School




         Construction of the collector array beneath the playground



   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School




           Construction of the store array (beneath the school)
           Image credit: courtesy www.icax.co.uk


   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered Projects - Howe Dell School




         Positions of collector and stores
         Image credit: Phil Eaton



   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School




  Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered projects - Howe Dell School




  Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered Projects - Toddington demonstration for the Highways Agency




   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered Projects - Toddington demonstration for the Highways Agency




   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered Projects - Toddington demonstration for the Highways Agency




   •    Toddington Demonstration
        The graph shows the heat transfer profiles through the ground in both of the stores over the
        first part of summer 2006. This shows that the stores have banked about 6MWh of energy in
        16 days.




                                24/6/2006
                                                                               11/7/2006


   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered Projects - Toddington demonstration for the Highways Agency




   •    Toddington Demonstration
        Based on the data collected, and the performance monitored over the winter of 2006 (which
        corroborates the cfd design software) we are able to see that the icax IHT™ system can
        maintain road (or runway) surfaces above freezing, solely on the solar energy collected and
        stored.




        Thermal image showing pipe array
        installed in road January 2006,
        courtesy TRL Limited




                                                           Comparison of predicted (top) with measured (below) performance
                                                           of energy collection during September 2005.


   Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Delivered Projects - Misawa demonstration, Hiroshima Japan




  Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
What is the Energy Benefit?
•    Direct Solar Pre-heat curve




     Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
IHT for Prison House Blocks
•    Improved GSHP performance through IHT increased store temperature




     Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
IHT for Prison House Blocks
•    Ideally compatible with high thermal mass slow response delivery system
•    Ideally compatible with steady heat load profile




     Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
IHT for Prison House Blocks




  Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
Future for underground energy systems


 G
•  ood that the BERR (Business, Enterprise and Regulatory
Reform) Call for Evidence on Heat is underway-though the
ground energy technologies are not adequately represented
(in terms of potential) in the current draft.
 C
•  ooperation and public-mindedness will be essential to the
fast evolution and uptake of this technology set.




  Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008
              INTERSEASONAL HEAT TRANSFER




Underground Energy Seminar, Building Centre 15 April 2008

								
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