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					Managing Electronic Resources:
A Merry-Go-Round Process of
   Adaptation and Change

         Wong Ming Kan
       Acquisitions Librarian
          HKUST Library
            20 April 2010

• HKUST Library in 1997

• Technological advancement
  in information delivery

• ERM developments

• Library’s adaptations and
  changes using ERM

• Concluding remarks

HKUST Library in 1997

          Development Efforts of
  Library Automation Vendors in 1997                                  [1]

Pamela Cibbarelli (1997) observed four interrelated
technological developments
1. Migration from host/terminal systems to client server
   As the libraries expand the use of the terminals to include access to
   the Internet, other internal databases, CD-ROMS, word processing,
   and so on it is necessary to replace the “dumb” terminals with
   equipment which is able to do more.

2. Adoption of graphical interfaces:
   Graphical interfaces for the cataloguing, circulation, serials control
   and acquisitions modules are now being developed. As a result,
   technical processing department now can enjoy data entry screens
   with point and click interfaces, drop-down windows and full screen
        Development Efforts of
Library Automation Vendors in 1997                               [2]

Pamela Cibbarelli (1997)           continues…

3. Embracing the Internet:
  Character-based interfaces are easier for the vendors to
  accomplish: many of us have accessed libraries throughout the
  world with a simple telnet connection or dialup access.
  Graphical-based interfaces are a bit tougher for several reasons:
  the specifications keep changing as Web browser technology
  continues to be reinvented at a dazzling pace …

4. Acceptance of new operating systems:
  Many microcomputer-based Integrated Online Library Operating
  Systems packages are migrating to both Windows 95 and
  Windows NT systems.

Timeline of Commercial ERM Developments
      and Standards: 2000 – 2007 [1]
Historical development trend (Murdock, 2010):
 2000 –   First A to Z list by Serials Solutions
 2001 –   OpenURL linking emerges
 2002 –   ERMI Steering Group forms
 2003 –   COUNTER standards for e-resource statistics
 2004 –   DLF ERMI published. First ILS integrated ERMS
 2005 –   Federated searching burgeons
 2006 –   SUSHI (Standardized Usage Statistics
          Harvesting Initiatives) by NISO
 2007 –   SERU (Shared E-Resource Understanding)
Timeline of Commercial ERM Developments
      and Standards: 2000 – 2007 [2]
Murdock (2010) also had the following comments:
  There were originally no standards in place to assist in determining
  staff and workflow issues involved in e-resource management. That
  changed in 2004 with the publication of the Digital Library
  Federation’s (DLF’s) Electronic Resource Management Initiative
  (ERMI), which, among other things, put forth suggested workflow
  operations for e-resource management in libraries.
  In May of 2002, the National Information Standards Organization
  (NISO) and the DLF coordinated the creation of a group intended to
  guide this project. The resulting report contains a set of standards
  that serve as a measuring stick for ERM development.

• The above report released in August 2004 summarized in
  detail some 50 functional requirements of an effective
  ERM.                                                                   7
   Overview flowchart for                 Overview flowchart for
    Physical Resource                  Electronic Product Acquisition
Acquisition and Management                   and Management

  Notification of new product                 Notification of new product

         Product                               Product consideration
       consideration                             and trial process

         Acquisition             Licensing           Technical            Business
          process               negotiation          evaluation          negotiation

        Receipt and
         physical                                  Implementation
        processing                                   processes

         Retention,                                 Maintenance
         circulation,                                and review
                                     Source: Jewell, T.D., 2004
    1. A decision to
       “proceed” indicates
       that the product’s
       content has been
       evaluated during the
       consideration process
       and a serious effort to
       acquire the product
       should begin.


    Source: Jewell, T.D., 2004   9
2           2. Parallel processes may
               begin during or following a
               trial period; the trial will
    3   4      assist in answering
               questions raised during the
               parallel review processes.
            3. A review of whether the
               product will function
               without difficulty within the
               institution’s technical
            4. Business issues to be
               investigated may include:
               price, archival needs,
               interface trajectory, vendor
               quality, branding capability,
               usage statistics, OpenURL
               compliance, deep-linking
               capability, etc.
              Source: Jewell, T.D., 2004   10
    5. Possible signing of
       license by this point - the
       sign license” action point
5      is completed when the
       institution has formally
       committed to acquiring
       the product.
    6. The action of notifying
       catalogers and service
       administrators may occur
       at any number of points;
       some products are
       problematic for service
       managers and early
       notification is often very
      Source: Jewell, T.D., 2004   11
    7. “Routine product
       maintenance” may include
7      the capture of usage
       statistics, troubleshooting
8      and resolving problems,
       routine product changes
       from the vendor (such as
       URL revisions), revisions
       to public documentation,
    8. A truncated form of the
       review of a new product
       that may vary from
       product to product and
       from institution to
       Source: Jewell, T.D., 2004   12
License Record Maintenance (HKUST)

Resource Advisory Notes (HKUST) [1]

Resource Advisory Notes (HKUST) [2]

  Resource Advisory Notes (HKUST) [3]
Scheduled Maintenance and Technical Problem
• Access to [name of e-resource] will not be available on
  [date], from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm, due to a scheduled
  maintenance by the Service Provider. Normal service
  will resume after the maintenance.
• Users of [name of e-resource] may experience
  intermittent interruptions in service on [date] as the
  remote host server is unstable. We have contacted the
  Service Provider to fix the problem.
• Access to [name of e-resource] will not be available on
  [date], from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm, due to a system
  upgrade by the Service Provider. Normal service will
  resume after the maintenance.

   Resource Advisory Notes (HKUST)                      [4]

Subscription rectification
• Access to some [name of e-resource] journals may not
  be available due to the change of subscription term. We
  have contacted the Service Provider to rectify the issue.
• Due to significant price increase, subscription renewal for
  [name of e-resource] is currently under review. Access is
  therefore temporarily unavailable.

• Users may encounter access problems when connecting
  to [name of e-resource] due to simultaneous and
  excessive downloading of data by a/some user(s) at
  UST. We are working with the Service Provider to
  remedy the breach of fair usage policy.
                       Site Monitor (HKUST)
Critical Asian Studies (T&F journal,   Human-Computer Interaction (T&F
  accessed via Informaworld)            journal, accessed via Informaworld)

Full text available:                   Full text available:
• Before 30 March 2010, from year      • Before 30 March 2010, from year 1985
  2001 to current volumes.               to 2009.
• Viewed 30 March 2010, found year     • Viewed 30 March 2010, from year 2008
  2005 to 2008 only. (Contact            to 2009 only. (Contact Informaworld)
  Informaworld)                        • Viewed 15 April 2010, found still from
• Viewed 15 April 2010, resumed          year 2008 to 2009 only.
  from year 2001 to current volumes.
                                       Payment history:
Payment history:                       • Subscribed P-only from 1995 – 2002
• Subscribed P-only from 1997 to       • Subscribed P+E in 2003
  2002                                 • Subscribed E-only from L. Erlbaum
• Subscribed P+E from 2003 to            Associates from 2004 to 2007
  2009                                 • Subscribed E-only from T&F from 2008
• Change subscription format from        to 2009
  P+E to E-only in 2010                • Cancel subscription with T&F in 2010     18
Invoice Payment (HKUST)

       Challenges in ERM Development                           [1]

• Various standards are available for library vendors,
  subscription agents, and publishers. For Examples:
   –   Standardized usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI)
   –   Online Information Exchange (ONIX)
   –   Serials Online Holdings (SOH)
• The lack of full implementation of existing standards
  reduces the interoperability and data compatibility
  between ERM systems and add to management burden
  for libraries using ERM systems from multiple proprietors.
• Proprietors are challenged to enhance flexibility of their
  ERM systems to address requirements and ongoing
  changes needed by libraries.
• Finding the balance between core functionalities of an
  ERM system and customization to meet needs of
  individual libraries is another challenge.
Challenges in ERM Development   [2]

• Commercial ERM systems hold
  great promises in the management
  of electronic resources when a
  library cannot afford a tailor-made
  electronic resource management
• However, these products have
  different features and each must be
  evaluated against the library’s
  current ILS, size and strategic goals
  in information delivery.
                          References             [1]

Andrews, Mark. (2007) “Changing Markets, Changing Relationships: How
  Libraries and Vendors Respond to the “Next Generation” Challenge,” Library
  Hi Tech, Vol 25 No 4, pp. 562-578.
Blake, Kristen, and Stalberg, Erin. (2009) “Me and My Shadow: Observation,
  Documentation, and Analysis of Serials and Electronic Resources Workflow,”
  Serials Review, Vol 35 No 4, pp. 242-252.
Blocker, LouAnn. (2006) “Electronic Resource Management Software: A Brief
  Overview,” Tennessee Libraries, Vol 56 No 2, pp. 1-5.
Breeding, Marshall. (2004) “The Many Facets of Managing Electronic
  Resources,” Computers in Libraries, Vol 24 No 1, pp 25-28.
Cibbarelli, Pamela R. (1997) “Library Automation Vendors: Today’s Perspective,”
  The Electronic Library, Vol 15, No 3, pp167-168.
Collins, Maria. (2005) “Electronic Resource Management Systems:
  Understanding the Players and How to Make the Right Choice for Your
  Library,” Serials Review, Vol 31, pp. 125-140.
Collins, Maria. (2008) “Electronic Resource Management Systems (ERMS)
  Review,” Serials Review, Vol 34, pp. 267-299.
Duranceau, Ellen F, and Hepfer, Cindy. (2002) “Staffing for Electronic Resource
  Management: The Result of a Survey,” Serials Review, Vol 28 No 4, pp. 316-
                           References              [2]
Dunham, Barbara S, and Davis, Trisha L. (2009) “Literature of Acquisitions in
  Review, 2004-7,” Library Resources & Technical Services, Vol 53 No4, pp.
Electronic Library Focus Interview with Min-Min Chang, et al. (1997) “Library
  Automation: A Year On,” The Electronic Library, Vol 15 No 3, pp.196-200.
Fuller, Kate, et al. (2009) “Making Unmediated Access to E-Resources a Reality,”
  Reference & User Services Quarterly, Vol 48 Issue 3, pp. 287-301.
Jewell, Timothy D, et al. (2004) Electronic Resource Management: Report of the
  DLF Electronic Resource Management Initiative. Washington, D. C.: Digital
  Library Federation, available at: (accessed 10
  April 2010).
Kennedy, Marie R. (2004) “Dreams of Perfect Programs: Managing the Acquisition
  of Electronic Resources,” Library Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical
  Services, Vol 28 No 4, pp. 449-458.
Murdock, Dawn. (2010) “Relevance of Electronic Resource Management Systems
  to Hiring Practices for Electronic Resources Personnel,” Library Collections,
  Acquisitions, & Technical Services, Vol 34, pp. 25-42.
Spodick, Edward F, and Wong, Ming-Kan. (2005) “ERM@HKUST: Improving Staff
  Workflow and Patron Access,” 6th Hong Kong Innovative Users Group Meeting,
  8-9 December 2005, Hong Kong, available at:                                 24