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					Dust blowing from
   Rio Grande
  channelway,
     Bolivia




                    32
Coastal Dunes,
    Brazil

Interaction of wind,
 water, and sand…

Small part of an active
dune field on Brazil’s
  north coast. Dunes
are built by persistent
 easterly winds off of
the equatorial Atlantic
and have interspersed
   freshwater ponds.

                     33
Hurricane Claudette, along the Gulf Coast of Texas
              (Category I, 7/15/03)
    Solar energy drives wind and water currents on the
   Earth’s surface, accounting for circulation patterns,
  climate, and weather phenomena such as this cyclone.     34
                Hurricane Isabel, 9/13/03
Eye of Isabel
                                       35
     SUPERCELLS                     MONSOONAL
   Great Plains, Canada           Bangladesh and India

               THUNDERSTORMS
convection, overshoot tops, outflow, and anvil formation
                                                           36
                              Hydrospheric currents and
                                  geologic products
                                Sediment transport and shoreline
                                  features (barrier islands, etc.)




 Oyashio Current sea ice,
showing southward flow of
cold Arctic waters meeting
 warmer waters to produce
spiral eddies that move the
       sea ice (above)

37                                             Cape Hatteras, NC
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF
BIOGENIC SEDIMENT …

(Productive waters that may
 support regional fisheries)




                                      Algal Whitings,
                                    Little Bahama Bank
                                   (Suspensions of lime mud
                                 produced by blooms of algae)


    Plankton Bloom,            … PRODUCED BY
 Southern Atlantic Ocean       MICROSCOPIC ORGANISMS 38
BARRIER, PATCH and
    FRINGING
 REEFS, and ATOLLS




                     Bora-Bora, Society Islands,
                      French Polynesia, Pacific
                        Ocean (looking north)



                     Great Barrier Reef,
                     Queensland, Australia
                                               39
Atolls of the Maldives,
Indian Ocean (looking south)
                               40
Fires, sediment plumes,
Borneo                         Tierras Bajas deforestation, Bolivia




                          LARGE-SCALE HUMAN-INDUCED
                            ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
                                 AND CHANGES

 Photos show rapid modification of the Earth’s surface by humans.
                                                                    41
1985                               1992




  TROPICAL RAIN FOREST DESTRUCTION
       Southern Amazon River Basin, Rondônia, Brazil
  Photos provide a visual indication of the rate of deforestation
 occurring. The amount of clear-cut area now exceeds the area of
               remaining rain forest timber stands.
                                                                    42
                                        2001




       Betsiboka River Delta, Bombetoka Bay,
                      Madagascar
1983   Removal of native forest, massive soil
            losses, rapid delta expansion       43
                    Etosha Pan,
                    dry salt lake,
                      Namibia

Angola             Nation boundary
                   revealed because
         Namibia      of differing
                         grazing
                        practices.
                    Soil in Namibia
                     is much more
                        reflective
                       because of
                   de-vegetation due
                    to overgrazing.


                                     44
            Israel

       Egypt

                                   Mexico      USA



Other international boundaries viewed from Space…
                                                     45
                              1985                                  1992




        Aral Sea, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (top to north)
      (~46% water level decrease since 1960; level continues to fall)
Development of agricultural irrigation projects impedes recharge.
With reduced fresh water quantities and constant evaporation, the
 sea has become more saline and shrunk drastically. It has also
         become polluted with pesticides and fertilizers.         46
Aral Sea, bisected, 2002
(top to northeast)
                           47
 Pivot irrigation,
 Saudi Arabia, is
    leading to
   groundwater
 depletion from
  deep aquifers
  and to further
 desertification.
 Water reserves
    are finite.

    Center pivot
 irrigation systems
are ~0.6 mi (1 km) in
      diameter.

                     48
Mono Lake, Sierra Nevada, CA               Las Vegas, NV
Water drawn to supply LA has       Rapid urbanization in a desert
resulted in lowered lake levels,    setting stresses surface and
   increased salinity, and an        ground water resources.
    endangered ecosystem.
                                                                    49
Lake Powell and the Colorado River, Colorado Plateau, UT-AZ
“The building of Glen Canyon Dam ushered in the modern environmental
              movement…” -- David Brower, Sierra Club

                         “The canyonlands did have a heart, a
                         living heart, and that heart was Glen
                         Canyon and the wild Colorado.”
                                               -- Edward Abbey




       Glen Canyon Dam

                                                                       50
Agricultural landscape, Uzbekistan, 2002
                                           51
                                       LIVING AND WORKING ON
                                            FLOOD PLAINS
                                       Transformation of steppe-desert
                                       into productive farmlands along
                                       Yellow River, NW China (below)




     Confluence of the Mississippi,
      Missouri and Illinois Rivers,
     post-1993 flood, St Louis area,
            MO-IL (above)

52
                                       Sunglint and smog layer over
                                        Upstate New York (looking
                                                 southwest)
                                      Air pollution layer is capped by
                                     an atmospheric inversion, marked
                                            by top cloud layer.




        Po River Valley smog,
     northern Italy (looking west)
     The Alps provide a natural
   barrier to smog migration, thus
      trapping it in this heavily
53
         industrialized area.
54




            Southern California wildfires, 10/26/03
Fires in San Bernardino Mountains are being driven by Santa Ana winds
  Galapagos Islands,    SUMMARY          Manicouagan Reservoir
    Pacific Ocean                         Impact Site, Quebec



                          PHOTOS
                           FROM
                           SPACE:
1. Are excellent observational data to observe Earth’s dynamic
    surface and its systems.
2. Document large-scale earth-system processes and interactions.
3. Show natural and human-induced, short-term environmental
    changes and hazards.
4. Reveal the effects humans have on the Earth’s environment.
5. Are readily accessible and easily downloadable from various
    NASA websites.
                                                                   55
56

 By using Space Shuttle and International Space Station
            photographs in the classroom…

1. Increases our understanding of how remote sensing is used to
   document, interpret, and monitor the surface of the Earth.
2. Incorporates a vast, impressive visual resource under-utilized in
   geoscience education.
3. Provides a valuable, alternative electronic data set that enhances
   student learning, especially in technology based activities.

       (Digital photos from STS-107, Space Shuttle Columbia, before it was lost on 2/1/03)
                                                                                  Dhaulagiri Himal,
                                                                                             Nepal




                                 Tokyo Bay, Japan
Laguna Superior, Mexico
THE END

   STS 109 landing, 03/12/02




                               57
58
          Appendix – A Catalog of the Photographs
Slide #    Photo description        (position)        Photo # (mission-roll-frame)
 1.        Earth limb, sun, windows (C)               STS 107-E-5485
 1.        Klyuchevskaya, volcano, Russia (uL)        STS 068-150-045
 1.        Frontal system (lL)                        STS 41C-040-2130
 1.        Cape Cod, MA (uR)                          STS 106-710-060
 1.        Southern Florida (lR)                      STS 51C-143-0032
 2.        Shuttle blast off (R)                      STS 108-S-013
 2.        Earth rise (L)                             AS 11-44-6549
 2.        Astronaut (inset)                          STS 109-E-5247
 3.        Mt. Everest, Himalaya (uR)                 STS 066-208-025
 3.        Nile River delta (uL)                      STS 101-717-004
 3.        Von Karman vortices, Canary Islands (lL)   STS 101-706-022
 4.        Cosmonaut with camera (uL)                 STS 108-371-019
 4.        International Space Station (uR)           STS 108-371-031
 5.        Florida Peninsula                          STS 095-743-033
 6.        San Francisco Bay area                     ISS 004-E-10288
 7.        Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (L & R)               STS 059-225-044
 8.        Thunderstorms (lL)                         STS 41B-041-2347
 8.        New York City area, NY (lC)                STS 058-081-038
 8.        St. Elias Mountains, AK (lR)               STS 028-097-085
 9.        Klyuchevskaya volcano, Russia (L)          STS 068-273-033
 9.        Yellowstone area, WY-ID-MT (R)             STS 112-707-043
 9.        Mt. Fujiyama, Japan (lL)                   STS 107-E-5689
 10.       Rabaul volcano, New Britain (uL)           STS 064-116-064
 10.       Mt. Etna, Sicily (lL)                      ISS 005-E-19024
 10.       Klyuchevskaya volcano, Russia (uR)         STS 068-214-043
 11.       Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines (L)              STS 046-075-079A
 11.       Jemez Mountains, NM (R)                    STS 062-100-195
                                                                                     59
Slide # Photo description (position)                 Photo # (mission-roll-frame)
 12.    Cascades, WA (R)                             STS 085-707-055
 12.    Mt. St. Helens, WA, post-1980 eruption (L)   STS 064-051-025
 13.    Pacific Northwest                            ISS 004-E-10921
 14.    Big Island of Hawaii (L)                     STS 61A-050-0057
 14.    Mauna Loa and Kilauea, HI (R)                STS 051-102-085
 15.    Himalaya (uL)                                STS 41G-120-0022
 15.    Himalaya and Tibet Plateau (R)               STS 076-727-080
 16.    Mt. Everest                                  ISS 008-E-6150
 17.    Canadian Rockies                             STS 028-074-070
 18.    Blue Ridge and Shenandoah, VA (L)            STS 062-104-029
 18.    Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (uR)           STS 080-704-022
 18.    Susquehenna Valley, PA (lR)                  STS 068-173-103
 19.    Pt. Reyes, CA (L)                            STS 073-726-004
 19.    Owens Valley, CA (R)                         STS 058-073-083
 20.    Central Sierra, CA-NV (L)                    STS 040-077-057
 20.    Northern Sierra, CA-NV (R)                   STS 040-609-040
 21.    San Francisco Bay Area, CA (L)               STS 062-098-156
 21.    Los Angeles Basin, CA (R)                    STS 060-114-080
 22.    Ganges River delta (uL)                      STS 087-707-092
 22.    Mississippi River delta (lL)                 STS 062-081-065
 22.    Parana and Paraguay Rivers, Argentina (uR)   STS 41B-042-2483
 22.    Brahmaputra River braids (lR)                ISS 003-ESC-6632
 23.    Mississippi River delta region               STS 51C-143-0027
 24.    Rio de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay           ISS 008-E-5983
 25.    Grand Canyon, AZ, with snow (L)              STS 060-083-005
 25.    Upsala Glacier, Argentina (R)                ISS 004-E-7700
 26.    Malaspina Glacier, AK                        STS 028-097-081
 27.    Fjorded coastline, Greenland (uL)            STS 085-713-074
 27.    Raised shorelines, James Bay, Canada (R)     STS 099-706-090
 28.    Iceberg, South Atlantic Ocean                STS 048-073-00Q                60
Slide # Photo description (position)                       Photo # (mission-roll-frame)
 29.    Lake Poopo, Bolivia, 1990 (L)                      STS 032-088-069
 29.    Lake Poopo, Bolivia, 1995 (lR)                     STS 073-735-047
 30.    Kara-Bogaz Gol, Caspian Sea, 1995 (L)              STS 073-701-033
 30.    Kara-Bogaz Gol, Caspian Sea, 1985 (lR)             STS 51F-040-0064
 30.    Kara-Bogaz Gol, Caspian Sea, inlet (inset)         STS 111-E-5485
 31.    Dust blow, Mauritania (L)                          STS 103-734-020
 31.    Namib Desert, Namibia (R)                          STS 103-732-005
 32.    Rio Grande dust plumes, Bolivia                    ISS 004-715-040
 33.    coastal dunes, Brazil                              ISS 007-E-15177
 34.    Hurricane Claudette, Gulf Coast, TX                ISS 007-E-10244
 35.    Hurricane Isabel                                   ISS 007-E-14750
 35.    eye of Isabel (inset)                              ISS 007-E-14745
 36.    Supercell thunderstorms, Canada (L)                STS 064-205-050
 36.    Monsoonal thunderstorms, Bangladesh & India (R)    STS 51F-031-069
 37.    Oyashio Current sea ice (uL)                       STS 045-079-00N
 37.    Cape Hatteras, NC (R)                              STS 034-083-069
 38.    Plankton bloom, South Atlantic Ocean (L)           STS 088-720-020
 38.    Algal whitings, Little Bahama Bank (R)             STS 088-719-029
 39.    Great Barrier Reef, Australia (L)                  STS 046-077-031
 39.    Bora-Bora, Pacific Ocean (uR)                      STS 068-258-042
 40.    Maldives, Indian Ocean                             STS 056-152-160
 41.    Fires, sediment plumes, Borneo (L)                 STS 093-708-062
 41.    Radial deforestation, Tierras Bajas, Bolivia (R)   ISS 002-ESC-5654
 42.    Deforestation, Rondonia Brazil, 1985 (L)           STS 51G-034-060
 42.    Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil, 1992 (R)          STS 046-078-026
 43.    Betsiboka River delta, Madagascar, 1983 (lL)       STS 007-003-058
 43.    Betsiboka River delta, Madagscar, 2001 (uR)        ISS 003-ESC-5073
 44.    Etosha Pan, Namibia-Angola                         STS 51G-046-078
 45.    Egypt-Israel border (L)                            STS 111-712-008
 45.    USA (CA)-Mexico border (R)                         STS 111-E-5224                 61
Slide # Photo description (position)                          Photo # (mission-roll-frame)
 46.     Aral Sea, 1985 (L)                                   STS 051F-036-059
 46.     Aral Sea, 1992 (R)                                   STS 047-079-083
 47.     Aral Sea, bisected, 2002                             STS 112-703-157
 48.     Pivot irrigation, Saudi Arabia                       STS 083-747-033
 49.     Mono Lake, Sierra Nevada, CA (L)                     STS 41G-044-019
 49.     Las Vegas area, NV (R)                               STS 073-706-020
 50.     Lake Powell, UT-AZ                                   ISS 003-E-7751
 50.     Glen Canyon Dam (inset)                              ISS 006-E-28359
 51.     agricultural landscape, Uzbekistan                   STS 111-340-017
 52.     St. Louis area, MO (L)                               STS 062-081-002
 52.     Yellow River, NW China (R)                           STS 068-239-083
 53.     Po River Valley smog, Italy (uL)                     NASA 6-703-044
 53.     Smog layer, Upstate NY (lR)                          STS 092-713-032
 54.     southern California wildfires, 2003                  ISS 007-E-18088
 55.     Galapagos Islands, Pacific Ocean (uL)                STS 099-753-032
 55.     Manicouagan Reservoir, Quebec (uR)                   STS 099-749-063
 56.     Laguna Superior, Mexico (lL)                         STS 107-E-5180
 56.     Tokyo Harbor, Japan (lC)                  STS 107-E-5240
 56.     Dhaulagiri Himal, Nepal (lR)                         STS 107-E-5308
 57.     STS 109 (Space Shuttle) landing                      KSC 02PD-0264
 58.     “Blue Marble”, whole Earth (R)                       AS 17-148-22721


                             Position of Photograph on the Slide:
   L = left; R = right; uL = upper left; lL = lower left; uR = upper right; lR = lower right;
                   C = center; inset = within other photo; lC = lower center

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