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									                                                 Algeria
ALG20050001

Title:
Study of leaching of composite inert matrices containing MgO, alpha-Al2O3 and TiO2
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):
Etude de la lixiviation de matrices inertes composites à base    114 -Waste Immobilization (Bituminization,
de MgO, alpha-Al2O3 et TiO2                                      Cementation, Including Tests of Properties,
                                                                 Leaching Studies); 117 -Waste Disposal; 124 -
                                                                 Waste Immobilization; 130 -HIGH LEVEL
                                                                 WASTE; 136 -Waste Storage
Abstract:
Inert matrices for the immobilization of minor actinides, based on refractory minerals: alpha-Al2O3
(corundum), TiO2 (rutile) and MgO (periclase), were made by the dry compaction method of powders. The
actinides to be confined were simulated by cerium. The materials, obtained using a compaction pressure of 500
MPa, were sintered at 1808 K during 5 h, in air.
They were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). Their
chemical stability, evaluated by a static leaching test, in mediums of different pH, gave good results over one six
months period. The used analytical method was UV spectrometry. A mathematical model was proposed to
elucidate the kinetics of the studied phenomena. The materials put in an acid medium gave the greatest leached
amounts, about a few tens of ppm.
WM Descriptor(s):           ceramics; cerium; corrosion resistance; leaching; matrix materials; nuclear materials
                            management; pH value; powders; rutile; titanium oxides; trace amounts; transuranium
                            elements; waste disposal; waste forms; waste storage
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Nour-el-hayet, KAMEL                                      Nuclear Research Centre Algiers
                                                          2. Bd Frantz Fanon, P.O.Box:399 16000
Nucl- Res- Centre of Algiers                              Algiers                16000 ALGERIA
2. Bd Frantz Fanon, P.O.Box:399
16000
Algies
16000, ALGERIA

Tel: 213.21.43.44.44 Fax: 213.21.43.35.38 E-mail:
kamelhayet@yahoo.fr
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
AIT-AMAR Hamid , FODIL-CHERIF Hadia,                     Foundation or laboratory for research and/or development
YFSAH Rabah, TELMOUNE Sid-Ali.
Program Duration:     From: 2001/12/01 To: 2004/12/01
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                      Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers                                 Houari Boumediène University of Science
                                                                   and Technology
Recent publication info:
Communication accepted, but not presented, in the Proceedings of the Nineteenth Int. Conf. on Solid Waste
Technology and Management, Philadelphia, PA, March 21-24, 2004.
Title:“Study of Leaching in Static Mode of Refractory Composite Inert Matrices Containing MgO, Al2O3 and
TiO2,” N. Kamel, Attachée de Recherche, H. Fodil-Cherif, Charée d’Etudes, R. Yfsah, Chargé de Recherche,
Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, H Aït-Amar, Professeur, U.S.T.H.B., Faculté de Génie Mécanique et
Algeria                                                     2
Génie des Procédés, Alger.
SESSION 10A
Analysis of Solidification and Construction Use of Wastes
 3                                                                                                        Argentina


                                               Argentina
ARG20050001

Title:
Cobalt Retention in the Waste Streams
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):
                                                                  123 -Solid Waste Treatment
Abstract:
Nuclear Power Plant Atucha I (NPP Atucha I) has an important inventory of Co-60 because in some of many
primary circuit components were used Stellite alloys.

Co-60 and Cs-137 are two important radionuclides that create many difficulties to treat waste streams in an
efficient and simple way.

Our laboratory experiments with non active material show that it is possible to retain Co-60 by an
electrochemical method using as cathode an electrode of copper which forms a solid amalgam with mercury
(around 0,1% of mercury).

The results obtained lead us to use this technique for two problematic wastes:

a) Coolant channels of fuel elements that were removed from the reactor because of some mechanical
problems.
Some parts of these channels are made of Zircaloy-4. This material contains up to 10 ppm of Cobalt and during
the operation this cobalt is activated.

The dissolution process under study is based on that it is possible to carry out the Zr electrochemical oxidation
in a non-aqueous medium.

In our experiments we used a channel section of 37 cm, which had been in operation for 15 years. For the Zry-4
electrochemical dissolution, we used a methanolic solution of ammonium chloride as electrolyte. This
electrochemical cell was connected in series with another cell where cobalt retention was realized.

b) A quantity of spent ion-exchange resins that were accumulated in Atucha I.

These resins were used in the primary circuit and it is necessary to treat them to leave place for other resins
batches.

In a first step we worked with resins and non-active cobalt and experiments showed that cobalt can be eluted
from resins with an acid and then cobalt is separated from this solution by electrochemical retention.

Our results show that 98 % of initial cobalt charged in the resin is retained in electrochemical cell.
WM Descriptor(s):         cobalt 60; radioactive waste management; radioactive wastes; zircaloy; zirconium
Argentina                                                                                          4

Principal Investigator:                            Organization Performing the work:
Iglesias, Alberto Manuel                           Comision Nac. de Energia Atomica
                                                   Av. del Libertador 8250     1429 Buenos
Comision Nac de Energia Atomica                    Aires              ARGENTINA
Av. del Libertador 8250
1429
Buenos Aires
-, ARGENTINA

Tel: 0054-11-6772-7143 Fax: 0054-11-6772-7143 E-
mail: albesias@cnea.gov.ar
Other Investigators:                                Organization Type:
Varani, Jose Luis; Raffo Calderon, Maria del Carmen Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003/03/15 To: 2005/06/15
State of Advancement:    Research in progress               Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                 Associated Organization(s):
none                                                        none
Recent publication info:
none
 5                                                                                                         Argentina

ARG20050002

Title:
Pilot experiments with spent exchange resins
Title in Original Language:                                        Topic Code(s):
                                                                   123 -Solid Waste Treatment
Abstract:
Our experiments in the conventional lab as well as in the Atucha I radiochemical laboratory have shown that it
is possible to treat spent resins to eliminate Co-60, Cs-137 and alpha emitters to facilitate the future spent resins
management.

We were focused on mainly two areas:

a) Retention of radioactive material such as Cobalt, Cesium and alpha emitters that are adsorbed in spent resins.

In the case of Cobalt we used the electrochemical retention that we mentioned in abstract 5439. Besides this
method we worked also with the cobalt reduction on Tin electrode with similar efficiency.

As alpha emitters act in solution like cations they could be retained also with the cobalt.

We found that Cesium in alcoholic solution can be reduced on copper-mercury amalgam.

b) Construction and starting up of a pilot plant where it is possible to make a serial of experiments with spent
resins.

Experiments made with active samples taken from the deposit were successful so a small plant to treat a batch
of 100 dm3 of wet spent exchange resins was built.

In this stage we used the cobalt retention cell that was described in other paper to retain Cobalt and alpha
emitters and a sample of zeolites from Argentina ores to retain Cesium.

The amount of removed activity in a first experiment was approximately 94% for Cesium-137, 75% for Cobalt-
60 and 89 % for alpha emitters.
WM Descriptor(s):        cesium ions; cobalt ions; resins; retention; waste disposal
Principal Investigator:                                    Organization Performing the work:
Iglesias, Alberto Manuel                                   Chemistry Department Comision Nac. de Energia Atomica
                                                           Av. del Libertador 8250    1429 Buenos
Comision Nac. de Energia Atomica                           Aires             - ARGENTINA
Av. del Libertador 8250
1429
Buenos Aires            , ARGENTINA

Tel: 0054-11-6772-7143 Fax: 0054-11-6772-7143 E-
mail: albesias@cnea.gov.ar
Other Investigators:                                       Organization Type:
Varani,Jose Luis; Raffo Calderon, Ma. del                  Other
Carmen;Marabini,Silvina
Program Duration:     From: 2004/09/15 To: 2005/09/14
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                        Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                          Associated Organization(s):
IAEA(Div. of Nucl. Fuel Cycle and W.T.)                              none
Argentina                  6

Recent publication info:
none
 7                                                                                                       Argentina

ARG20050003

Title:
Numerical simulation and comparison with hydro-geological tests of groundwater flow in fractured rocks as a
candidate for deep geological disposal
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):
Simulación numérica y comparación con pruebas hidro-             117 -Waste Disposal; 130 -HIGH LEVEL WASTE;
geológicas de flujo de agua en rocas fracturadas estudiadas      137 -Waste Disposal (including Spent Fuel); 202 -
como candidatas para disposición final geológica profunda        Dispersion and Migration Models; 326 -Barrier
                                                                 Studies/Tests/Impacts including Near Field Effects
Abstract:
Argentine CNEA (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica) is studying the technology for a deep geologic
repository in order to ensure that Argentina has the capability to fully implement its spent fuel and radioactive
waste management program, should this approach be chosen by the government as the preferred alternative for
the disposal of either spent fuel or long lived radioactive wastes.

This work is conducted under PNGRR (Radioactive Waste Management National Programme). The most recent
results, and the ongoing work program directions, are described in the last annual report Gestión de los residuos
radiactivos y de los combustibles gastados en la República Argentina. Informe al Honorable Congreso de la
Nación correspondiente al ejercicio 2004 según lo prescripto por la ley nº 25.018. (Spent fuel and radioactive
waste management in Argentine. Report of activities of fiscal year 2004 to the Honourable National Congress
according to Law 25018.) Presented by CNEA on March 15, 2005

The report also provides a summary of the ongoing research activities.

A brief description of the research in numerical simulation in presented here.

Simulation of groundwater flow in unsaturated fractured rocks is of interest to deep geological disposal of
radioactive waste since groundwater migration could contribute to the return of radionuclides to the biosphere.
Thus, simulation of groundwater flow provides a useful tool to establish long-term safety of potential disposal
sites.

Two possible modeling approaches to deal with flow in fractured media are discrete fracture and continuum
models. Even a combination of both could be employed. The first approach is based on an explicit description
of groundwater flow in individual fractures. This method is computationally expensive and requires a detailed
knowledge of geometric properties and spatial distribution of fractures. In the continuum approach the fracture
network and the rock matrix are considered as an equivalent porous medium. This method is computationally
less expensive but its accuracy largely depends on the accuracy of the constitutive relations of the equivalent
porous medium.

Current research in this field in CNEA has lead to adopt the continuum approach to simulate groundwater flow
in unsaturated fractured hard rocks. Constitutive relationships are described using a new model developed by
the authors and closed analytical expressions are derived. Groundwater flow is assumed to obey Richards’
equation. This equation is approximated by using a finite element method for the spatial discretization
combined with a third order accurate algorithm for time approximation, based on the Crank-Nicholson scheme.
A Picard´s iteration method is used to deal with non-linear terms. The algorithm is implemented in two-
dimensional domains using unstructured triangular meshes.

To validate codes, an experimental program is beginning in 2005.

Within this program, a granite massif has been selected to compare results. This formation has several boreholes
that were made years ago searrching for minerals and has been closed in natural undisturbed state. It is then a
rock formation that can be used to compare results of numerical simulation and then calibrate codes.
Argentina                                                                                                   8
A group of hydro-geologists is conducting a programme of measurements in the boreholes and a plan for
pumping tests is also being developed.

The group works in close interaction with UPC(Politechnic University of Catalonia. Spain) and a collaboration
with LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. USA) is also being conducted.
WM Descriptor(s):        numerical analysis; spent fuels; waste disposal; waste management
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Quintana, Fernando                                     Comision Nacional de Energía Atómica
                                                       Av. Bustillo km 9.500     8400 San Carlos de
Comision Nacional de Energía Atómica                   Bariloche       ARGENTINA
Av. E. Bustillo 9500
8400
San Carlos de Bariloche    , ARGENTINA

Tel: +54-2944-445246 Fax: +54-2944-445190 E-mail:
quintana@cab.cnea.gov.ar
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
Bevilacqua, A. Saliba, R. Guarracino, L. Padra, C.     Other
Zarco, J.J. Ferreyra, R. Nievas, O.
Program Duration:     From: 2004/1/1      To: 2005/12/31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                    Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
2004 A third order accurate time scheme for variably saturated groundwater flow modeling, L. Guarracino and
F. Quintana. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering Vol 20 Nr 5 pp 379-389

2004 A constitutive model for water flow in unsaturated fractured hard rocks.L. Guarracino, F. Quintana
D. Millán. Sent to Hydrogeology Journal . Manuscript Number: HJ-2004-0076. In review.

2005 A Numerical Approach For Water Flow In Unsaturated Porous Media F. Quintana, L. Guarracino, R.
Saliba. Int. Journal Num. Meth. in Fluids. In Review
 9                                                                                                           Canada


                                                  Canada
CAN20050001

Title:
Ontario Power Generation Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):
                                                                  102 -Programme Strategy, Planning and
                                                                  Management; 117 -Waste Disposal; 135 -Waste
                                                                  Packaging (Canister Types, Materials, Corrosion
                                                                  Studies); 137 -Waste Disposal (including Spent
                                                                  Fuel); 142 -Spent Fuel Packaging (Canisters,
                                                                  Materials. etc.); 200 -ENVIRONMENTAL
                                                                  IMPACT/ASSESSMENT; 320 -STUDIES FOR
                                                                  GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORIES
Abstract:
Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is continuing to develop the technology for a deep geologic repository in
order to ensure that Canada has the capability to implement a repository program, should this approach be
selected by the federal government as the preferred alternative following a study of options for long-term
management of used fuel.

This work is conducted under OPG's Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program (DGRTP). OPG's
research and development activities are in Repository Engineering, Geoscience and Safety Assessment. The
most recent results, and the ongoing work program directions, are described in the most recent annual report
(Hobbs et al. 2005. Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program - Annual Report 2004. Ontario Power
Generation report 06819-REP-01200-10146-R00. Toronto, Canada.). This report also provides a summary of
the ongoing research activities.

The highlights from the 2004 program below provide a picture of the main activities of the program:

- The Third Case Study reports were issued. The Third Case Study is a post closure safety assessment of the
deep geologic repository concept for used fuel in the Canadian Shield. It considered a current engineering
design and a new hypothetical site, as well as improvements in the assessment methodology. The study
concludes that the repository would meet international post closure dose criteria.

- Post closure safety analyses for a horizontal borehole emplacement concept indicated similar peak dose rate
results to those for the in-room emplacement concept considered within the same (hypothetical) site in the Third
Case Study.

- Electrochemical experiments with SIMFUEL electrodes indicate that the presence of dissolved hydrogen
(from corrosion of the steel container) could significantly reduce the dissolution rate of the used fuel in a failed
container. The mechanism appears to be due to the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen by the metallic-
particles in the fuel.

- Simulations with the University of Toronto Glacial System Model have been completed to derive surface
boundary and permafrost conditions during a glacial cycle for a hypothetical subregional groundwater flow
domain.

- As part of the program to further the geoscientific basis for understanding groundwater flow within regional
Shield settings, FRAC3DVS code verification studies were completed, and a proof-of-concept analysis of
methods for calculating groundwater age using FRAC3DVS was undertaken.

- The reference case has been defined for the international DECOVALEX-THMC Glaciation Project modelling
study. This includes boundary conditions from the Glacial System Model results, a sub-regional scale fracture
Canada                                                                                                          10
network model, and thermal-hydraulic-mechanical properties appropriate for flow conditions within the
Canadian Shield.

- The international Permafrost Phase II activities at the Lupin mine in Nunavut, Canada examined the role of
permafrost on groundwater flow system evolution. The evidence suggests that the gases found below the
permafrost, and by association the deep groundwaters, are related to the metamorphic event which occurred two
billion years ago.

- Literature reviews were completed for the parameters used in the safety assessment biosphere model for two
important radionuclides - chlorine and neptunium. The reviews recommended a number of updates. However,
the net effect of these changes on the estimated peak dose rate for reference Third Case Study conditions was
small.

- Simulations of oxygen consumption in a repository following closure were completed using the CCM code
with a new model to describe the effects of vault saturation. Results for Third Case Study conditions indicate
that the repository will become anoxic in about 200 years. Corrosion of copper consumes most of the oxygen.

- An independent geoscientific assessment of the suitability of the Paleozoic sedimentary rock beneath southern
Ontario was conducted by the University of Bern, Switzerland. The study concluded that there are many
independent arguments suggesting that Ordovician shales and limestones occurring beneath southern Ontario
provide a highly suitable environment to host a deep geological repository.

- A scoping review of the corrosion behaviour of copper and carbon-steel containers for a deep geologic
repository in sedimentary rocks of the Michigan Basin was completed. Long-term containment appears to be
possible.

- A preliminary study of the long-term creep behaviour of the steel vessel in a used fuel container was
completed. The results indicate that the steel vessel would not be subjected to any significant creep deformation
during the container design lifetime.

- A study on an alternative fabrication method for the inner vessel of a used-fuel container was completed. By
implementing the sand casting technique as an alternative production method, the cost to fabricate a cast steel
inner vessel can be reduced by about 30% compared to the present cost estimate.

- The analyses of the BLCT test coupons were completed. After 1.5 years in-situ at AECL's Underground
Research Laboratory, the metal coupons within the BCLT showed very little copper corrosion but more
substantial iron corrosion, as expected. Microbial samples showed a large reduction in the culturable aerobic
bacteria.

- In January 2004, the 5-year SKB/OPG Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) Project Agreement came into
effect. In 2004, OPG participated in the Pillar Stability Experiment and the Long Term Diffusion Experiment,
and joined the LASGIT gas migration experiment and the Engineered Barrier System Modelling Task Force.
WM Descriptor(s):         engineering; geology; repository; safety analysis; spent fuels
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Gierszewski, Paul                                        Ontario Power Generation
                                                         700 University AVe         Toronto               M5G
Ontario Power Generation                                 1X6 CANADA
700 University Ave
Toronto
M5G 1X6, CANADA
Tel: 416-592-2346 E-mail:
paul.gierszewski@opg.com
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
11                                                                                             Canada
Program Duration:     From: 2005/1/1      To: 2005/12/31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                 Associated Organization(s):
none                                                        none
Recent publication info:
Hobbs et al. 2005. Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program - Annual Report 2004. Ontario Power
Generation report 06819-REP-01200-10146-R00. Toronto, Canada.
Finland                                                                                                             12


                                                Finland
 FIN20050001

Title:
Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT)
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):
Kansallinen ydinjätehuollon tutkimusohjelma (KYT)                10 -RADIOACTIVE WASTE; 102 -Programme
                                                                 Strategy, Planning and Management; 117 -Waste
                                                                 Disposal; 137 -Waste Disposal (including Spent
                                                                 Fuel); 200 -ENVIRONMENTAL
                                                                 IMPACT/ASSESSMENT; 400 -D&D - GENERAL;
                                                                 800 -Actinide & Transmutation Studies
Abstract:
The objective of the research programme is to provide the Finnish nuclear waste management community with
results that are relevant for the progress of the national nuclear waste management programme. In this capacity,
the research programme serves both regulators and implementors. Because regulators and implementors have
different respective roles in nuclear waste management, licencing issues are excluded from the research
programme, and emphasis is on studies of national importance.

The contents of the research programme can be divided in two parts. (1) Strategic studies provide insight into
fundamental alternatives in nuclear waste management. Strategic studies include basic options in nuclear fuel
cycle, general safety questions in nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste management, and questions related to
costs, transportations, and decommissioning. (2) Studies related to the long-term safety of geological repository
for spent nuclear fuel support the implementation of the current Finnish main option in nuclear waste
management, i.e. geological disposal. The long-term safety related studies cover performance assessment
methodology, the release of radionuclides from repository, behaviour of bedrock and groundwater, migration of
radionuclides in the bedrock, and biosphere studies.
WM Descriptor(s):           safety; solubility; sorption; sorptive properties; underground disposal; validation
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Rasilainen, Kari                                         VTT Processes P.O. Box 1608 FI-02044 VTT
                                                                                               FINLAND
VTT Processes P.O. Box 1608 FI-02044 VTT,
FINLAND

Tel: +358 20 722 5060 Fax: +358 20 722 6390 E-
mail: kari.rasilainen@vtt.fi
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
14 project managers in different research institutes     Foundation or laboratory for research and/or development
Program Duration:     From: 2002/2/24     To: 2005/12/31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
Nuclear Waste Research Fund established within the State           9 research institutes covering various
Nuclear Waste Management Fund                                      disciplines related to the topics of the
                                                                   research programme
Recent publication info:
Rasilainen, K. (ed.) 2002. Nuclear Waste Management in Finland. Final Report of Public Sector's Research
Programme JYT2001 (1997-2001), 258 p. Ministry of Trade and Industry Studies and Reports 15/2002.

http://www.vtt.fi/pro/tutkimus/kyteng/indexe.htm
 13                                                                                                           Germany


                                                 Germany
GFR20050001

Title:
Development and application of radiotracers for investigations on formation and partitioning of colloidal
species of mobilized heavy metals in geosystems
Title in Original Language:                                         Topic Code(s):
Entwicklung und Einsatz von Radiotracern für                        200 -ENVIRONMENTAL
Untersuchungen zur Bildung und Verteilung von kolloidalen           IMPACT/ASSESSMENT; 201 -Dispersion and
Spezies mobilisierter Schwermetalle in Geosystemen                  Migration of Radionuclides; 204 -Impacts from
                                                                    Landfill Sites
Abstract:
In the event of release from underground repositories, migration of actinides can be facilitated by complexation
with humic colloids, which are ubiquitous in natural waters. Immobilizing effects are also possible, depending
on the geochemical circumstances. Both metal binding and solid-liquid distribution of humic colloids are
controlled by a variety of parameters, which have to be systematically investigated. The objective of the project
is to characterize the influence of selected geogenic and anthropogenic factors on the fundamental partitioning
processes (complexation, adsorption, flocculation) in order to identify the respective conditions of an
enhancement or confinement of actinide migration by humic matter. The investigations are oriented to clay and
granite as potential host formations. Radioisotopes of rare earth elements are employed as tracer analogues of
actinides, and radiolabelling techniques for humic substances are developed, providing analytical access to very
low concentration levels. Special attention is given to the role of Fe(III) and low-molecular-weight organic
compounds. Furthermore, it is intended to utilize Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for spatially resolved
measurements of the colloid-borne transport in geological samples. Recent research activities are focused on
competitive effects of Fe(III) and sulphate with respect to complexation of Eu(III) by humic materials, with
emphasis being placed on time-dependent processes. Whereas competitive complexation of Eu by sulphate was
found to be of minor importance, displacement of Eu by Fe from humic acids can be significant. Binding of Fe
was revealed to be accompanied by structural rearrangements on a long-term scale, leading to a gradual
decrease in complexation of competing metals.
 WM Descriptor(s):          actinides; adsorption; cations; colloids; complexes; humic acids; mobility; organic
                            compounds; retention
Principal Investigator:                                     Organization Performing the work:
Lippold, Holger                                          Institut fuer Interdisziplinaere Isotopenforschung e. V. an
                                                         der Universitaet Leipzig
Institut fuer Interdisziplinaere Isotopenforschung e. V. Permoserstr. 15              D-04318 Leipzig
an der Universitaet Leipzig                              GERMANY
D-04318
Leipzig                  , GERMANY

Tel: (+49)341/2352623 Fax: (+49)341/2352005 E-
mail: lippold@iif-leipzig.de
Other Investigators:                                        Organization Type:
Michael Richter, Karsten Franke                             Foundation or laboratory for research and/or development
Program Duration:     From: 2003/07/01 To: 2006/06/30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                         Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                           Associated Organization(s):
Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit - BMWA                   University of Leipzig
(German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour)
Recent publication info:
Germany                                                                                                       14
Lippold, H., Mansel, A., Kupsch, H., "Influence of trivalent electrolytes on the humic colloid-borne transport of
contaminant metals: Competition and flocculation effects", J. Contam. Hydrol. 76 (2005) 337-352.

Lippold, H., Mueller, N., Kupsch, H., "Effect of humic acid on the pH-dependent adsorption of terbium(III)
onto geological materials", Appl. Geochem. 20 (2005) 1209-1217.
 15                                                                                                       Germany

GFR20050002

Title:
Migration of Actinides in the System Clay, Humic Substances, Aquifer Migration Behavior of Actinides
(Uranium, Neptunium) in Clays: Characterization and Quantification of the Influence of Humic Substances
Title in Original Language:                                Topic Code(s):
Migration von Actiniden im System Ton, Huminstoff,         201 -Dispersion and Migration of Radionuclides;
Aquifer - Migrationsverhalten von Actiniden (Uran,         232 -Environmental Risk Assessment
Neptunium) in Tonen: Charakterisierung und Quantifizierung
des Einflusses von Huminstoffen
Abstract:
The conception and the long-term risk-assessment of nuclear waste repositories require detailed studies on the
migration behavior of long-living radionuclides, especially actinides, in potential rock formations. The presence
of humic substances can strongly influence the migration behavior of actinides. Therefore, the interaction
between actinides and humic substances under natural conditions has to be known.

In the present project we focus our studies on the influence of humic substances on the actinide migration in
clay formations. The interactions of humic substances and uranium and neptunium with kaolinite as main
component of clays are investigated. For that, detailed studies on the actinide humate complexation, on the
influence of humic substances on the actinide sorption onto kaolinite and on the actinide migration in kaolinite
systems are performed.

New synthetic humic acid model substances are developed in order to obtain more detailed knowledge on the
humic acid complexation behavior. Furthermore, the influence of clay minerals on the humic acid formation and
their properties is investigated.

In view of more precise model calculations concerning the actinide migration in the presence of humic acids the
improvement of an existing humic acid complexation model is planned.
 WM Descriptor(s):       actinide complexes; actinides; clays; diffusion; environment; fulvic acids; functional
                         models; humic acids; neptunium; radionuclide migration; sorption; uranium
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
BERNHARD, Gert                                           Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V Institute of
                                                         Radiochemistry
Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V Institute of            P.O. Box 510 119         01314 Dresden
Radiochemistry                                           GERMANY
P.O. Box 510 119
01314
Dresden              , GERMANY

Tel: +49 351 260 32 10 Fax: +49 351 260 35 53 E-
mail: g.bernhard@fz-rossendorf.de
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
Sachs, Susanne; Schmeide, Katja; Krepelova, Adela;       Foundation or laboratory for research and/or development
Mibus, Jens
Program Duration:     From: 2003/07/01 To: 2006/06/30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit                       Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet
                                                                   Mainz; Institut für Anorganische und
                                                                   Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie,
                                                                   Universitaet des Saarlandes; Institut fuer
Germany                                                                                                  16
                                                               Interdisziplinaere Isotopenforschung
                                                               Leipzig; Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung,
                                                               Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe; Fachgebiet
                                                               Theoretische Chemie, Technische
                                                               Universitaet Muenchen; Institut fuer
                                                               Angewandte Physikalische Chemie,
                                                               Universitaet Heidelberg; Institut fuer
                                                               Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet
                                                               Potsdam; Institut fuer Radiochemie,
                                                               Technische Universitaet Muenchen
Recent publication info:
Sachs, S., Schmeide, K., Reich, T., Brendler, V., Heise, K.H., Bernhard, G.: EXAFS Study on the
Neptunium(V) Complexation by Various Humic Acids under Neutral pH Conditions. Radiochim. Acta 93, 17-
25 (2005).

Sachs, S., Bernhard, G.: NIR Spectroscopic Study of the Complexation of Neptunium(V) with Humic Acids:
Influence of Phenolic OH Groups on the Complex Formation. Radiochim. Acta, 93, 141-145 (2005).

Schmeide, K., Reich, T., Sachs, S., Brendler, V., Heise, K.H., Bernhard, G.: Neptunium(IV) Complexation by
Humic Substances Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy. Radiochim. Acta 93, 187-196
(2005).
 17                                                                                                      Germany

GFR20050003

Title:
Interaction of actinides with the predominant indigenous bacteria in aespoe aquifer
Title in Original Language:                               Topic Code(s):
Wechselwirkung von Actiniden mit dominanten Bakterien des 100 -RADIOACTIVE WASTE - GENERAL; 161 -
Äspö-Grundwasserleiters                                   Biodegradation/Biotreatment; 211 -Biological
                                                                Uptake Mechanisms and Models; 222 -Microbial
                                                                Effects; 232 -Environmental Risk Assessment
Abstract:
The project aims to improve the scientific basis for the performance assessment and safety of nuclear waste
repositories concerning the influence of microorganisms on actinide migration. The project is focussed on: a)
interaction of uranium, curium, neptunium and plutonium with relevant bacteria found in the Aespoe Hard Rock
Laboratory (Aespoe HRL) - Desulfovibrio aespoeensis -, b) Quantification of actinides bonded on the
microorganisms in dependence of the experimental parameters like pH, metal concentration, and c)
Spectroscopic characterization of the formed actinide complexes/compounds.

For long-term performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories, knowledge concerning interactions of
actinides with microorganisms is imperative. Bacteria are playing an important role in the transport of
radionuclides and other heavy metals in nature. The interaction of actinides with microorganisms and the
consequences for the migration behavior of actinides have not yet been studied in the Aespoe aquifer. In
general, worldwide only a little information is available about the biodiversity and microbial influence on
radionuclide migration under the conditions of a deep nuclear repository. During the project, sorption
experiments will be performed focussing on the reactions of the bacterial strain D. aespoeensis with various
actinide elements (U(VI), Np(V), Pu(VI), and Cm(III)). This bacterial strain was identified at the Aespoe site.
Desulfovibrio strains are widespread and have the ability to immobilize heavy metals by reduction. To study the
complexation of actinides before and after the interaction with D. äspöensis, laserspectroscopic methods and the
method of X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be used in addition to all common analytical methods.
WM Descriptor(s):          absorption spectroscopy; adsorption; bacteria; biological and environmental research;
                           chemical reactions; chemistry; complexes; curium; environmental aspects;
                           fluorescence spectroscopy; laser spectroscopy; metals; microorganisms; neptunium;
                           pH value; plutonium; radioactive wastes; redox process; redox reactions; risk
                           assessment; sulfate-reducing bacteria; time dependence; uranium; water
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
BERNHARD, Gert                                          Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V Institute of
                                                        Radiochemistry
Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V Institute of           P.O. Box 510119          01314 Dresden
Radiochemistry                                          GERMANY
P.O. BOX 510119
D-01314
DRESDEN                 , GERMANY

Tel: 0351 260 3280 Fax: 0351 260 3553
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
Henry MOLL Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V             Foundation or laboratory for research and/or development
Institute of Radiochemistry
Program Duration:     From: 2001/04/01 To: 2004/09/30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                     Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                 Associated Organization(s):
Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit (BMWA),        none
Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und
Germany                                                                                                      18
Technologie (BMBF)
Recent publication info:
H. Moll, Th. Stumpf, M. Merroun, A. Roßberg, S. Selenska-Pobell, G. Bernhard: Time-resolved laser
fluorescence spectroscopy study on the interaction of Cm(III) with Desulfovibrio aepoeensis DSM 10631T;
Environmental Science & Technology 38, 1455-1459 (2004).

H. Moll, G. Geipel, G. Bernhard, Complexation of Curium(III) by Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP): A Time-
resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study; Inorganica Chimica Acta 358, 2275 (2005)

H. Moll, M. Merroun, Th. Stumpf, A. Rossberg, G. Geipel, S. Selenska-Pobell, G. Bernhard, Interaction of
actinides with the predominant indigenous bacteria in Aespoe aquifer – Interactions of selected actinides U(VI),
Cm(III), Np(V) and Pu(VI) with Desulfovibrio aespoeensis. Final Report BMWA Project No. 02E9491,
Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte FZR-422 (2005).
 19                                                                                                      Germany

GFR20050004

Title:
The Mobilization of Actinides by Microbial Ligands Taking into Consideration the Final Storage of Nuclear
Waste
Title in Original Language:                                  Topic Code(s):
Die Mobilisierung von Actiniden durch mikrobiell produzierte 100 -RADIOACTIVE WASTE - GENERAL; 161 -
Liganden unter Beruecksichtigung der Endlagerung von         Biodegradation/Biotreatment; 211 -Biological
radioaktivem Abfall                                          Uptake Mechanisms and Models; 222 -Microbial
                                                                 Effects; 232 -Environmental Risk Assessment
Abstract:
The project aims to improve the scientific basis for the performance assessment and safety of nuclear waste
repositories concerning the influence of microbial ligands produced by microorganisms on actinide migration.
The project is focused on:

a) isolation and characterization of microbial ligands produced from selected bacteria isolated at the Aespoe
Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL),

b) interaction of uranium, neptunium, and curium with these microbial ligands including relevant model
compounds, and

c) spectroscopic characterization of the formed actinide complexes/compounds.

Within our last project (Interaction of actinides with predominant indigenous bacteria in aespoe aquifer) we
investigated direct interaction paths of bacteria with actinides whereas this new study is concentrated on the
indirect interaction path of the actinide mobilization by microbially produced bioligands. This project should
help to identify the dominating process. The mobilizations of actinides by microbial produced and released
bioligands have not yet been intensively studied in the Aespoe aquifer, Sweden. In general, worldwide only
little information is available about the biodiversity and microbial influences including the effect of bioligands
on radionuclide migration under the conditions of a deep nuclear repository. The studies will be exemplarily
performed using the bioligands produced by dominant bacteria identified in the Aespoe aquifer. Furthermore,
experiments are planned with model compounds; a) simulating the functionality of the bioligands and b)
simulating the surface of the bacteria. Statements will be expected about the structure and formation of actinide-
bioligand compounds. The stability constants to be determined will be used directly in modeling calculations of
the long term performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in hard rock formations as well as in other
rock formations (salt, clay).
 WM Descriptor(s):          absorption spectroscopy; adsorption; bacteria; biological and environmental research;
                            chemical reactions; chemistry; complexes; curium; environmental aspects;
                            fluorescence spectroscopy; laser spectroscopy; metals; microorganisms; neptunium;
                            pH value; plutonium; radioactive wastes; redox process; redox reactions; risk
                            assessment; sulfate-reducing bacteria; time dependence; uranium; water
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
BERNHARD, Gert                                           Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V Institute of
                                                         Radiochemistry
Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V Institute of            P.O. Box 510119          01314 Dresden
Radiochemistry                                           GERMANY
P.O. BOX 510119
D-01314
DRESDEN                 , GERMANY

Tel: 0351 260 3280 Fax: 0351 260 3553
Germany                                                                                                      20

Other Investigators:                              Organization Type:
Henry MOLL, Maja GLORIUS Forschungszentrum        Foundation or laboratory for research and/or development
Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Radiochemistry
Program Duration:     From: 2005/07/01 To: 2008/06/30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                 Associated Organization(s):
Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit (BMWA),        none
Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und
Technologie (BMBF)
Recent publication info:
none
 21                                                                                                       Hungary


                                               Hungary
HUN20050001

Title:
The final disposal of Hungarian low and interim level radioactive wastes of nuclear power plant origin.
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):
Az atomerömüvi kis és közepes aktivitású radioaktív              117 -Waste Disposal
hulladékok végleges elhelyezése.
Abstract:
The disposal of Hungarian low and interim level radioactive wastes of nuclear power plant origin - including as
well the wastes originating from the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant - will take place in a new
facility satisfying all the technical and safety aspects.

On the basis of the available investigation results, the new repository would be constructed on the outskirts of
Bátaapáti village in South-western Hungary at a depth of 200-250 m below the surface, at 0-50 m above sea
level in granite of Lower Carboniferous age. The exact location of the disposal area will be defined after
additional geological investigations (characterisation from underground and experience gained during the
mining exploration). At present two exploration tunnels of 21 m2 cross sectional area are driven up to a length
of about 1400 m. and a complex geoscientific investigation program is carried out in the exploration tunnels.
 WM Descriptor(s):         geologic surveys; geophysical surveys; granites; intermediate-level radioactive
                           wastes; low-level radioactive wastes; repository; tunneling
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Ferenc, Frigyesi                                         BÁTATOM Kft.
                                                         Hűvösvölgyi út 54.    H-1021
Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management           Budapest                HUNGARY
(PURAM)
P.O. Box: 12
H-7031
Paks                , HUNGARY

Fax: +36 75/519-589 E-mail: ferenc.frigyesi@rhk.hu
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
Zoltan Nagy Leader Geologist PURAM Paks                  Private industry
Headquarter H-7031 Paks,PO.Box:12 HUNGARY
zoltan.nagy@rhk.hu
Program Duration:     From: 2005/01/01 To: 2007/12/31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
PURAM (Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management)              None
via the Central Nuclear Financial Fund
Recent publication info:
None
Hungary                                                                                                          22

HUN20050002

Title:
Designating the location of an underground research laboratory.
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):
Az elhelyezes lehetoseget vizsgalo foldalatti kutato              302 -Site Survey and Characterization
laboratorium helyenek kijelolése
Abstract:
In Hungary, the efforts made for the disposal of HLW/SF have revived during the past few years. The
geological explorations that were restarted in the West Mecsek region were aimed at the identification of a site
for the construction of an underground laboratory.

In 2000, based on desk studies, a nationwide screening was carried out by evaluating the potential rock
formations in details. 32 lithological formations potentially suitable for a deep geological repository within
territory of Hungary were identified. This comprehensive investigation confirmed that Boda Claystone
Formation has the leading position among the potentially suitable sites for HLW repository.

In 2004, the surface exploration program for a HLW repository restarted at Boda area. The aim is to designate,
up to 2008, a location for an underground research laboratory in claystone host rock of Lower Permian age
where exploration of rock could be accomplished.
WM Descriptor(s):          geologic surveys; geophysical surveys; high-level radioactive wastes; laboratories;
                           spent fuels; underground disposal
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Ferenc, Frigyesi                                          MECSEKERC Rt.
                                                          Esztergar Lajos ut 12.      H-7633 Pecs
Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management            HUNGARY
(PURAM)
P.O. Box: 12
H-7031
Paks                , HUNGARY

Fax: +36 75/519-589 E-mail: ferenc.frigyesi@rhk.hu
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
Zoltan Nagy Leader Geologist PURAM Paks                   Other
Headquarter H-7031 Paks,PO.Box:12 HUNGARY
zoltan.nagy@rhk.hu
Program Duration:     From: 2003/09/30 To: 2008/12/31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
PURAM (Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management)              None
via the Central Nuclear Financial Fund
Recent publication info:
None
 23                                                                                                    India


                                                   India
 IND20050001

Title:
DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR THE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
SIMULATED SYNROC WASTE FORMS
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):
Development of methods for the fabrication and                130 -HIGH LEVEL WASTE; 180 -WASTE
characterization of simulated synroc waste forms              CHARACTERIZATION; 182 -Waste form
                                                              characterization
Abstract:
A research programme on the development of synroc as a future alternative for the disposal of high-level
radioactive wastes, has been taken up. The major issues presently under investigation are the synthesis of
reactive precursors starting from common chemicals, blending them with simulated waste stream in a reducing
atmosphere, and consolidation of the calcined powders by an appropriate high temperature and high pressure
treatment. To begin with, two wet chemical methods, viz., citrate polymer route and alkoxide route, are
employed for precursor synthesis. Hot isostatic pressing is used to fabricate monoliths of near-theoretical
density. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis are
employed to characterize the products at various stages.
 WM Descriptor(s):         pressing; synroc process; synthesis; waste disposal; waste processing
Principal Investigator:                               Organization Performing the work:
Kutty, K.V. Govindan                                  Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
                                                                          Kalpakkam              603 102
IGCAR                                                 INDIA
Kalpakkam
603 102, INDIA

Tel: 91-4114-280098 Fax: 91-4114-280065 E-mail:
kvg@igcar.ernet.in
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
Ritu D. Ambashta, J.G. Shah, P.K. Wattal(BARC) R.     Other
Asuvathraman, R. Raja Madhavan, P.R.V. Rao
(IGCAR)
Program Duration:     From: 2002          To: 2007
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                   Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research                        Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Kalpakkam - 603 102                                             Mumbai - 400 085
India.                                                          India

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Mumbai - 400 085
India
Recent publication info:
1. Fabrication of simulated synroc waste forms: studies employing a citrate-route precursor and hot isostatic
pressing,
Proc. 14th Indian Nucl. Soc. Annual Conf. and 1st BRNS Conf. on Nucl. Fuel Cycle, Indiara Gandhi Centre for
Atomic Res., Kalpakkam, Dec. 2003, Ed. Baldev Raj and P.R. Vasudeva Rao, Paper No. G11.
2. Synroc: alkoxide route for its synthesis, ibid, paper G16.
India                                                                                                 24
3. Microstructural characterization of synroc by electron probe microanalysis, ibid, Paper No. G12.
 25                                                                                                            India

 IND20050002

Title:
Biodegradation of Nitrate from Low Level Liquid Radioactive Effluents.
Title in Original Language:                                 Topic Code(s):
Biodegradation of Nitrate from Low Level Liquid Radioactive 161 -Biodegradation/Biotreatment
Effluents.

Abstract:
In nuclear industry, use of nitric acid in uranium metal extraction, fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing plants
results in effluents containing significant amount of nitrates. Nitrate removal from effluents is essential to bring
down concentrations of nitrate below prescribed limits before discharge to the environment. Studies were
undertaken on biodegradation of nitrates in low level radioactive effluent from a fuel reprocessing plant. The
biodegradation process is anaerobic and involves generation of biomass using sewage water as seed. The
biomass is made amenable for nitrates in presence of carbon source such as methanol/sodium acetate. The
laboratory studies have established that the concentration of nitrates in low level radioactive liquid effluents can
be brought down from about 2000ppm to permissible levels of 45ppm using biodegradation process.

Based upon the lab scale studies a pilot plant of 2.5 m3/day capacity has been set up at Trombay and
commissioned. The plant consists of fluent storage tank, bio-reactor, chemical dosing tank and post- treatment
tank along with necessary instrumentations and pumps/valves. The plant is under continuous operation since
August, 05 for biodegradation of radioactive effluent. Analysis of the treated effluent showed nitrate
concentration well below the permissible concentration of nitrates (i.e. 45 ppm).

Further studies are continued to establish the following:

·Optimization of process parameters for maximum concentration of nitrates

·Management of resultant biomass after its useful life.

·Uptake of radioactivity by biomass.

·Effect of heavy elements such as uranium in effluents on the performance of bio-mass.
 WM Descriptor(s):        biodegradation; denitrification; environment
Principal Investigator:                                     Organization Performing the work:
Kumar, Surender                                  Waste Management Division Bhabha Atomic Research
                                                 Centre
Waste Management division Bhabha Atomic Research Trombay-400085                              INDIA
Centre
Trombay
Mumbai               , INDIA
E-mail: : skumar@magnum.barc.ernet.in
Other Investigators:                                        Organization Type:
Smt. Savita Jain; Yadav M. B.; Pawaskar C.S.;               Other
Potadar A.G.
Program Duration:     From: Jan.2002      To: Dec.2006
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                       Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
Waste Management Division                                           Waste Management Division
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre                                       Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Trombay-400085,India                                                Trombay-400085,India
India                                                                                                 26

Recent publication info:
Yadav M. B. Pawaskar C.S and Surender Kumar, “Biodegradation of nitrate from low level radio active
effluent” INSAC-2003 14th Annual Conference of INS & BRNS on Nuclear Fuel Cycle at IGCAR,
Kalpakkam, India.
 27                                                                                                             India

 IND20050003

Title:
Management of spent scintillation liquid waste
Title in Original Language:                                        Topic Code(s):
Management of spent scintillation liquid waste                     112 -Liquid Waste Treatment
Abstract:
In nuclear reactors, using heavy water, tritium analysis is routinely carried out using liquid scintillation counter.
The aqueous sample is mixed with the scintillation cocktail and counted for tritium activity. The scintillation
solution consists of mainly dioxane and naphthalene along with minor concentration of PPO/ POPOP. Total
generation rate of the waste in a typical PHWR reactor is about 2-3 m3/year.

A method based on controlled incineration was developed in laboratory for management of spent scintillation
liquid. A set-up for controlled incineration was assembled in the fume hood. The waste was fed by gravity at a
flow rate of about 2-3 l/h and the flue gases were monitored for dioxane using Dragger’s tube and concentration
was found below 10 ppm, the detection limit of the tube. For accurate estimation of dioxane the flue gases were
analyzed using gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer coupled with GC. The analysis of flue gases indicated
the presence of about 0.3-0.5 ppm of dioxane which is only about 0.15% of the TLV. In view of the above
results, it is decided to use controlled incineration as a means for management of scintillation liquid waste on
the plant scale.
 WM Descriptor(s):           incineration; liquid scintillators; tritium
Principal Investigator:                                    Organization Performing the work:
Kumar, Surender                                  Waste Management Division Bhabha Atomic Research
                                                 Centre
Waste Management division Bhabha Atomic Research Trombay-400085                              INDIA
Centre
Trombay
Mumbai               , INDIA
E-mail: : skumar@magnum.barc.ernet.in
Other Investigators:                                       Organization Type:
Smt. Savita Jain; Potadar A.G.                             Other
Program Duration:     From: Jun.2003      To: Dec.2005
State of Advancement:    Research in progress                        Preliminary report(s) available: Yes
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                          Associated Organization(s):
Waste Management Division                                            Waste Management Division
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre                                        Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Trombay-400085,India                                                 Trombay-400085,India
Recent publication info:
none
India                                                                                                         28

 IND20050004

Title:
Enrichment of argon in air using pressure swing adsorption
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):
Enrichment of argon in air using pressure swing adsorption      111 -Gaseous Waste Treatment
Abstract:
41Ar is produced by neutron activation of 40Ar in the calendria vault coolant air of typical PHWR type power
plants. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technique has been employed for enrichment of argon, which can be
contained in delay tanks before release. Molecular sieves 5A (MS 5A) and carbon molecular sieves (CMS)
based PSA systems are well known for oxygen and nitrogen generation respectively. These materials are not
selective for argon, but it is feasible to enrich argon by combining the above two systems. Based on the research
work carried out so far, a demonstration unit was fabricated and studies were continued on the combined
system. Feed air is sent first through MS 5A (Bed Size: 6.4 L X 2) system, first stage PSA where nitrogen is
removed and most of the argon and oxygen are collected in the 50 l reservoir for further treatment in Carbon
Molecular sieves (Bed size: 2.8 l) which is the second stage PSA. The product from first stage PSA is collected
at 40 psi, and is sent through second stage PSA at 100 psi, where oxygen is removed. Hence, enriched argon
along with nitrogen and oxygen as impurities is collected as the product stream. A recovery of 30% and an
enrichment of 30% of argon have been achieved with a volume reduction of more than 100 in the product
stream of the combined system. This argon (along with argon 41) thus collected as a product stream can be
contained in delay tanks for further release without active argon 41. The system is further evaluated to improve
the recovery and enrichment by varying parameters viz., PSA cycle timings, pressure etc.
 WM Descriptor(s):           argon 41; environment; PHWR type reactors
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
CHERALATHAN, M.,                                         Centralised Waste Management Fac Bhabha Atomic
                                                         Research Centre
Centralised Waste Management Fac Bhabha Atomic           Kalpakkam-603 102                             INDIA
Research Centre
Kalpakkam
603 102, INDIA
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
Sumangala R. K.; Lal K.B                                Other
Program Duration:     From: April 2001    To: Aug 2006
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
Centralised Waste Management Fac                                  Centralised Waste Management Fac
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre                                     Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Kalpakkam-603 102                                                 Kalpakkam-603 102
India                                                             India
Recent publication info:
none
 29                                                                                                     Morocco


                                              Morocco
MOR20050001

Title:
The effect of background noise on the intensity of a gamma-Ray lines from weak radioactive sample.
(Simulation by the Monte Carlo Method).
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):
                                                                109 -Waste Characterisation including Measuring
                                                                Methods and Techniques; 181 -Methodologies,
                                                                Analytical Methods, Measurements Instrumentation
Abstract:
Although significant progress has been made in the last years in the detection of the weak radioactive waste,
work on improvement of the measuring techniques continues. In our study we analyzed the effects of the
background noise and of spectrometer resolution on the position and the width of the line of the Gamma rays
from a weak radioactive sample. The standard deviation of the parameters in question was calculated for
various events. The resulting relative errors follow the K/SQRT(Nev) law. When the background noise
increases the signal average remains the same but the line width information gradually disappears. Therefore,
the measurement of any activity will be seriously affected.
 WM Descriptor(s):         Monte Carlo method; radiation detection; spectroscopy
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Rusi el Hassani, Abdeljalil                             University Abdelmalek Essaadi
                                                        FSTT, Tanger             90000 Tanger
Applied Physics Laboratory Physics Department           90000 MOROCCO
Faculty of Sciences & Techniques Abdelmalek
Essaadi University
FSTT, Tanger
90000
Tanger
90000, MOROCCO

Tel: 00212393954/55 Fax: 00212393953 E-mail:
rusi@menara.ma
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
A.Bachir, Departement de genie Mecanique, Ecole         Institution of higher education
Mohammadia d Ingenieurs, Maroc, Rabat
Program Duration:     From: 2004/01/01 To: 2006/01/01
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
Russian Federation                                                                                             30


                                   Russian Federation
 RUS20050001

Title:
Fundamental Chemistry of the Universal Extractant for the Simultaneous Recovery of Fission Products and
Transuranics from High Level Waste Streams.
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This project focused on quantifying the complicated extraction mechanisms operative in the Universal
Extraction process that allows simultaneous, efficient separation of Cesium, Strontium and Actinides (all of the
major radionuclides) from aqueous, acidic, radioactive waste solutions.
WM Descriptor(s):          extraction; fission products; separation processes
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Herbst, R. Scott                                         Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                         Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental            INEEL;Washington State Universit 83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                              2208                      RUSSIAN FEDERATION
INEEL;Washington State Universit
83415-2208 , RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Tel: 208-526-6836 E-mail: herbrs@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-10-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
American Chemical Society 226th ACS National Meeting, New York, NY, book chapter in press, 2004;
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, accepted for publication, August 2004; Journal of Physical Chemistry,
Part B, submitted for publication, November 2004.
 31                                                                                          Russian Federation

 RUS20050002

Title:
International Program: Russian High Level Waste Collaboration
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Collaborative work with Khlopin Radium Institute and Electrotechnical University in St. Petersburg of Russia
testing models and other aspects of cold crucible induction melter technologies for application to Department of
Energy waste processing needs.
 WM Descriptor(s):        cold crucible; high-level radioactive wastes; melting
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Roach, Jay A.                                           Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                        Idaho Falls, ID
Idaho National Engineering and Environmental            INEEL;Idaho Falls ID         83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                             3710                     UNITED STATES OF
                                                        AMERICA
INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3710, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-4974 E-mail: arh@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                          32


                              United States of America
 USA20050001

Title:
Mechanical Sciences (Correlations and Dynamics in Metallic Liquids and Associated Amorphous and
Crystalline Systems)
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The goal of this recently established project is to develop a deeper understanding of the structure and dynamic
properties of liquid metals and alloys, and their relationship to the competing processes of solidification and
vitrification. Such and understanding requires the detailed knowledge of real material properties in both the
liquid and solid phases, and understanding of how the properties of the liquid affect the competition between
phases, and a non-equilibrium description of the amorphous state. These goals will be achieved by integrating
established expertise within the materials sciences programs at the Ames Laboratory, and with existing
collaborations that complement the local capabilities. In particular, we will use a variety of computational,
analytical, and experimental techniques (including both X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering) to predict and
measure: a) atomic structure factors, S(q); b) the short-range order of the liquid, including the stability of local
clusters; and c) relecant thermo-dynamic and structural quantities for the equilibrium state of the liquid, and
how these quantities relate to non-equilibrium processes that lead to the selection between the competing
crystalline and amorphous phases. This work will also lead into new insights into the nucleation and growth
process of crystals.
 WM Descriptor(s):          phase studies; solidification; vitrification
Principal Investigator:                                    Organization Performing the work:
Gleeson, Brian                                             Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA
                                                           AMES;Ames IA              50011-
Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA                                  3020                     UNITED STATES OF
AMES;Ames IA                                               AMERICA
50011-3020 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 515-294-4446 E-mail: gleeson@ameslab.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:         From: 2003-09-30 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                          Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                 none
Recent publication info:
none
 33                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050002

Title:
Chemical Sciences: Chemical Separations Science
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The focus of this program is on advancing the basic state of the art of metalion separations science through
studies of phase transfer reactions of metal ions of significance to radioactive material handling and waste
disposal.This problem is approached by conducting fundamental investigations of the interactions of metal ions
with chelating agents and solvent molecules,designing and characterizing new reagents for more effective
separations, and examining the physical and chemical characteristics of metal ion separation processes. This
broad-focus research program complements organic synthesis ofnew extraction reagents and water-soluble
complexants with studies of aggregation phenomena of metal complexes in extractant solutions, studies of the
basic features of metal ion coordination chemistry, and studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of separation
processes. As promising new separation systems are identified, the fundamental science is typically followed by
an evaluation of the potential of the new system for practical application. The program focuses principally on
solvent extraction, ion exchange, and extraction chromatographic techniques that are suitable for large-scale
separations. All of these studies are directed towards applications in nuclear and hydrometallurgical technology,
including nuclear waste processing, actinide separations, and radioactive by product recovery.
 WM Descriptor(s):          chromatography; extraction; ion exchange
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Wagner, A.F.                                             Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                         ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-3570 E-mail: wagner@tcg.anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 1994-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                    34

 USA20050003

Title:
Chemical Sciences: Basic Energy Sciences (BESSRC) CollaborativeAccess Team Support
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This work supports and develops synchrotron-based chemical science at the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron
Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS).
The BES-supported scientific programs in the Chemistry Division are significantly enhanced by the availability
of X-ray facilities at the APS. Many synchrotron-based efforts in the Chemistry Division have centered on X-
ray absorption spectroscopy, such as XANES and EXAFS and X-ray scattering. Three state-of-the-art facilities
have been developed. One is a time-resolved anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering facility. Work at this
facility addresses problems relevant to catalysis, photochemical energy conversion, metallic glasses, ceramics,
organometallic chemistry, and environmental questions such as soot formation. A fast detector is being
developed that will be ideally suited for SAXS time-resolved experiments. A second facility synchronizes laser
excitation with X-ray spectroscopies. This facility provides unique information about transient molecular
structural changes that occur in photochemical reactions. A third facility makes it possible to carry out
experiments at the APS on radioactive samples. Also, a high-energy wide-angle scattering approach has been
developed in the program. Thus, this project provides support to carry out science relevant to fundamental
questions in photochemical energy conversion, catalysis, environmental molecular science, nuclear waste
management, and interaction of X-rays with matter.
WM Descriptor(s):           materials sciences
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Wagner, A.F.                                            Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                        ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-3570 E-mail: wagner@tcg.anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:     From: 1997-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
none
 35                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050004

Title:
Direct Investigations of the Immobilization of Radionuclides
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This project addresses the synthesis of actinide compounds similar to those that have been identified as
important alteration products formed during the corrosion of spent uranium-based fuels. The aims of the
experiments are to synthesize and characterize actinide and fission product-host phases formed on U-based
waste forms under oxidizing conditions, such as expected at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Target
phases for synthesis include those identified in ongoing corrosion experiments on spent uranium oxide fuel
being conducted at Argonne, with special emphasis on Np- and Pu-bearing compounds.These experiments have
shown that many radionuclides are retained in U-bearing alteration products. The synthesis and characterization
of hexavalent uranium phases doped with these and other elements will clarify the mechanisms of radionuclide
incorporation into uranyl-based solids. Where possible, stable-isotope equivalents of radionuclides are used
during synthesis; however, pure Np and Pu analogues of selected uranium compounds will also be synthesized.
In addition, uranium compounds products doped with trace quantities of selected radionuclides will be
characterized to better understand the mechanisms of trace-element substitution. Methods used to characterize
the solid phases include X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Single-crystal structure
determinations are made when possible. Selected samples are analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.
 WM Descriptor(s):         corrosion; spent fuels
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Lewis, D                                                Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                        ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-4383 E-mail: lewisd@cmt.anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 1997-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     36

 USA20050005

Title:
Remote Manipulation for Decontamination and Decommissioning Exhibiting Tele-autonomy and Tele-
collaboration
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This project focuses on enhancing remote operation of tools for decontamination and decommissioning tasks by
extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. This work builds on preliminary work done on a
reactive, agent-based control architecture, which is well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments,
and 'cobot' control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the applicationof
tools with force-feedback control.

Developed methodologies will be tested using simulation, and then implemented using a structured light sensor
and cobot hand controller on a dual-arm system to measure the enhanced performance of key tool operations
that are tedious and difficult to perform purely by teleoperation. The collaboration of Argonne National
Laboratory (ANL) and Northwestern University (NWU) blends capabilities in applied and basic research,
addressing the goal of bridging the gap between broad fundamental research and applied technology
development focused. This work significantly leverages some 2000 hours of operational experience gained
during the decontamination and decommissioning of the CP-5 reactor at ANL using a dual-arm remote
manipulator system, as well as DOE's $1.2M investment in the dual-arm system itself, which will serve as a test
bed for these investigations.
 WM Descriptor(s):          decommissioning; manipulators; remote control
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Khalil, H.S.                                            Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                        ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-7266 E-mail: khalil@ra.anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 37                                                                                 United States of America

 USA20050006

Title:
New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis during Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action
Management
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The purpose of this work is to develop adaptive sampling and analysis methodologies that can be applied to
data collection design problems associated with long-term monitoring programs at DOE hazardous waste sites.
WM Descriptor(s):         monitoring; remedial action; sampling
Principal Investigator:                               Organization Performing the work:
Dvorak, A.                                            Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                      ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL              UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-3107 E-mail: advorak@anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-04-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
none                                                            none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     38

 USA20050007

Title:
Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
ANL is helping an industrial partner develop a revolutionary 'supercement'capable of tightly sealing annuluses
and providing the long-term integrity required in deep, hot environments. ANL will provide support to this
effort by evaluating chemically bonded phosphate ceramic CBPC-based cements. ANL has developed several
formulations of such cements. These materials have been tested for various applications, including radioactive
and hazardous waste management, structural products, dental cements, and oil-well cements, the last one being
tested in mostly lower temperature wells. The formulation used for these applications are magnesium potassium
phosphates-based material named as 'Ceramicrete.' The concept of CBPC-based cements is being extended to
hot deep wells. The following three types of materials will be studied:(1) Ceramicrete with minor modifications,
(2) Ceramicrete with major alterations in additives, and (3) Novel phosphate binders selected from
thermodynamic modeling that are suitable for hot wells. The materials in the first category have been tested for
'not-so-hot' wells and need some modifications in the grain size, composition, and pretreatment of powder
components. In the second type of materials, setting properties of the binder will be altered by adding
compatible chemical retardants. The third type of binders will be novel compositions, not tested before but
predicted by thermodynamic calculations.
 WM Descriptor(s):         sealing materials
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Schmalzer, D.K.                                         Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                        ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-7723 E-mail: schmalzer@anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 39                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050008

Title:
Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The objective is to develop advanced gas-cooled reactors with a hardened or fast neutron spectrum which meet
the Gen IV goals of economics, safety, sustainability, and non-proliferation. CEA and ANL have had similar
reflections aimed at designing very high temperature gas-cooledfast/hardened-spectrum reactors (HGCFRs)
with a high degree of passive safety. CEA and ANL are sharing future work in a collaborative program. The
initial technical basis for the effort will be technology developed for the Modular High Temperature Gas
Cooled Reactor and the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor.Technology innovations will be developed for new reactor
core and fuel concepts which will render the HGCFR passively safe to loss of heat removal and reactivity
initiators. Balance of plant configurations will be tailored to high temperature/high efficiency goals with
potential for a multiple function electricity generating plants. The approach should (a) reduce cost of nuclear
power systems, (b) enhance nuclear safety, (c) address proliferation concerns, and (d) minimize nuclear waste.
 WM Descriptor(s):           future reactors / waste minimization
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Khalil, H.S.                                            Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                        ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-7266 E-mail: khalil@anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     40

 USA20050009

Title:
Adaptive Data Collection Strategies for Source Term and Effects Prediction
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The purpose of the work is to develop adaptive data collection strategies for source term and effects prediction
in the event of an environmental release of radionuclides. These strategies would support NA-40's emergency
response mission. The approach makes use of adaptive sampling program design techniques originally
developed by ANL for hazardous waste site characterization work at DOE facilities. It extends these techniques
to accommodate the characteristics of NA-40's data collection assets and integrate with current NA-40 air
dispersion and deposition modelingcapabilities. The result will enhance DOE emergency response efforts,
providing a rapid and efficient means for characterizing the nature and extent of risks posed by a radioactive
release.
 WM Descriptor(s):         releases; risk assessment; source terms
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Dvorak, A.J.                                            Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                        ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-3107 E-mail: advorak@anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:         From: 2003-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 41                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050010

Title:
Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The objective of this project is to develop ligands with binding attributes that enhance the separation of
actinides from chemically similar lanthanides in acidic nitrate nuclear waste. This would aid in the processing of
nuclear waste streams and would reduce the volume of long-lived waste. Several ligands have been developed at
the University of Florida (UoF) to separate the actinides from the lanthanides via liquid-liquid extraction from
the radioactive waste.

Preliminary investigations showed
that Tris(3,5-tert-butyl-2-(((diphenylphosphoryl)-(acetamido)ethoxy)phenyl)methane (tris-CMPO) has a high
affinity for thorium-4+ and has a low and constant affinity across the series (La, Ce, Nd, Eu and Yb) from 1
Mnitric acid solutions. Quantum-chemical calculations showed that the ligand should posses the same high
affinity towards other actinides, e.g. Am and Pu.

Testing of the Am, Pu and Ln extraction is conducted at ANL, in Chemical Engineering Division. The tests
have demonstrated that the tris-CMPO ligand has a unique selectivity for the tetravalent actinides (Pu) over the
trivalent lanthanides and the hexavalent uranium. The separation coefficients exceed 1000 and 30 for Pu/Ln and
Pu/U, respectively. About 98% Pu was removed from 1 M nitric acid after one contact. These properties should
allow using the ligand in the nuclear waste treatment for the Pu isolation.
 WM Descriptor(s):         actinides; extraction; lanthanides; separation processes
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Lewis, D.                                                Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                         ANL;Lemont IL              60439
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL                 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ANL;Lemont IL
60439 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 630-252-4383 E-mail: lewisd@cmt.anl.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                          42

 USA20050011

Title:
Cleanup of Accelerator and Experimental Facilities Previously Used for High Energy Physics.
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Since the 1960s, high-energy research programs at the AGS have induced low-levels of radioactivity in soils,
concrete and iron shielding, power supplies, cable, magnets, beam collimators, beam pipes, etc. These items
must be removed as waste and certain portions of the AGS experimental areas must be decommissioned. The
objective of this work is to ensure the safety of the workers, protect the public and the environment and comply
with applicable state and Federal regulations. The end-point of this proposal, that is, the state in which these
facilities will be left, is one that requires re-use for a similar function. It is assumed that institutional control
will remain in place under Federal oversight for a number of years beyond the end of this proposal. Preliminary
estimates of waste, assuming many components are reusable, are 1000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive
waste, and 3000 cubic meters of miscellaneous waste. There are multiple waste streams to be managed during
the period covered by this project.
 WM Descriptor(s):            clean up; decommissioning
Principal Investigator:                                    Organization Performing the work:
Lowenstein, Derek I.                                       Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY
                                                           BNL;Upton NY              11973
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY                  UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BNL;Upton NY
11973 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 631-344-4611
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2004-03-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                          Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                 none
Recent publication info:
none
 43                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050012

Title:
Microbial Transformations of TRU and Mixed Wastes: Actinides Speciation and Waste Volume Reduction
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The overall objective of this research is to determine the mechanisms of microbial transformations of Pu, Np,
and Am in selected transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. In this study, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)
will investigate in a systematic manner the biotransformation of known chemical forms of actinides followed by
more complex materials found in TRU wastes so that the mechanisms of biotransformation of complex mixtures
of TRU wastes can be properly understood. Specifically, BNL will investigate (i) the mechanisms of microbial
dissolution and stabilization of transuranics (Pu, Np, and Am), (ii) the biodegradation of representative bulk
organic constituents of the waste, such as, contaminated cellulose-based materials, organic extractants, and
chelating agents, (iii) the biotransformation of selected TRU wastes forms (Pu, Np, and Am contaminated
sludge, materials, and soils), and (iv) microbial transformations that result in reduction in waste volume and the
removal of selected actinides.
WM Descriptor(s):            clean up research; microbial transformation; transuranic waste
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Kalb, Paul D.                                            Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY
                                                         BNL;Upton NY              11973
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BNL;Upton NY
11973 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 631-344-7644
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-07-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                       44

 USA20050013

Title:
Molecular-Scale Kinetic Controls on Metal and Radionuclide Fate and Transport
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Large volumes of soil and sediment within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, minimally contaminated
with radioactive, hazardous or mixed wastes, are not cost-effectively treated by contaminant extraction or
excavation but instead necessitate in situ treatment. The spatial heterogeneity of natural systems and kinetics of
biogeochemical processes present the greatest barriers to scaling up in situ remediation methods from laboratory
model system studies to field-scale implementation. The experimental methodology developed during this
research program is intended to bridge laboratory andfield-scale studies by combining real-time synchrotron-
based spectroscopic studies of contaminant speciation in model flow-thru systems with micro-spectroscopy
studies of contaminant distribution and speciation in real-world soil and sediment. As a test-case this research
will focus on two hypotheses related to biogeochemical processes known to reduce soluble U(VI) species to the
relatively insoluble U(IV) species: 1) U(IV)
WM Descriptor(s):          clean up research; remedial action
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Kalb, Paul D.                                            Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY
                                                         BNL;Upton NY              11973
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BNL;Upton NY
11973 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 631-344-7644
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2004-03-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
 45                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050014

Title:
NONCOMPETITIVE MICROBID DIVERSITY PATTERNS IN SOILS: THEIR CAUSES AND
IMLICATIONS FOR BIOREMEDIATION
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The objective of this study is to determine the structure and composition of microbial communities as
influenced by mixed wastes, and to determine the mechanisms controlling microbial community diversity. The
principal investigators will test the hypotheses that 1) species richness and diversity are lower at contaminated
sites relative to pristine sites, and 2) diversity is a function of spatial isolation of populations and carbon
resource heterogeneity . Microbial community structure and composition at DOE radioactive and mixed waste
sites and adjacent non-contaminated sites will be compared using a 16S rRNA gene cloning approach followed
by restriction pattern analyses. The structure of communities with different soils types will be determined, and
experimental manipulation performed to address spatial isolation and resource heterogeneity. Quantitative
indices will be developed for assessing the differentiation of microbial community diversity patterns.
 WM Descriptor(s):            bioremediation research; microorganisms
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
ANNA PALMISANO,                                          MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
                                                         EAST LANSING
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY                                UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
EAST LANSING        , UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:         From: 1997-09-23 To: 2006-11-14
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
USDOE Office of Science (SC)                                       none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                         46

 USA20050015

Title:
OPTIMIZING THE METALLOREGULATOR FOR METALLOSEQUESTRATION AND
METALLOSENING
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The objectives of this project are: 1. define the biochemical and biophysical basis for the metal affinity and
specificity of merR; 2. re-design MerR to novel specificity and high affinity for radionuclides and processing
waste metals; and 3. test an optimized version of the MerR MBD domain for its ability to protect cells
expressing it.

The Principal Investigator has a significant body of work already in this area and has preliminary results on the
ability of MerR and derivatives to bind heavy metals. A number of biophysical techniques are proposed to
analyze the ability of the altered proteins to bind metals. The use of D. radiodurans as an expression host for the
MerR variants is quite interesting, especially when considering that the accumulation of radioactive metals by
other bacteria expressing MerR most likely results in death of the cell. This is a well conceived project that
uses procedures of protein characterization and genetic engineering to advanced both basic and applied science.
WM Descriptor(s):           bacteria; bioremediation research
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
DANIEL DRELL,                                             GEORGIA UNIVERSITY OF
                                                          ATHENS                                        UNITED
GEORGIA UNIVERSITY OF                                     STATES OF AMERICA
ATHENS            , UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 1999-08-24 To: 2005-08-31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
USDOE Office of Science (SC)                                        none
Recent publication info:
none
 47                                                                                  United States of America

 USA20050016

Title:
High Sensitivity Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Detection
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Primary responsibility is to design and build a prototype dual-optic microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MXRF)
system with high detection sensitivity for elemental characterization of high level waste. XOS will design and
fabricate two polycapillary optics, one used in excitation beam and the other for fluorescent X-ray collection.
The optics will be tested and the performance will be evaluated. A broadboard dual-optic MXRF system,
including the optics, a microfocus X-ray source and a compact energy-dispersive detector will be built at XOS.
Control and analysis software will be developed for the system. Representative samples will be analyzed and the
system performance will be evaluated. The prototype dual-optic MXRF system will be built at XOS. A source-
optic coupling sub-system with alignment and shutter/filter mechanism integrated will be designed and built.
The optic will be pre-aligned with the X-ray source so the excitation X-ray beam will be ready. The collection
optic will be coupled with the EDS detector and the assembly will be mounted on XY stages to provide the
alignment between the collection optic and the excitation beam. The whole system will be integrated in an
enclosure and the focus of the X-ray beam will be defined. The system will be designed in a way that it can be
used either ex-situ or in-situ, i.e. allowing the analysis of objects that cannot be moved. The system will be
tested at XOS and the performance will be evaluated. XOS will participate in testing of the prototype system at
selected DOE sites. XOS will also participate in the data analysis, system performance evaluation, and the
dissemination of the results at conferences and in scientific publications.
 WM Descriptor(s):          evaluation; testing; x-ray fluorescence analysis
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
HIRSCH, ROLAND                                          X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc
                                                        ALBANY                                      UNITED
X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc                              STATES OF AMERICA
ALBANY                   , UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-09-14 To: 2004-09-14
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
EW;USDOE Office of Science (SC)                                  none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                        48

 USA20050017

Title:
IDENTIFICATION OF NON-PERTECHNETATE SPECIES IN HANFORD TANK WASTE, THEIR
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Technetium, as pertechnetate (TcO4-), is a mobile species in the environment. This characteristic, along with its
long half-life, (99Tc, t1/2 = 213,000 a) makes technetium a major contributor to the long-term hazard
associated with low level waste (LLW) disposal. Thus, technetium partitioning from nuclear waste tanks at
DOE sites (Hanford, etc.) may be required so that the LLW forms meet DOE performance assessment criteria.
Technetium separations assume that technetium exists as TcO4- in the tank waste. However, work with actual
Hanford waste indicates that much of the technetium exists in a form other than TcO4- and that these
unidentified technetium species are not readily converted to pertechnetate by oxidation.

Technetium was introduced into the tanks as the pertechnetate anion. However, years of thermal, chemical, and
radiolytic digestion in the presence of organic material, including complexants such as EDTA, NTA, citrate,
and oxalate, has transformed much of the TcO4- into stable, reduced, technetium complexes. To successfully
partition technetium from tank wastes, it will be necessary to either remove these non-pertechnetate species with
a new process, or reoxidize them to TcO4- so that conventional pertechnetate separation scheme will be
successful. The success of DOE's technetium management strategy lies in knowing what these non-pertechnetate
species are and understanding their chemistry. This research will use the technetium complexes prepared under
our original EMSP proposal to develop a capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CEMS) technique that
will be used to identify non-pertechnetate species in actual waste samples. The model technetium complexes
will be used as standards to establish the operational parameters for CEMS for the types of technetium
compounds we speculate are in the waste. Development of this technique is even more critical to resolving the
non-pertechnetate problem since many of the technetium complexes synthesized in our original proposal are too
easily oxidized or show less stability in caustic media compared to the actual non-pertechnetate species in the
waste.
This proposal has three major goals:

(1) develop capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry as a characterization technique,

(2) separate a non-pertechnetate fraction from a waste sample and identify the non-pertechnetate species in it by
CEMS, and

(3) synthesize and characterize bulk quantities of the identified non-pertechnetate species and study their ligand
substitution and redox chemistry.

The transition plan for this work would be to use the fundamental chemistry of the identified non-pertechnetate
species to develop efficient oxidation or separation methods for the non-pertechnetate species in an actual waste
matrix. Meeting the major goals of this project and the transition plan would enable the development of
separation and/or the feed adjustment chemistry that will efficiently remove technetium from the waste and
enable DOE to fulfill its tank waste remediation mission.
WM Descriptor(s):           separation processes; tanks; technetium
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
HIRSCH, ROLAND                                            Texas A&M University-Commerce
                                                          COMMERCE
Texas A&M University-Commerce                             UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
COMMERCE                , UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA
49                                                                        United States of America

Other Investigators:                           Organization Type:
                                              Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-09-10 To: 2004-09-14
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                             Associated Organization(s):
EW;USDOE Office of Science (SC)                         none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                       50

 USA20050018

Title:
Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides...
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
There is a great need to develop sorbents for the removal of Cs-137, Sr-90 and certain actinides, particularly Pu
and Np from weapons-grade nuclear waste. The objective of this program is to study the behavior of those
sorbents that have been utilized for this purpose so as to determine those factors which make them highly
selective in removal of the desired species. This information will then be utilized to improve the performance
of the existing sorbents and as a guide to the synthesis of new sorbents. To this end, the ion exchange process
with be studied by a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance and
thermodynamic procedures. This information will then be used as the basis of theoretical calculations that will
lead to predictive procedures.
 WM Descriptor(s):         actinides; cesium; sorbents; strontium
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
HIRSCH, ROLAND                                           Texas A&M University
                                                         Savannah River Tech. Center;Sand
Texas A&M University                                     UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Savannah River Tech. Center;Sand, UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-09-04 To: 2004-09-14
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM);USDOE                none
Office of Science (SC)
Recent publication info:
none
 51                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050019

Title:
Ultra-Sensitive Elemental and Isotope Measurements with Compact Plasma Source Cavity Ring-Down
Spectroscopy (CPS-CRDS)
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Project Goals: Development of robust and convenient instruments for trace-level actinide and hazardous
elemental monitoring and analysis would be of significant benefit for many DOE applications. One significant
need currently identified by DOE is the analysis of some alpha emitters (U, Pu, Am, etc.) in waste streams and
groundwater. This is typically done with either ICP-MS or alpha scintillation counting (ASC). An ICP-MS can
cost several hundred thousand dollars and cannot distinguish between isotopes with similar masses (i.e., 238Pu
and 238U). ASC methods require tedious sample preparation and long time counting to detect isotopes with low
energies.The funded research is to develop a new class of instruments for actinide isotopes and hazardous
element analysis through coupling highly sensitive cavity ring-down spectroscopy to a compact microwave
plasma source. The research work will combine advantages of CRDS measurement with a low power, low flow
rate, tubing-type microwave plasma source to reach breakthrough sensitivity for elemental analysis and unique
capability of isotope measurement.

The project has several primary goals:

1). Explore the feasibility of marrying CRDS with a new microwave plasma source;

2). Provide quantitative evaluation of CMP-CRDS for ultratrace elemental and actinide isotope analysis;

3). Approach a breakthrough detection limit of ca. 10-13 g/ml or so, which are orders of magnitude better than
currently available best values;

4). Demonstrate the capability of CMP-CRDS technology for isobaric measurements, such as 238U and 238Pu
isotopes.

5). Design and assemble the first compact, field portable CMP-CRDS instrument with a high-resolution diode
laser for DOE/EM on-site demonstration.

With all these unique capabilities and sensitivities, we expect CMP-CRDS will bring a revolutionary change in
instrument design and development, and will have great impact and play critical roles in supporting DOE's
missions in environmental remediation, environmental emission control, waste management and
characterization, and decontamination and decommissioning.

The ultimate goals of the proposed project are to contribute to environmental management activities that would
decrease risk for the public and workers, increase worker productivity with on-site analysis, and tremendously
reduce DOE/EM operating costs. With the project progresses, potential vendors would be sought for
commercialization of the proposed instrument.

Approach: We propose to explore ultratrace elemental and isotope analysis using cavity ring-down
spectroscopy (CRDS) combined with a compact designed, tube-type microwave plasma source as atomic
absorption cell. The research work will marry the high sensitivity of CRDS with a low power compact
microwave plasma source to develop a new class of instrument that gives breakthrough high sensitivity and
unique capability for both elemental and isotope measurements. The use of CRDS as an ultra-sensitive
analytical technique is a natural extension of previous absorption spectrometry methods. However, while CRDS
has rapidly gained popularity among the molecular spectroscopy community, there is very limited work on
exploring atomic absorption with CRDS due to the limitations of atomization cell efficiency. The work
United States of America                                                                                  52
proposed here is the first exploratory research to combine the ultra-sensitive CRDS technology with a compact
microwave plasma source for atomic absorption measurement and isotope analysis. A bench-type CRDS system
will be upgraded and assembled with a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser as an initial step to
demonstrate the feasibility of the technology. A candle-like microwave plasma torch will be used for these
initial tests and to build a science base. At the same time, a compact microwave cavity will be designed to
generate a linear plasma source to extend the absorption path-length.
 WM Descriptor(s):            measuring instruments; spectroscopy
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
HIRSCH, ROLAND                                         Mississippi State University
                                                       MISSISSIPPI STATE
Mississippi State University                           UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
MISSISSIPPI STATE              , UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-09-09 To: 2005-09-14
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
EW;USDOE Office of Environmental Management                     none
(EM);USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Recent publication info:
none
 53                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050020

Title:
Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative: Spent Fuel Treatment Facility
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is currently addressing the reduction of the volume and heat generation of
spent nuclear fuel requiring geologic disposal. This will optimize utilization of the nation's first repository and
reduce or eliminate the need for additional repositories. This will be achieved through separating long-lived,
highly toxic elements, reducing high-level waste volumes and the toxicity of spent nuclear fuel, and reducing the
long-term heat generation of spent nuclear fuel. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory
is working closely with a team of laboratories and other organizations that support the Advanced Fuel Cycle
Initiative program. In support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program, the Idaho National Engineering
and Environmental Laboratory is supporting development of the aqueous separations unit operations, including
Cesium/Strontium separations, contactor design, and the evaluation of speculative separations processes. The
Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is also supporting the Advanced Fuel Cycle
Initiative program through the performance of scoping design studies of a spent fuel treatment facility. Also,
support was provided to a collaboration with France on advanced plant design concepts.Work was performed to
further develop and optimize Cesium/Strontium separation technologies for the treatment of spent fuel. This
includes optimization of the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol process as well as further
development of a crown ether/calixarene solvent extraction process. Flowsheet testing of the chlorinated cobalt
dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol process was performed using 24 stages of 3.3-cm diameter centrifugal
contactor and the results were used to recommend a flowsheet for testing at Argonne National Laboratory - East
with actual spent fuel. A regenerable strip solution was developed and tested for the chlorinated cobalt
dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol process to minimize cesium/strontiumwaste volumes. Support was be
provided to Argonne National Laboratory - East for their hot demonstration of the Uranium Extraction Plus
process. Solvent composition and potential phase modifiers were evaluated for the crown ether/calixarene
process. In support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Separations Working Group, an evaluation of the cold
engineering scale scoping experiments required for Fiscal Year 2005 and out-years wasconducted. In addition,
work was performed to initiate the development of a process simulation code, an evaluation of the requirements
for scale contactor design and reliability and, a multi-site effort to evaluate speculative separations processes
was supported.
 WM Descriptor(s):         advanced accelerator applications; spent fuels; volume reduction
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Law, Jack D.                                             Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                         Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental            INEEL;INEEL;INEEL;Idaho Falls ID 83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                              3870                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                         AMERICA
INEEL;INEEL;INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3870 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-3382 E-mail: jdlaw@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
J. D. Law, R. S. Herbst, D. R. Peterman, R. D. Tillotson, T. A. Todd, �Development of a Cobalt
United States of America                                                                            54
Dicarbollide/Polyethylene Glycol Solvent Extraction Process for Separation of Cesium and Strontium to
Support Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing�, Nuclear Technology, Vol. 147, No. 2, pp 284-290, August 2004.
 55                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050021

Title:
Transuranic Waste Characterization: Radiological, Radiographic, and Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act Properties
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Remote-handled Transuranic waste is currently restricted from disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant due to
an inability to appropriately characterize the radiological, radiographic, and Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act properties of the waste. To solve this intractable problem, we propose a research project to
examine various methods to eliminate Compton scattering continuum in waste gamma ray spectra and thereby,
characterize the fissile material in Remote-handled Transuranic waste. Our hypothesis is that if the detector has
sufficient dynamic range to avoid saturation through use of various Compton continuum suppression methods, it
would be possible to resolve the transuranic gamma ray emissions and use these emissions to characterize
Remote-handled Transuranic waste.

To validate this hypothesis, we propose to: identify the role of various photophysical processes involved in the
transfer of gamma ray energy into luminescent photon in cerium-doped lanthanum halide scintillators, assess the
applicability of Monte Carlo models for predicting Compton scattering in the waste matrix and containment
materials, validate the general functionality of inorganic scintillator based Compton suppression gamma ray
spectrometers. Evaluate the functionality of both methods (individually and combined) of Compton suppression
for resolving transuranic gamma ray emission when it occurs simultaneously with the intense background
emissions produced by fission product species.

The ultimate outcome of this research is twofold: development of the underlying data needed to support Remote-
handled Transuranic waste characterization technology development, and underpinning the technology
certification process. Successful completion of this project will provide new scientific knowledge. This
knowledge may be used to implement the disposition path for Remote-handled Transuranic waste, thus resulting
in better utilization of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal space and reducing the threat to public safety.
 WM Descriptor(s):          characterization; remote handling; spectroscopy; transuranic waste
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Mcilwain, Michael E.                                     Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                         Idaho Falls, ID
Idaho National Engineering and Environmental             INEEL;Westinghouse Electric Co.; 83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                              2208                     UNITED STATES OF
                                                         AMERICA
INEEL;Westinghouse Electric Co.;
83415-2208, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-8130 E-mail: mem@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-08-30 To: 2006-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
Hartwell, J. K., R. J. Gehrke, and M. E. McIlwain, 'Performance comparison of four compact room-temperature
detectors - two cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors, a LaCl3(10% Ce) scintillator, and an
NaI (Tl) scintillator, to be published in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2005.
United States of America                                                                                        56

 USA20050022

Title:
Advanced Fuels Technology
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The United States Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to
transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission
products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition, as well as the long-term
radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the
technology development is actinide-bearing transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium,
americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. There are little irradiation performance data available on non-fertile
fuel forms, which would maximize the destruction rate of plutonium, and low-fertile (i.e., uranium-bearing) fuel
forms, which would support a sustainable nuclear energy option. Initial scoping level irradiation tests on a
variety of candidate fuel forms are needed to establish a transmutation fuel form design and evaluate
deployment of transmutation fuels.

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program currently plans two parallel deployments of transmutation fuels.
The first stage of deployment consists of mixed-oxide fuel forms with minor actinide elements to be irradiated
in commercial light water reactors. The second implementation entails non-fertile and low-fertile metallic or
nitride fuel forms with minor actinide elements irradiated in fast neutron spectrum reactors or accelerator driven
systems.

The Advanced Fuel Cycle-1G and 1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel
development effort. The experiments are high burnup analogs of the Advanced Fuel Cycle-1 and 1F irradiation
experiments. Advanced Fuel Cycle-1G consists of non-fertile and low-fertile nitride compositions, while
Advanced Fuel Cycle-1H consists of low-fertile metallic fuel compositions to be irradiated at burnup. The
Advanced Fuel Cycle-1G and 1H experiments will be performed in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho
National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, as were the other tests. The programmatic and technical
rationale for performing these scoping tests in a thermal reactor has been presented. In summary, there are
many fuel performance issues that depend primarily on temperature and power, which parameters can be varied
by the experiment design, allowing the transmutation fuel performance data to be acquired at an accelerated
schedule and for significantly lower costs.

The irradiation of transmutation fuels is expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-
fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission
product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction.
Experiments Advanced Fuel Cycle-1B and 1D will provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile, actinide-
bearing metallic fuel forms, while experiments Advanced Fuel Cycle-1F and 1H will provide data on low-
fertile, actinide-bearing metallic fuel forms. Experiments Advanced Fuel Cycle-1H and 1G will provide
corresponding data on both non-fertile and low-fertile, actinide-bearing nitride fuel forms.

The results from these tests will be used to benchmark models at high burnup and in planning a high burnup
irradiation experiment in a fast spectrum reactor. The FUTURIX fast spectrum reactor experiment that is
planned in the PHENIX reactor at Marcoule, France starting in December 2006 will be discharged at a burnup
level less than projected for Advanced Fuel Cycle-1G and 1H, so the irradiation performance data are not
necessary. The irradiation performance data of Advanced Fuel Cycle-1G and Advanced Fuel Cycle-1H will
provide data on the safety margin at low burnup irradiations and will be part of the required safety data for a
high burnup, fast neutron reactor irradiation test.
 WM Descriptor(s):          advanced accelerator applications; fuels; high-level radioactive wastes; transmutation
57                                                                             United States of America

Principal Investigator:                         Organization Performing the work:
Utterbeck, Debra J.                             Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental   INEEL;Idaho Falls ID         83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                     3890                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                AMERICA
INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3890 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-2782 E-mail: udu@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                            Organization Type:
                                                Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-06-01 To: 2006-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                              Associated Organization(s):
none                                                     none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                       58

 USA20050023

Title:
Gas Fast Reactor
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Nuclear power can play a significant role in meeting future electricity needs, and in significantly reducing
emissions compared to fossil-fueled power plants. However, the next generation of nuclear power plants will be
expected to demonstrate significant advancements in economics, safety, waste disposal, and proliferation
resistance to weapons usable material. In an effort to address these issues, a gas-cooled fast reactor is proposed
that will have long fuel cycles, has high thermal efficiency, and is passively safe.

Previous work points out that those issues requiring further investigation in the development of gas-cooled fast
reactors are the containment strategy, high burnup core and fuel, and the costing basis and cost reduction
options. We plan to utilize the advantages of a gas-cooled system, while addressing and offering solutions to the
aforementioned issues by exploring fuel, core, material, and plant design alternatives for a gas-cooled fast
reactor. The project will explore designs that show potential for having capital and operating costs low enough
to compete with fossil-fueled power generation and will maintain a high level of safety, proliferation resistant,
and discharge relatively little high-level waste. In addition, the high temperatures that might be achieved make
this particular concept a potential candidate in hydrogen production schemes as a co-generation plant.
 WM Descriptor(s):          future reactors / waste minimization; next generation nuclear energy systems
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Weaver, Kevan D.                                         Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                         Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental            INEEL;Idaho Falls ID         83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                              3850                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                         AMERICA
INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3850 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-0321 E-mail: weavkd@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-09-01 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
 59                                                                                      United States of America

 USA20050024

Title:
Mineralizing Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The United States Department of Energy desired further experimental data, with regard to fluidized bed steam
reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning the selection of supplemental treatment
technology for Hanford low activity waste and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's
sodium-bearing waste. Radioactive experimental data were desired to provide the most beneficial information
to Department of Energy. It was recognized that there was not an experimental fluidized bed test system/facility
available to generate experimental radioactive data in the desired time frame. Therefore, a collaboration
involving laboratory work at Savannah River National Laboratory and pilot scale work at the Idaho National
Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was initiated to provide the desired information.

The overall objectives of this activity are to validate the correlation between laboratory scale experiments and
pilot scale fluidized bed experiments; that is, validate that the products made in the laboratory and those
generated in a fluidized bed have the same chemical/physical properties, generate data that proves the
operability of fluidized bed steam reforming with the appropriate waste mineralizing chemistry, provide
fundamental understanding of the chemistry and mineralization of waste forms in containing and holding
radionuclides and hazardous contaminants, and provide information about the longer term performance and
durability of the mineralized product.

The objectives were to be achieved by performing laboratory experiments at Savannah River National
Laboratory that would first optimize steam reforming mineralization chemistry, performing pilot scale fluidized
bed experiments that produce product that is similar to and can be compared against the laboratory product,
perform pilot scale fluidized bed and laboratory experiments for two waste streams; Idaho National Engineering
and Environmental Laboratory's sodium-bearing waste and Hanford low-activity waste, characterize products
via chemical composition measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microsope, measure product
durability via Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure and Product Consistency Test, and measure performance
by the Single Pass Flow Through test and Pressurized Unsaturated Flow test.The Idaho National Engineering
and Environmental Laboratory's pilot scale fluidized bed processing test system, owned by the Department of
Energy, at the Science Applications International Corporation's Science and Technology Applications Research
facility was to be operated to obtain the pilot scale experimental data. Continuous processing tests of THORSM
Treatment Technology mineralized fluidized bed steam reforming process technology with simulated waste
materials representative of Hanford low activity waste and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental
Laboratory's sodium bearing waste were to be performed.
WM Descriptor(s):          demonstration programs; evaluation; steam reforming
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Olson, Arlin L.                                           Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                          Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental             INEEL;INEEL;INEEL;Science Applic 83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                               3670                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                          AMERICA
INEEL;INEEL;INEEL;Science Applic
83415-3670 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-3852 E-mail: alolson@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2004-04-05 To: 2005-01-15
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
United States of America                                    60
Sponsoring Organization(s):   Associated Organization(s):
none                          none
Recent publication info:
none
 61                                                                                       United States of America

 USA20050025

Title:
Steam Reformer Waste Conversion
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Westinghouse Savannah River Company has tasked Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC to perform the proof of
concept test. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory will provide for Savannah River a
demonstration of the Steam Reformer process to test the ability of the process to convert the organic waste
material to carbon dioxide and water using non-radioactive Tank 48 waste Simulant. Funding from
Westinghouse Savannah River Company has been arranged via a Department of Energy Interoffice Work
Agreement. This is a scoping test to evaluate the product, process, and identify issues.

The primary, quantifiable test objectives are:

Determine if the fluidized-bed steam reformer can be operated to treat simulated Tank 48 without serious
agglomeration of bed particles or defluidization.

Characterize the composition, amounts, and properties of the solid products.

Determine if the test conditions can achieve at least 99% reduction of NOx evolved from the nitrates and nitrites
in the feed.

Determine if the test conditions can achieve at least 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate in the feed.

Determine the fate of other feed constituents and additives including halides Fluorine and Chlorine, Aluminium,
and other metals.

Characterize the composition of the off-gas after filtration.
WM Descriptor(s):        evaluation; steam reforming
Principal Investigator:                                    Organization Performing the work:
Olson, Nolan C.                                            Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                           Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental              INEEL;INEEL;INEEL;Idaho Falls ID 83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                                3670                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                           AMERICA
INEEL;INEEL;INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3670 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-533-4161 E-mail: nolson@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-06-03 To: 2004-11-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
N. R. Soelberg, D. W. Marshall, S. O. Bates, and D. Siemer, SRS Tank 48H Waste Steam Reforming Proof-of-
Concept Test Results, INEEL/EXT-03-01118, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
September 15, 2003.
United States of America                                                                                        62

 USA20050026

Title:
Waste Package Closure Cell Development
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This project includes tasks to develop a full scale replica of a waste package closure system that will be used at
the Yucca Mountain Project to close waste packages after they are filled with spent nuclear fuel. Tasks include
development of systems and equipment for welding, non-destructive examination, leak detection, inerting, and
material handling.
 WM Descriptor(s):         packaging; spent fuels; yucca mountain
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Birk, Sandra M.                                           Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                          Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental             INEEL;Idaho Falls ID         83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                               3135                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                          AMERICA
INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3135 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-1866 E-mail: bir@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-06-01 To: 2008-01-31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
 63                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050027

Title:
Yucca Mountain Independent Software Validation and Verification
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This project performed retesting and remediation of software codes used to support the Yucca Mountain
License Application.
WM Descriptor(s):         software testing; software validation
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Birk, Sandra M.                                        Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                       Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental          INEEL;Idaho Falls ID         83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                            3135                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                       AMERICA
INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3135 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-1866 E-mail: bir@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-11-01 To: 2004-07-31
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
none                                                            none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                      64

USA20050028

Title:
Liquid Transuranic Waste Sampling
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Liquid TRU Waste sampling and evaluation.
WM Descriptor(s):          liquid wastes; sampling; transuranium elements
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Brewer, Ken N.                                          Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                        Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental           INEEL;Idaho Falls ID         83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                             5210                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                        AMERICA
INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-5210 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-3018 E-mail: kbn@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 65                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050029

Title:
Geophysical and Radiologic Assay System: Delineation and Waste Excavation
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is teamed with North Wind Inc. in support of
North Wind's proposal to the Department of Energy, This proposal is for the in-situ delineation and excavation
of transuranic waste utilizing innovative technologies at Hanford burial grounds. The burial grounds are 218-W
4A Low-Level, 618-10, and 618-11. The proposed work will be accomplished in three phases with this task
covering phase II. Phase II will be accomplished in two parts including the successful demonstration of
proposed technologies at a cold test facility and a hot field test conducted at Hanford's Low-Level Burial
Grounds. Cold Test Facility: in Phase II a demonstration of technologies to accomplish in-situ delineation,
retrieval, packaging and loading of a cold Vertical Pipe Unit containing simulated waste packages shall be
completed. Upon notification to proceed, the team shall complete a demonstration of technologies to
accomplish in-situ delineation, retrieval, packaging and loading of an actual Vertical Pipe Unit containing
radioactive waste packages. Characterization of the soil below the Vertical Pipe Unit shall also be completed.
The team shall excavate and package the Vertical Pipe Unit in accordance with a plan worked out with the
Hanford Site contractor. All in-situ delineation activities shall be coordinated with the on-site contractor and
shall become an integral part of the on-site Transuranic waste retrieval project. Technology verification and
validation shall be conducted on a statistically valid number of samples. After the demonstration the team shall
complete the decontamination and removal of all equipment from the demonstration site.
WM Descriptor(s):           demonstration programs; geophysical surveys; retrieval; transuranic waste
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Priebe, Steve J.                                        Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,
                                                        Idaho Falls, ID
 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental           INEEL;INEEL;Idaho Falls ID      83415-
Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID                             3875                      UNITED STATES OF
                                                        AMERICA
INEEL;INEEL;Idaho Falls ID
83415-3875 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 208-526-0898 E-mail: priebesj@inel.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2004-08-16 To: 2006-06-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                        66

 USA20050030

Title:
Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) was launched in fiscal year 2003 as an outgrowth of the
Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program, which was authorized by Congress in fiscal year 2001, to
address pressing nuclear issues facing the United States.

A key roadblock to development of additional nuclear power capacity is the concern over management of the
nuclear waste produced by the plants, which requires disposal. AFCI is developing the technology base for
waste transmutation (the nuclear transformation of long-lived radioactive materials into short-lived or non-
radioactive materials), and will demonstrate its practicality and value for long-term waste management. AFCI’s
transmutation technology has the potential to extract energy from nuclear waste and make it available to the
national power grid, representing a potentially huge amount of energy (equivalent to ~10 billion barrels of oil).

Since 1980, nuclear engineering enrollments at US universities have sharply declined. No new nuclear power
plants have been ordered in the United States since the late 1970s. Although the US retains considerable
influence in global nuclear issues due to its superpower status, its relevance and leadership in the international
arena of nuclear technology is shrinking substantially. The AFC Initiative includes plans to provide capabilities
for demonstration of waste transmutation and advanced nuclear technologies such as those for Generation IV
reactors. The Program will establish and support a national university program to reenergize development and
training in nuclear engineering and related fields, and develop research partnerships to rebuild a declining
national nuclear science technology base.

http://aaa.lanl.gov/aboutaaa.html
WM Descriptor(s):          advanced accelerator applications; high-level radioactive wastes; transmutation
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Mike Cappiello,                                           Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM
                                                          LANL;Los Alamos NM
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM            87545                     UNITED STATES OF
LANL;Los Alamos NM                                        AMERICA
87545 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 505-665-6408
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:         From: 2003-01-08 To: 2010-09-01
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
 67                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050031

Title:
HIGH SENSITIVITY MICRO X-RAY
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
HLW tank waste characterization requires high sensitivity multielemental analysis in radioactive high salt
matrices. The problems associated with this characterization can be overcome by development of an innovative
dual-optic micro X-rayfluorescence (MXRF) instrument. Current conventional methods require sample
preparation that takes time and does not provide timely results. The dual-optic MXRF instrument provides high
X-ray flux, spatially resolved elemental analysis in a non-destructive manner with high sensitivity. The goal of
this work is to produce a prototype instrument that can be developed into an on-line instrument for HLW
process stream analyses.
 WM Descriptor(s):          characterization; high-level radioactive wastes; x-ray fluorescence analysis
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
NEU MARY P,                                              Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM
                                                         LANL;Los Alamos NM
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM           87545                     UNITED STATES OF
LANL;Los Alamos NM                                       AMERICA
87545 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 505-667-7717
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-09-19 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     68

 USA20050032

Title:
Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This program addresses the fundamental solution chemistry of technetium in the waste tank environment, and in
a second part, the stability of Tc in various waste forms.
WM Descriptor(s):           actinides; chemistry; high-level radioactive wastes; tanks; technetium
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Gill, Angela A                                         Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                       LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,       8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                     AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-2276
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 1998-09-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
none                                                            none
Recent publication info:
none
 69                                                                                United States of America

 USA20050033

Title:
Understanding the Chemistry of the Actinides in High Level Waste Tank Systems
Title in Original Language:                                 Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Understanding the Chemistry of the Actinides in High Level Waste Tank Systems: The Impact of Temperature
on Hydrolysis and Complexation with Organics
WM Descriptor(s):       actinides; high-level radioactive wastes; tanks
Principal Investigator:                              Organization Performing the work:
Gill, Angela A                                       Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                     LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,     8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                   AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-2276
Other Investigators:                                 Organization Type:
                                                    Other
Program Duration:     From: 1999-09-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                   Associated Organization(s):
none                                                          none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                         70

 USA20050034

Title:
Speciation, Dissolution, and Redox Reactions of Chromium Relevant to Pretreatment and Separation of High-
Level Tank Wastes
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The research to be conducted at LBNL is a part of the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)
renewal project Speciation, dissolution, and redox reactions of chromium relevant to pretreatment and
separation of high-level tank wastes, in collaboration with Dr. D. Rai at the Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory. It builds on the fundamental data developed under our current EMSP project and seeks to develop
additional fundamental data for Cr reactions that are not currently available but are essential for the processing
of HLW.
WM Descriptor(s):          high-level radioactive wastes; tanks
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Gill, Angela A                                            Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                          LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,          8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                        AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-2276
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:         From: 1999-09-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
 71                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050035

Title:
Cryo-EM Imgaing of DNA-PK-DNA Damage Repair Complexes
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
In this project, we propose to use cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of DNA-PK complex. Specific
aims for this proposal are 1) to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex.
Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the
complex. 2) to locate the kinase domain of DNA-PKcs by determining the structure of a kinase deletion mutant
both as an isolated protein and as part of a DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex; and 3) to pursue higher resolution
cryo-EM structural studies of DNA-PKcs and of the DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex.

In order to achieve these goals, our laboratory at LBL will be responsible for the biochemical characterization
and preparation of all the necessary reagents for Dr. Steward's lab at UCLA. Especially important, we willWe
design and purify recombinant Ku70/80 protein, HeLa DNA PKcs (wild type and mutant forms), assemble the
Ku/DNA-PKcs/DNA complex by novel cross linking and gel filtration approaches.

Knowledge of the geometrical arrangement of the complex, and the position of the essential DNA-PKcs kinase
domain, should lead to a greater understanding of the molecular events in DNA double-strand break repair
following exposure to low doses of radiation.
WM Descriptor(s):         DNA repair mechanisms; low dose radiation effects; structural biology
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Schlee, Katharine M                                      Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                         LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,         8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                       AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-4565
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                       72

 USA20050036

Title:
Integrated Isotopic Studies of Geochemical Processes
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Research on geochemical processes using isotope ratios and trace element concentrations in natural materials.
Natural isotopic tracers provide critical calibration of process models used in environmental management,
radioactive waste management, geothermal technology development, global climate change, and energy
exploration. A major focus of the proposed work involves using multi-collector ICP mass spectrometry to
investigate natural isotopic variations of Fe, Ca and other elements. This work may provide new perspectives
on the role of Fe and Ca in the carbon cycle and in weathering processes. Cr isotopic variations will also be
investigated as a way to better understand the mobility and environmental effects of Cr contamination. Ca, Sr
and U isotopes will be used to study in situ rates of weathering reactions in fluid-rock systems, and evaluated as
measures of groundwater velocity and infiltration flux. U-Th-He geochronology will be investigated as a
geochronologic tool for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Noble gas concentration measurements will be
developed for continental paleo-temperature studies, and their use as a global change monitor explored.
Modeling studies are aimed at relating isotopic variations to reservoir characteristics, atmospheric moisture
transport, and drainage rates in deep soils of arid regions.
 WM Descriptor(s):         geochemistry
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Miller, Grace A                                          Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                         LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,         8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                       AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-6726
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 1988-06-01 To: 2006-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
 73                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050037

Title:
Yucca Mountain Project
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The purpose of the Yucca Mountain Project is to determine if Yucca Mountain, Nevada is suitable for the
country's high level nuclear waste storage facility. Yucca Mountain includes site characterization and
performance assessment through field testing, lab testing, and computer modeling. LBNL will perform both
ambient and active testing at Yucca Mountain. These activities will be used to improve our models of the
mountain thus enabling us to predict what will happen to the repository, the mountain, and the environment for
tens of thousands of years into the future.
 WM Descriptor(s):         cost of work performed; radioactive waste management; site investigations; transfers
                           to others
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Miller, Grace A                                         Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                        LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,        8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                      AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-6726
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:         From: 2000-10-01 To: 2008-09-30
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                        74

 USA20050038

Title:
Pena Blanca Work
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Assemble a 'science plan' for Pena Blanca, as a useful analog site to Yucca Mountain. Specifically, consider the
natural system at this uranium ore deposit, and devise several research goals in radionuclide migration, ground
water flow and transport, and source term evolution that can enhance understanding of analogous processes at a
Yucca Mountain repository. These research goals should be scoped sufficiently to define in conceptual terms
how they can be achieved by field studies at Pena Blanca (supplemented by laboratory work).

This 'science plan' should access work plans already conceived to meet near-term Yucca Mountain Project
objectives, but can go beyond such plans to identify new workscopes in potentially longer timeframes. To
accomplish this task, solicit inputs from interested and knowledgeable parties, including colleagues in other
institutions (particularly the Los Alamos National Laboratory) as necessary. The end-of-FY deliverable is a
report summarizing results of these assessments.
 WM Descriptor(s):           radioactive waste management; site investigations
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Miller, Grace A                                          Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA
                                                         LBNL;Berkeley CA            94720-
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,         8099                     UNITED STATES OF
CA                                                       AMERICA
LBNL;Berkeley CA
94720-8099 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 510-486-6726
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-04-18 To: 2005-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
 75                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050039

Title:
US Surplus Fissile Materials Disposition
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
U.S. Surplus Fissile Materials Disposition - U.S. Surplus Plutonium Disposition - Pit
Disassembly&Conversion; Immobilization & Associated Processing Activities required to evaluate methodsfor
the immobilization of surplus plutonium by immobilization in ceramic form and placing it in a geologic
repository. Includes R & D, testing, demonstration, and implementation of selected technologies, well as
activities associated with the evaluation, test, and demonstration of technologies to convert non-pit materials to
a form suitable for disposition
 WM Descriptor(s):          fissile materials disposition; plutonium
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
COCHRAN, STEPHEN G                                       Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
                                                         LLNL;Livermore CA           94550-
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,                  9900                    UNITED STATES OF
Livermore, CA                                            AMERICA
LLNL;Livermore CA
94550-9900 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 925-423-1840
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 1978-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     76

 USA20050040

Title:
INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY - ICGRST
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Support the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in international activities to foster
the exchange of geologic repository information. Establish the International Center for Geologic Repository
Science and Technolgoy (ICGRST). Interact with Russia, Eastern Europe, South America and Korea in
planning potential geologic respository science and technology centers in their respective countries.
 WM Descriptor(s):        geologic repositories; international co-operation; radioactive waste management; site
                          investigations
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
LONG, JANE C S                                          Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
                                                        LLNL;Livermore CA           94550-
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,                 9900                    UNITED STATES OF
Livermore, CA                                           AMERICA
LLNL;Livermore CA
94550-9900 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 925-422-0315
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-03-01 To: 2007-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 77                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050041

Title:
Support to DOE/Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The Repository Science Program at LLNL will provide support to DOE/OCRWM in several areas of
international cooperation on the subject of management of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste.
Activites include:- Continued participation in the NEA 'Thermodynamic Data Base Working Group'-
Participation in the NEA 'Expert Group on the Impact of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options onWaste
Management Policies'- Continued support for cooperation with Russia on Geologic Repository development-
Support for cooperation with Asian Waste Management programs
 WM Descriptor(s):        international co-operation
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
LONG, JANE C S                                          Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
                                                        LLNL;Livermore CA           94550-
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,                 9900                    UNITED STATES OF
Livermore, CA                                           AMERICA
LLNL;Livermore CA
94550-9900 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 925-422-0315
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                  78

 USA20050042

Title:
CERAMIC BOREHOLE SEALANTS (PARTNERSHIP)
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Develop and demonstrate novel Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic (CBC) borehole sealants for on and off-
shore oil drilling applications, based on a similar technology developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
for stabilization of radioactive wastes.
WM Descriptor(s):           boreholes; sealing materials
Principal Investigator:                               Organization Performing the work:
Jacobs, Rhonda (Lindsey) L                            National Energy Technology Laboratory
                                                      Argonne National Laboratory-IL ( 60439-
National Energy Technology Laboratory                 4837                     UNITED STATES OF
Argonne National Laboratory-IL (                      AMERICA
60439-4837 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 918-699-2037 E-mail:
Rhonda.Jacobs@netl.doe.gov
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-04-15 To: 2003-04-14
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
none                                                            none
Recent publication info:
none
 79                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050043

Title:
Californium Industrial/University Sales/Loan
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Californium (Cf-252), recovered at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), is transferred
to the REDC Californium Facility (CF) where it is further purified to remove Cm-244, other actinides, and
fission products. Neutron sources and 'bulk' shipments are then prepared from the purified Cf-252 as part of the
DOE Industrial/University Sales/Loan Program. Neutron sources are loaned to DOE laboratories, DOD
agencies, other government agencies, universities, and medical facilities. Typically, loans to government
agencies include facilities such as Pantex, the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, INEEL,
Rocky Flats, Fluor Hanford, etc. These facilities use the Cf sources for activities such as neutron activation
analysis or neutron radiography. Pantex uses Cf neutron sources in their Quality Assurance (QA) program
supporting weapons dismantling as well as ensuring that weapons components meet QA requirements for the
stockpile stewardship program. This program is carried out by the staff of the REDC as an extension of
operations currently being conducted under the Transuranium Element Processing Program (KC 02 04 01 A).
There is no program to produce Cf-252 specifically for this project. Neutron sources loaned through the Cf
Sales/Loan Program to DOE, other government agencies, universities, and other users are returned to the REDC
for either reloan or the recovery of Cm-248, the alpha-decay daughter of Cf-252. In this way, the Cf-252
Sales/Loan Program provides a mechanism for the Cf-252 to be put to beneficial use during the period in which
it would otherwise be stored awaiting radioactive decay to Cm-248. The total amount of Cf-252 currently being
prepared as 'bulk' shipments for sale to commercial encapsulators represents only 10 to 15 % of current Cf-252
inventory.
 WM Descriptor(s):          Cf-252; neutron sources
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Marschman, Steve                                        Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                         Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                           37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                         AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-576-3391 E-mail:
MARSCHMANSC@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 1985-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                      80

 USA20050044

Title:
Reference Set of Sediment Samples
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This project supports several research groups within the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation (NABIR)
Program that are addressing interaction of toxic metals and mineral oxides surfaces, as well as the multi-faceted
roles of humic substances in bioremediation. Specifically, this project assists testing of research hypotheses by
providing well-characterized, field-relevant natural material by establishing and maintaining a repository of
reference material to be distributed to investigators. The goal of developing a common materials set is to
promote coordination of research efforts, facilitate comparisons of results of individual researchers, and
integrate understanding of complex environmental processes. The use of common sources of natural material
can facilitate inter-comparison of data and enhance the transfer of new mechanistic understanding of key
processes between NABIR projects. This work will also assist NABIR researchers in characterization of humic
materials at field sites relevant to the NABIR Field Research Center because humics may influence the retention
of microbiota during planned bacterial transport experiments.

Work will include collection, concentration and chracterization of natural organic matter from groundwater at
the Field Research Center (FRC) reference site and humic-rich sites at Kitty Hawk Woods, NC, and extraction
and characterization of humics from soil and sediments at the FRC, as well as, maintenance of the Reference
Material Web Site, and development of data critical to evaluating the role of autochthonous humics on bacterial
transport.
 WM Descriptor(s):        bioremediation research; organic matter; sediments
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Watson, David B                                          Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                          Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                            37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                          AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-241-4749 E-mail: WATSONDB@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 1997-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 81                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050045

Title:
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is focused on improving our understanding of
atmospheric radiative energy transfer, cloud formation, and the parameterization of these functions in general
circulation models (GCM) for global climate change research. ARM field sites include dozens of instruments
that intensely measure radiative transfer, cloud properties, and meteorology. These measurements collected by
ARM results in enormous amounts of data with long-term research value.

The ARM Data Archive, launched in 1992 at ORNL, serves as the chief repository for ARM Program data and
provides a gateway for access to them. The Archive stores and manages ARM data files in a large, robotically
controlled tape library. Most of the available data are either in the netCDF or the HDF format. This project
will continue the operation and development of the ARM Archive (its storage systems, user interface, network
connections with other ARM systems, and database for metadata about the data collection and Archive
operations). In FY 2004, the ARM Archive started supporting data storage and distribution generated from
ARM User Facility collaborations.
WM Descriptor(s):          atmospheric radiation measurement (arm)
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
McCord, Raymond A                                       Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                         Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                           37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                         AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-574-7827 E-mail: MCCORDRA@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-06-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                        82

 USA20050046

Title:
Development and Use of 16S rRNA Gene-Based Oligonucleotide
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Rapid, parallel, and cost-effective detection tools that can be operated in real time and in field-scale
heterogeneous environments are needed for assessing microbial communities that impact the in situ
bioremediation of radionuclides and metals. Conventional nucleic acid-based approaches to characterizing
microbial populations are currently too labor-intensive and time-consuming for high output and real-time data
analysis. Thus, the goal of thisstudy is to optimize and validate 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based
oligonucleotide microarrays for analyzing microbial community composition and dynamics at contaminated
DOE sites. The project objectives are: (1) To optimize and validate 16S rRNA gene-based oligonucleotide
microarrays for assessing microbial community composition and dynamics at radioactive and mixed waste sites;
and (2) to create and implement new computer algorithms for designing oligonucleotide probes that are specific
for different taxonomic groups of targeted organisms. Although we have successfully used DNA microarrays
for analyzing microbial communities in soils and marine sediments, oligonucleotide-based arrays present special
challenges in terms of probe design and immobilization, hybridization specificity, and sensitivity. Our strategy
is to address these challenges by (a) optimizing hybridization with small-scale model oligonucleotide
microarrays in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and quantitation; (b) validating larger prototype oligonucleotide
arrays using environmental samples from the proposed FRC; and (c) devising new bioinformatics programs that
facilitate the probe design process for microarray applications. The research proposed here should provide a
rapid, quantitative, field-applicable, and cost-effective tool for monitoring environmental microbial
communities that, in turn, permits a more effective assessment of bioremediation strategies and endpoints.
 WM Descriptor(s):          bioremediation research
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Zhou, Jizhong                                             Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                           Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                             37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                           AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-576-7544 E-mail: ZHOUJ@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
 83                                                                                       United States of America

 USA20050047

Title:
Understanding the roles of spatial isolation and carbon in microbial community structure, dynamics, and activity
for bioremediation
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Application of bioremediation to mixed wastes is complicated by the unpredictability of the microbiological
processes under multiple stress conditions. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that little information is
available about the factors and mechanisms controlling microbial community structure and activities. Thus, the
goal of this study is to establish a scientific foundation for in situ bioremediation of DOE contaminated sites
through understanding the mechanisms that control structure, composition, function and dynamics of microbial
communities. Towards this goal, the following two objectives will be pursued: (1) To determine the key
mechanisms controlling soil microbial community structure, and (2) To determine the impacts of radioactive
and mixed waste contaminants on the structure and composition of microbial communities and the effects of
spatial isolation on the responses of microbial communities to such contaminants. To achieve these objectives,
we will test various hypotheses related to spatial isolation, carbon source heterogeneity and contaminant levels
by comparing microbial community structure, composition and activities at both laboratory and the NABIR Oak
Ridge Field Research Center. We will also develop novel microarray-based genomic technology and use them
in conjunction with conventional molecular tools to monitor microbial community dynamics. The developed
microarray-based genomic tools will also be used to analyze microbial community structure and activities for
three multidisciplinary field proposals. This research will be conducted as a collaborative project by scientists at
Michigan State University (MSU) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).
 WM Descriptor(s):           bioremediation research
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Zhou, Jizhong                                             Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                           Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                             37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                           AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-576-7544 E-mail: ZHOUJ@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                         84

 USA20050048

Title:
Microsensors for In-situ Chemical, Physical and Radiological Characterization of Mixed Waste
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for the characterization and monitoring
of transuranic waste, mixed waste, ground water, contaminated soil, and process streams are needed within the
DOE complex. A continuation of this basic research program is proposed to study the influence of control of the
electrochemical potential of a metallic coating on a microcantilever as a means of developing specific and
highly sensitive sensors. Basic research will be needed to understand the influence of variation of
electrochemical potential on the bending of cantilevers in an electrolyte solution. Changes in the chemical
potential of a metal-electrolyte interface, effected by changing the applied potential, leads to a change in the
depletion or accumulation of substances at the interface. This change in the surface excess at the interface is
reflected in a change in the interfacial tension, which is sensitively detected as cantilever deflection. Deposition
of electroactive heavy metals as well as the adsorption of metal oxide species will be detectable as a cantilever
bending. We plan to continue field-testing cantilever sensors at DOE sites as appropriate. A sensor for large
poorly hydrated anions (ClO4-, ReO4-, TcO4-) based on a quarternary ammonium SAM coating is under
development and will be field tested when appropriate. The advantage of cantilever sensors is that once the
basic platform is developed, it can be the basis for a plethora of inexpensive, miniature sensors.
WM Descriptor(s):           in-situ characterization; monitoring; transuranic waste
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Thundat, Thomas George                                    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                           Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                             37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                           AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-574-6201 E-mail: THUNDATTG@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2006-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
 85                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050049

Title:
Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste loading, and
corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of liquidus temperatures and
thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for the liquidus are empirically-based, depending on
extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste
forms use simplistic assumptions of the thermochemistry or experimentally measured values obtained under non
realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for
HLW glass behavior.

In the previous project significant progress was made in modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was
accurately represented along with the additional FeO-Fe2O3, Li2O, K2O, MgO, and CaO components.
Nepheline precipitation, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. The
objective of the proposed new effort is to continue the development of a basic understanding of the phase
equilibria and solid solution of HLW glasses, incorporating other critical waste constituents including, S, Cr, F,
P, actinides and rare earths. With regard to a fundamental understanding of solution oxides, there should be
added insights on defect chemistry, interstitial behavior, clustering, and the energetics of metal oxide solutes.
WM Descriptor(s):           high-level radioactive wastes; stability; waste forms
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Besmann, Theodore M                                      Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                          Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                            37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                          AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-574-6852 E-mail: BESMANNTM@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     86

 USA20050050

Title:
Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This research involves collaboration among Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory, and the University of North Texas to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium
hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential
benefit of this research is a major reduction in the waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste
tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward
discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from
waste-like matrices. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction that was demonstrated in the prior
three years using fluorinated alcohols and phenols will be enhanced by greater understanding of the controlling
equilibria and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers and new ionizable lariat ethersdesigned for sodium
binding. A major new thrust will be initiated to target sodium nitrate, either alone or together with sodium
hydroxide. Applicable principles to be understood include solvation effects that promote efficient sodium
nitrate extraction and appropriate crown ether design for efficient sodium binding and rejection of cesium.
Studies with real tank waste will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties.
 WM Descriptor(s):           separation processes; sodium compounds; volume reduction
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Moyer, Bruce A                                          Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                         Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                           37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                         AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-574-6718 E-mail: MOYERBA@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 87                                                                                     United States of America

 USA20050051

Title:
Optical and Microcantilever-Based Sensors for Real-Time In Situ Characterization
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Fundamental research is being conducted to develop sensors for cesium and strontium that can be used in real-
time to characterize high-level waste (HLW) process streams. Two fundamentally different approaches will be
pursued, which have in common the dependence on highly selective molecular recognition agents. In one
approach, an array of chemically selective sensors with sensitive fluorescent probes to signal the presence of the
constituent of interest will be coupled to fiber optics for remote analytical applications. The second approach
will employ sensitive microcantilever sensors that have been demonstrated to have unprecedented sensitivity in
solution for Cs+, Hg, and CrO4-. Selectivity in microcantilever-based sensors is achieved by modifying the
surface of a gold-coated cantilever with a monolayer coating of an alkanethiol derivative of the molecular
recognition agent. The microcantilever-based sensors function by converting molecular complexation into
surface stress. Molecular recognition with these sensors is achieved using ionophores constructed with the
three-dimensional architecture provided by calix[4]arenes, a widely used platform for metal ion complexation.
Fluorescent sensors utilize a fluorophore group that responds to metal ion complexation. Anthracene, dansyl,
coumarin, and pyrene have been covalently attached to calixarenes and investigated as fluorophores. Upon
complexation of the metal ion by the ionophore, the above fluorophores signal complexation by a change in the
fluorescence intensity. Calix[4]arenes containing the covalently attached ionophore are substituted with
alkanethiols which form a self-assembled monolayer on the gold surface for microcantilever sensing. Current
research is focusing on dialkanethiols in which one of the alkane groups is a hydrocarbon filler and the other is
attached to the calixarene. Calix[4]arene crown-6-ether ionophores are selective for Cs+ and crown-5-ethers
will be tested for K+.
 WM Descriptor(s):          high-level radioactive wastes; in-situ characterization
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Brown, Gilbert {Gil} M                                   Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                          Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                            37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                          AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-576-2756 E-mail: BROWNGM1@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 2001-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                          88

 USA20050052

Title:
A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
In-situ characterization of actinides and technetium compounds in high level wastes is essential to achieve
shorter turn-around times for analytical results or to facilitate tank closure after retrieval. Currently, techniques
for monitoring and characterizing radionuclides rely primarily on liquid scintillation counting, ICP-MS, and
some limited use of the spectrofluorimetry based on fluorescence of radionuclide species under laser or UV
excitation. These techniques require chemical handling, e.g., the use of complexing media, scintillation
cocktails, phosphoric acids, in order to enhance signals. Furthermore, only fluorescent radionuclides [Uranyl
ions, Cm(III), Am(III)]can be detected by the last technique. Many environmentally-important radionuclides
such as plutonium, neptunium, and technetium species have no strong fluorescence signals and therefore can not
be characterized via fluorescence spectroscopy. This proposed research serves to fill this information gap
through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and
sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS
technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant
improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation.
 WM Descriptor(s):          actinides; in-situ characterization; raman spectroscopy; technetium
Principal Investigator:                                    Organization Performing the work:
Dai, Sheng                                                 Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                            Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                              37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                            AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-576-7307 E-mail: DAIS@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                          Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                 none
Recent publication info:
none
 89                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050053

Title:
Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This fundamental research on combined cesium, strontium, and actinide separation from alkaline media by
solvent extraction addresses the EM need for more efficient processes for the combined separation of these
elements. The goal of this research is to obtain fundamental information for the development of more efficient
processes for the combined separation of cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from high level waste
within the U.S. DOE complex. These improved processes are targeted primarily for treating the wastes present
at the U.S. DOE's Hanford and Savannah River sites. Combined separation of the radionuclides from these
wastes would permit disposal of the treated waste as low-level waste, significantly reducing the volume of high
level waste. Solvent extraction using the calixarene-based CSSX process has been shown to be a very effective
separation method for cesium removal from High Level Waste (HLW) present at the U.S. Department of
Energy's (U.S. DOE's) Savannah River Site.        The wastes present at these sites are highly alkaline and
accordingly most of the actinides are in the sludge phase. However, enough actinide materials still remain in the
supernatant liquid requiring separation followed by disposal in a geological repository. The principal goal of
this work is to extend the solvent extraction technology chosen in October 2001 by U.S. DOE to remove cesium
from the SRS high level waste. It would include removal of strontium and actinides, therefore addressing the
need to develop an alternative to MST that would achieve the separation of all radionuclides, possibly in one
stage by combining selective ligands in the solvent. The benefits to the U.S. Department of Energy would
involve a reduction in the number of operations, in the amount of secondary wastes, and in the footprint of the
process.
 WM Descriptor(s):         extraction; high-level radioactive wastes
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Delmau, Laetitia Helene                                  Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                          Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                            37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                          AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-576-2093 E-mail: DELMAULH@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     90

 USA20050054

Title:
Alternate Ionization Methods for Airborne Particle Mass Spectrometry
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to explore enhanced ionization techniques for real-time mass spectrometry of
individual airborne particles. We have developed an instrument for aerosol analysis based on laser ablation ion
trap mass spectrometry. While the method is extraordinarily sensitive for substances of low ionization
potential, such as uranium, in most matrices, results are less favorable for elements of higher ionization
potential, such as mercury, and sensitivity for all analytes is highly matrix-dependent. We propose to use
resonance ionization together with laser ablation to reduce the effects of charge exchange during the laser
ablation expansion plume and thus improve the ionization efficiency for high ionization potential analytes.
Glow discharge ionization will also be studied as a means to obtain negative ions from substances with high
electron affinity, such as PCB's and dioxins. These ionization techniques should improve sensitivity and
eliminate the matrix effects that inhibit quantitation. The resulting instrument would have many deactivation
and decommissioning applications, monitoring in real time for airbone particles containing actinides,
technetium, mercury, and chlorinated organic compounds. The sensitivity for these substances should be much
higher than can be attained by radiation counting or other conventional methods.
 WM Descriptor(s):          air quality; decommissioning
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Whitten, William {Bill} B                               Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                         Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;ORNL;Oak Rid
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                           37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;ORNL;Oak Rid                         AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-574-4921 E-mail: WHITTENWB@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 91                                                                                      United States of America

 USA20050055

Title:
Bio-Chemo-Opto-Mechanical (Bio-COM) Sensors for Real-Time Characterization for Deactivation and
Decommissioning Applications.
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Basic and applied research is being conducted with the objective of developing simple to use chemical and
biological sensors using a variation of microcantilever technology for real-time, in-situ, detection of metal ions
and other chemical species for environmental remediation. Analytes of interest include technetium, mercury,
uranium, chromium, and beryllium. We are developing silicon chips with arrays of interdigitated,
micromachined microcantilevers that will change color indicating the presence of targeted analytes. The color
change is due to day light diffraction from the interdigiated cantilevers. The distance between the members of
the interdigitated cantilevers varies as a function of exposure. The bio-chemo-opto-mechanical (BioCOM)
chips that will contain an array of pixels, with each pixel providing quantitative analysis for a certain analytes.
Each pixel on the chip will contain an array of microcantilever springs whose one surface will be derivatized
with either an antibody coating or a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coating to capture for detecting U, Hg,
Be, CrO4-2 and TcO4-. The proposed sensors would not require any external power, external or on-board
electronics, or fluorescent dyes and associated optics, which will keep its fabrication and operation costs low
while making it simple to use in real-time environmental monitoring. In addition to high sensitivity and
miniature size, the BioCOM sensor platform also offers the luxury of simultaneous measurement of many
analytes using a single chip. An array of piezoresistive cantilevers could be utilized in a low power, compact,
hand-held device, and future work will consider this device for real-time monitoring as well. Chemistry for the
modification of Si or SiO2 cantilevers in an array will be developed using photoactivated or photo-deprotection
methods.
 WM Descriptor(s):          decommissioning; sensors
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Thundat, Thomas George                                    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                                           Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN
Oak Ridge National Laboratory                             37831                     UNITED STATES OF
Oak Ridge, TN;ORNL;Oak Ridge TN                           AMERICA
37831 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 865-574-6201 E-mail: THUNDATTG@ornl.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2002-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                        92

 USA20050056

Title:
RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Fundamental investigation of the effects of radiation on glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-
level tank waste, plutonium, and other actinides.
 WM Descriptor(s):        ceramics; glass; high-level radioactive wastes; immobilization
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Thompson, Michael R                                     Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                        PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,        UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6471 E-mail:
michael.thompson@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 1996-09-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
 93                                                                                  United States of America

 USA20050057

Title:
Chemical Speciation of Americium, Curium, and Selected Tetravalent Actinides
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Develop fundamental data on chemical speciation and solubility for Americium, Curium, and Selected
Tetravalent Actinides in High Level Waste
WM Descriptor(s):         actinides; high-level radioactive wastes
Principal Investigator:                               Organization Performing the work:
Thompson, Michael R                                   Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                      PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,      UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6471 E-mail:
michael.thompson@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 1996-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
none                                                            none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                       94

 USA20050058

Title:
New Silicotitanate Waste Forms
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Develop an alternate waste form for disposal of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers.
WM Descriptor(s):          ion exchange materials; silicates; waste disposal; waste forms
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Thompson, Michael R                                      Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                         PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,         UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6471 E-mail:
michael.thompson@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
Program Duration:     From: 1996-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
 95                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050059

Title:
Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Activity
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Our objectives are to develop new robust, diagnostic tools for glass melts monitoring in a radioactive
environment, and to carry out research with these new tools to improve our understanding of the thermal
vitrification process.
WM Descriptor(s):         glass; vitrification
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Weimer, Walter C                                       Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                       PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,       UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6922 E-mail: walter.weimer@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:     From: 1997-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                       96

 USA20050060

Title:
Mechanisms and Kinetics of Organic Aging in High Level Waste
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Examine the aging of organic chemicals in high level nuclear wastes stored in tanks at Hanford and develop a
mechanistic model describing the reactions and kinetics.
WM Descriptor(s):        aging; high-level radioactive wastes; organic compounds; tanks
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Thompson, Michael R                                    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                       PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,       UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6471 E-mail:
michael.thompson@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:     From: 1997-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
none
 97                                                                                      United States of America

 USA20050061

Title:
Automated Radioanalytical Chemistry for Waste Processing
Title in Original Language:                                       Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
development of prototype analytical instrumentation for nuclear waste process monitoring
WM Descriptor(s):          monitoring; waste processing
Principal Investigator:                                   Organization Performing the work:
Weimer, Walter C                                          Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                          PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,          UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6922 E-mail: walter.weimer@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                      Organization Type:
                                                          Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                         Associated Organization(s):
none                                                                none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                   98

 USA20050062

Title:
Technetium Chemistry in HLW
Title in Original Language:                                  Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Technetium complexes with organic compounds found in Hanford high-level waste will be studied using a wide
variety of speciation, analytical organic chemistry, and separations techniques.
WM Descriptor(s):          chemistry; high-level radioactive wastes; tanks; technetium
Principal Investigator:                              Organization Performing the work:
Thompson, Michael R                                  Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                     PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,     UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6471 E-mail:
michael.thompson@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                 Organization Type:
                                                     Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                    Associated Organization(s):
none                                                           none
Recent publication info:
none
 99                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050063

Title:
Physicochemical Processes of Tank Residuals
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Examine transport rates of oxygen and water in sludges, and paragenesis of the solid phases to develop a
comprehensive understanding of the source-term from Hanford high level waste (HLW) tank residuals.
WM Descriptor(s):         high-level radioactive wastes; residues; tanks
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Weimer, Walter C                                        Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                        PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,        UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6922 E-mail: walter.weimer@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                    100

 USA20050064

Title:
Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms
Title in Original Language:                                   Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
This joint ORNL, PNNL, PSU EMSP project aims to develop the associate species thermodynamic model for
application to waste glass. PNNL's scope is to measure the thermodynamic properties of submixtures of waste
glass containing key chemical components.
WM Descriptor(s):          high-level radioactive wastes; stability; waste forms
Principal Investigator:                               Organization Performing the work:
Weimer, Walter C                                      Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                      PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,      UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6922 E-mail: walter.weimer@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                  Organization Type:
                                                      Other
Program Duration:     From: 2000-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                     Associated Organization(s):
none                                                            none
Recent publication info:
none
 101                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050065

Title:
Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Correlate the macroscopic properties and particle interactions occurring in the Hanford transuranic tank sludges.
These correlations provide an understanding of the physical properties and behavior of the tank sludges under
conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at the Waste
Isolation Pilot Plant.
WM Descriptor(s):          sludges; tanks; transuranic waste
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Weimer, Walter C                                         Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                         PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,         UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-375-6922 E-mail: walter.weimer@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                     102

 USA20050066

Title:
Transportation Safety of High Burnup Spent Fuel
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Reduce the future NRC licensing and associated financial risk for transportation of high burnup spent nuclear
fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain Repository by performing experimental studies on sections of SNF cladding
to determine the fracture toughness properties of zirconium-based cladding.
 WM Descriptor(s):         radioactive waste management; spent fuels; systems engineering; transportation
                           management
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Laity, Walter W                                        Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
                                                       PNNL;Richland WA              99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,       UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WA
PNNL;Richland WA
99352 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 509-372-4991 E-mail: walter.laity@pnl.gov
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
none
 103                                                                                   United States of America

 USA20050067

Title:
Paul Trap Experiment
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Periodic focusing accelerators and transport systems have a wide range of applications from basic science
research in high energy and nuclear physics, to applications such as heavy ion fusion, spallation neutron
sources, tritium production, heavy ion fusion, and nuclear waste treatment. Of particular interest, at the high
beam currents and charge densities of practical interest, are the combined effects of the applied focusing field
and the intense self fields produced by the beam space charge and current. The Princeton Plasma Physics
Laboratory has constructed a Paul Trap Experiment to simulate the collective processes and nonlinear dynamics
of an intense, charged-particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing magnetic-field configuration.
Initial experiments on the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment began in April 2002 and experiments are planned for
the FY2005 and 2006.
 WM Descriptor(s):          applied plasma science
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Anthony R. DeMeo,                                       Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ
                                                        PPPL;Princeton NJ          08543
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ      UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
PPPL;Princeton NJ
08543 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 609-243-2755 E-mail: ademeo@pppl.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:         From: 2000-10-01 To: Not provided
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                       Associated Organization(s):
none                                                              none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                    104

 USA20050068

Title:
Alternatives for Shipping Transuranic Materials to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Hydrogen gas getters are one of several options being considered to support payload expansion in the
TRUPACT-II shipping container. The purpose of the project is to enhance hydrogen getter technology capable
of absorbing hydrogen from an environment with a variety of poisons under a range of conditions to prevent
formation of flammable gas mixtures in the TRUPACT-II. This effort will focus on improving getter
performance at low temperatures and in the presence of poison vapors.
WM Descriptor(s):         hydrogen getter; transport; transuranic waste; WIPP
Principal Investigator:                                 Organization Performing the work:
Murray, Alice M                                         Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (Formally
                                                        SRTC)
 Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC          SRNL;Aiken SC             29808-
(Formally SRTC)                                         0001                     UNITED STATES OF
                                                        AMERICA
SRNL;Aiken SC
29808-0001 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 803-725-0440 E-mail: alice.murray@srnl.doe.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
none
 105                                                                                  United States of America

 USA20050069

Title:
Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Salt Processing
Title in Original Language:                                    Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The purpose of the Salt Processing Project at the Savannah River Site is to develop and implement technology
for the final disposal of the liquid and crystallized salt portion of the high level waste (HLW) containing
elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium. The preferred separation process selected by the Department of
Energy uses an organic solvent containing a calixarene compound to extract the cesium while using
monosodium titanate (MST) to remove the radioactive strontium and selected actinides that emit high levels of
alpha radiation. The task for Strontium and Alpha Removal focuses on the chemistry and engineering
associated with the removal of strontium and alpha emitters. The task for Caustic Side Solvent Extraction
focuses on the solvent extraction technology for cesium removal.
WM Descriptor(s):           high-level radioactive wastes; salts; waste processing
Principal Investigator:                                Organization Performing the work:
Fink, Samuel D                                         Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (Formally
                                                       SRTC)
 Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC         SRNL;Aiken SC             29808-
(Formally SRTC)                                        0001                     UNITED STATES OF
                                                       AMERICA
SRNL;Aiken SC
29808-0001 , UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 803-725-2947 E-mail: samuel.fink@srnl.doe.gov
Other Investigators:                                   Organization Type:
                                                       Other
Program Duration:         From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:        Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                      Associated Organization(s):
none                                                             none
Recent publication info:
none
United States of America                                                                                      106

 USA20050070

Title:
Alternatives for Disposition of High Level Salt Waste
Title in Original Language:                                     Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
The accelerated removal of salt waste from existing high-level waste tanks is a project to develop technology to
remove soluble waste sooner and at less cost than the current baseline approach, that will not become
operational until after 2006 (Salt Waste Processing Facility). Eight tasks are in various stages of research and
development to accelerate the removal of salt waste from SRS high-level waste tanks. The eight tasks are: 1)
Fenton's Reagent Destruction of Tetraphenylborate in SRS Tank 48H; 2) Development of Rotary Microfilter to
Increase Filtration Throughput; 3) Engineered Monosodium Titanate (MST); 4) Tailing Inorganic (Alternate)
Sorbents for SRS Sr and Actinide Separations: Optimized Monosodium Titanate and Pharmacosiderite; 5)
Alternative Ultrafiltration Membranes for the SRS HLW Tanks; 6) Small Column Ion Exchange System
Utilizing Crystalline; 7) Skid-Mounted Simplified Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction System (CSSX) for Cesium
Removal from Low Activity Salt Waste; and 8) Removal of Sr/Actinides from SRS Low Curie Salt Waste
(Type 3) Using In-Situ Mixed Iron Oxides (IS-MIO).
WM Descriptor(s):           alternatives/step improvements; high-level radioactive wastes
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
Fink, Samuel D                                           Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (Formally
                                                         SRTC)
Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC            SRNL;Aiken SC              29808-
(Formally SRTC)                                          0001                     UNITED STATES OF
                                                         AMERICA
SRNL;Aiken SC
29808-0001, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 803-725-2947 E-mail: samuel.fink@srnl.doe.gov
Other Investigators:                                    Organization Type:
                                                        Other
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                                        Associated Organization(s):
none                                                               none
Recent publication info:
none
 107                                                                                    United States of America

 USA20050071

Title:
Alternatives for Treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (Steam Reforming)
Title in Original Language:                                      Topic Code(s):


Abstract:
Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of
both high activity radioactive wastes (HAW) and low activity radioactive wastes (LAW). The FBSR technology
utilizes pyrolysis to destroy organic compounds and convert these to CO2 and H2O and to destroy and convert
nitrate/nitrite species to N2. If clay minerals are added to the process a 'mineralized' form can be produced to
retain the hazardous species in the waste. The formation of optimal mineralized species (namely feldspathoid
type minerals with cage-like structures) is critical to maximizing the durability of the FBSR mineralized product.

To form these optimal mineralized species, it is necessary to tailor the process conditions. This includes
selection of appropriate additives, REDuction/OXidation conditions (REDOX), process temperatures, etc. It
would be very desirable to be able to evaluate and determine optimal process conditions at the bench-scale and
have these conditions translate to the pilot and production-scales. Bench-scale methodologies have been
developed, however, a direct correlation to product produced at the pilot or production-scale had yet to be
demonstrated.

Additionally, characterization and performance testing of FBSR mineralized products had been limited so the
translation of the product performance to performance in disposal environments has not been thoroughly
investigated. Consistent with the above needs, the following objectives were achieved in the SRNL testing:

- A Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) was developed to reproduce the FBSR mineralization processes at the
lab-scale. The BSR proved to satisfactorily mimic the pilot-scale testing and was used to recommend optimized
conditions for pilot-scale testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

- A process control strategy was developed and implemented to support FBSR processing. The control strategy
centered on 'MINCALC' - a calculative tool designed to optimize mineralized product chemistry based on waste
composition and raw material additives.

- Detailed characterization was completed on samples produced at the lab-scale and pilot-scales. These
characterization efforts were used to support product performance testing and pilot scale testing (product
properties, mass balance, product performance, etc.)

- Mineralized form leach testing was completed to provide data on product durability and to integrate with
Performance Assessment (PA) activities. Additionally, single phase samples were synthesized and
characterized to support PA efforts.
WM Descriptor(s):         sodium; steam reforming
Principal Investigator:                                  Organization Performing the work:
HOLTZSCHEITER, EARL W. JR                                Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (Formally
                                                         SRTC)
Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC            SRNL;Aiken S              29808-
(Formally SRTC)                                          0001                     UNITED STATES OF
                                                         AMERICA
SRNL;Aiken S
29808-0001, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: 803-725-2170 E-mail:
bill.holtzscheiter@srnl.doe.gov
Other Investigators:                                     Organization Type:
                                                         Other
United States of America                                                              108
Program Duration:     From: 2003-10-01 To: 2004-09-30
State of Advancement:    Research in progress
Sponsoring Organization(s):                             Associated Organization(s):
none                                                    none
Recent publication info:
none

								
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