Why Definitions are Important

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					   Chapter Eight:

The Umbrella Effect
Jihad Moves to Central and
      Southeast Asia
Jihad Moves to Central and
        Southeast Asia
   The impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union on
    Central Asia
     The Stans (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,
      Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan)
      moved into self-government
     The new Russian Federation wanted nothing
      to do with their old possession in Central Asia
     The new governments ended up with
      authoritarian regimes far removed from the
      common people, which led to unrest across
      the region, and the climate became ripe for
      religious radicals to gain influence
Jihad Moves to Central and
      Southeast Asia
   Three groups that grew in Central Asia after
     The Hezb-ul-Tahir

        A Palestinian organization that moved to
          Central Asia to preach conversion to Islam
     The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

        Proposed a violent jihad against Islam
          Karimov, the dictator of Uzbekistan
     Ethnic Uighars from western China

        Organized to revive an eighteenth-century
          state in China’s Xing Xian (New Frontier)
Jihad Moves to Central and
      Southeast Asia
   The Jihadists move to India
     Much of India’s terrorist problem centered on
      Jammu and Kashmir, a disputed territory
      along the Indian and Pakistani border
     India’s and Pakistan’s internal problems

        India was concerned with growing
          terrorism fostered by Pakistani groups, its
          own internal Jihadists, and Sikh terrorists
          (the Sikhs are a religious group combining
          monotheism with precepts of Islam,
          Hinduism, and Buddhism)
Jihad Moves to Central and
      Southeast Asia
   The Jihadist movement in Southeast Asia
     Jihadist groups began forming in
      Indonesia in the early 1990s
     Lashkar Jihad

        Formed to fight Christians in the
     Jamaat Islamiyya

        Formed with the purpose of placing
         Indonesia under strict Islamic law
Jihad Moves to Central and
      Southeast Asia
   The Philippines
      Religious and ideological rebellions were repeated
      The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
          Seeks an independent Islamic state
      Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)
          Seeks to create an Islamic state under strict
           interpretations of Islamic law
      Abu Sayyuf
          Claims to be part of the Jihadist movement, but is
           most closely associated with criminal activity, and
           seems more interest in money than religion
      The New Peoples Army
          Hopes to turn the Philippines into a communist
Jihad Moves to Central and
      Southeast Asia
   Ethnic Chechnyans and Russians
     Chechnyan rebels should not be
      lumped with other Jihadist movements
     Chechnyans are engaged in a
      legitimate war of independence and are
      not like other Jihadist terrorists
Sunni Jihad from Africa to
        the West
Sunni Jihad from Africa to the West
      The Algerian Civil War
        In 1992, an Islamic party won the
         national election in Algeria
        The Algerian military took control of the
         government and voided the elections
        The military coup ended in the Civil
         War, during which more than one
         hundred thousand people died between
         1992 and 2002
Sunni Jihad from Africa to the West
       The path of the Jihadist groups
          The Muslim Brotherhood
              Started in Cairo in 1928 under the leadership of
               Hassan al Banna
              By 1951, after al Banna’s assassination, the
               movement grew violent, partly because of the
               influence of Sayyid Qutb
              Qutb was executed in 1966, and the Brotherhood
               returned to its original mission of peace
          Al Qaeda
              Moved to Sudan in 1992, and found willing partners
               in the north
              In some cases, Jihadist groups shared training and
               members with al Qaeda
Sunni Jihad from Africa to the West
         Jihad in the international arena
             Qutb advocated of revolutionary reform inside
              government, but he argued it was necessary to
              confront and defeat infidel government not under
              the rule of Islamic law
             Jihadists sought to impose Islamic law on the world
             As a result, Jihadists used Africa as a springboard
              to the West
         Hezbollah (Party of God)
             Spawned in Lebanon after the Iranian Revolution,
              which culminated in the overthrow of the secular
              shah of Iran
             Hezbollah’s purpose is to spread the Islamic law of
              Shi’ite Islam
The Metamorphosis of
    The Metamorphosis of
   Shi’ite beliefs
     One of Mohammed’s decedents must
       return before God judges humanity
     Mohammed’s power flowed through his
   Mohammed had twelve direct heirs, or
    imams, and that the last imam was taken
    directly to heaven
    The Metamorphosis of
   The birth of Hezbollah
      Secular Syrian Ba’athists wanted to establish control in
      Lebanon was locked in a multifaceted civil war
      Secular Palestinians in the Palestine Liberation Organization
       (PLO) moved into the Shi’ite areas of southern Lebanon
      The Syrians backed the southern Shi’ites in the civil war,
       pitting the Shi’ites and the Syrians against the PLO
      The Israelis invaded Lebanon in 1982 to drive the PLO from
       the south. This led to an alliance among Iran’s Revolutionary
       Guards, secular Syrian Ba’athists, and southern Lebanese
      As Shi’ite militias resisted the Israeli invasion, one group
       began to form in the shadows of the civil war. It centered
       around a “nonorganization”- a governing council to share
       ideas, plans, and money, but designed to disappear and leave
       autonomous groups to carry out attacks under a variety of
       names. They called themselves Hezbollah, or the Party of God
    The Metamorphosis of
   The Umbrella organization of Hezbollah
     Overhead, Syrian and Iranian money
      and supplies poured into the movement
     Below the umbrella, several Shi’ite cells
      operated autonomously and received
      money, weapons, and ideas through
      hidden channels linked with the
      spiritual leaders
     The leadership formed alliances with
      two Lebanese Shi’ite groups, Al Dawa
      and Islamic Amal
    The Metamorphosis of
   Leadership of Hezbollah
     Sheik Mohammed Hassan Fadallah

        Charismatic spiritual leader

     Abus Musawi

        Provided loose connections to Iran

     Hassan Nasrallah

        Practical miltarist
    The Metamorphosis of
   The developmental phases of Hezbollah
     Phase one (1982-1985), the umbrella covered
      many terrorist groups
     After 1985, Hezbollah’s leaders wanted to
      develop a revolutionary movement similar to
      that which gripped Iran in 1978 and 1979
     Narsrallah began changing the structure of
      Hezbollah in 1985
        He established regional centers,
         transforming them to operational bases
         between 1987 and 1989
     Hezbollah on the warpath

        The marine barracks bombing

        Kidnapping campaign in Beirut
The Metamorphosis of
   The third phase came in 1990
        Nasrallah created a regional militia by 1990
        Hezbollah’s militia soon found itself in trouble;
         Squabbling broke out among various groups, and
         Hezbollah was forced to fight Syria and Islamic
   The fourth phase brought the organizations from the
        By 1995, Hezbollah developed strong political bases
         of support in parts of Beirut, the Bekaa Valley, and
         its stronghold in southern Lebanon
   When Palestinians rose against the Israelis in 2000,
    Hezbollah embraced their cause, and its transformation
    was complete. It was a nationalistic group with a
    military wing, and its stated goals were to eliminate
    Israel and to establish an Islamic government in
The Current State of
The Current State of Hezbollah
    Hezbollah’s three directorates
      The political wing, the social services
       wing, the security wing
      Each directorate is subservient to a
       Supreme Council, currently headed by
       Hassan Nasrallah
    Hezbollah receives funding from Iran
The Current State of Hezbollah
     Hezbollah’s tactics
       The primary tactic is bombing

          Suicide bombing

          Radio-controlled bombs

     Hezbollah international
       The Supreme Council denies its existence

       The international section has cells in several
        different countries, including the United
        States, and maintains an extensive
        international finance ring partially based on
        smuggling, drugs, and other crimes
A Sympathetic View of
A Sympathetic View of Hezbollah
     Hezbollah had no intention of spreading
      the Iranian Revolution; they merely
      wanted to defend their community
     They are a religious and political
      organization supporting a guerrilla army,
      and the purpose of the army is to defeat
     The main focus of Hezbollah is social
      service in the form of education, health
      services, and social security
A Sympathetic View of Hezbollah
     Hezbollah guerrillas believe that fighting
      the Israelis is not an act of terrorism
     Most Arabs find Hezbollah to be a source
      of inspiration
     Hassan Fadlallah condemned the
      September 11 attacks as un-Islamic,
      refusing to call the hijackers “martyrs”
      and maintaining they committed suicide
      while murdering innocent people
A Critical View of
A Critical View of Hezbollah
    Hezbollah is a terrorist organization because:
      The suicide attacks it carried out against
       civilians and peacekeeping forces
      Its kidnapping rampage from 1983 to 1990

      1985 hijacking of a TWA flight

      Two bombings in Argentina in 1992 and 1994

      Hezbollah has been responsible for a
       campaign of suicide bombings, the murders of
       Lebanese Christians, international arms
       smuggling, and a host of international criminal
A Critical View of Hezbollah
    Hezbollah’s uncompromising political stand, and
     critics contend that it exists for only two reasons:
     to impose a Shi’ite government on Lebanon and
     to destroy the state of Israel
    Alasdair Soussi says Hezbollah exports its
     revolutionary ideals , claiming that contacts exist
     between Hezbollah and the Iraqi resistance
    Jessica Stern points out that Hezbollah interacts
     with other terrorist groups around the world
A Critical View of Hezbollah
    Hezbollah is part of the Jihadist network,
     but its origins and reasons for existing are
     found in the struggle over Palestine
    Hezbollah provided a model for the
     formation of an international umbrella of
     terrorist organizations. The international
     section remains a conglomeration of like-
     minded semiautonomous groups