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Nationhood and beyond 20th century stories Overview Nationhood and Beyond This second lecture continues on from our previous lecture, which concluded with the lead up to Federation. In this lecture we will examine: • A general history of Australia in the 20th and 21st centuries • Australia’s increasing involvement in the world • Some important cultural values and the emergence of a distinctive way of life • Monoculture and the move to a multicultural Australia. Objectives To help you understand more about Australia and Australian people by: • introducing some key historical 20th and 21st century events using images and stories • continue a narrative of the nation • introduce the topics of discussion that recur in contemporary debate in Australia. Economic depression Tom Roberts, Bourke Street, Melbourne, National Library of Australia, nla.pic- an2268340. White Australia The White Australia Post Card, State Library of Victoria, PCV PCA 110. Continued suffering Prisoners, John Blakeman Collection, Northern Territory Library, http://hdl.handle.net/10070/36744. One Continent, One People, One Nation Inauguration of the Commonwealth Swearing in Ceremony, GPO, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. Celebration arches Damman, Gustav, Arch over Damman, Gustav, Arch decorated with unidentified street with the words German eagle and the words ’United The United States of America -- Germany hails united Australia’, State United Australia, State Library of Library of Victoria, PIC LTGN 94. Victoria, AccNo H94.30/25. Street celebrations Procession in Collins Street during Federation Celebrations 1901, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-an10638277-27. A Federal parliament A Tom Roberts painting of the opening of the First Federal Parliament in Melbourne, 1901, National Archives of Australia, A8746, KN25/8/80/43. Entering the 20th century • As a federated Nation • A monoculture of British Isle migrants • A democracy for all white men • A protected economy • A place with particular ideas about the role of the State • A conviction in & commitment to the agenda of social reform • A passionate member of the British Commonwealth • A certain ambivalence towards its past: Indigenous Australia and convicts. Recurring theme in Australian history: ‘A Fair go’ Examples of book binding and lettering of British and foreign war histories, 1948, Australian War Memorial, 133667. New Government interventions and inclusions Women inside the gate of the city polling station, voting for the first time in a Queensland state election, May 1907, Heritage Collections Exhibition: What We Want, State Library of Queensland, picqld-citrix03--2005-01-10-12-09. New Government interventions and exclusions HB Hammond, Residents at Ramahyuck Aboriginal Mission Station in front of Church, State Library of Victoria PCV LTA 2222. The First World War 1914-1918 Make dad proud to say.... "My boy.... in the East," Australian War Memorial, ARTV043. The ANZAC legend Two Australians assist a prisoner, who was severely wounded in the leg, near Anzac Ridge, 6 October 1917, Australian War Memorial, E00887. The Western Front Australian troops on their way to the front line passing along the track from Bellewaarde Lake and Chateau Wood to Westhoek, 29 October 1917, Australian War Memorial, E01187 . The war to end all wars A fellow soldier of the battalion lays some flowers on the grave of 4208 Private Roland Allan Shawyer of the 27th Battalion, of Riverton, c February 1919, Australian War Memorial, J00030 . The Great Depression Relief workers at Annerley during the Great Depression, 8 September 1938, State Library of Queensland, picqld-2002-11-15-11-05. Public works Construction of the Sydney Harbour Collis, John T, South Yarra. Shrine of Bridge, circa 1931, GPO2 53166 , Remembrance, State Library of Victoria, Mitchell Library, State Library of New PCV LTA 838 V. 65. South Wales. Sporting culture Don Bradman in action in his heyday, VFL [Victorian Football League] Final, National Archives of Australia, A1200, Collingwood verses Richmond, National L46645. Archives of Australia, B4498, 131G3. Phar Lap Pratt, Charles Daniel, Phar Lap, State Library of Victoria, PCV LTGN 139. The Second World War 1939 - 1945 RAAF Personnel watch the bombardment of Tarakan from Vantage Points on the landing ship, Tank (LST) which brought them from Morotai, Australian War Memorial, OG2495. Fear and social change One of the women workers engaged in Women workers sorting dehydrated the manufacture of Owen Gun Bodies, potato chips at a city good store 18 May, 1942, Australian War processing plant, Melbourne, Victoria, Memorial, 12293. 23 September, 1943, Australian War Memorial, 139694. Under attack Darwin waterfront aflame after Japanese bombing in 1942, Marylyn Nichols Collection, Northern Territory Library, http://hdl.handle.net/10070/29798. Friends and allies General Macarthur in earnest American soldiers in camps somewhere conversation with Mr. Curtin in the in Australia having sing-alongs to music Prime Minister's room, Canberra, supplied by fellow American soldiers, National Library of Australia, nla.pic- State Library of Victoria, PIC LTA 1998. an24206236. Consequences of the Second World War V-E Day and armistice celebrations, Melbourne, Victoria, State Library of Victoria, PCV LTA 1998. New beginnings in post war Australia and the Europeanisation of the nation The 50,000th Dutch migrant, arrives in Australia aboard the Sibajak, National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1954/4/53. Assimilation and beyond 'Yes' for Aborigines, Referendum 27 May, 1967, National Library of Australia, http://nla.gov.au/nla.aus-vn3116836-1x. A great social laboratory and debuting on the world stage Jeff Carter, The espresso bar inside the Savoy Club, Myrtleford, 1955, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-an24537282, Copyright Jeff Carter. Social reform in the 1970s Protest against the Vietnam war, 1970, National Archives of Australia, A1200, L85635. Equality for women Women's rights demonstration in Melbourne to mark International Women's Day, 8 March 1975, National Archives of Australia A6180, 19/3/75/5. Tolerance of homosexuality Gay Pride demonstration in Adelaide, 1973, National Archives of Australia, A6135, K13/12/73/1. Aboriginal land justice Gough Whitlam and Vincent Lingiari at Wattie Creek, Northern Territory, 16 August 1975, National Archives of Australia A8598, AK6/5/80/11. Multiculturalism Hue, Anatoly, Russian Orthodox priests gathered around table, Geelong, Vic, State Library of Victoria, 1988, PIC LTAF 127. Asian migration Michael Jensen, Vietnamese boat people, Darwin, November 1977, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-vn3209928. African migration Heng, Mathias, Ahmad and Ali sit on the lawn outside 16 Derby Street, Kensington , State Library of Victoria, State Library of Victoria, H2001.245/4. Against multiculturalism Terry Milligan, Portrait of Pauline Hanson, National Library of Australia, nla.pic- an20549190, Copyright Lorien Milligan. For multiculturalism Image reproduced courtesy of Room27, Flickr, www.flickr.com/photos/room27/2556124946/. Australia’s cultural pluralism Top five countries Top five languages Top five refugee Greatest of birth spoken at home arrivals increases of 2005 — 6 migrants 1996 — 2005 Australia 72.6% English 80% Sudan 3726 Sudan 27.7% England 4.5% Italian 1.9% Iraq 2150 Ethiopia 11.2% New Zealand 1.9% Greek 1.4% Afghanistan 1799 Nepal 10.5% Italy 1.2% Cantonese 1.2% Myanmar 1118 Somalia 10% Vietnam 0.8% Arabic 1.1% Liberia 888 Afghanistan 7.8% Zimbabwe 7.8% Friday 19 January 2007, The Age, 5. Sourced from offshore humanitarian program, ABS, DIMA. In Australia … the most desirable national identities combine democratic and egalitarian principles with multiculturalism and cosmopolitan outlooks …’ James Jupp, Director of ANU Centre for Immigration and Multicultural Studies 21 st century Australia ‘ Former Prime Minister John Winston Howard (1996 – 2007) • Was leader of the Liberal Party • A monarchist and social conservative • Closer alliances with US and George Bush • Tough on boarder security • Sent Australia to War in Iraq • Focused on Australia’s Anglo traditions Loui Seselja, Portrait of John Howard, • Against multiculturalism & reconciliation National Press Club, Canberra, 8 November • Economic reform towards privatisation 2001, National Library of Australia, nla.pic- an23381704. • One of two PMs to lose his seat. Current Prime Minister Kevin Michael Rudd (Dec 2007 - ) • Leader of the Labor Party • Deputy Leader Julia Gillard, first woman in role • Served as a diplomat in China • Speaks fluent Mandarin • Very interested in Asia • Phased withdrawal of troops in Iraq • Pro-reconciliation, has made a formal apology • Yet to state position on Damian McDonald, Kevin Rudd taking Multiculturalism but reconsidering the questions during his address to the Citizenship test. National Press Club at the Great Hall, Parliament House, Canberra, 17 April 2007, National Library of Australia, nla.int-nl39724-dmc3. ‘Sorry’ Karl Sharp, Sydney siders filled Martin Place to witness via live TV the apology to the victims of the Stolen Generation delivered by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, Sydney, 13 February 2008, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-vn4474033, Copyright Karl Sharp. Other 21st century discussions • Drought, bushfires, climate change and the environment • International relationships, trade, world politics and conflict • Global economic crisis, globalisation and natural resources.
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