Nationhood and beyond by pengtt

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									Nationhood and beyond

    20th century stories
                     Overview
Nationhood and Beyond
This second lecture continues on from our previous
lecture, which concluded with the lead up to Federation.

In this lecture we will examine:
• A general history of Australia in the 20th and 21st
   centuries
• Australia’s increasing involvement in the world
• Some important cultural values and the emergence of
   a distinctive way of life
• Monoculture and the move to a multicultural Australia.
                  Objectives
To help you understand more about Australia and
  Australian people by:

• introducing some key historical 20th and 21st
  century events using images and stories

• continue a narrative of the nation

• introduce the topics of discussion that recur in
  contemporary debate in Australia.
                 Economic depression




Tom Roberts, Bourke Street, Melbourne, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-
an2268340.
                         White Australia




The White Australia Post Card, State Library of Victoria, PCV PCA 110.
                    Continued suffering




Prisoners, John Blakeman Collection, Northern Territory Library,
http://hdl.handle.net/10070/36744.
            One Continent, One People,
                   One Nation




Inauguration of the Commonwealth Swearing in Ceremony, GPO, Mitchell Library, State
Library of New South Wales.
            Celebration arches




Damman, Gustav, Arch over            Damman, Gustav, Arch decorated with
unidentified street with the words   German eagle and the words ’United
The United States of America --      Germany hails united Australia’, State
United Australia, State Library of   Library of Victoria, PIC LTGN 94.
Victoria, AccNo H94.30/25.
                     Street celebrations




Procession in Collins Street during Federation Celebrations 1901, National Library of
Australia, nla.pic-an10638277-27.
                 A Federal parliament




A Tom Roberts painting of the opening of the First Federal Parliament in Melbourne,
1901, National Archives of Australia, A8746, KN25/8/80/43.
         Entering the 20th century
• As a federated Nation
• A monoculture of British Isle migrants
• A democracy for all white men
• A protected economy
• A place with particular ideas about the role of the State
• A conviction in & commitment to the agenda of social
  reform
• A passionate member of the British Commonwealth
• A certain ambivalence towards its past: Indigenous
  Australia and convicts.
Recurring theme in Australian history:
             ‘A Fair go’




Examples of book binding and lettering of British and foreign war histories, 1948,
Australian War Memorial, 133667.
    New Government interventions and
              inclusions




Women inside the gate of the city polling station, voting for the first time in a
Queensland state election, May 1907, Heritage Collections Exhibition: What We Want,
State Library of Queensland, picqld-citrix03--2005-01-10-12-09.
  New Government interventions and
            exclusions




HB Hammond, Residents at Ramahyuck Aboriginal Mission Station in front of Church,
State Library of Victoria PCV LTA 2222.
                    The First World War
                        1914-1918




Make dad proud to say.... "My boy.... in the East," Australian War Memorial, ARTV043.
                    The ANZAC legend




Two Australians assist a prisoner, who was severely wounded in the leg, near Anzac
Ridge, 6 October 1917, Australian War Memorial, E00887.
                      The Western Front




Australian troops on their way to the front line passing along the track from Bellewaarde
Lake and Chateau Wood to Westhoek, 29 October 1917, Australian War Memorial,
E01187 .
              The war to end all wars




A fellow soldier of the battalion lays some flowers on the grave of 4208 Private Roland
Allan Shawyer of the 27th Battalion, of Riverton, c February 1919, Australian War
Memorial, J00030 .
               The Great Depression




Relief workers at Annerley during the Great Depression, 8 September 1938, State
Library of Queensland, picqld-2002-11-15-11-05.
                             Public works




Construction of the Sydney Harbour       Collis, John T, South Yarra. Shrine of
Bridge, circa 1931, GPO2 53166 ,         Remembrance, State Library of Victoria,
Mitchell Library, State Library of New   PCV LTA 838 V. 65.
South Wales.
                        Sporting culture




Don Bradman in action in his heyday,     VFL [Victorian Football League] Final,
National Archives of Australia, A1200,   Collingwood verses Richmond, National
L46645.                                  Archives of Australia, B4498, 131G3.
                                 Phar Lap




Pratt, Charles Daniel, Phar Lap, State Library of Victoria, PCV LTGN 139.
                The Second World War
                     1939 - 1945




RAAF Personnel watch the bombardment of Tarakan from Vantage Points on the landing
ship, Tank (LST) which brought them from Morotai, Australian War Memorial, OG2495.
              Fear and social change




One of the women workers engaged in   Women workers sorting dehydrated
the manufacture of Owen Gun Bodies,   potato chips at a city good store
18 May, 1942, Australian War          processing plant, Melbourne, Victoria,
Memorial, 12293.                      23 September, 1943, Australian War
                                      Memorial, 139694.
                          Under attack




Darwin waterfront aflame after Japanese bombing in 1942, Marylyn Nichols Collection,
Northern Territory Library, http://hdl.handle.net/10070/29798.
                      Friends and allies




General Macarthur in earnest              American soldiers in camps somewhere
conversation with Mr. Curtin in the       in Australia having sing-alongs to music
Prime Minister's room, Canberra,          supplied by fellow American soldiers,
National Library of Australia, nla.pic-   State Library of Victoria, PIC LTA 1998.
an24206236.
   Consequences of the Second World
                War




V-E Day and armistice celebrations, Melbourne, Victoria, State Library of Victoria, PCV
LTA 1998.
  New beginnings in post war Australia
  and the Europeanisation of the nation




The 50,000th Dutch migrant, arrives in Australia aboard the Sibajak, National Archives of
Australia, A12111, 1/1954/4/53.
             Assimilation and beyond




'Yes' for Aborigines, Referendum 27 May, 1967, National Library of Australia,
http://nla.gov.au/nla.aus-vn3116836-1x.
A great social laboratory and debuting
          on the world stage




Jeff Carter, The espresso bar inside the Savoy Club, Myrtleford, 1955, National Library of
Australia, nla.pic-an24537282, Copyright Jeff Carter.
           Social reform in the 1970s




Protest against the Vietnam war, 1970, National Archives of Australia, A1200, L85635.
                 Equality for women




Women's rights demonstration in Melbourne to mark International Women's Day, 8
March 1975, National Archives of Australia A6180, 19/3/75/5.
         Tolerance of homosexuality




Gay Pride demonstration in Adelaide, 1973, National Archives of Australia, A6135,
K13/12/73/1.
               Aboriginal land justice




Gough Whitlam and Vincent Lingiari at Wattie Creek, Northern Territory, 16 August
1975, National Archives of Australia A8598, AK6/5/80/11.
                      Multiculturalism




Hue, Anatoly, Russian Orthodox priests gathered around table, Geelong, Vic, State
Library of Victoria, 1988, PIC LTAF 127.
                      Asian migration




Michael Jensen, Vietnamese boat people, Darwin, November 1977, National Library of
Australia, nla.pic-vn3209928.
                  African migration




Heng, Mathias, Ahmad and Ali sit on the lawn outside 16 Derby Street,
Kensington , State Library of Victoria, State Library of Victoria, H2001.245/4.
              Against multiculturalism




Terry Milligan, Portrait of Pauline Hanson, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-
an20549190, Copyright Lorien Milligan.
             For multiculturalism




Image reproduced courtesy of Room27, Flickr,
www.flickr.com/photos/room27/2556124946/.
             Australia’s cultural pluralism
Top five countries     Top five languages            Top five refugee              Greatest
of birth               spoken at home                arrivals                      increases of
                                                     2005 — 6                      migrants 1996 —
                                                                                   2005
Australia 72.6%        English 80%                   Sudan 3726                    Sudan 27.7%


England 4.5%           Italian 1.9%                  Iraq 2150                     Ethiopia 11.2%


New Zealand 1.9%       Greek 1.4%                    Afghanistan 1799              Nepal 10.5%


Italy 1.2%             Cantonese 1.2%                Myanmar 1118                  Somalia 10%


Vietnam 0.8%           Arabic 1.1%                   Liberia 888                   Afghanistan 7.8%
                                                                                   Zimbabwe 7.8%

                     Friday 19 January 2007, The Age, 5. Sourced from offshore humanitarian program, ABS, DIMA.
In Australia … the most desirable
   national identities combine
    democratic and egalitarian
 principles with multiculturalism
  and cosmopolitan outlooks …’



   James Jupp, Director of ANU Centre for Immigration and
                    Multicultural Studies
21 st   century Australia

              ‘
          Former Prime Minister
    John Winston Howard (1996 – 2007)
                                                •   Was leader of the Liberal Party

                                                •   A monarchist and social conservative

                                                •   Closer alliances with US and George Bush

                                                •   Tough on boarder security

                                                •   Sent Australia to War in Iraq

                                                •   Focused on Australia’s Anglo traditions

Loui Seselja, Portrait of John Howard,          •   Against multiculturalism & reconciliation
National Press Club, Canberra, 8 November
                                                •   Economic reform towards privatisation
2001, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-
an23381704.
                                                •   One of two PMs to lose his seat.
           Current Prime Minister
      Kevin Michael Rudd (Dec 2007 - )
                                         •   Leader of the Labor Party

                                         •   Deputy Leader Julia Gillard, first
                                             woman in role

                                         •   Served as a diplomat in China

                                         •   Speaks fluent Mandarin

                                         •   Very interested in Asia

                                         •   Phased withdrawal of troops in Iraq

                                         •   Pro-reconciliation, has made a formal
                                             apology

                                         •   Yet to state position on
Damian McDonald, Kevin Rudd taking           Multiculturalism but reconsidering the
questions during his address to the          Citizenship test.
National Press Club at the Great Hall,
Parliament House, Canberra, 17 April
2007, National Library of Australia,
nla.int-nl39724-dmc3.
                                   ‘Sorry’




Karl Sharp, Sydney siders filled Martin Place to witness via live TV the apology to the
victims of the Stolen Generation delivered by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, Sydney, 13
February 2008, National Library of Australia, nla.pic-vn4474033, Copyright Karl Sharp.
   Other 21st century discussions
• Drought, bushfires, climate change and the
  environment

• International relationships, trade, world
  politics and conflict

• Global economic crisis, globalisation and
  natural resources.

								
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