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					                                           bavmh*grsm;
                                                                  ESifh
                 k f   k f
               qdibmtwdutcHorm;rsm;twGuf
                                                             vufpGJ
                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

                          NOVEMBER 2007 (BURMESE)




                               e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY      1


HandBook.pmd     1                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        bavmh*grsm;
        ESifh
          k f   k f
        qdibmtwdutcHorm;rsm;twGuf
        vufpGJ
        rmwdum




        ISBN : 2-915536-36-8
        © 2005 Reporters Without Borders
        2      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                       2              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
               05         f       G     f         k G hf         h
                     vGwvyfpm xkwazmfajymqdci. oHawmfqiftopf bavmh*grsm;
                     *sLvD,ef yde;f (Julien Pain)
               09              kd
                     bavmhqwm bmvJ
                     Pointblog.com
               10    bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;
                     Pointblog.com
               15    taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;
                     Cyril Fievet and Marc-Oliver Peyer
               23                            kd
                     bavmhwckukd b,fvwnfaqmuf/ a&S@qufrnfenf;
                     The Civiblog system, Citizenlab
               29                                        hf    d    d h
                     bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfo@kd aom usi0wfrsK;xm;&Soifoenf;
                     'ef a*;vfarm Dan Gillmor
               34    oif. bavmhpmrsuEmudk tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm; (SEARCH-ENGINES) u &SmazGazmfxway;Edi&efenf;
                                           fS                                               k f kf
                     tdvA,m tef'a&,l (Olivier Andrieu)
                        k DD
               43                               f                       h   f
                     oif. bavmhukd trSeawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonftcsursm; vdoenf;k
                     rmhuf *a&pm Mark Glaser
               47                           fS
                     yk*Kd~ vfa&; b0pmrsuEmrsm;
                     47            • *smr%D - usaemfw@kd u vlrtcGita&;rsm;ESihf vl@tcGita&;rsm;udk jriwifay;rnf
                                                                   _ hf                     hf              ‡ hf
                                   rmukpf bufuD'g;vf (Markus Beckedahl)
                     51            • bm&de;f - usaemfw@kd u tpd;k &&J@ owif;vuf0g;}u;D tkyxm;r_ukd csK;d zsucav+yD
                                                                                          f                   f hJ
                                   csef tuf'fbm&defeD (Chan’ad Bahraini)
                     54            • tar&duefjynfaxmifpk - tckawmh usaemfawG;rdor#ukd a&;Ediay+yD   kf
                                   a*s; ±dkqif (Jay Rosen)
                     59            • a[mifaumif - usq;kH oGm;cJ&olrsm;tay: usaemfuwdwnfygrnf
                                                                    h
                                   ,ef &Srf &Suu,fwef (Yan Sham-Shackelton)
                                                 f       G
                     62            • tD&ef - usaemfw@kd u bavmhrsm;ay:wGif vGwvyfpm a&;Ediay+yD
                                                                                 f      G        kf
                                   tm&mh&fS pD*gcsD (Arash Sigarchi)
                     65            • eDayg - jyifyurBmudk jzpfaeonfh tajctaetwdi;f trSewifjyEdi+f yD
                                                                                    k          f       k
                                   vGwvyfaom eDayga&'D,kd (Radio Free Nepal)
                                         f
               69    trnfrazmfbJ rnfo@kd bavmha&;om;rnfenf;
                     tDoef Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman)
               81                           _        f $
                     qifqmjzwfawmufrrsm;udk ausmvm;&ef enf;ynmydi;qdi&m kf kf
                     emwf ADvefE;l (Nart Villeneuve)
               104                                            dS
                     oif. tD;ar;vfu yk*Kd~ vfa&;t& vHjk cHKr_&a=umif; aocsmapjcif;
                     vl'Apfuf yD&ufwf (Ludovic Pierrat)
                         kd
               109                             f      h HD H
                     tifwmeuf qifqmydwq@kd r_ urBmcsy,rsm;
                     *sLvD,H yde;f (Julien Pain)


                                                                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY                 3


HandBook.pmd                         3                                               11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        4      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                       4              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                                             ed'gef;




                                               vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh\
                                                oHawmfqifhtopf bavmh*grsm;
                                                                                    *sLvD,ef ydef; (Julien Pain)

               bavmhrsm;u vltrsm;udk pdwfv_yf&Sm;aponf? odk@r[kwf bavmhrsm;a=umifh vlrsm;u uoduatmuf
               jzpf=u&/ pdk;&drfylyef=u&onf? tcsKd@aomolrsm;u pdwftaESmifht,Suf jzpf=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; tjcm;
               aomolrsm;u bavmhrsm;udk owif;awmfvSefa&;topf. wyfOD;[k jrif=uonf? aocsmonfhtcsuf
               wcsufawmh&Sdonf? bavmhrsm;u EdkifiHrsm;&Sd owif;rD'D,mpepfrsm;. tajccHtkwfjrpfudk udkifv_yfcJhjcif;
               jzpf+yD; rwluGJjym;aom taetxm;jzifh tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/ w±kwfEdkifiH/ tD&efEdkifiHwdk@wGifvnf;
               udkifv_yfcHae=u&onf?

               bavmhrsm;u rnfodk@rnfyHkqufI wdk;wufjzpfxGef;rnfudk awG;awmEdkif&eftwGuf tvGef apmvGef;
               aeygao;onf? usaemfwdk@u owif;pmrsm;udk zwfae=uqJjzpfonf? ±kyfjrifoH=um;udk zGifhI =unfhae=u
               qJ jzpfonf? q,fpkESpfrsm;pGmwdkif a&'D,dkudk zGifhI em;axmifae=uqJ jzpf+yD; owif;rsm;u rnfodk@jzpf
               ysufaeonf? vltrsm;u rnfodk@a0zefydkif;jcm; ae=uonfudk ajymEdkifonf? vltrsm; óuufa&;om;onfh
               t0ga&mif wufbvdGKufr*~Zif;rsm;ESifh av;av;eufeuf azmfjy=uaom owif;rsm;udk cGJjcm;EdkifpGrf;&Sd=u
               onf? a&G;I zwfae=uonf? azsmfajza&;oufouf xkwfv$ifhcsufrsm;ESifh rSwfwrf;tjzpf pkpnf;wifjy
               r_rsm; (Documentaries) udk cGJjcm;Edkif=uonf?

                                             k     k                 kf                    k
               od@k aomfvnf; bavmhrsm;udrl Tod@k ydi;f jzwfcjJG cm;Edionfh teH@cHtm±Hk r&Edi=f uao;? Tod@k bavmhtjzpf
                                     f kd k f            S f                                      D
               wifjy=u aom “tGevi;f 'di,m&D ae@pOfrwwrf;rsm;” u yifra&pD;&Sd owif;rD',mrsm;ESihf txl;uGjJ ym;
               uGmjcm;vS+yD;/ rnfonfhae&mrsm;u owif;azmfjy=uonf? rnfonfhbavmhrsm;u yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&m
               aqG;aEG;csufrsm;jzpf+yD;/ rnfonfhbavmhrsm;u Ed_ufEd_ufc|wfc|wf pl;prf;azmfjy=uonf? rnfonfh bavmh
               rsm;u ta&r& tzwfr& udpPrsm;udk wifjyae=uonfudk cGJjcm;&ef cufcJvSygonf? pyg;yHkxJrS *sKHwaphudk
               a&G;&onfhES,f jzpfonf?

               tcsKd@aom bavmh*grsm;u olwdk@udk,fydkifusifh0wfrsm;udk wjznf;jznf;azmfxkwf zGH@+zdK;vmap+yD;/ vltrsm;
               u ,Hk=unf udk;pm;avmufaom/ av;pm;zG,f bavmhrsm; jzpfvm=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; tifwmeuf
               udk,fY twGif;u ,Hk=unftm;udk;&ef rjzpfEdkifonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh jynfhv#Hae+yD; vltrsm;
               uvnf; tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSefpGyfpGJwdkufcdkufr_rsm;ESifh jynfhaeygonf? bavmhrsm;u vlwdkif;udk ynm
               wwfonfjzpfap-rwwfonfjzpfap/ enf;ynmodonfjzpfap-rodonfjzpfap xkwfazmfwifjyEdkifaom
               tcGifhta&;udk ay;xm;ygonf? Todk@jzifh ysif;&d+iD;aiG@zG,f/ &GH&SmzG,f bavmhrsm;&Sdovdk/ aumif;rGefonfh
               pdwf0ifpm;zG,fjzpfonfh bavmhrsm;vnf; tv#iftjref wdk;yGm;aeygawmhonf?


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY                5


HandBook.pmd                              5                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
            vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh\ oHawmfqifhtopf bavmh*grsm;



        odk@aomfvnf; bavmha&;jcif;onf vGwfvyfpGmxkwfazmf wifjycGifhtwGuf txl;tpGrf;xufvSaom
        vufeufjzpf+yD;/ omrefjynfol oef;aygif;rsm;pGmu pdwftm;xufoefpGm toHk;jyKaeygonf? ,cifu
        owif;rsm;udk tjyKcHozG,f 0,f,l oHk;pGJae=u&olrsm;u ,ckawmh owif;pmynme,fy,ftopfwGif
                                     k f G hf dS                                      k
        wufºupGm yg0ifaqG;aEG;wifjyydici&aom olrsm; jzpfae=uyg+y?D tar&duefjynfaxmifprS ueOD; bavmh
        a&;ol 'ef a*;vfarm (Dan Gillmor) ac:qdouJo@kd “vlxk trsm;twGuf vlxtrsm; ud,wiu
                                                    k h                             k      k f kd f
        aqmif&GufpDrH=uaom atmufajcxkv_yf&Sm;r_ owif;pmynm” jzpfvmcJh+yD[k qdkygonf? (bavmh
        *grsm;taejzifh rnfodk@aom usifh0wfrsKd; xm;&Sdoifhoenf; tcef;wGif =unfhyg?)

        yifra&pD; owif;rD'D,mrsm;u qifqmjzwfawmuf ydwfqdk@cHae&aom/ ta=umif;aygif;pHkjzifh zdtm;ouf
        a&mufcHae=u&aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif bavmh*grsm;u wu,fh trSefppfppf owif;axmufrsm; jzpfvm=u
        ygonf? olwdk@uom vGwfvyfaomowif;rsm; ay;Edkif=u+yD;/ tpdk;&rsm;u rvdkrkef;xm;cH&jcif;/ wcgw&H
        zrf;qD;cH&jcif;rsm; ponfh tEW&m,frsm;vnf; =uHK=u&ygonf? bavmh*g trsm;tjym;rSm vdkufvHteH@cH
          k                       G                                       f G              h l
        pHprf;cH=u&+y;D / axmifoi;f tusO;f csonfvnf; =uKH &ygonf? Tpmtkywif yg0ifa&;om;cJowOD; jzpfonfh
        tm&mh&Sf pD*gcsDrSm tD&ef tm%m&Siftpdk;&udk a0zefonfh owif;tcsKd@udk wifydk@rdonfhtwGuf axmif'%f
        14 ESpf csrSwfcH&ygonf? ol.jzpf&yfu bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfonfhtEW&m,f =uHK&onfjzpfap/ olwdk@
            k       f dS                   dS             G    f         k kd
        vdtyfcsu&onf xifI wm0ef&onfxifI t&Jpe@f vkyaqmif=uyHuvnf; azmfjyaeygonf? bavmh*g
        rsm;u 0goemygI a&;om;ae=u±Hk oufoufr# r[kwfyg? olwdk@u axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tifwmeuf
                                     f S                              k f l          l
        toH;k jyKaeolrsm;twGuf rsuaphEihf em;ozG,f jzpfonf[k olw@kd ud,ow@kd cH,xm;=uolrsm; jzpfygonf?

        bavmh*grsm;taejzifh olwdk@vHkjcHKa&;twGuf tEW&m,f&SdEdkifonfh tajctaewGif owif;rsm;wifydk@&mY
                                       k                kf           J G k df
        trnfrazmfbJ xm;&ef vdtyfygonf? qdibme,fy,fxwif &Jyvyrsm;u uif;vSnae=u+y;D / “jy\em         hf
                         l                       H kd f       f           f
        &Smwwforsm;” udk aemufa,mifcvu&mwGivnf; u|r;f usiae=uonf? Tvufppmtkywif oifrnf          JG       f G
        ol qdkonfudk razmfxkwfbJ owif;rsm; wifjyEdkifonfhenf;rsm;twGuf t=uHjyKxm;ygonf? (tDoef
        Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman) . trnfrazmfbJ rnfodk@ bavmha&;om;rnfenf; tcef;wGif
                                  f kd             d        d   l kd                      f
        =unfEiygonf?) tGevi;f ay:wGif &SaepOf rdrrnfoqonfukd razmfjybJ v#K@d 0Suxm;Edionfh enf;ynm
                h kd f                                                                                kf
                       f _ dS   k                                      Gf                   f l
        u|r;f usir&ygu ydaumif;ygonf? od@k aomfvnf; atmufwiazmfjyxm;onfh vG,uaom enf;emrsm;udk
        oHk;jcif;jzifhvnf; a&SmifvGJEdkifzG,f &Sdygonf? odk@aomfvnf; Tt=uHjyKcsufrsm;rSm tifwmeufudk toHk;ðyI
              _               f
        jypfrusL;vGeae=uaom (t=urf;zuform;rsm;/ zsuvzsuq; vkyvorsm;/ uav;rsm;udk vdirqi&m
                                                                 f kd f D f kd l                             f _ kd f
        rawmfrw&m;vkyf vdkolrsm;twGuf) r[kwfyg? TvufpGJpmtkyf. &nf&G,fcsufrSm twdkuftcH ydwfqdk@
        [ef@wm;r_rsm;ESifh =uHKae=u&aom olwdk@jrifonfh tjrifrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfwifjyvdk=uaom
        bavmh*grsm;udk ulnDEdkif&eftwGufom jzpfygonf?

        odk@aomfvnf; bavmh*grsm;twGuf/ zdESdyfwwfonfh tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm; vufatmuf&Sd bavmh*grsm;
        tygt0if twGuf t"dujy\emrSm vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&mjy\em r[kwfyg? t"duusonfh jy\emrSm rdrd
                     d             f               l     S        d                      l d
        bavmhukd vlorsm;vmatmif vkya&;ESihf pmzwfoy&dowf&mazG &&Sa&;yif jzpfygonf? pmzwfor&Sonfh
        bavmhwckudk tm%m&Sifrsm;uvnf; *±kpdkuf=uvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? pdk;&drfzG,f ta=umif;vnf; r&Sdyg?


        6      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                              6                                              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                 vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh\ oHawmfqifhtopf bavmh*grsm;



               Tvrf;!$ef vufpGJpmtkyfwGif bavmhwckudk t"duusonfh &Smpuf (Search Engines) rsm;u
               aumuf,l&SmazGEdkifatmif axmufulay;Edkifrnfh enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m t=uHay;csufrsm;vnf; azmfjyxm;
               ygonf? (tdkvDAD,m tef'a&,l. aqmif;yg;udk =unfhyg?) xdk@tjyif “owif;pm taiG@touf”&aprnfh
               enf;vrf;rsm;udkvnf; azmfjyxm;ygonf? (rmhuf *a&pm (Mark Glaser) . oif.bavmhudk
               trSef awmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;udk =unfhyg?)

                                                             k        f
               tcsK@d aom bavmh*grsm;uvnf; qefcgcs ppfxwf ydwq@kd cH&onfukd =uKH =u&onf? ,cktcg trsm;pkaom
                              f                                k f                          kd f
               tm%m&Sitpd;k &rsm;u tifwmeufrsm;udk ppfxwI qifqmjzwfawmufEionfh enf;ynmrsm;udvnf;                k
               ydkifqdkifvm=uonf? usL;bm;EdkifiHESifh AD,uferfEdkifiHwdk@wGif tpdk;&udk a0zefxm;aom/ odk@r[kwf vmbf
               pm;r_rsm;udk zGifhcsazmfxkwfxm;aom/ odk@r[kwf vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_rsm;ta=umif; aqG;aEG;xm;
               aom 0ufbufqdkufrsm;udk =unfh±_I &Edkifvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? “w&m;r0if” odk@r[kwf “tzsuf
                                                                           d f       h           k
               tarSmuf”[k qd=k uonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk qefcgppfywq@kd onfpufu tvdtav#muf ydwq@kd xm;         f
                    hf                                                                    fS k
               vdrrnf jzpfonf? od@k aomfvnf; bavmh*gtm;vH;k u tifwmeufpmrsuEmwdi;f udk vGwvyfpm xdawG@f     G
               &&SdEdkifcGifh vdktyf+yD;/ bavmhe,fy,ftm;vHk;udk oGm;a&mufEdkifcGifh&&ef vdktyfygonf? odk@r[kwfygu
               olwdk@bavmhrsm;. wifjycsufrsm;rSm tusKd;rxif jzpf&ayvdrfhrnf?

               TvufpGJpmtkyf. 'kwd,tydkif;rSm qefcgppfydwfqdk@xm;jcif;udk ausmfv$m;Edkifonfh enf;emrsm;yif jzpfyg
               onf? (emwf ADvefE; (Nart Villeneuve) . qifqmjzwfawmufrrsm;udk ausmvm;&ef enf;ynm
                                    l                                                    _                 f $
               ydkif;qdkif&m tcef;wGif zwf±_Edkifygonf?) a,bk,s qifjcifydkif;jcm;r_/ pdwf&SnfZGJ&Sdr_ESifh txl;ojzifh rSefuef
               toHk;wnfhonfh enf;ynmud&d,mrsm;udk toHk;csjcif;jzifh rnfonfhbavmh*grqdk qifqmjzwfawmuf
               ydwfqdk@r_rsm;udk ausmfv$m;Edkifvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?

               TvufpGJpmtkyfwGif enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&mt& t=uHjyKr_rsm;ESifh bavmhaumif;wcktjzpf jyifqif
               wnfaqmufEdkifa&; twGuf enf;vrf;rsm;udk wifjyxm;ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; atmifjrifaom bavmh
               wck jzpfajrmuf&eftwGufrSmrl vG,fulvSaom udpPr[kwfvSyg? trsm;=um;rS wa,muftjzpf xl;jcm;
               ay:xGufvm&ef qdkonfrSm rdrdudk,fydkifwifjyr_ jzpf&efvdktyf+yD;/ yifra&pD; owif;rD'D,mrsm;u c|if;csef
               &pfaom/ ypfy,fxm;aom owif;rsm;ESifh tjrifrsm;udk wifjy&ef vdktyfygonf? tcsKd@aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif
               bavmh*grsm;rSm axmifrsm;jyifywGif aexdkifEdkifa&;twGuf ylyef=u&ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tcsKd@aom
               EdkifiHrsm;wGifrl vltrsm;,Hk=unfudk;pm;avmufaom owif;rsm;udk wifay;Edkifonfh *k%foduQm&Sdonfh
               bavmhwckjzpfvmap&ef wnfaqmufEdkifa&;twGuf vHk;yrf;=u&ygonf? bavm*gtm;vHk;twGuf &Sdae
               =uaom jy\emrsm;rSm rwlnD=uyg? odk@aomfvnf; olwdk@tm;vHk;url wenf;r[kwf wenf;tm;jzifh
               vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkcGifh &&Sda&;twGuf a&S@wef;rSwdkufyJG0ifae=uolrsm; jzpf=uygawmhonf?

                   *sLvD,H ydef;onf e,fpnf;rjcm;owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@. tifwmeufvGwfvyfcGifhqdkif&mXme.
                                                                              t}uD;tuJjzpfygonf?



                                                                            e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY               7


HandBook.pmd                                7                                               11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        8      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                       8              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                                 bavmhqdkwm bmvJ




                                                                                    k
                                                                           bavmhh qdwm bmvJ
                                                                                                    Pointblog.com


               bavmhwck (odk@r[kwf) 0ufbfavmh (Weblog) wckonf vlwOD;. yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&m 0ufbfqdkuf
               (Personal website) yif jzpfonf?
                   • t"ddutm;jzifh owif;rsm; (wifydk@azmfjycsuf ydk@pfrsm; “posts”) om yg0ifonf?
                   • yHkrSef topfrsm;jzifh rGrf;rHwifay;onf?
                   • ae@pOfrSwfwrf; 'dkif,m&DozG,f tvm;o¿mefwlonf? (topfwifaom ydk@pfrsm;u txuf
                      ydkif;wGif azmfjyay;onf?) odk@aomfvnf; wifxm;aom ydk@pftrsm;pkudk tkyfpkrsm;cGJjcm;I
                      rmwdumozG,f tvG,fwul jyef&SmazGEdkif&ef azmfjyay;Edkifonf?
                   • txl;pDrHay;xm;aom tjyeftvSef qufoG,faqmif&GufEdkifonfh ud&d,m (interactive
                      tool) jzifh pwifI bavmhwck wnfaqmufEdkifonf?
                   • a,bk,stm;jzifh vlwOD;wa,mufuom bavmhudk zefwD;/ a&;om; wifjy=uonf? &Hzef
                      &Hcg trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;=uonf?

               bavmhwck. wifydk@r_ ydk@pfrsm;
                  • yH k r S e f t m;jzif h pmom;rsm;jzif h azmf j y=uonf ? (jyif y rS tif w meuf p mrsuf E S m rsm;od k @
                       oGm;a&mufEdkifaom qufoG,fr_ vifhcf (links) rsm;vnf; azmfjywwf=uonf?) wcgw&H
                       ±kyfyHkrsm;azmfjy=u+yD;/ aemufydkif;wGif toHESifh AD'D,dkrsm;vnf; azmfjyr_rsm;vm=uonf?
                  • vma&mufvnfywf =unfh&_ol (pmzwfolrsm;) u rSwfcsufjyefay;Edkifonf?
                  • bavmhxJYyif pm=unfhwdkufozG,f rSwfwrf;odrf;qnf;xm;Edkif+yD;/ tcsdefumv tuef@
                       towfr&Sd &,loHk;pGJEdkifonf?

               odk@twGufa=umifh bavmhwckonf vlwOD;. yk*~dKvfa&;0ufbfqdkufwckESifh ydkI toGifwlonf? odk@aomf
               vnf; atmufazmfjyyg tcsufrsm;u 0ufbfqdkufwckESifh rwljcm;em; c|if;csufrsm;&Sdonf?
                    • bavmhwckudk wnfaqmuf/ xdef;odrf;&ef ydkIvG,fulonf? ydkI touf0if &Sifoefv_yf&Sm;
                         r_&Sd+yD;/ r=umc% qdkovdk ydkI topfwifydk@Edkifonf?
                    • ydkI vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom/ ydkI yk*~dKvfa&;qefqef wifjyEdkifaom/ ydkI yGifhvif;&if;ESD;aom
                         wifjycsufrsm; jyKEdkifonf?
                    • vma&mufvnfywf zwf±_olrsm;/ tjcm;bavmh*grsm;ESifhvnf; aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefr_rsm; ydkI
                         jyKEdkifzG,f jzpfaponf?



                                                                          e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY              9


HandBook.pmd                               9                                              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          bavmhqdkwm bmvJ



               •   urBmw0Srf;vHk;&Sd bavmhrsm;wGif wpHkw&mwlnDaom pHowfrSwfcsuf &Sdae+yD;/ yHkpHwl
                   enf;ynmrsm;udkvnf; oHk;pGJae=uonf? (Oyrm- aumfvH 2-ck/ 3- ck jyoxm;yHk/ wifydk@csuf
                   ydk@pfrsm;tay:wGif rSwfcsufrsm; ay;Edkif=ujcif;/ wifydk@onfh pm (ydk@pf) rsm;udk tvkdtav#muf
                   rSm,lEiaom (RSS feed—Really Simple Syndication) udk aqmif&uEijf cif;?
                            kd f                                                                         G f kd
                   (RSS feed qdkonfrSm tvGefvG,fulaom pkzGJ@r_[k jyefqdkv#if jzpfEdkifrnf xifygonf?)




        bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;
        Pointblog.com




        bavmh (Blog)                                        bavmh0ef;usif (Blogosphere)
        0ufbfavmh*f (Weblog) udk twdkaumuf ac:              bavmhrsm; tm;vHk;/ bavmha&;om;ae=uolrsm;
        qdkjcif;yif jzpfonf? a&;om;xm;aom ta=umif;          . todkuft0ef;/
                      d f           hf        f kH
        t&mrsm;/ cswqufr_ vifcrsm;/ "gwyrsm;udk tcsef   d
        wdkif; wifydk@ay;Edkifaom 0ufbfqdkufwckyif jzpf     bavmh. qufpyfr_ (Blogroll)
        onf? a,bk,stm;jzifh yk*~dKvfwOD; wa,mufu            bavmhwckwGif azmfjyxm;aom jyifyESifhquf
        wifydk@a&;om;+yD;/ yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&mtay: tajccHI   oG,fEdkifonfh csdwfqufr_ vifhcfrsm;/ Oyrmtm;jzifh
        aqmif&Gufjcif; jzpfonf?                             tjcm;bavmhwckESifh csdwfqufxm;r_/ a,bk,s
                                                            tm;jzifh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrS ta=umif;t&m
        bavmha&;om;jcif; (to Blog)                          wckESifh csdwfqufxm;r_ jzpfonf? trsm;tm;jzifh
        bavmh w ck u d k pD p Of a &;om;aejcif ; / bavmh       d      f               d f
                                                            rdr.rdwaqGrsm;udk azmfjycswqufxm;jcif;jzpf+y;D /
        wckodk@ ta=umif;t&mwck wifjya&;ydk@jcif;?           bavmhrsm;teufrS ti,fpm; aemufxyf todkif;
                                                            t0ef;av; wck jzpfonf?
        bavmh*g (Blogger)
        bavmhwckudk pDpOfa&;om;aeol                         bavmha&;onfh tEkxnfaqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
                                                            (Blogware)
                                                            bavmha&;om;&mwGif toHk;jyKonfh tEkxnf
                                                            aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;?




        10 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           10                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                          bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;




               aygufaomufay;ydk@onfh rSwfcsuf trd_ufrsm;                tjrJwef; csdwfqufxm;r_ (Permalink)
               (Comment Spam)                                           tjrJwef; csdwfqufxm;r_ (Permalink) udk
               tD;ar;vfwGif 0ifvmwwfonfh trd_ufpmrsm;                   twdkaumufac:qdkjcif; jzpfonf? ta=umif;t&m
               ozG,yif jzpfonf? (Spambots) trdupmrsm;
                       f                              _ f               wck . 0uf b f q d k u f v d y f p mud k bavmh a y:wG i f
               ay;ydk@rnfh pufrsm;u xkwfvdkufonfh rSwfcsufrsm;          wif j yay;apjcif ; jzpf o nf ? wif j yr_ w ck t ay:
               u bavmhrsm;wGif jynfhodyfazmfjyr_rsm; jzpfvm             tjrJwap rSwfom;xm;onfh vG,fulaom enf;
               wwfonf? twkta,mifa=umfjimrsm;jzifhvnf;                   vrf;wckvnf; jzpfonf? Tta=umif;t&m.
               a&mufvmavh&Sdonf? TonfrSm bavmh*grsm;                    rl&if;vm&mvrf;a=umif;udk bavmhwGifvnf;
               twGuf }uD;av;aomjy\emjzpf+yD;/ tcsKd@aom                 rSwfwrf;wif odrf;qnf;xm;onfh yHkpHrsKd; jzpfonf?
               toHk;jyKaeolrsm;udk z,f&Sm;Edkifrnfh/ tcsKd@aom
               vdyfpm/ rSwfcsufrsm;udk ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;Edkifrnfh       "gwfyHk bavmh (Photoblog)
               ud&d,mrsKd; vdktyfonf?                                   t"dutm;jzifh "gwfyHkrsm;udkom wifjyxm;onfh
                                                                        bavmh/ yHkrSefqdkovdkESifh tpOftvdkuf "gwfyHkrsm;
               &Sdaeaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pkpnf;jcif;                  udkom azmfjyavh&Sdonfh bavmhrsm;?
               (Content Syndication)
               Tenf;rSm bavmha&;om;ol/ odk@r[kwf pDrHcef@cGJ            aygh'fuyfpfvkyfjcif; (Podcasting)
               aeolu ol.azmfjycsufrsm;tm;vHk;/ odk@r[kwf                tdkifaygh (iPod) ESifh xkwfv$ifhjcif; (Broad-
               tcsKd@aom tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk tjcm;0ufbfqdkuf            casting) [lonfh pum;ESpfvHk;udk twdkcsKyf ac:
               rsm;wGif wifjyEdkif&ef pkpnf;ay;jcif;rsKd; jzpfonf?      qdkjcif; jzpfonf? bavmhay:wGif toHzdkifrsm;ESifh
                                                                        AD'D,dkzdkifrsm; xkwfv$ifh+yD; 'pf*spfw,fud&d,mrsm;
               rdkbavmh (Moblog)                                        jzifh jyefzGifhEdkif&ef (RSS Feed) pepf jyKvkyfxm;
               a&G@vsm;aeaom bavmh (mobile blog) udk                    ay;jcif; jzpfonf?
               twdkaumuf ac:qdkjcif; jzpfonf? qdkvdkonfrSm
               bavmhwckudk rnfonfh ae&murqdk topfwif/
                       G         k                           h
               jyifqifrr;f rHaeEdijf cif; jzpfonf? zke;f jzifaomfvnf;
               aumif;/ vufudkif 'pf*spfw,fypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;
               jzifh aomfvnf;aumif; Todk@aqmif&GufEdkifonf?




                                                                            e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 11


HandBook.pmd                                11                                               11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;



        wifydk@jcif;/ ydk@pf (Post)                         tm tufpf tufpf pkpnf;ay;onfhud&d,m
        bavmhay:wGif wifjyxm;aom ta=umif;t&m                (RSS Aggregator)
        wck? owif;pum;wckvnf; jzpfEdkifonf? "gwfyHk         bavmh*grsm;taejzifh RSS Feed udk zwfEdkif
        wckjzpfEdkifouJhodk@/ csdwfquf&rnfh vifhcfwck       &ef t wG u f tEk x nf a qmh z f 0 J , m;/ od k @ r[k w f
        vnf; jzpfEdkifonf? a,bk,stm;jzifh wdkawmif;         tGefvdkif;rSwqifh toHk;csEdkifaom ud&d,mrsm; &Sdyg
        onfh wifjyr_rsKd; jzpfonf? jyifycsdwfqufr_ vifhcf   onf? txl;ojzifh ‚wdk@. tESpfoufqHk;aom
        vnf ; jzpf E d k i f o nf ? Tta=umif ; t&mtay:      bavmhrsm;rS topfwifydk@onfh ydk@pf rsm;udk zwf&_
        rl w nf I vma&muf v nf y wf zwf ± _ o l r sm;u      Edkif+yD jzpfonf? ‚udk wenf;tm;jzifh pmzwfonfh
        rSwfcsuf jyefay;Edkif=uonf?                         ud&d,m (Reader) odk@r[kwf zd'f (feed) rS
                                                            ydk@vmonfrsm;udk zwfEdkifonfhud&d,m (feed-
        tvG,fulqHk;aom pkpnf;r_ (tm tufpf tufpf)            reader) [k ac:=uygonf?
        RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
        0ufbfqdkufwckwGif v$ifhwifvdkufaom aemuf            tm tufpf tufpf oGwfoGif;r_ (RSS Feed)
        qHk;wifjyonfh ta=umif;t&mudk &,lEdkifonfh           bavmh w ck . aemuf q H k ; wif y d k @ xm;aom
        enf;wckyif jzpfonf? bavmhrsm;twGuf txl;             ta=umif;t&m yg0ifonfh zdkifjzpfonf? ‚wdk@udk
        oifhav#mfvSygonf? ta=umif;rSm vltrsm;u              (RSS Aggregator/ reader) jzif h
        olwdk@óuufESpfouf=uonfh bavmhrsm;u topf             zwf ± _ E d k i f y gonf ? bavmh w ck u topf w if
        wifydk@wdkif; owday;Edkifaompepf jzpfaoma=umifh       k f              S             f      _ kd f
                                                            vduonfEihf Tenf;jzifh csucsi;f zwf±Eiygonf?
        jzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif wify@kd aomta=umif;t&mudk
        tm;vHk;udkaomfvnf;aumif;/ wpdwfwydkif;udk           aemufa=umif;ajc&mcHjcif; (Trackback)
        aomfvnf;aumif; tjcm;qdkufwcku jyefvnf               0uf q k d u f w ck t aejzif h bavmh w ck w G i f
        azmfjyEdkif&ef (t±dk;&Sif;tvG,fulqHk;ESifh tvdkt    wif v d k u f a om ta=umif ; t&mwck u d k ,cif
        av#muf) vkyfxm;onfhpepfjzpfygonf? txl;v#if          ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh jyKjyif ajymif;vJjcif; &Sd-r&Sd
        jrefpGm ysH@ESH@apygonf? txlojzifh owif;rD'D,m      tvdktav#muf aemufa=umif;cH jyefvnf ppfaq;
        avmursm;twGi;f tv#itjref ys@H ES@H apEdiygonf?
                                   f              kf        Edkifaom enf;vrf;jzpfygonf?




        12 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           12                                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                   bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;



               0ufbf 'dkif,m&D (Web Diary)
               bavmhwck?

               0DuD (Wiki)
               [m0dkiftDu|ef;a'oae vlrsKd;rsm;. pum;vHk;wck
               jzpfaom 0Du0uD (wikiwiki) (tv#itjref[k
                              D D                          f
               t"dy`g,f&onf?) rS ,lxm;onfh a0g[m& jzpf
               onf? vma&mufvnfywf zwf±_ol/ pma&;om;ol
               pojzifh rnfonfholtwGufrqdk tvG,fwulESifh
               tv#iftjref topf jyKjyifa&;om;Edkifaom 0ufbf
               qdkufrsKd; jzpfygonf? ‚pum;vHk;onf 0DuDudk
               zef w D ; &ef toH k ; jyKaom ud & d , m (wiki
               engines) udk tpGJjyKIac:aom pum;vHk; vnf;
               jzpfygonf? bavmhrsm;ESifh 0DuDt=um; wlnDr_
               wpHkw&m &Sdaomfvnf; rwluGJjym;csufrsm;vnf;
               ododomom &Sdygonf?
               bavmh r sm;wG i f                    rd r d v d k o vd k
               jzef@csdazmfjyEdkif&eftwGuf enf;em/ ud&d,mrsm;
               tv#iftjref wdk;yGm;vmae+yD;/ 0ufbfqdkufwckudk
               topfwif&ef jyifqifrGrf;rH&eftwGuf rsm;pGm
               vG,fulvmapygonf?




                                                                          e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 13


HandBook.pmd                                  13                                     11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        14 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                    14            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                    toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;




                          taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;
                                                             Cyril Fievet and Marc-Oliver Peyer



               bavmhwckwif toH;k jyKEiaom ud&,m (tool) wcka=umifh oH;k pGorsm;twGuf vG,u,Ofyg;aponfh
                              G          kd f     d                        J l               f l
               pmrsufESmrsKd; jzpfap+yD; (0ufbfqdkuf vrf;!$efrsm;rSwqifh vG,fuloGm;a&mufEdkifonfh tajctae
               jzpfonf?) ‚wGif yg0ifaom rmwdum/ ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pepfwus v_yf&Sm;ouf0ifapatmif
               pkpnf;ay;ygonf? Todk@aom ud&d,mrsm;a=umifh pm=unfhwdkufozG,f pepfwus pkpnf;rSwfwrf;wif
               xm;jcif;/ &SmazGjcif;wdk@ vG,fulap&efvnf; aqmif&Gufay;ygonf?

               bavmhwckwGif tifwmeuf vdyfpm (2) ck&Sd+yD;/ bavmhwck wnfaqmuf+yD;pD;ygu ajymif;vJr_ r&Sd
               awmhyg? ‚wdk@rSm-
                     • vltrsm;vma&muf=unfhEdkifaom vdyfpm
                     • pDrHcef@cGJaeol. vdyfpm (0ufbfqdkufudk pDrHcef@cGJaeolu v#Kd@0Sufuk'f (password) jzifh
                         umuG,fxdef;odrf;xm;ay;onfh vdyfpm)
               oifhtaejzifh bavmhwckudk wnfaqmufawmhrnf qdkygu/ bavmhrsm; ay;xm;onfh &yf0ef; (ywf0ef;
               usif) wckwGif yl;aygif;jcif;/ odk@r[kwf oifhudk,fydkif tifwmeuf qmAm (server) Y bavmha&;Edkifonfh
               ud&d,mrsm;udk toHk;jyKIaomfvnf;aumif; aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?

               bavmhrsm;. 0ef;usif (Blog Community)
               (The Civiblog system rS a&;om;xm;onfh “bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf/ a&S@quf
               rnfenf;” tcef;udk zwf±_apvdkygonf?)
               wnf&Sdae+yD;om; bavmhpmrsufESmrsm;a&;Edkif&ef axmufyHhay;xm;onfh bavmhrsm;. 0ef;usifwGif
               bavmhtopfwck zGifhI vkyfrnfqdkygu rdepftenf;i,fom =umEdkifygonf? oifu oif. toHk;jyKol
               trnf (user-name) ESihf v#K@d 0Suu'f (password) udk a&G;cs,xnfoi;f +y;D tenf;i,f uvpf±r#
                                                 f k                            f h G                     kH
               ESifhyif bavmhwck wnfaqmuf+yD;/ zGifh+yD; jzpfaeyg+yD? tcsKd@aom bavmhae&may;olrsm;u aiGa=u;
               awmif;cHavh&Sdaomfvnf;/ tcsKd@rSm tcrJh jzpfygonf?

               tu,fI oifu vltrsm; =unf±oufoufom (view only) twGuf bavmhwck wnfaqmufrnf
                                         h kH
               qdkygu Tenf;u taumif;qHk; jzpfygonf? Todk@ wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf aiGukefa=u;us rrsm;vSyg?
               (vpOf ,l±dk§ a':vm tenf;i,f ukefus±Hkr#ESifhyif pwifEdkifyg+yD?) v#ifjref/ ±dk;&Sif; vG,ful+yD; rlvuwnf;
               u emrnf&Sd+yD;om; bavmh todkuft0ef;jzpfaom a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ ‚todkuft0ef;twGif;&Sd
               bavmh*grsm;. csdwfqufxm;r_/ qufoG,ful;vl;aer_rsm;a=umifh tusKd;aus;Zl; &apygonf?


                                                                        e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 15


HandBook.pmd                              15                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;



        od@k aomfvnf; ay;xm;onfh yHprsm;wGif ñu&aomjy\emrSm av;atmuf (layout) 'DZi;f cs&eftwGuf
                                   k H           H                                           kd
        vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh tcGifhtvrf;enf;jcif;/ rdrdvkyfvdkonfh tqifhjrifhzefwD;csufrsm; aqmif&Guf&ef rjzpf
        Edkifjcif;ESifh ‚bavmh*g todkuft0ef;u xnfhoGif;xm;onfh a=umfjimrsm; ay:vmwwfjcif;/ Todk@
        rdrdbavmhvkyfxm;onfh todkuft0ef;wckvHk; wcgw&H ydwfoGm;/ &yfqdkif;oGm;jcif;rsKd;vnf; ñuH&Edkif
        ygonf?

        bavmha&;onfh ud&d,mrsm;udk toHk;csjcif;
        tifwmeuf qmAmwGif xnfhoGif;xm;onfh uGefjyLwm y±dk*&rfrsm; &Sdaewwfygonf? Ta&;om;
        xm;onfh uGefjyLwm pum;&yf (scripts) rsm;a=umifh bavmhqdkufudk tvdktav#muf azmfjyay;+yD;/
        rd r d w if y d k @ azmf j yvd k u f a om tcsuf t vuf r sm;ud k v nf ; ‚. tcsuf t vuf o d k a vS m if r _ p epf
        (database) xJwGif odrf;qnf;xm;ay;ygonf? w}udrf xnfhoGif;vdkufv#if/ pHowfrSwfxm;onfh
        tGefvdkif; vrf;!$efrsm; (standard online navigators) rSwqifh tvkyfvkyfoGm;ygonf?
        (HTML) uJhodk@aom tqifhjrifhonfh uGefjyLwmenf;ynm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; wwfu|rf;&ef rvdktyfbJ
        bavmhwckukd pwifziI a&;om; a&S@qufEiygonf? od@k aomfvnf; (installation) vkyI xnfoi;f
                                         G hf              kd f                                       f           h G
        jcif;/ yHkpHcsjcif; (configuration) wdk@rSm &Hzef&Hcg ±_yfaxG;vSygonf? (&&SdEdkifolrsm;. pHudk owfrSwf
        xm;jcif; (setting access criteria)/ odkrSD;xm;rnfh pepf xm;&Sd jcif; (craeting a database)/
        zdkifrsm; v$Jajymif;azmfjyEdkifrnfh pDpOfowfrSwfjcif; (arranging FTP lodging) ponfvkyfief;rsKd;
        jzpfygonf?)

        TudpPrsm;twGuf tajzrSm bavmha&;jcif;ESifh u|rf;0ifaeolrsm;twGuf jy\em r&SdvSyg? oifu
        vdkovdk pDrHcef@cGJEdkif+yD; oifvdkovdk vufcH/ jyKjyif ajymif;vJ/ topfpDpOf xnfhoGif;r_rsm; jyKEdkifygonf?
                                                                                             f
        od@k aomfvnf; bavmhwck wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm; enf;ynmu|r;f usi&ef rvdyg? od@k aomf   k
        vnf; Todk@aom bavmhrsm;u rvdktyfbJ ay;ydk@vmaom trd_ufozG,f rSwfcsufpmrsm;udk ydkI
        vufcH&zG,f tEW&m,f &Sdygonf? xdk@tjyif rdrdxnfhoGif;onfh tcsuftvufrsm;udkvnf; rdrdudk,fwdkif
        odrf;qnf;xm;&ef vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?

        bavmha&;onfh &yf0ef;ae&mudk rnfodk@a&G;cs,frnfenf;
        bavmha&;Edkifonfh todkuft0ef; (&dyfðrH) wckrS tjcm;wckodk@ ajymif;vJoGm;&eftwGuf rvG,fulvSyg?
        odk@twGufa=umifh yxrOD;qHk; pwifpOfuyif aocsma&G;cs,f&ef vdktyfygonf?

        ra&G;cs,frD atmufygtcsufrsm;udk aocsmpOf;pm;yg
        •           todkuft0ef; wcktwGif;&Sd tjcm;bavmhrsm;
        tcsKd@aom tifwmeuftoHk;jyKolrsm;u rdrdwdk@pdwf0ifpm;onfh ta=umif;t&m/ touf ponfhtay:
        wl&m pkzGJ@xm;=uonfrsm; &Sdygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh Ttodkuft0ef;twGif;&Sd tjcm;bavmhrsm;udk
        taotcsm avhvm=unfhapvdkygonf? olwdk@taejzifh rnfonfhyHkpHwlrsm; pkzGJ@xm;onfudk oifoabm
        aygufvmygvdrfhrnf?


        16 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                              16                                              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                              taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;



               •          bavmhrsm;u rnfuJhodk@ taetxm;&Sd=uoenf;
               qufvuf pOf;pm;&rnfhudpPrSm wcgw&H bavmh*gtenf;pkom &Sdwwfaom bavmhtodkuft0ef;wGif
               oifhbavmha&;onfh tcg a&G;cs,fp&m ta&mif/ pmvHk;azmifh/ aemufcH 'DZdkif; av;atmuf tenf;i,fr#
                           f d                         f                           k f           k
               om a&G;cs,&ef &Swwfygonf? od@k twGua=umifh tjcm;aom bavmh todut0ef;rsm;udk [donfveI    Sf
                                       h                                H           d kf
               avhvm=unfjh cif;tm;jzifvnf; rnfo@kd a&S@quf&rnfukd oift=uaumif; &&SvmEdiygonf? tcrJh toH;k jyK
               cGifhay;xm;aom bavmh todkuft0ef; trsm;wGif tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;Y a=umfjimrsm; yg0if
               aewwfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- pojzifh (http://myblog.thecommunity.com, http://
               thecommunity.com/myblog, http://thecommunity.com/mynumber) ponfh
               bavmhzGifhcGifhay;onfh pmrsufESmrsm; jzpfygonf?

               •              toifhxm;ay;onfh vkyfaqmifzG,frsm; (Features on offer)
               tu,fI oifhu bavmhudk 'DZdkif;jyefvnfa&;qGJEdkif&eftwGuf wwfEdkifonfqdkv#if TvkyfaqmifEdkif
               onfh tcsufrsm;udkvnf; =unfhapvdkygonf? tjcm;bavmhvufcHonfh ae&mrsm;wGif ay;xm;onfh
               ydk@pfwifjyEdkifr_/ toH/ ±kyfyHkwifjyEdkifr_/ zkef;jzifh rdrda&;om;vdkonfrsm; wifjyEdkifjcif; &Sd-r&Sd/ rSwfyHkwifxm;
               aom toHk;jyKolwOD;twGuf (wpdwfwydkif;jzpfap/ wpHkvHk;jzpfap) wm;jrpfxm;onfh udpPrsm; ponfjzifh
               udkvnf; avhvm=unfhapvdkygonf? xdk@tjyif rdrdwifxm;onfh ydk@pfwckudk tjcm; bavmh todkuf
               t0ef;rsm;odk@ xyfrHay;ydk@EdkifcGifh &Sd-r&Sd/ 0ifaiG 0ifvrf;&&Sd&eftwGuf a=umfjimxnfhoGif; vufcHEdkifcGifh
               ponfrsm;udkvnf; =unfhoifhygonf?

               •          zHk;uG,fxm;aom ukefuspm;&dwfrsm;
               tcsKd@aom bavmhvufcHonfh todkuft0ef;rsm;onf tcrJhjzpfaomfvnf;/ tajctaewck a&mufvm
               v#if ydkufqHay;&rnf qdkonfrsKd; &Sdwwfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh odkavSmifxm;onfh tcsuftvuf
               a'wmrsm; tay:rlwnfIaomfvnf;aumif;/ toHk;jyKonfh bef;'f0pf'f (bandwidth) tay: rlwnfI
               aomfvnf;aumif; tcawmif;onfrsm; &Sdygonf? rlvuwnf;u óuwifppfaq;xm;oifhygonf?




                                                                               e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 17


HandBook.pmd                                  17                                                 11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;



        bavmhfrsm; vufcHzGifhay;onfh EdkifiHwumrS yvufazmif;rsm;
        (International Platforms)

        bavmh*g
        Blogger- http://www.blogger.com
                   tcrJh jzpfonf?
                   1999 ckESpfwGif pwifwnfaxmifcJh+yD;/ *l;*Jvfukr`%Du 2003 ckESpfwGif 0,f,lcJhonf?
                   bavmhyvufazmif;rsm;teufwGif t}uD;qHk;jzpf+yD;/ bavmh 8 oef;ausmfudk vufcHzGifhay;
                   xm;onf? oHk;pGJ&efvG,fulaomfvnf;/ tcsKd@udpPrsm;udk uef@owfxm;onf?
        vdkufzf*sme,f
        Livejournal- http://www.livejournal.com
                   tcrJh&ovdk/ aiGay;&onfvnf; &Sdonf? (wvv#if 2 a':vmr# ay;&onf?)
                   oufwrf;t&ifhqHk;aom bavmhyvufazmif; jzpf+yD;/ bavmh 6 oef;ausmf vufcHzGifhay;
                   xm;onf? trsm;tm;jzifh vli,frsm;. qHk&yfjzpfonf?
        trf-tufpf-tef payhpf
        MSN Spaces- http://www.msnspaces.com
                   tcrJh jzpfonf?
                   rdkuU±dkaqmhzf ukr`%D. yvufazmif;jzpfonf? 2004 ckESpf aemufydkif;wGif pwifzGifhvSpfcJh+yD;/
                        f       kd f G   P                               f    kd f _
                   vkyaqmifEiz,f udptrsm; tjym; ygonf? tcsK@d aom vkyaqmifEirrsm;rSm bavmhxufyif
                   ydkus,f0ef;onf? ("gwfyHkrsm; a0iSvufcHjcif;/ rufqif*sm qufoG,fjcif; (Messanger
                   link)/ ponfrsm;vnf; aqmif&GufEdkifonf? rSwfyHkwif bavmhzGifh&eftwGuf touf 13-
                   ESpf txufom cGifhjyKonf?




        18 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           18                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;



               jyifopfbmomjzifh bavmh yvufazmif;rsm;

               wGefwD-qpf
               20six- http://www.20six.fr
                         tcrJhjzpfonf? aiGay;&onfvnf; &Sdonf? (wvv#if 3 ,l&dkrS 7 ,l&dk usEdkifonf?)
                         vk y f a qmif z G , f r sm;pG m cG i f h j yKxm;onf ? tajccH t qif h & S d o vd k / tcsKd @ bavmh r sm;wG i f
                         tqifhjrifhudpPrsm;udkyg aqmif&GufcGifh jyKonf?
               tdkAm-bavmh
               Over-blog- http://www.over-blog.com
                         tcrJh jzpfonf?
                         aocsmpGm jyifqif'DZdkif;a&;qGJxm;+yD;/ oHk;pGJ&ef vG,fulonf?
               pudkif;bavmh
               Skyblog- http://www.skyblog.com
                         tcrJh jzpfonf? (a=umfjimrsm; ygonf?)
                         jyifopfEdkifiHwGif t}uD;qHk; bavmhyvufazmif; jzpf+yD;/ vli,frsm; t=um; a&yef;pm;onf?
                         odk@aomfvnf; vkyfaqmifzG,frsm;rSm &Hzef&Hcg uef@owfcsufjzifhom cGifhjyKonf?)
               wdkuf yuf'f
               TypePad- http://www.typepad.com
                         tcay;&onf? (wvv#if ,l±dk 5 rS 15 txday;&+yD;/ vkyfaqmifEdkifzG,f udpPrsm;tay:
                         rlwnfonf?)
                                            h            f             G   P          f
                         txl; tqifjh rifv+S y;D / vkyaqmifz,f udptrsm; vkyI&onf? tjcm;aom wwd,vlwOD;u
                         zGifhay;yguvnf; tcrJhbavmhudk toHk;jyKI &Edkifonf?
                         Oyrm- Noos- http://www.noosblog.fr
                                         or
                                         Neuf Telecom - http://www.nuefblog.com
               Adkif,m bavmh
               Viablog- http://www.viabloga.com
                         tusKd;tjrwfr,lonfh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;twGuf tcrJhay;xm;onf? odk@r[kwfygu wvv#if
                         5 ,l&dkcef@ ay;&onf?
                         rl&if; jzpf+yD;/ ouf0ifv_yf&Sm;r_ &Sdonf? txl;uGJjym;jcm;em;onfh vkyfaqmifzG,f features
                         rsm;vnf; yg&Sdonf?




                                                                                 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 19


HandBook.pmd                                  19                                                  11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;




        t"duusonfh bavmha&;om;Edkifonfh ud&d,mrsm;

        a'gh uvD;,m;
        DotClear- http://www.dotclear.net

        rlzfaA;bJ wkdufyf
        Movable Type- http://www.movabletype.org

        a0gh'f y&ufpf
        Wordpress- http://www.wordpress.org

        Pointblog.com onf acwfopf tifwmeuf awmfvSefa&;. t"dy`g,fESifh twdkif;tqudk
        tav;teuf rD;armif;xdk;jy&ef &nf&G,f aqmif&Gufaeaom tzGJ@jzpfygonf?
        TtifwmeufpmrsufESmwGif pwiftoHk;jyKolrsm;/ 0g&ifh toHk;jyKolrsm;/ tvnftywfvma&muf
        =unfh±_olrsm; yg0if=u+yD;/ bavmhwckESifh tjcm; oD;jcm;vGwfvyfonfh tcef;u¾rsm;vnf;
        azmfjyxm;ygonf? Pointblog SARL u pDrHaqmif&Gufae+yD;/ c&pPwdkzD *ifepPwD
        (Christophe Ginisty) ESifh qDa&;vf zDAuf (Cyril Fievet) wdk@u
        yl;wGJwnfaxmifum a&S@aqmifaeygonf?




        20 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                         20                                11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 21


HandBook.pmd   21              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        22 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                    22            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                          bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;




                                         bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf?
                                                      a&SUqufrnfenf;
                                                                      The Civiblog system, Citizenlab

               bavmhwcku yHkrSef0ufbfqdkufwckxufpmv#if xdef;odrf;&ef ydkrdkvG,ful+yD;/ topfwif jyifqifrGrf;rH&ef
               ydkrdkvG,fulygonf? bavmh. yvufazmif;[k (Platforms) ac:aom qmAmrsm;wGif ydk@pftopfrsm;
               wif&mY tenf;i,fuGJvGJaom enf;emrsm; &Sdae=uaomfvnf;/ rloabmt&rSm twlwlyif jzpfonf?
               ,ckaqmif;yg;rSm pDADbavmhpepf (Civiblog) udk toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf taxmuftyHhjzpfap&ef
               wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? Tyvufazmif;udk urBmt&yf&yf&Sd t&yfzuf vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u toHk;jyK
               ae=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf; Tt=uHay;csufenf;pepfrsm;udk tjcm;qmAmrsm; toD;oD;wGifvnf; toHk;
               jyKEdkifygonf? pDADbavmhu bavmh0J,m; yvufazmif; (Blogware platform) udk toHk;jyK+yD;
               ‚aqmh0J,m;udk wyfaumif;pf ukr`%D (Tucows) u tcrJh toHk;jyKcGifhay;xm;jcif; jzpfygonf?

               yxrtcsuftaejzifh bavmha&;om;jcif;udk vltrsm;t=um; a&yef;pm;vm&jcif; ta=umif;udk
               avhvm=uygpdk@?

               bavmh0ef;usif[k qdkEdkifrnfh (blogosphere) wGif ta&;ygaom enf;ynmaomhcsufrSm (RSS-
               Really Simple Syndication) [kac:aom pepfjzpfygonf? ‚rSm bavmhwcku topfwif
               vdkufonfESifh Tenf;jzifh csufcsif;zwf±_Edkifaom enf;pepf jzpfygonf? XML (eXtensible
               Markup Language) file &Sd (RSS item) udk bavmhu tvdktav#muf Ed_;ay;vdkuf+yD;/
               tjcm; 0ufbfqdkufwck/ tjcm;bavmhwckuvnf; Tpepfjzifh csdwfqufxm;Edkifygonf? tu,fI
               oifu (RSS Feed) udk (syndicate) [kac:onfh pkpnf;r_pepfjyKaomtcg ‚ydk@pftopf
               wifvdkufonfh acgif;pOfudk oif. owif;zwfonfh ud&d,m (news reader) wGif jrif&ygvdrfhrnf?
               (oif. tD;ar;vfrsm; vufcHEdkifonfh Outlook odk@r[kwf Thunderbird y±dk*&rfwGif zwf&_I
               &Edkifygonf?) odk@r[kwf oif. 0ufufqdkuf/ yk*~dKvfa&;bavmhwGifvnf; topfwifay;vdkufI zwf&_Edkif
               ygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;u v#ifjrefpGm/ tvdktav#muf ysH@ESH@apEdkifygonf?
               bavmha&;ol bavmh*grsm;u Tenf;ynmudk u|rf;usifpGm toHk;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh owif; tcsuftvuf
               rsm;udk xda&mufpGm jzef@jzL;ay;Edkifygonf?

               bavmha&;om;jcif;wGif aemufxyfta&;ygonfh enf;ynmwckrSm “aemufa=umif;jyefvdkufjcif;” [k
               ac:onfh (tracebacks) jzpfygonf? Tenf;ynmudk yvufazmif;trsm;wGif toHk;jyK=u+yD;/ bavmh&Sd
               owif;tcsuftvuf wck. rl&if;ae&mudkvnf; jyefvdkufEdkifygonf?



                                                                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 23


HandBook.pmd                            23                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;



        tu,fI rdrdtopfwifvdkufaom ydk@pfta=umif;t&monf tjcm;ydk@pfwckudk tajccHygu/ tjcm;
        bavmhwckrS &,lxm;ygu (traceback) enf;ynmudk xnfhoGif;ay;Edkif+yD;/ tvdktav#muf
        ta=umif;jyef=um;ay;jcif;/ ydk@pftay: jyefvnfazmfjyjcif; jyKonfh/ rSwfcsufa&;om;onfh qdkufudk
        jyefvnfar;cGef;xkwfjcif;rsm; jyKEdkifapygonf? Todk@zwf&onfrSm ±_yfaxG;onfhozG,f &Sdaomfvnf;/
        trSefwGif tvGef±dk;&Sif;vS+yD; *k%f,lzG,fvnf; jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm oif.wifjycsufudk óuufESpf
        oufI tjcm;wOD;u jyefvnfjzef@jzL;ay;a=umif; odEdkifaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif ta=umif;
        t&mwckudk ydkrdkus,fjyef@pGm jzef@a0Edkif+yD;/ bavmhrsm; tcsif;csif;t=um; aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefr_rsm;vnf;
        jyKEdkifapygonf?

        Tenf;ynmudk u|rf;usifvmap&eftwGuf tcsdef tenf;i,fay;apvdkygonf?

        atmufwGif (The Civiblog homepage) . yifrpmrsufESmudk azmfjyxm;ygonf?




        (RSS Feed) rSm nmzufwGif awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? tu,fI rdrd. todkuft0ef;twGif;&Sd tzGJ@0if
        0ufbfqdkufwcku ydk@pf topfwifvdkufonfh tcgwdkif; tvdktav#muf topfjznfhqD;ay;vdrfhrnf
        jzpfonf?




        24 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           24                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                            bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;



               pm&if;oGi;jcif; (Singing Up)
                         f
               oifu bavmhwck pwif rwnf
                             f kH       k
               aqmufrD rSwywif&ef vdtyfygonf?
               bavmhyvufazmif; (vufcH&mae
                                    f l
               &m) trsm;pku vG,uatmif aqmif
                                          D
               &Guf ay;xm;=uygonf? pDAbavmht
               aejzifh tajccHusaom tao;pdwf
               tcsuf t vuf t csKd @ jznf h a y;&ef
               awmif;qdkygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf;
               Todk@jznfhoGif;&jcif;rSm ‚u tdrf&Siftjzpf vufcHay;xm;rnfh bavmhwckonf t&yfzuf vlr_tzGJ@t
               pnf; (civil society group) wck tppftrSef [kwf-r[kwf ppfaq;&efom jzpfygonf? ‚u
               rdom;pkrsm;/ oli,fcsif;rsm;twGuf yk*~dKvfa&;bavmhudk cGifhjyKrnfr[kwfyg? rSwfyHkwifvdkufonfh
               tcsdefrSpI rdrd bavmhudk tGefvdkif;ay:wGif jrifawG@Edkif&eftwGufqdkv#if 24-em&Dr# tcsdef,l&ygvdrfhrnf?
               rdrdbavmhtwGif;odk@ 0ifEdkifrnfh v#Kd@0Sufpmom; (access code) udk bavmha&;olxHodk@ tD;ar;vfrS
               wqifh ydk@ay;rnf jzpfonf?

               pDrHcef@cGJa&;twGuf 0ifa&mufjcif; (Administration Log-In)
               bavmh w ck w G i f (Front End)
               0ifa&mufzwf&_ol {nfhonfu =unfh
               EdkifaompmrsufESmESifh (back end)
               ZmwfcHkaemufbuf[k qdkEdkifrnfh pm
               rsuf E S m [l I &S d y gonf ? Taemuf
               bufwGif topfjyifqif wnf;jzwf
               jcif;/ pDrHcef@cGJjcif;/ a&S@qufaqmif&Guf
               jcif;rsm; jyKEiygonf/ Tae&mod@k toH;k jyKo.trnf (username) ESihf v#K@d 0Suu'rsm; (password)
                             kd f                         l                              f kf
               jzifh rSwfyHkwif0ifa&muf+yD;rS pDrH&onfhae&m jzpfygonf?

               pufcvkyfcHk 'uf&Sfbkwf (dashboard)
               bavmh t rsm;pk w G i f puf c vk y f c H k
                              fS k d
               ozG,f 'uf&bwf &Sygonf? Tae&m
               udk wcsuf=unfh±Hkr#ESifhyif bavmh
                                       f
               wGif rnfo@kd jzpfysuaeonfh t&mtm;
               vHk;udk odEdkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh
               aemufqHk;wifydk@azmfjyr_rsm;/ rSwfcsuf
               rsm;ESifh aemufa=umif;jyef ajc&mcHr_
               rsm; (tracebacks) ud k v nf ;
               awG @ &ygvd r f h r nf ? Tae&mrS a eI

                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 25


HandBook.pmd                              25                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;



        bavmh. vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm; tm;vHk;odk@ oGm;Edkif+yD;/ ‚wdk@. toGiftjyif/ bef;0pf'ftus,f/ ponf
        wdk@udk jyKjyifEdkifouJhodk@ ,cifazmfjyr_ta[mif;rsm;udk jyefvnf wnf;jzwfEdkifjcif;/ toHk;jyKolrsm;ESifh
        tjcm;cGifhjyKxm;csufrsm;udk jyifqifajymif;vJ Edkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tjcm;olrsm;u rSwfcsufa&;om;
        azmfjycGifhudkvnf; Tae&mrS xdef;csKyfEdkifygonf?

                                                         rnfuJhodk@ ydk@pf a&;om;azmfjyrnfenf;
                                                         bavmhwckESifh yHkrSef 0ufbfpmrsufESmwck. jcm;em;
                                                         csufrSm bavmhwckudk topfjyifqif azmfjy&eftwGuf
                                                              f
                                                         vG,ujl cif;jzpfygonf? yvufazmif;trsm;pku pm±duf           k
                                                         a&;om;Edkifonfhae&m ay;xm;ygonf? 'DZdkif;av;
                                                         atmufudpPrsm;twGuf ylyefpdk;&drfae&ef rvdkyg? pDAD
                                                                    hJ
                                                         bavmhuo@kd aom bavmhyvufazmif;topfrsm;wGif
                                                         oifu pmom;rsm;. azmifh/ pmvHk; t&G,ftpm;/
                                                         ta&mif r sm;omru csd w f q uf r _ v if h c f r sm;/ yH k r sm;
                                                         wifEdkif&eftwGufyg pDpOfay;xm;ygonf?

        oifu ydk@pfazmfjyr_ topfwifrnfqdkygu-
            1? rSwfyHkwifa&;xdk;I 0ifyg? (Logging in.)
            2? ydk@pf (post) [laom ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
            3? oif. ydk@pfazmfjyr_udk trnfay;I pmom;rsm; a&;xnfhyg?
            4? tifwmazhpf (interface) pmrsufESmudk toHk;jyKI pmom;rsm;udk pDpOfyg?
            5? ydk@pfudk vuQ%m/ trsKd;tpm; (category) owfrSwfay;yg? (xdktcg wl&m ta=umif;
                    t&mrsm;jzifh pkpnf;ay;ygvdrfhrnf?) odk@r[kwf trsKd;tpm; topfwrsKd; xyfzGifhyg?
            6? pmrsufESm atmufajc&Sd “odrf;qnf;yg”[k qdkonfh (save) udk uvpfvkyfyg?
        Tr#om jzpfygonf? tenf;ti,f tawG@tñuH&Sd±Hkr#ESifhyif oifu Oyrm- (tracebacks, ping,
        keywords) ponfh tjcm;enf;ynm trsKd;trnfrsm;udkvnf; toHk;jyKEdkifygvdrfhrnf?

                                                         aemufa=umif;jyefvdkufjcif; (Tracebacks)
                                                                                h G           f l
                                                         ‚udk aygi;f xnfoi;f &ef vG,uygonf? oiftaejzifh      h
                                                         oifudk;um;azmfjyonfh tifwmeufpmrsufESm. tjrJ
                                                         wrf;vdyfpm (permanant URL) udk nmzuf&Sd
                                                         (tracktback URLs to notify) ae&mwGif
                                                         xnf h o G i f ; rS w f o m;ay;±H k o m jzpf y gonf ? oif u
                                                         (save) vkyfaomtcsdefwGif Tpepfu rl&if;qdkuf
                                                                            k
                                                         ae&mod@k tvdtav#muf ta=umif;=um;ay;rnf jzpfyg
                                                         onf?


        26 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            26                                              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                     bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;



               tm&f-tufpf-tufpf pepfjzifh pkpnf;jcif;
               (RSS Syndication)
               tjcm;aom 0ufbfqdkufrsm;/ bavmhrsm;udk (RSS
               Feed) pepfjzifh pkpnf;jcif;rSm tvGefyif vG,fulvSyg
               onf?
               1? bavmh. twGif;pmrsufESm (“back end”) odk@
                  0ifa&muf&eftwGuf (log in) vkyfyg?
               2/ rdrtESpoufq;kH [k t"dyg` ,&onfh (favourites)
                     d f                      f
                  ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
               3? (RSS Headline Components) ae&mudk
                  uvpfvkyfyg?
               4? !$ef=um;csufrsm;twdkif; vdkufemvkyfaqmifI tifwmeufpmrsufESm. (URL) udk xnfhoGif;yg?
                  (qdvonfrm rdrppnf;vdaom tifwmeufpmrsuEm vdypmrsm;rSm (.xml, .rdf, .py, or .php)
                       k kd     S dk        k                    fS f
                  wdk@ESifh tqHk;owfavh &Sdygonf?)
               5? rdrdxnfhoGif;onfh (feed) udk trnfay;I (add feed) udk uvpfvkyfyg?
               6? tcktcsdefwGif rdrdxnfhoGif;onfh (feed) udk zefwD;+yD;+yD jzpfygonf? bavmh. av;atmuf
                  'DZdkif;twGif; xnfhoGif; azmfjy+yD; jzpfygonf?
               7? (look and feel) [laom ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
               8? (layout) [laom ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
               9? (RSS: your feed) [laomae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg? (your feed qdkonfrSm tqifh (5) wkef;
                  u oiftrnfay;cJhaom ta=umif;t&m jzpfygonf? TaumfvHudk uvpfvkyfI qGJcsvm+yD;/ oifu
                  Tta=umif;t&may:apvdkaom ae&mwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyEdkifygonf?)
               10? pmrsufESm atmufajc&Sd (save) udk uvpfvkyfyg? +yD;pD;+yD jzpfygonf?

               bavmha&;om;jcif;ta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI tao;pdwfudk azmfjyxm;aom tjcm;0ufbfqdkuf
               trsm;tjym;vnf; &Sdaeygonf?
               pDADbavmh. yifr t&if;tjrpfae&m
                        http://central.civiblog.org/blog/BloggingResources
               bavmh rnfo@kd a&;om;rnfenf;
                        http://blogging.typepad.com/how_to_blog
               onf bavmh*dk pzD;,m; (bavmhtodkuft0ef;)
                        http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogsphere
               0ufbf bavmhtvkyf±Hk (The Weblog Workshop)
                        http://cyber.law.harvard.edu:8080/glovalvoices/wiki/index.php/
                        WeblogWorkshop
               bavmha&;om;jcif; 101 (Blogging 101)
                        http://www.unc.edu/%7Ezuiker/blogging101/index.html

                                                              e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 27


HandBook.pmd                         27                                    11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        28 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif; e=ucsdefwGif &Jyvd JY
     vlrsm;u vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif iwfrGwfaaxmufrsm;tzGyfrsm;u 4if;wdk@aemufrS waumufaumuf vdkufzrf;v#uf&Sdaeonf



HandBook.pmd                          28                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                 bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;




                                             bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom
                                                 usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;
                                                                             'ef a*;vfarm (Dan Gillmor)

               bavmha&;oltm;vHk;u owif;axmuf tvkyfrsKd; rvkyfaqmif=uyg? bavmha&;ol trsm;pkrSmvnf;
               owif;axmufrsm; r[kwf=uyg? odk@aomfvnf; owif;wifjyonfh owif;axmufwm0efrsKd; xrf;aqmif
               v#if usifh0wftwdkif;awmh jzpfoifhygonf?

               qdkvdkonfrSm Tbavmha&;olrsm;u owfrSwfjyXmef;xm;onfh wnf&Sd+yD; usifh0wfwckckudk vdkufem
               =u&rnfvm;? Todk@ vdktyfonf[k usaemfawmh rxifyg?

               owif;pmynmjzifh oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyK=uolrsm; avmuY vdkufemapmifhxdef;&rnfh usifh0wfrsm;
               &Sdygonf? tcsKd@aom usifh0wfrsm;rSm a&;xm;vdkufonfrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpk zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
               tajccHOya'xufudkyif ydkI &Snfvsm;ygonf? jzpfEdkifajc&Sdaom usifh0wfpnf; usKd;aygufzG,fudpPrsm;udk
               ar#mfrSef;I a&;om;xm;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? tcsKd@rSm xdxdrdrdESifh wdkwdkawmif;awmif;rsm;vnf;
               &Sdygonf? ‚wdk@u tjyKoabmqefqef vrf;!$efcsufrsm;r#om azmfjyxm;=uygonf? qdkifbm owif;
               axmufrsm; (cyber-journalist) 0ufbfqdkufu tar&dueftajcpdkuf tzGJ@wckjzpfaom owif;pm
               ynmjzifh oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyK=uolrsm;. vlr_tzGJ@tpnf; (Society of Professional
               Journalists) . rlrsm;udk tajccHI bavmh*grsm; vduem&rnfh usi0wftcsK@d udk owfrwf azmfjyxm;
                                                                  k f           hf                S
               ygonf? (http://www.cyberjournalist.net/news/000215.php) wGif =unf&Eiygonf?           h _ kd f

                      hf                   S h d P                      _ d             G f
               Tusi0wfrsm;rSm ta&;ygvonfupwckjzpfonfh ,H=k unfr&&Sa&;twGuf &nf&,I csrwxm;jcif;omS f
               jzpfygonf? tu,fI pmzwfol (vma&mufvnfywfol/ em;axmifolvnf; jzpfcsifjzpfrnf) u wifjy
               xm;onfh ta=umif;t&mudk r,Hk=unfygu pawG@uwnf;uyif qufvuf 'kuQcHpOf;pm;+yD;/ tav;xm;
               zG,f r&Sdawmhyg? c|if;csufwckrSm usifh0wft& rnD[k odxm;onfh udpPwckudk (avhvm&ef &nf&G,fcsuf
               oufoufjzifh) =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh rnfodk@a&Smif&Sm;&rnfudk trSef A[kokw &apEdkifygonf? vltrsm;.
               usifh0wfESifh rav#mfnDaom trltusifhrsm;udk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifhvnf; tuJjzwf avhvmEdkifygonf?

               usaemhftwGufrl usifh0wfqdkonfrSm &Sif;vSygonf? “*k%foduQm” [kyif ±dk;&Sif;pGm jrifrdygonf? Tpum;
               vHk;udk,fYuyif rsm;pGmt"dy`g,f us,f0ef;vSygonf? rdrdwdk@u *k%foduQmESifh tnD rusifhv#if/ tjcm;
               olrsm;. ,Hk=unfr_udk &&Sdvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg?




                                                                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 29


HandBook.pmd                            29                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;



        tar&duefEdkifiH&Sd owif;pmavmuwGif ,Hk=unfr_qdkonfrSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh “bufrvdkuf r#wr_”
        (objectivity) [k ac:aom pHowfrSwfcsufESifhvnf; wGJaewwf=uygonf? qdkvdkonfrSm ta=umif;
                             k f                                          l               f kd f
        t&mwckukd r#wpGm/ yHzsuazmfjyr_ uif;pGm wifjya&;yifjzpfonf? pmzwfoukd qH;k jzwfcsucsEi&eftwGuf
        cGifhay;jcif;om jzpfonf? usaemhftjrifwGifrl bufrvdkuf r#wr_onf ta&;ygaomfvnf;/ rdrdwdk@ OD;wnf
        xm;aetyfaom udpPr[kwfyg? ta=umif;rSm rdrdwdk@ vlom;tm;vHk;u vkyfaqmifr_wdkif;wGif wckr[kwf
        wck tpGJruif;/ bufvdkufr_ &Sdwwf=uaoma=umifh jzpfygonf?

        acwfopf owif;pmynmavmuwGifrl rdrdwdk@ rsm;pGmajymif;vJcJh+yD jzpfonf? ,cifu q&mu wynfhudk
        ydk@csrdef@cGef;ajymaeonfh yHkpHrS tjyeftvSef pum;ajymqdkr_bufodk@ ydka&mufvmygonf? usifh0wftnD
                    G                            f     k   S          hf
        aqmif&u=f uaom owif;pmynm vkyx;kH qdonfrmvnf;/ usi0wfOya'rsm;tay: trSjD yKr_ enf;vm+y;D /
        *k%foduQm&Sdaom owif;pmwapmifjzpfapa&;twGuf wefzdk;xm;r_ESifh pHE_ef;rsm;bufodk@ ydkI a&mufvm
        ygonf?

        owif;pmorm;aumif; wOD;jzpf&eftwGuf tajccHusonfh tkwfjrpfaxmufwdkifrsm; &Sdygonf?
                                                               hf                      f   _
        ‚wd@k rSm- tao;pdwf jzpfjcif;/ wdusjcif;/ r#wjcif;/ yGivif;jrifomjcif;ESihf vGwvyfr&jdS cif; wd@k jzpfygonf?

        TudpPrsm;tay: pnf;jcm;xm;r_rSm tpOfojzifh jywfjywfom;om; r&SdvSyg? tus,ftjyef@ t"dy`g,fzGifhI
        &ygonf? T t"dy`g,fzGifhcsufrsm;Yyif udk,fvdkovdk qGJajymae=uonfrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? odk@aomfvnf;
        usaemhftjrifwGif Ttcsufrsm;onf usifh0wfnD owif;pmorm;jzpf&eftwGuf toHk;usonfh csOf;uyf
        enf;rsm; jzpfygonf? tGefvdkif;ay:wGif wifjya&;om;&mY rdrd&nfrSef;csufudk a&muf&ef vG,fulpGm usifhoHk;
        Edkifaom enf;rsm;vnf; jzpfygonf? qufvufavhvm=unfh =uygpdk@?

        tao;pdwfjzpfjcif; (Thoroughness)
        usaemhftaejzifh ,cifu owif;pmorm;tjzpf/ aemufydkif; aumfvHrsm;wGifa&;onfh yifwdkifpma&;ol
        owif;orm;tjzpf aqmif&GufpOfu usaemf. yxrOD;wnfcsufrSm jzpfEdkifor# avhvmod&SdEdkifa&;yif
        jzpfygonf? aemufqHk;qdk&v#if tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh vltrsm;. xifjrifcsufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;onfuyif
        owif;ay;ydk@jcif;. tajccHtkwfjrpf jzpfygonf? aemufqHk; pmtacsmtjzpf rxkwfcif usaemhftaejzifh
        95 &mcdkifE_ef;cef@ tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;aerd+yD[k ,lqv#if taumif;qHk;tajctae jzpfygonf?
                 d                       k                            k     h kH
        usaemfoxm;aom taumif;qH;k qdonfh owif;pmorm;rsm;yifv#if ydrjkd ynfpap&ef aemufxyf w,fvD
        zkef;wcg xyfac:vdk=uygao;onf? aemufxyf owif;t&if;tjrpfwckESifh xyfrHwdkufqdkif ppfaq;vdk
                                                h    kd                          dS
        ae=uygao;onf? (tifwmAsL;ar;jref;onftcgwi;f usaemf aemufq;kH ar;avh&aom ar;cGe;f rSm- usaemf
        aemufxyf b,foleJ@rsm; pum;xyfajym&v#if aumif;OD;rnfenf;[k ar;avh&Sdygonf?)

        ,ae@umvwGif tao;pdwfjzpfjcif; qdkonfrSm usaemfwdk@. vdyfpmpmtkyftwGif;&Sd yk*~dKvfrsm;udk ar;cGef;
        rsm; ar;±Hkr#om ruawmhbJ/ tjcm;ae&mrsm;vnf; &Sdvmygonf? trSefwu,f vlawG@ar;&efvdkovdk/
        tifwmeufrsm;rSwqifhvnf; &Edkif ygao;onf? qdkvdkonfrSm usaemfwdk@. pmzwfolrsm;udk jzpfEdkifygu


        30 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                             30                                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                   bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;



               a&;om;xm;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI tjrifawmif;cH&efyif jzpfygonf? 2004 ckESpfwGif
               atmufajcxk v_yf&Sm;ol owif;axmufrsm;twGuf vrf;!$efpmtkyf usaemfa&;pOfu (tjcm;olrsm;u
               olwdk@oufqdkif&m tydkif;rsm;udk a&;aeqJ jzpfygao;onf?) vnf; tvm;wl usaemf aqmif&GufcJhygao;
               onf? vltrsm;t=um; tòyiftqdkif óu;yrf;ae&aomumvY Todk@tjrifawmif;cH&ef cufcJaumif;
               cufcJEdkifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; owif;axmuftrsm;u Todk@jyef=um;vdk=urnf[k ,lqygonf?

               wdusjcif; (Accuracy)
               tcsuftvufay;&ef vdkygonf?
               oif rnfodk@vkyfaqmifaeonfudkom azmfjy&ef r[kwfbJ/ oif rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk roda=umif;vnf;
               azmfjy&ygvdrfhrnf? (tu,fI pmzwfol§vm=unfhol§ em;axmifolrsm;u oifrodaomtcsufrsm;udk
               olwdk@ od&Sdygu/ oifhukd,fpm; jznfhpGufay;&ef xdkolrsm;udk zdwfac:Edkifygonf?)

               wdusjcif;qdkonfrSm oifrSm;aeonfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk jyefjyifjcif;vnf; jzpfygonf? csufcsif; rSm;ae
               onfudk jyefvnf jyifqif&ef jzpfygonf? tGefvdkif;ay:wGif a&;om;jcif; jzpfygu jyifqif&ef ydkrdkvG,ful+yD;/
               owif;trSm; azmfjyr_twGuf jyifqif&ef/ qdk;usKd;oufa&muf&r_ enf;ap&eftwGuf aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?

               r#wr_ (Fairness)
               TtcsufrSm vufawG@wGif usifhoHk;Edkif&ef cufcJvSygonf? wdusr_ jzpf&efu ydkrdkvG,fulygonf? r#wr_qdk
               onfrSm pmzwfolu oifhtay: qHk;jzwfrnfh tcsufjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; TudpPtwGuf vltrsm;
               taejzifh a,bk,stoHk;jyKEdkifrnf ,lqI azmfjytyfygonf?

                     kd    S          P          d
               r#wr_qonfrm tjcm;udptrsm; &Saomfvnf;/ rwlujJG ym;aom tjrifrsm;udk em;axmifjcif;yif jzpfygonf?
               Ttjrifrsm;udk rdrdowif;wifjy&mwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjy&efyif jzpfygonf? Todk@ r#wr_qdkonfrSm
               =uufwla&G;&Gwfovdk vdrfvnfazmfjyjcif;rsKd; r[kwfyg? tcsuftvuftrsm;u tjcm;wbufudk
               axmufjyaeonfhtcsdefwGif/ qef@usifbuftjrifudk &&ef[lI vlysif;vHk@vjzifh vG,fvG,fwa,muf
               a,mufudk udk;um;azmfjyjcif;rsKd; rjzpfapoifhyg?

                       kd     S                                                                 S
               r#wr_qonfrm oifu rSm;,Gi;f aeonf[k tjcm;olrsm;u ,lqaomtcg/ oif.tjrifEihf rwlaomtcg
               vltrsm;udk wkH@jyefcGifhay;jcif;vnf; yg0ifygonf? yHkESdyfowif;pm/ pmapmifrsm;xufpmv#if tGefvdkif;
               azmfjycsufrsm;xufpmv#if Todk@ aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf ydkvG,fygonf? toHxkwfv$ifhr_rsm;wGif jyefvnf
               jyifqif&ef ydkcufygonf?

               aemufqHk;azmfjy&v#if r#wr_qdkonfrSm vltrsm;. pdwfcHpm;r_ tajctaeESifh ydkoufqdkifygonf?
               usaemfwdk@udk aphaqmfaompdwfudk ydkI tav;ay;oifh+yD;/ oabmrwlnDaom tjrifrsm;udk em;axmif&ef
               vnf; ydkIpdwfvdkvuf& &Sdoifhygonf? pum;ajymqdk&mwGif yxrOD;qHk;vdkufem&rnfh pnf;rsOf;rSm em;
               axmif&efyif jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif usaemf odxm;onfrSm usaemfESifh oabmwlnDolrsm;xufpmv#if/


                                                                        e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 31


HandBook.pmd                              31                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;



        usaemf rSm;,Gif;aeonf[k ,lqolrsm;xHrS em;xmif&ef ydkvdktyfjcif;yif jzpfygonf?

        yGifhvif;jrifomr_ (Transparency)
        pmzwfolrsm;twGuf zGifhcs&Sif;vif;apjcif;onf owif;pmynmtwGuf aemufxyfomvGef tusKd;&Sdaom
        udpP jzpfygonf? odk@aomf tajymxuf vufawG@ vkyfaqmif&onfu ydkcufygonf?

        owif;axmufrsm;taejzifh tusKd;pD;yGm;qdkif&m yÉdyuQjzpf&r_rsKd;/ aiGa=u;qdkif&m ywfoufaer_rsKd; uJhodk@
        aom tcsKd@aom udpPrsm;udkyg &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; zGifhcsazmfjyoifha=umif; tcsKd@aomolrsm;u jiif;csufxkwf
        ajymqdk=uygonf? odk@aomf pma&;olrsm;u rnfonfh twdkif;twmtxd azmfjyrnfenf;? owif;axmuf
        rsm;tm;vHk;udk olwdk@b0udk vltm;vHk; [if;vif;jrifae=u&aom b0rsKd;/ zGifhxm;onfh aiGpm&if;
        pmtkyfuJhodk@ aqmif&Gufoifhygonfvm;? rnfodk@ yGifhvif;jrifomr_ &Sdapatmif aqmif&Gufrnfenf;?

        vlwdkif;u bufvdkufr_&Sdwwf=u+yD;/ wcgw&H rodbJESifhjzpfap aqmif&Gufwwf=uaoma=umifh owif;pm
        ynmtwGufvnf; xdcdkufr_ &SdapEdkifygonf? usaemfu tar&duefvlrsKd;jzpf+yD;/ wpHkw&maom ,Hk=unfr_
        rsm;ESifh }uD;jyif;vmjcif;jzpfonf? tjcm;a'orsm;wGif usaemfESifh ,Hk=unfr_ vHk;0rwlol/ jiif;y,frnfh
        olrsm;vnf; &SdEdkifygonf? (tar&duefEdkifiHwGifvnf; &SdEdkifygonf?) usaemfudk pdefac: jiif;ckefvm=uonfh
        tcsufrsm;udkvnf;/ rwl=uonfh tjrifrsm;udkvnf; rawmif;bJ &xm;onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ozG,f
        udk,fwdkifcH,l tav;xm; *±kpdkufem;axmif&efvnf; vdkygvdrfhrnf?

        yGifhvif;jrifomr_ &Sdap&eftwGuf tjcm;enf;wckrSm owif;ta=umif;t&mwckudk rnfodk@ wifjyrnf
        [laom tcsufyif jzpfygonf? &Edkifor#aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk aygif;pnf;xnfhoGif;&efvnf;
        vdkygvdrfhrnf? vufawG@jzpfysufaeaom uGif;xJ&Sd vltrsm;. owif;/ tcsuftvufrsm;udk &Edkifor#&
        atmif wl;qG&ygvdrfhrnf? (TtcsufrSm tao;pdwf jzpfjcif;/ wdusjcif;wdk@ESifh oufqdkifr_&Sdaomfvnf;/
        Tae&mwGifvnf; oufqdkifqufpyfr_ &Sdrnf ,lqygonf?)

        vGwfvyfr_&Sdjcif; (Independence)
             f d Q d                    f kd  S              h k
        *k%oum&Saom owif;tvkyqonfrm owif;jzpfonftwdi;f azmfjyjcif;/ aemufa,mifcvujf cif;om   H kd
        jzpfygonf? owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;taejzifh ukr`%D}uD;rsm;tjzpf aygif;pkzGJ@pnf;vm=uaomtcg/ tpdk;&.
        csKyfudkif xdef;csKyfr_atmuf usa&muf&onfhtcg Todk@azmfjyr_rsKd;rSm rjzpfEdkifawmhyg?

        tGefvdkif;ay:wGif vGwfvyfpGmazmfjyEdkif&eftwGuf rsm;pGmvG,fulvSygonf? bavmhwckzGifh a&;om;±Hkom
                                                     d
        jzpfygonf? bavmha&;om;olwOD;taejzifh rdrbmom oufarG;0rf;ausmif;I ol. oufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_
        opfjzifh óu;yrf;rnfhtaetxm;Y ukr`%D}uD;rsm;/ tpdk;&rsm;xHrS vmrnfh zdtm;ay;r_rsKd; tvm;wl
        cH&zG,f r&Sdyg?




        32 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           32                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                  bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;



               tar&d u ef E d k i f i H & S d xif & S m ;aom bavmh * gwOD ; jzpf o l *suf z f *sm;Apf (Jeff Jarvis)
               (buzzmachine.com) u tjcm;aom pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;udkvnf; jznfhxm;cJhygonf? ‚u
               bavmh*grsm;onf “pum;tjyeftvSef ajymqdkr_. wefzdk;” udkvnf; tav;xm;&rnf qdkygonf?
               olu usaemfhudk ajymcJhonfrSm ,ckay:aeonfh acwfopfurBmavmu. atmufajc pnf;rsOf;yif
               jzpfygonf? “pum;ajymqdkjcif;tm;jzifh em;vnfr_udk &&Sdaponf” [k qdkygonf?

               pum;ajymqdk&mwGif yxrOD;qHk; Oya'orSm em;axmif&efyif jzpfonf? usifh0wfqdkonfrSmvnf;
               em;axmif&eftcsuf yg0ifygonf? Tenf;tm;jzifhom rdrdwdk@avhvm oif=um;Edkif=uaoma=umifh
               jzpfygonf?

               'ef a*;vfarm (Dan Gillmor) onf atmufajcxk owif;rD'D,maumfydka&;&Sif; (Grass-roots
               Media Inc.) udk pwifwnfaxmifcJhol wOD;jzpf+yD;/ atmufajcxk jynfolrsm;. owif;rD'D,m
               vkyfief;ESifh ‚.us,fjyef@r_udk wdk;wufap&ef &nf
               &G,f aqmif&Gufaeygonf? ol. yxrOD;qHk;aom
               tif w meuf p mrsuf E S m rS m qef z &ef p pP u d k &S d
               (Bayosphere.com) jzpf o nf ? ol u




                                                                                                                      (http://www.flickr.com/photos/dsifry/36042738/)
               “usaemfwdk@. owif;rD'D,m? vlxkrsm;twGuf
               vlxkrsm;u aqmif&Gufonfh atmufajcxk owif;
               pmynm” (We the Media: Grassroots

                                                                                                                      Source: David Sifry's photostream
               Journalism by the People, for the
               People, O’reilly Media, 2004)
               pmtkyfudk a&;om;cJhonf?

                    ol. bavmhrSm (http://bayosphere/
                           blog/dangillmor) jzpfonf?




                                                                      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 33


HandBook.pmd                             33                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;




            h          f S          S
        oifbavmhpmrsuEmudk tifwmeuf&mpufrsm;
        (SEARCH-ENGINES) u
                    k f k f
        &SmazG azmfxway;Edi&efenf;
        tdkvDAD,m tef'a&,l (Olivier Andrieu)

        bavmhu,Yu 0ufbqursm; jzpf=u+y;D / olw@kd udk *l;*J (Google)/ &[l; qmhcsf (Yahoo Search)
                   kd f         f kd f
        od@k r[kwf trftufpf tJef qmhcsf (MSN Search) pouJo@kd aom tifwmeuf&mpufrsm; (search-
                                                                       h                         S
        engines) uvnf; &SmazGay; =uonf? rdr. bavmhwck atmifjrifr&&Sap&eftwGuf T&Smpufrsm;u
                                                      d                             _ d
        &S m ay;onf h &v'f r sm;wG i f ygae&ef v d k t yf + yD ; ta&;ygonf h y if r pum;vH k ; rsm; (keywords)
        xnfhoGif;ay;&ef vdktyfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh qdkufwckudk pwifwnf aqmufpOfumvuyif
        Ttifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u toHk;jyKonfh enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m trsKd;tpm;cGJjcm;r_rsm; (mechanical
        classification) udk wkH@jyef&ef pepfwus pDpOfaqmif&Gufxm;oifh ygonf?

        bavmhrsm;wGif rlvuwnf;u xnfhoGif;wnfaqmufxm;+yD; owfrSwfazmfjycsufrsm; &Sd=u+yD;/ Todk@
        &Sdaejcif;a=umifh &Hzef&Hcg tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u aumuf,lazmfjyay;=uygonf? pepfwus pDpOfxm;
        Edkifygu &SmonfESifh ay:Edkifaom pm&if;/ xif&Sm;aomae&mwGif &&SdapEdkifygonf?

               •   bavmhrsm;tm;vHk;onf vlwOD;csif;. ae@pOfrSwfwrf; 'dkif,m&Drsm;ozG,f (tenf;qHk;
                   tpydkif;umvrsm;wGif) jzpfaoma=umifh tifwmeuf&SmazGpufrsm;u aumuf,lay;Edkifonfh
                   pmom; pum;vHk; trsm;tjym; yg0ifae=uygonf? tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;u yHktrsm;tjym;
                   yg0ifaeaom/ tifeDar;&Sif; (Flash animations) pepfjzifh *&yfzpfyHkazmfjycsuf trsm;
                   yg0ifae+yD;/ pmom;odyfrygaom qkdufrsm;udk aumuf,lavh r&Sd=uyg?
               •   ydk@pfwdkif;onf a,bk,stm;jzifh pmrsufESmwrsufESm ae&m,lxm;ygonf? (permalink)
                   pepfjzifh aumuf,lEdkif+yD; ta=umif;t&m wckudk azmfjyxm;csufrsKd; jzpfwwfygonf? ‚ydk@pf
                   wifjycsufwckjcif;udk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u ydkI aumuf,lazmfjyay;avh&Sd+yD;/ pmrsufESm
                   trsm;tjym;yg0ifaom/ ta=umif;t&m trsKd;pHkyg0ifaom udpPrsKd;udk aumuf,lavh r&Sdyg?
                   (Oyrmtm;jzifh bavmhwckvHk;/ odk@r[kwf rmwdumrSwfwrf; pkaqmif;xm;r_rsm; jzpfygonf?)
               •   yd@k pfwck. acgi;f pOf (heading) udk pmrsuEm. acgi;f pOftjzpf a,bk,s jyefazmfjyay;wwf
                                                             fS
                   +yD;/ ‚. (URL) vdyfpmudkvnf; azmfjyay;avh &Sdygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh vGwfvyfaom
                   eDayga&'D,dk "Free Nepal Radio" bavmhpmrsufESm (http://freenepal.
                   blogspot.com) wGif ydk@pfwckwdkif;onf wpfrsufESmjzpfygonf? Oyrm (URL)wGif
                   (http://freenepal.bolgspot.com/2005/04/state-vandalism-in-
                   nepal.html: ) [k azmfjyygonf?

        34 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           34                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                               oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;




               ydk@.acgif;pOf (heading) onf eDaygEdkifiHwGif tpdk;&u tzsufvkyfief;rsm; vkyfukdifaejcif; "State
               Vandalism in Nepal" jzpf+yD; TpmrsufESm. tifwmeufwGif =unfh&_Edkifonfh vifhcf (URL)
               jzpf±Hkr#omru/ atmufwGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; TrSwfwrf;. acgif;pOfvnf; jzpfygonf?


               odk@twGufa=umifh ydk@pfacgif;pOfudk bavmhtrnf. aemufwGif aygif;xnfhay;ygonf? bavmhtrnf
               qdkonfrSm bavmh. rl&if;pmrsufESm (homepage) wGif ay:aomtrnf (http://freenepal.
               blogspot.com) jzpfygonf?

               odk@twGufa=umifh pmrsufESm. acgif;pOfwGif rdrdazmfjyvdkonfudk ay:vGifaponfh pum;vHk;rsm;
               (descriptive keywords) yg0ifygu tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u ydkI &SmazGxkwfay;Edkifygonf?
               ta=umif;rSm tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u (URL) &Sd (content of the <TITLE> tag in
               HTML language) udk &SmazGazmfxway;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? od@k twGua=umifh rdrwifjyaom
                                                        k f                           f      d
                                                f           S             k
               yd@k pfacgi;f pOfukd aocsma&G;cs,I tifwmeuf&mpufrsm;u azmfxwf
               ay;Edkif&ef óu;yrf;oifhygonf?                                  PREVIOUS POSTS

                                                                                  State Vandalism in Nepal
               • Todk@ vifhcfcsdwfqufr_rsm;rSm tvdktav#muf pufu zefwD;            Peace Bond: Sign of Problems
               azmfxkwfay;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ rmwdumtjzpf pkpnf; (archives) &ef        Must-Read Stories: April 20
                                                                                  Municipal Election: For
               jzpfygonf? pmrsuEm nmzufwivnf; acgi;f pD;udk pmom; (text)
                                 fS           Gf                                     Covering Up the Death of
               tjzpf azmfjyay;ygonf? (azmfjyxm;aom a&,dk z&D;eDayg bavmh.            Democracy
               pmrsufESm nmbufudk =unfhyg?)                                       Articles of Interst: April 16
                                                                                  Attempts to Blur Borderlines
                                                                                  Articles of Interest: April 7
                                                                                  Press: Support King or Die
                                                                                  Vote for Radio Free Nepal!


                                                                   e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 35


HandBook.pmd                            35                                       11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;



        Tod@k rmwdumwGif yg0ifaom pmom; (text)/ cswqufrrsm; (links) udk owdxm; azmfjyjcif;tm;jzifh
                                                      d f    _
        tifwmeuf&Smpuf azmfjycH&r_ aumif;aumif;&apEdkifygonf? ‚udk enf;ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&mt&
        (anchors) [k ac:ygonf? ‚onf oufqdkif&mpmrsufESmrsm;twGuf t"duus+yD;/ &Smpufrsm;udk
        Tae&m a&mufvmatmif !$efjyay;Edkifygonf? Oyrm tm;jzifh- yxrcsdwfqufr_ (link) wGif "State
        Vandalism in Nepal" [kazmfjyxm;+yD;/ 9 ckajrmuf csdwfqufr_wGif "Radio Free Nepal"
        [k azmfjyxm;jcif;tm;jzifh Tpmom;rsm;a=umifh oufqdkif&mpmrsufESmudk a&muf&Sdvmap&ef vrf;!$ef
        ay;Edkifygonf? xdk@tjyif Tcsdwfqufr_ vifhcf (links) rsm;azmfjyxm;aom/ “uvpf” vkyfvdkufygu
        &Edkifaom csdwfqufr_rsm; rdrdpmrsufESmwGif yg0ifyguvnf;/ tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazGawG@&Sd&ef
                                                                         fS    k
        twGuf taxmuftuljyKyg onf? ‚pmom;rsm;azmfjyxm;onfh pmrsuEmrsm;udvnf; oufqionf[k     kd f
        &Smpufrsm;u tvdktav#muf owfrSwf xm;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf?

        rdrdbavmhudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u ydk&SmazGawG@Edkif&ef rnfodk@vkyfaqmif&rnfenf;
        bavmhrsm;wGif tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u r=umc%qdkovdk &SmazGawG@&SdEdkif&ef rlvuwnf;u jrKyfESH
             h G                                   f      d
        xnfoi;f xm;aom enf;ynm tm;aumif;csursm; &Sygonf? tu,fI tifwmeuf&mpufu wpHwOD;u      S        k
        jznfhoGif; &SmazGvmaoma=umifh jzpfap/ &Smpuf. ydkufuGef uGef&ufrsm;u vifhcfwckckudk &SmazGrdaom
                                                d kf
        a=umifh jzpfap/ bavmhwckukd &SmazGawG@&SvmEdiyg onf? bavmhwcku omref0ufbquwckxufyif/  f kd f
                    d kd f                  k f        hf      k
        &SmazGawG@&SEi&eftwGuf obm0t&ud,yif tcGitvrf; ydomygonf? od@k aomfvnf; oifu tenf;i,f
        óu;yrf;aqmif&Gufjcif;tm;jzifh oifh.bavmhudk &SmazGawG@&SdEdkifr_ ydkI &&SdapEdkifygonf?

        atmufazmfjyyg tcsufrsm;rSm bavmhwckudk &Smpufrsm;u ydkI &SmazGawG@&SdEdkif&ef t=uHjyKcsufrsm;
                                                                                           k
        jzpfygonf? t"duusaom pum;vH;k rsm;udk azmfjyay;jcif;tm;jzifh oif.bavmhukd vltrsm;ydI vm=unfh
        ap&ef aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?

        1? rdrdbavmhpmrsufESmudk ydkI &SmazGawG@&SdapEdkifrnfh enf;ynmudk tav;xm;yg?
        ,cktcsdeftxd oif. bavmhqdkufu tGefvdkif;ay:wGif ay:rvmao;v#if/ oif bavmha&;&ef toHk;jyK
        onfh enf;ynmudk *±kwpdkuf jyef=unfhyg? (Oyrmtm;jzifh (Blogger, Dotclear, BlogSprint,
        Joueb) pojzifh rsm;pGm&Sdygonf? oif.bavmhudk tifwmeuf&SmazGpufrsm;u trsm;qHk; aumuf,l
             fk f kf                                            f    f
        xkwEway;Edionfh enf;ynmrsm;yg0ifaom tao;pdwtcsutvufrsm; yg0ifonfqursm;udk a&G;yg? h kd f
              • ydk@pf. acgif;pOf (heading) taejzifh pmrsufESm acgif;pD;tjzpf jyefvnfazmfjyay;Edkif&rnf?
                  (the <TITLE> tag) tvm;wl TpmrsufESmudk vm=unfhEdkifrnfh (URL) tjzpf
                  vnf; azmfjyay;&rnf? (tcsKd@aomae&mrsm;wGif tvdktav#muf ajymif;ay;jcif;r&SdbJ/
                  tcsKd@aomud&d,mrsm;jzifh aqmif&Guf+yD;rSom ajymif;ay;onfvnf; &Sdwwfonf?)
              • tjrJwrf; csdwfqufEdkifr_rsm; (permalinks) tjzpf zefwD;ay;Edkif&rnf? qdkvdkonfrSm
                  rdrdwifxm;aomydk@pfwckjcif;pDudk csdwfqufEdkifaom vifhcfrsm;tjzpf ajymif;ay;jcif;?)
              • toHk;jyKxm;aom enf;ynmt& oif.bavmhudk wwfEdkifor# 'DZdkif;jyifqifcGifhESifh oif.
                  qdkufudk udk,fydkifxl;jcm;csufrsm;jzifh xif&Sm;vmatmif jyifqifcGifhjyK&rnf? qdkvdkonfrSm


        36 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          36                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;



                          oifwifxm;vdkaom *&yfzpfyHkazmfcsufrsm;/ udk,fydkif[ef (personal style-sheets)
                          azmfxkwfEdkif&rnf? zefwD;Edkifor# enf;ynmpGrf;t& rnfr#vkyfaqmifEdkifrnfudk oifavhvm
                                h h                     G                        kd f
                          =unfoifonf? Tod@k aqmif&ujf cif;tm;jzifh oif.bavmhquukd tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;u
                          ydkI &SmazGawG@&Sdvmatmif aqmif&GufEdkifrnf jzpfonf?

               Ttcsufrsm;tm;vHk;udk ppfaq;yg? oifzefwD;vdkaom enf;ynmrsm; yg0ifaer_ &Sdr&Sd qdkufaygif;pHkudk
               =unfhyg? (oifhtaejzifh erlem,lp&mrsm;pGm &Sdaeygonf?) trsm;u rnfodk@wifjy yHkazmfxm;=uonfudk
               =unfhapvdkygonf? Todk@ avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh rsm;pGmavhvmEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?

               2? oif. ydk@pftwGuf taumif;qHk; acgif;pD;rsm; (headings) a&G;yg?
               Ttcsufu ta&;}uD;ygonf? oifhydk@pf. acgif;pD;udk pmrsufESmwckcsif;. acgif;pD;tjzpf jyefvnfazmfjy
               ay;vdrfhrnf jzpf+yD;/ oif. pmrsufESmudk !$ef;qdkazmfjyay;rnfh (URL) wGifvnf; jyefvnfyg0ifvdrfhrnf
               jzpfonf? Tae&mu tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;twGuf ta&;ygaom ae&mjzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh
                                                                k                                            d hf
               acgi;f pD;wGif pum;vH;k tenf;i,fom yg0if&ef vdtyf+y;D / txl;ta&;}u;D aom pmvH;k rsm; yg0if&ygvrrnf?
               odk@rSom &Smpufrsm;u ‚wdk@udk &SmazGazmfxkwfay;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh acgif;pD;rsm;a&;
               om;&mwGif (“Well said!”, “Welcome”, or “Great”) [laom ta&;tom;rsKd; a&Smifap
               vdkygonf? acgif;pD;wGif oifazmfjyaom ta=umif;t&m. tESpfcsKyf/ ‚udk !$ef;qdkEdkifrnfh pum;vHk; 5
               vHk;cef@om yg0ifapvdkygonf? tifwmeuf&Smpufu &SmazGawG@jrifapvdkonfh pmom;rsKd; pOf;pm;yg? T
               pum;vHk;rsm;udk acgif;pD; (heading) wGif xnfhoGif;yg? rvG,fulvSyg? odk@aomf rsm;pGmtusKd;ouf
               a&mufr_ &Sdapygonf?

               3? (Text) xnfhoGif;ay;yg?
               tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;uudk }udKuf=uygonf? oifu wifydk@vdkaom "gwfyHkrsm;udk wifydk@Edkifygonf?
               odk@aomf yl;wGJI pmom;rsm; (Text) yg&ef vdktyfygonf? wifjyor# ydk@pfwdkif;wGif pum;vHk; tenf;qHk;
               (200) r# yg0ifap&ef óu;pm;azmfjy ay;yg? odk@rSom tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazGay;Edkif&ef taxmuf
               tuljyKygonf? ydk@pfwifjyr_ wckxJwGif rwluGJjym;vGef;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm; wòyifwnf; wifjyxm;
               jcif;rsKd; a&Smifapvdkygonf? tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u Ttaetxm;udk róuuf=uyg? t"duxm;&rnfh
               Oya'owckrSm “ta=umif;t&mwck/ ydk@pfwck” jzpfygonf?

               4? oifwifjyrnfh ydk@pf. yxrOD;qHk;pmykd'fudk *±kpdkufa&;om;yg?
               t"duusaom pum;vHk; (Text) rsm;udk Tae&mwGif azmfjyay;&efrSmvnf; txl; ta&;}uD;vSygonf?
               oif. ydk@pf yxrOD;qHk; pmydk'fudk txl;tav;ay; a&;om;yg? Oyrm -"g;pmcH zrf;xm;olrsm; v$wfay;
               "Release hostages" [laom pum;vHk;udk &Smpufrsm;u awG@&Sdazmfjyapvdkygu rdrdydk@pf. yxr
               pmvHk; (50) twGif; ygatmif azmfjyay;yg? tvm;wl rdrdu tav;xm;aom pum;vHk; (keywords)
               wdkif;udkvnf; Todk@ jzpfap&ef a&;om;&ygvdrfhrnf? Todk@ (keywords) rsm;udk pmrsufESm a&S@qHk;u
               azmfjyxm;aom pmrsufESmrsm;onf/ ed*Hk;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh pmrsufESmrsm;xufpmv#if tifwmeuf


                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 37


HandBook.pmd                             37                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;



        &Smpufrsm;wGif ydkI a&S@wef;u ae&m&/ azmfjycH&EdkifzG,f &Sdygonf? (tjcm;tcsufrsm;rSm twlwlyif
        jzpfygonf?) TpmvHk;rsm;udk ta&;ay;yg/ vdktyfygu trJa&mifokwf (bold) vkyfI azmfjyay;yg?
        Todk@ tcsufjyr_rsm;u tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;twGuf ta&;ygygonf?

        5? ydk@pfxJwGif xyfaeaom wifjyr_rsm; a&Smifyg?
        tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm; (search-engines) u pmrsufESm ESpfck twlwljzpfaev#if od&SdEdkifaom
        enf;emrsm;&Sd=uygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh acgif;pOfwlaeygu pmrsufESmwckudkom a&G;cs,fazmfjy+yD;/
        tjcm;usefpmrsufESmudk &Smpuf. &v'frsm;wGif azmfjyawG@&Sd&cJvSygonf? *l;*Jvf tifwmeuf&SmpufwGif
        atmufazmfjyygtwdkif; azmfjyay;onfudk awG@&ygvdrfhrnf?
        ((txl ; oif h a v#mf o nf h &v'f u d k ay;Ed k i f & ef t wG u f ,ck a zmf j yxm;onf h xnf h o G i f ; csuf r sm;ES i f h
        tvGefwlaeaom tcsufrsm;udk csefvSyfxm;cJhygonf? tu,fI oif=unhfrnfqdkygu jyefI xyfrH&SmazG
        jcif; tm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ z,fcsefxm; aom pmrsufESmrsm;udk =unfh&_Edkifygonf?)) ((In order
        to show you the most relavent results, we have omitted some entries
        very similar to those already displayed. If you like, you can repeat the
        search with the omitted results included.)) [k azmfjyxm;onfudk awG@&ygvdrfhrnf?

        TudpPrsKd;udk bavmhrsm;wGif trsm;qHk;awG@=u&ygonf? ta=umif;rSm wifjyxm;aomydk@pfrsm;onf
        twlwljzpfaewwf=u aoma=umifh jzpfygonf?

        Oyrmtm;jzifh- oif. pmrsufESmrsm;wGif twlwluJhodk@jzpfaeaom rdwfquftcsD;rsm;jzifh azmfjyxm;ygu
        atmufajcYom azmfjywwfygonf? odk@r[kwf rl&if;pmrsufESm (homepage) udkom azmfjywwf
        ygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh oif. ydk@pf pmrsufESmrsm;udk rwluGJjym;/ xl;jcm;ap&ef aqmif&Gufoifhygonf?

        6? oif. bavmhudk &Snfvsm;vGef;aom (Title) trnfrsm; ray;ygESifh?
        tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazGazmfxkwfay;Edkifonfh taumif;qHk;acgif;pD; (Title) (the content
        of the blog <TITLE> ) rSm pum;vHk; 5 vHk;/ odk@r[kwf 10 vHk;r#om jzpfygonf? tcsKd@aom
        (Stop words) rsm;jzpfonfh (“the”, “and”) wdk@udk pufrsm;u xnfhoGif;wGufcsufay;jcif;
        rjyKyg? pmrsufESmwck. xdyfpD;wGif a,bk,stm;jzifh 2-ydkif; yg0ifwwfygonf?
        ‚wdk@rSm-
               • bavmh. a,bk,s acgif;pD; (general title)
               • ydk@pf. acgif;pD; (heading) udk jyefvnfazmfjyjcif; wdk@ jzpfonf?

        odk@twGufa=umifh ydk@pfwck.xdyfydkif;wGif azmfjyaom pmrsufESm a,bk,sacgif;pD;wGif pmvHk; 10 vHk;xuf
        rydkoifhbJ/ bavmh. acgif;pD;wGif pmvHk; 5 vHk;txuf rydkoifhyg? ydk@pf. acgif;pD;onf 5 vHk;cef@om
                h                                    k                      d     k
        jzpfoifygonf? pmvH;k rrsm;vSaoma=umifh wdawmif;wdus&efv+kd y;D / rdrajymvdaom owif;tcsutvuf f
                        k                                                f G f l             hf
        jzpfap&efvnf; vdygonf? od@k rSom tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;u vG,v,uul &SmazGay;vdrrnf jzpfonf?


        38 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                                 38                                                   11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                    oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;



               tu,fI jzpfEdkifygu (oifh&&Sdrnfh enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m ud&d,mrsm;u Todk@aqmif&GufcGifh jyKcsifrS
               jyKygvdrfhrnf?) ydk@. acgif;pD; (heading) udk t&ifazmfjy+yD;/ bavmh. a,bk,sta=umif;t&m
               (General title) udk aemufydkif;Y xnfhoGif;apvdkygonf?

               7? oif. bavmhudk qif'Dudwf (syndicate) vkyfyg?
               bavmhwGif; a&;om;onfhud&d,mrsm;u oifhudk (XML thread) vkyf&ef/ odk@r[kwf (RSS
               feed) vkyf&ef cGifhjyKxm;ygvdrfhrnf? xdktcg pmzwfolrsm;u oifhawmfonfh enf;ynmaqmh0J,m;udk
               oHk;I oifwifjyvdkufaom ydk@pfudk zwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? Tud&d,mudk oif. bavmhwGifvnf; wyfqif
               ay;xm;Edkifygonf? Todk@aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf rdepftenf;i,fom tcsdef,l&ygonf? oifhtwGuf
               pmzwfy&dowfydkrsm;vmaprnfomru/ &[l; qmhcsf &SmpufwGifvnf; azmfjycH&ygvdrfhrnf? atmufwGif
               azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; xifxif&Sm;&Sm; awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? ((View as XML.))


                                                                                                     Ttcsufudk toHk;csyg?




               8? oifazmfjyxm;aom vifhcfrsm;udk tpOf wnf;jzwf&&Sdaeapjcif;? (Keep your links
               updated.)
               csdwfqufxm;aom vifhcfrsm;onf tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;twGuf txl; ta&;}uD;vSygonf? ta=umif;
               rS m Tvif h c f r sm;rS wqif h 0uf b uf p mrsuf E S m rsm; t=um; vl ó uuf r sm;onf h pmrsuf E S m tjzpf
               owf r S w f c suf u d k pk a qmif ; azmf j yay;rnf jzpf a oma=umif h jzpf y gonf ? (*l ; *J v f u yd w f c sf &J e f @ cf
               (PageRank) [k ac:ygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh oifhbavmhudk vma&mufcsdwfquf=uolrsm;udk
               rdrdtwGuf trSwfozG,f jzpfapatmif zefwD;wnfaqmufEdkifygonf?
               4if;wdk@udk-
                     • rmwdum 'g±dkufx&D (directories) wGif xnfhoGif;ay;jcif;? (atmufwGif azmfjyxm;
                              ygonf?)
                     • armifESrozG,f qdkufrsm; (cousin sites) udk &SmazGjcif;? ‚qdkufrsm;rSm +ydKifzufrsm;
                                                                        f l dP
                              r[kw=f ubJ ta=umif;t&mwl/ toGiwuprsm; jzpfygonf? bavmhrsm;twGi;f wGif tóuuf/
                              pdwf0ifpm;r_wlaom udpPrsm;udk vifhcfrsm; csdwfqufazmfjy=ujcif;tm;jzifh &SmazG&ef ydkrdkv#ifjref
                                   f l                             G f_
                              vG,uapygonf? (Tod@k aqmif&urrsK;d udk r=umc%awG@&S=d u&+y;D / bavmh*g todut0ef;           k f
                              uvnf; cGifhjyKwwf=uygonf? TonfrSmvnf; bavmhrsm;. aemufxyf tcGifhomr_
                                               f                                           P
                              tm;aumif;csuwck jzpfygonf?) bavmhrsm;onf TudptwGuf txl;oifav#m=f uygonf?          h
                              ab;tem;owfrsm;onf uGufvyfozG,f jzpfaewwf=u+yD;/ Tae&mrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;
                              azmfjyEdkifygonf?


                                                                                  e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 39


HandBook.pmd                                   39                                                  11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;



        acgif;pD;/ rmwdum/ 'g±dkufx&Drsm; (topic dircetories) wGif zefwD;jcif;
        pdwf0ifpm;zG,f bmom&yf/ ta=umif;t&m tvdkuf&SmazGay;aom (Google, MSN, Yahoo!
        etc.) tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;wGif yg0ifazmfjyEdkifap&ef vdktyfouJhodk@/ 'g±dkufx&D vrf;!$ef (Oyrm
        (Yahoo! Directory, Open Dircetory) rsm;wGifvnf; rdrdta=umif;t&mudk xnfhoGif;
        azmfjyapa&;rSm ta&;ygvSygonf?
        ta=umif;rSm-
              • ta=umif;t&m/ tm±Hkpdwf0ifpm;r_tvdkuf vm=uonfh {nfhonfrsm; ydkrdk&&SdEdkifjcif;?
              • oif. bavmhudk csdwfqufr_rsm; ydkrdk&&SdEdkifjcif;? (Tenf;tm;jzifh oif.bavmh ydkrdkxif&Sm;
                    vmapEdkifygonf?)
              • tjcm;bavmhrsm;rSwqifh oifhudk vlodrsm;vmapEdkifjcif;? tjcm; tvmwlqdkufrsm;ESifh
                      d f          k      k dS f                     d           k
                    cswqufazmfjyvdaom yHEyazmfjyolrsm;rSwqifh vlorsm;vmapEdijf cif;wk@d a=umifh jzpfygonf?

        tifwmeuf &Smpuftrsm;pk (Search-engines and directories) teufrS bavmhrsm;udk
        a&G;cs,fazmfjyavh&Sdaom &Smpufrsm;rSm-

        t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh- Blogwise:                     http://www.blogwise.com/
                          Daypop:                       http://www.daypop.com/
                          Feedster:                     http://www.feedster.com/
                          Technorati:                   http://www.technorati.com/
                          Waypath:                      http://www.waypath.com/
                          Blogarama:                    http://www.blogarama.com/
                          Syndic8:                      http://www.syndic8.com/

        jyifopfbmomjzifh-     Blogonauties:    http://www.blogonautes.com/
                              Blogolist:       http://www.blogolist.com/
                              Weblogues:       http://www.weblogues.com/
                              Blogerea:        http://www.blogarea.net/links/
                              Pointblog:       http://www.pointblog.com/
                              Les Pages Joueb: http://www.pages.joueb.com/




        40 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          40                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                               oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;



               bavmh pm&if;udk atmufygae&mwGif =unfhEdkifygonf?
               http://search-engines.blogs.com/mon_weblog/2005/05/les_search-
               engines_de_.html

               xdk@tjyif enf;ynmaxmufyHhay;aeolrsm;udk atmufygvifhcfrsm;wGif =unfh&_Edkifygonf?
               http://canalblog.com/cf/browseBlogs.cfm
               http://www.dotclear.net/user.html
               http://www.blogspirit.com/fr/communautes_blogspirit.html

               ed*Hk;
               bavmhwGif tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;rS tvG,fwul &SmazGawG@&Sdap&eftwGuf ud&d,mrsm; wyfqifay;
               xm;=uygonf? azmfjyxm;ay;aom t=uHjyKcsufrsm;udk vdkufemjcif;tm;jzifh ydkI&v'faumif;xGufapEdkif
               +yD;/ oif. bavmhudkvnf; vmzwf&_ol rsm;vmapEdkifygonf? oifu a&S@qufa&;om;vmonfESifh
               tr# tESpftom;onfvnf; bk&ifozG,f ta&;}uD;a=umif; awG@&Sdvmygvdrfhrnf?

               tdkvDAD,m tif'a&,l (Olivier Andrieu) onf tvGwf tifwmeufydkif;qdkif&m
               t=uHay;wOD;jzpf+yD;/ rdrdbavmhqdkufrsm;udk tifwmeufrsm;u ydkI aumuf,lazmfjyapaomenf;udk
               txl;jyKavhvmxm;ol jzpfygonf? olu www.abondance.com 0ufbfqdkufudkvnf;
               aqmif&Guf }uD;=uyfaeygonf?




                                                                  e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 41


HandBook.pmd                           41                                       11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                             trsm;=um;wGif wa,mufxifay:ap&ef
        42 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                    42                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                     oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;




                      oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif
                                 rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;
                                                                               rmhuf *a&pm (Mark Glaser)

               urBmwv$rf;&Sd oef;ESifhcsDaom bavmh*grsm;u pmvHk;a&oef;aygif;oef;ESifh csDaom ydk@rsm;t=um;wGif
               Tr#rsm;jym;vSaom vltkyf}uD;=um;xJrS rdrdbavmhu xdk;aygufxGufay:vm&ef rnfodk@aqmif&Guf=u
               rnfenf;? rnfonfhtcsufrsm;a=umifh bavmha&;oludk txl;wef;tqifhodk@ wufvmaprnfenf;?
               rnfonfhtcsufrsm;a=umifh pmzwfolrsm;u aemufwae@/ aemufwae@wGif Tbavmhodk@ jyefvmI
               zwf=urnfenf;? owif;rD'D,mrsm;u rnfonfhtcsufrsm;a=umifh oifa&;om;aeonfudk rsufaphus
               pifawmfaumuf=urnfenf;?

                                   G f _                                                           l
               ta=umif;rSm qufo,ryif jzpfonf? atmifjrifaom bavmh*grsm;rSm ‚wd@k . pmzwforsm;ESihf &ifcsi;f
               xdpyf qufoG,fEdkifolrsm; jzpf=uygonf? vl 10-OD;vmzwfonfjzpfap/ vl 10˜000 vmzwfonfjzpfap
               olwdk@ESifh qufoG,fEdkif&ef vdktyfygonf? xdkpmzwfolrsm;udk rdrdu azsmfajzay;onfjzpfap/ tod^m%f
                    hf                                       d
               zGiay;onfjzpfap wenf;enf;jzifh qufpyf&ef vkygonf? tcsK@d aomolrsm;u bavmha&;olrsm;ESihf tjcm;
               pma&;q&mrsm; (owif;pmq&mrsm;/ 0wˆKa&;q&mrsm;/ aps;uGufqefqef pma&;olrsm;) ESifh cGJjcm;azmfjy
                                                        G f f S        l                             f S JG
               vd=k uygonf? od@k aomfvnf; olw@kd . &nf&,csurm twlwyifjzpfygonf? vltrsm;udk *kwrqI olw@kd
               xHrS vGwfxGufroGm;&efyif jzpfygonf?

                               JG f G                                                           kfH f
               ,ck vufppmtkywif a&;om;azmfjycJ=h uonfh bavmh*grsm;jzpf=uonf/h bm&de;f EdiirS csetuf'f bm&dee/D   f
               a[mifaumifrS ,ef &Sef &Sufu,fvfwef/ tD&efrS tm&uf&Sf pD*gcsD wdk@u olwdk@a&;or# pum;vHk;wdkif;udk
                                                      h                              G
               olw@kd tpd;k &rsm;u aoaocsmcsm apmifzwfae=uonfh a&S@arSmufwif bavmha&;ae=u&jcif; jzpfygonf?
               tvm;wl urBm}uD;uvnf; olwdk@EdkifiH owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjyr&J=uonfh owif;rsm;udk zwfEdkif&ef
                             h                                 f     G               kG       f  G
               apmif=h unfae=uygonf? Ta'orsm;wGif vGwvyfpm azmfjyajymqdci/hf vGwvyfpm owif;wifjycGirsm;       hf
               uif;rJhae+yD;/ tEW&m,fñuH&Edkifaom vkyfief;rsm; jzpfygonf? tGefvdkif;rS azmfjyvm=uaom bavmh*grsm;.
               toHrsm;onfom trSefvufawG@tajctaeESifh/ olwdk@.òr@rsm;/ vrf;rrsm;ay:&Sd toHrsm;ESifh csdwfquf
                    kf                                           k f h             f kH
               ay;Edionfh aygi;f ul;rsm; jzpfae=uygonf? olw@kd ±duu;l cJaom "gwyrsm;/ olw@kd ajymjy=uaomZmwfvrf;
               rsm;rSm txl;ta&;ygvSygonf?

                                d l                                     h
               od@k aomfvnf; xkorsm;. bavmhrsm;ESihf tjcm;wefz;kd xm;oifonfh bavmhrsm;udk rnfo@kd awmufajymif
               xdk;azmuf xGufvmEdkifatmif vkyf=urnfenf;? atmufwGif ta&;ygaomtcsuftcsKd@udk azmfjyxm;
               ygonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom bavmhrsm;t=um;rS wOD;tjzpf xdk;xGufvmatmif
               aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?


                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 43


HandBook.pmd                             43                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;



        xl;jcm;onfh Oy"dESifh yk*~vduwOD;csif;. toH
        taumif;qHk; bavmh*grsm;u olwdk@. yifudk,ftoHtwdkif; ajym=uygonf? olwdk@. yifudk,fOy"d±kyf/
           k f kd f                                   k f kd f              k
        ud,yivuQ%mudk azmfjy=u+y;D / olw@kd b0xJrS ud,yiZmwfvrf;rsm;udom ajym=uygonf? 0ufbavmh
        rsm;onf tGefvdkif;*sme,frsm;rS pI t=uH&azmfjyvm=ujcif; jzpfonf? udk,fydkif*sme,ftjzpf a&;om;vm
        =ujcif; jzpfonf? owdjyK&ef ta&;}uD;aomtcsufrSm *sme,frsm;wGif owif;pmtjzpf a&;om;onfrSm
        ynm&Sifqefqef pmwef;a&;jcif; r[kwfyg? 0dkif,mowif;Xmersm;twGuf cHpm;csufrygonfh owif;
        oufouf a&;om;jcif;rsKd;vnf; r[kwfyg? cseftuf'f bm&defeDonf tm&yfvlrsKd; trsm;pkaexdkifonfh
        bm&def;EdkifiH&Sd tm&Swdkufom; bavmh*gwOD;. trnf0Suf jzpfygonf? olu xdkEdkifiHtwGif; jzpfysuf
        aeonfrsm;udk rwluGJjym;aom tjrifjzifh azmfjyEdkifcJhygonf? ,ef &Sef &Sufu,fvfwefu tEkynmudk
        o±kyfaqmif&if; azsmfajzonfhol (performance artist) wOD;jzpfonf? olu urBmtESH@tjym;
        vSnfhvnfaexdkif&if; w±kwfEdkifiHu wdkufyuf (TypePad) bavmhqdkufudk ydwfyifxm;onfhudpPudk
        qef@usifuef@uGuf&ef pnf;±Hk;aeolvnf; jzpfonf? TudpPrsm; rwdkifcif ,cifumvrsm;u olronf
        vnf; w±kwftpdk;&udk tifwmeufrsm;pDppf ydwfyif&eftwGuf ulnDay;cJhzl;ol jzpfygonf?

        tpOf tcsdefESifhwajy;nD azmfjyay;yg
        bavmhtrsm;pk. t}u;D qH;k jy\emrSm &yfwef@aejcif; jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm bavmha&;oltrsm;pkrm        S
        ydkufqHr&bJ a&;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf? olwdk@. edpP"l0vkyfief;rsm;xJrS tcsdeftcsKd@udk zJhay;I bavmha&;ae
        jcif;vnf; jzpfonf? vltrsm;u bavmhwck pzefwD;=uonf? óu;pm;prf;oyf=unfh=uonf? aemufydkif;
        wGif topfwif&ef/ tyf'dwfvkyf&eftwGuf tcsdefr&awmh? atmifjrifaom bavmh*gwa,mufjzpf&efrSm
        ydk@pfrsm;udk yHkrSef qufvufa&;om;ae&ef vdk+yD;/ olwdk@ pdwf0ifpm;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkvnf;
        qufvufazmfjyae&ef vdkonf? vuf&Sdtajctaersm;udkvnf; xnfhoGif; azmfjyay;ae&ef vdktyfygonf?
                                                   f                  k kd
        Tod@k qdjk cif;tm;jzifh ae@pOf bavmh 12 yk'cef@a&;ae&rnf[k rqdvyg? od@k aomfvnf; &ufowWywftcsK@d
        em;ae±Hkr#jzifh bavmhrsm; aooGm;wwfygonf?

        pmzwfoly&dowfrsm;ESifh qufoG,fyg/ olwdk@udkvnf; tm;ay;yg
        bavmh. xl;jcm;aomvuQ%mw&yfrSm tjyeftvSef qufpyfxdawG@Edkifjcif;yif jzpfygonf? oif.
        pmzwfolrsm;ESifh xdawG@Edkifaom enf;vrf;rsm;pGm &Sdygonf? olwdk@ESifh tjyeftvSef pum;ajym+yD;/ olwdk@.
        t=uHjyKcsuf/ wkH@jyefcsufrsm;udkvnf; jyefvnftoHk;cs&ef vdktyfygonf? oifu tGefvdkif;wGif ppfwrf;
        aumuf,louJhodk@ (online poll) xnfhxm;Edkifovdk/ oif. tD;ar;vfvdyfpmudkvnf; azmfjyxm;
        ay;Edkifygonf? odk@r[kwf rdrdwifjyaom ydk@pfwckwdkif;atmufY rSwfcsuf (comments) ay;Edkifrnfh




        44 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           44                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                     oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;



               ae&mudkvnf; xm;Edkifygonf? ‚wifxm;aom ydk@wGif olrsm;vma&;oGm;aom rSwfcsufwcka=umifh/
               *sufzf tDG;udk rav;&Sm;tm%mydkifrsm;u +cdrf;ajcmufcJhygonf? ol. bavmhrSrSwfcsuf (comment)
               rsm; tm;vHk;udk ydwfypfrnfhtpm;/ olu olaqG;aEG;onfh ta=umif;t&mtay: Yom pmzwfolrsm;u
               wkH@jyefr_rsm; azmfjyay;&ef xdef;odrf;wnf;jzwfcJhygonf? olwdk@. rSwfcsufrsm;twdkif;vnf; azmfjyay;cJh
               ygonf? olu “ul;wdk@orm;” (The Ferryman) [k trnf&onfh w±kwfbmomjzifh bavmhwck
               udkvnf; pwifwnfaxmifxm;cJh+yD;/ rav;
               bavmh*grsm;ESifh w±kwfbavmhtodkuf
               t0ef;t=um; aygif;ul;qufpyfr_&Sdap&ef
               aqmif&Gufay;cJhygonf?



               trSefw&m;onf cGeftm;jzpfaponf?
                                  G                 f                                             kH H
               bavmhtrsm;pkwif a0zefo;kH oyfcsursm; azmfjy=uaomfvnf;/ bavmh*gtcsK@d u ,cifypa[mif; twdi;f          k
               owif;a&;aeqJvnf; &Sdygonf? rnfonfhenf;u trSefqdkonf[lI r&Sdyg? odk@aomfvnf; rl&if;twdkif;
               wifjyjcif;ESifh owif;wcktay: rdrdtjrif&_axmifhrS wifjyr_wdk@u tawmfuGmjcm;+yD;/ bavmhrsm;udkvnf;
               jcm;em;oGm;apygonf? cseftuf'f bm&defeDu 2004 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvwGif wufºuv_yf&Sm;olwOD;
               zrf;qD;cH&aomtcg olubm&def;&Sd qENjyyGJ"gwfyHkrsm;ESifh toHzdkifrsm;udk wifay;cJhygonf? bavmh*g
               tm&uf&Sf pD*gcsDrSm oabmxm;wif;rmonfh tpdk;&u tjcm;aom owif;pmq&mrsm;udk zrf;qD;cJhonfh
               tay: olu a0zefa&;om;cJhaoma=umifh tD&efEdkifiHwGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&+yD;/ axmif'%f 14-ESpf tjypfcscHcJh&yg
                                          kd                                   G f h
               onf? od@k aomfvnf; aemufyi;f '%faiGay;aqmif+y;D aomtcg jyefvwvmcJygonf? od@k aomfvnf; tr_rm           S
               t,lcHwifxm;&qJ jzpfonf? t"duusaomtcsufrSm bavmh*grsm;ESifh tjcm;aom jynfoltrsm;rSm
               trSefw&m;udk ajym=um;I cGeftm;jzpfvmap&ef aqmif&Gufae=ujcif; jzpfygonf? xdkr#ru Todk@
               xkwfazmfajymqdk&ef owWd&Sd&SdESifh bavmhtodkuft0ef;wckvHk; pkaygif;aqmif&Gufr_jzifh/ trSefw&m;udk
               zkH;uG,fxm;aom tm%mydkifrsm;udk &ifqdkifum x&yfajymqdkvm =ujcif;vnf; jzpfonf?

               rmhuf *avpm (Mark Glaser) onf awmifydkif;
               umvDzdk;eD;,m;wuUodkvf/ tmeefbmh*f
               qufoG,fa&;ynmoif ausmif;rS xkwfa0jzef@csdonfh
               tGefvdkif; owif;pmynm &DAsL; (Online
               Journalism Review, www.ojr.org) wGif
               yifwdkifaqmif;yg;&SifwOD; jzpfygonf? qefz&ef ppPudk
               tajcpdkuf tvGwfpma&;q&mwOD;vnf; jzpfonf? ol@udk
               (glaze@sprintmail.com) odk@
               qufoG,fEdkifygonf?



                                                                        e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 45


HandBook.pmd                              45                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        46 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                    46            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                      yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm;




                                                                                                      *smrPD
                        usaemfwdkYu EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vlYtcGifhta&;rsm;udk jrifhwifay;rnf
                                                                  rmukpf bufuD'g;vf (Markus Beckedahl)


               1990 ckESpfrsm; aemufydkif;wGif usaemfu touf 20 yJ &Sdao;onf? usaemfu vGwfvyf/ yGifhvif;aom
               owif;rsm;vufcH &&SdEdkifonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfay:vmapa&;twGuf rdwfaqGrsm;ESifhtwl v_H@aqmf
               pnf;±Hk;aeaom wufºuv_yf&Sm;olwOD; jzpfvmcJhonf? usaemfu 'pf*s,fw,f tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf
               pnf;±H;k aqmif&uaeonfh tpd;k &r[kwonfh tzG@J tpnf; “owif;rD',muGe&uf” (network news
                              G f                        f                         D     f
               media) udk wnfaxmifcJhonf? 5 ESpfwmumvtwGif; usaemfwdk@u EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh
               vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;twGufudk 'pf*spfw,favmutwGif;wGif pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmfcJhonf? usaemfwdk@u uGef
               z&ifhrsm;usif;ycJhouJhodk@/ pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmfr_twGuf urfydef;trsm;tjym;wGifvnf; yl;aygif;yg0ifcJh=uonf?
               tpdk;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;trsm;ESifhvnf; csdwfqufaqmif&GufcJh=uao;onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh -
               usaemfwdk@u owif;enf;ynmavmu urBmhxdyfoD;tpnf;ta0; (WorldSummit on the
               Information Society—WSIS) usif;yEdkifa&;twGuf *smreft&yfbuf vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
               yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkif&ef }udK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJh=uygonf?

               usaemf. EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ yxrOD;qHk;umvrsm;wGif usaemhftaejzifh eufa0gh (networks) uGef&uf
               twGif;&Sd vdyfpmrsm;udk toHk;jyKI owif;rsm;ay;ydk@±Hkom jzpfonf? eufEdkifiHa&; (netpolitics) ESifh
               ywfoufonfh aqmif;yg;rsm;ESifh xkwfjyefa=ujimcsufrsm; (5˜000) cef@udk usaemfay;ydk@cJhonf? odk@aomf
               vnf; usaemfar;vfydk@aom vdyfpmrsm;rSm yHkrSef/ vltenf;pk. vdyfpmrsm;odk@om a&muf&SdEdkifcJh=uonf?
               wcsdefwnf;rSmyif tjcm;wbufY bavmhonf yGifhvif;+yD;/ ydkrdk jrifomxdawG@ Edkifaomae&m jzpfaeonf?
               usaemf.vkyfief;ESifh ywfoufonfh A[kokwrsm;ESifh tpD&ifcHcsufrsm;udk a0iSjzef@csd&eftwGuf ydkI
               tcGifhta&;&apygonf?

               usaemf. bavmhudk (2002) ckESpfwGif pwifcJh+yD;/ (WSIS) nDvmcH yxrtqifhwGifyif aqmif&Guf
               cJhjcif; jzpfonf? usaemfu *sDeDAmwGif usif;yrnfh ukvor*~ jyifqifr_tpnf;ta0;odk@ usaemf.
               tdyf,mwck/ vufudkifuGefjyLwmwckESifhom a&mufvmcJhonf? usaemfu (HTML) pepfudk toHk;jyK
                          k   d      k             f           f          kf                         k
               p&m rvdbJ rdrwifjyvdonfrsm;udk csucsi;f tv#itjref wifjyEdirnfh tajccHtaqmuftOD vdaeonf?
               ,cifumvrsm;u (HTML) jzifh acgif;pnf;wyfxm;aom usaemhfowif;wyk'f jzef@csdEdkifa&;twGuf
               tcsdefrsm;pGm,l&onf? usaemfu “urBmhEdkifiHa&;odk@ ausmydk;tdwfjzifh e,fvSnfhc&D;oGm; wOD;ozG,f
               taetxm;jzifh csif;eif; 0ifa&mufvmjcif;” (Backpacking to world politics) [k trnf&
               aom bavmhrSwqifh ukvor*~tqifh&Sd EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;rsm;tay: usaemhfxifjrifcsufrsm;udk a&;ae
               cJhonf? Tbavmhu usaemf. yxrOD;qHk; bavmhjzpfonf?


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 47


HandBook.pmd                              47                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? *smrPD



        usaemfu r=umao;rDumvtxd toH;k jyKaeonfh eufZEiia&; (netzpolitik.org) [lonfh usaemhf
                                                             f kd f H
        bavmhudk (2004) ckESpf aEGaESmif;&moDwGif pwifcJhonf? a0g'fy&ufpf (Wordpress) yvufazmif;
        wGif rwnfaqmufrDY usaemfu enf;trsKd;rsKd;udk óu;pm;oHk;cJhao;onf? a0gh'fy&ufpfu vltrsm;
        toHk;ðyae=uonfh tcrJhaqmhzf0J,m; pepfvnf; jzpfonf? 0ufbfbavmhu usaemhtwGuf v#ifjref
        onf/ tqifajyaponf? wifjyvdkonfrsm; a&;&ef/ wnf;jzwf&ef/ jzef@csd&ef rsm;pGmvG,fulaponf?
        xdkxufydkI ta&;}uD;aomudpPrSm rdrda&;vdkonfhta=umif;udk tm&Hkpdkuf+yD;a&;Edkifonfh rsufESmjyif
        tifwmazhpf (interface) &Sdaejcif;yif jzpfonf? ,cifu tifwmeuf uk'frsm; (HTML
        markup) a&;om;&if;jzifhom tvkyf&_yfae&onf? usaemfu tifwmazhpf rsufESmjyifay:wGif
               kf                                 kf      f      d f        k dS f    kf                k f
        pma&;Edirnf/h owif;rsm; pkpnf;azmfjyEdirnf/h cvkywck ESy&jkH zifh yHEyazmfjyEdirnfh pepfrsK;d vdcsiaeonf?
        Tbavmh &Sdvmjcif;tm;jzifh usaemhftvkyftm;vHk; vG,fulapcJhonf? xdk@tjyif tHh=ozG,ftcsufrSm
        “qGJac:Edkifonfh/ wGef;ydk@Edkifonfh” enf;ynm (push-pull technology) udk xnfhoGif;xm;jcif;yif
        jzpfonf? usaemf. pmzwfoltrsm;pku (RSS Feed) pepfjzifh usaemfwifor# zwf&_Edkif&ef rSm,l
        pm&if;ay;xm;Edkif+yD;/ (feed readers) jzifh zwfEdkif=uonf? usefonfh tjcm;olrsm;uvnf; 0uf
        &SmazGpufrsm;/ tifwmeuf &SmazGpufrsm; (search-engines) jzifh usaemhxHa&muf&Sd vm=uonf?

        usaemf EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pk trsm;tjym;ESifh ywfoufqufpyfaecJh+yD;/ usaemh 0ufbfqdkuf (netzpoli
        tik.org) twGuf ta&;ygonfh owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk &,lpaqmif;/ ay;yd@k Ediconf? usaemfw@kd u
                                                           f                           k           k f hJ
        ta&;ygonf[k,lqonfh EdkifiHom; tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vlr_tcGifhta&;rsm;/ tcrJh aqmhzf0J,m;a&;onfh
        (Open Source World) ta=umif;/ owif;A[kokwrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmESifh tcrJh&&SdEdkifcGifh/
        owif;enf;ynmavmuwGif ydkrkdqufpyfyl;aygif;r_/ rlydkifcGifhtcGifhta&; e,fy,fwGif r#wcGifh&&Sda&;
                         f                        h          f       G
        paom tcsutvufrsm;udk wifjycJygonf? vGwvyfpm ajymqdciEihf vGwvyfpm xkwazmfwifjycGirm
                                                                                 k G hf S  f     G        f          hf S
        rlydkcGifh Oya'rsm;ESifh 'pf*spfw,f tcGifhta&; pDrHcef@cGJr_udpPrsm;ESifh rsm;pGm oufqdkifqufpyfr_ &Sdaeygonf?
        odk@aomfvnf; vltenf;ur#om Ttcsufrsm; ta&;}uD;a=umif; oabmaygufem;vnfxm;=uygonf?
        odk@twGufa=umifh usaemfu vltrsm; olwdk@.tcGifhta&;udk ydkrdktav;xm;vmapa&;twGuf pnf;&Hk;
        aqmif&GufcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? urBmw0Srf;vHk;wGif vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf tEW&m,f+cdrf;ajcmufr_ESifh
        ñuHae&aomumv jzpf+yD;/ *smr%DEdkifiHwGifvnf; tvm;wl ñuHawG@ae&ygonf? vHkðcHa&;udpPrsm; ydkrdkwif;
                           S hf              k kd                      f _H
        usyf vmonfEitr# vlrsm;rSm ydrapmif=h unfh wif;usyrcvm&+y;D TtajctaerSm olw@kd . tcGita&;                  hf
        rsm;udk xdcdkufqHk;&_H;vmapa=umif; vltrsm;u owdrjyKrd=uao;yg?




        48 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                               48                                               11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                         yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? *smrPD



               vif;eufpf uJhodk@aom tcrJhay;onfh uGefjyLwmvnfywfxdef;csKyfr_pepf (Linux operating
               system) onfvnf; vltrsm;. vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfcGifh/ A[k0g'ESifh 'pf*spfw,f acwfwGif a&&Snf
               wnfwHhcdkifjrJr_qdkif&m udpPrsm;twGuf yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufap&ef t}uD;tus,f tcGifhtvrf;yGifhapygonf?
               [kwfygonf? usaemhf uGefjyLwmrsm;tm;vHk;u vif;eufpfpepfjzifhom toHk;jyKxm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif
               usaemfu tcrJh toHk;jyKcGifhay;onfh tEkxnf aqmhzf0J,m;avmuY jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;/ ‚wdk@u
               EdkifiHa&;tay: tusKd;oufa&mufEdkifyHkudkvnf; a&;om;wifjyygao;onf? yxrOD;qHk;t}udrftoHk;jyK
               aeol taejzifh rnfodk@rnfyHk toHk;csEdkifonfudkvnf; &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;ygonf? usaemfu tGefvdkif;&Sd
               vltrsm;u yg0if jznfhpGufa&;om;Edkifonfh pG,fpHkusrf; 0DuDyd'd, zGH@òz;vmyHkudkvnf; rsufajcrjywf
               apmifh=unfhaeygonf? xdk@tjyif vltrsm;zefwD;Edkifonfh (creative commons liscences—
               CC) udkvnf; avhvmapmihf=unfhaeygonf? usaemfwifjyaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkvnf; (CC
               Liscence) atmufwGif a&;om;azmfjyjcif;jzpf+yD;/ usaemf a&;om;wifjyor#udk pD;yGm;a&; tusKd;pD;yGm;
               qdkif&m r[kwfaomudpPrsm;twGuf ul;,l&ef/ jzef@a0&ef txl;wdkufwGef; tm;ay;aeygonf? rnfonfh
               ae&mrS&&Sda=umif; rl&if;ae&mudk udk;um;azmfjy&Hkr#om vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?

               tjcm; ta&;}uD;aomtcsufrSm t&yfzufvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vlr_v_yf&Sm;r_ urfydef;rsm;u
                    d kf                                    G         kd
               rdrvyief;rsm;wGif tifwmeufukd xda&mufpm toH;k csEijf cif;yif jzpfonf? usaemfu tifwmeufay:wGif
               EdkifiHa&;qufpyfr_rsm; aqmif&Gufjcif; v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh tD;-urfydef; (e-campaigning) ESifh tD;-
               'Drdkua&pD (e-democracy) pDrHcsufwck. acgif;aqmiftjzpf wm0ef,lcJhzl;+yD;/ Tta=umif;udkvnf;
               bavmhwGif wu¾azmfjyay;xm;ao;onf? usaemfu yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ESifh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
               aqmif&Gufjcif;twGuf tcrJh&aom vkyfaqmifzG,f uGefjyLwmenf;emrsm;udk aqG;aEG;a&;om;+yD; vlr_a&;
               qdkif&m aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;. tjcm;aom &_axmifhtjrif/ tusKd;oufa&mufyHkrsm;udk oHk;oyfavhvmr_
                            k                      G                k                    _       k             G f
               jyKygonf? ydI vltrsm;yg0ifaqmif&ujf cif;jzifh A[kowrsm;udk pkaygi;f I/ vlra&;t& 0di;f 0ef;aqmif&uI
               pkaqmif;zGH@òz;apEdkifyHkudk tav;ay; azmfjyygonf?

               usaemf. bavmhpmrsufESm (netzpolitik.org) wGif vmrnfhumvrsm;wGif owif; vl@tzGJ@tpnf;
               qdkif&m ta&;udpPESifh ywfoufI usif;yrnfh uGefz&ifhrsm;/ aqG;aEG;ydk@cscsufrsm;/ tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ owif;
               tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;xm;ay;ygrnf? uGefz&ifhrsm;wufa&mufI xdkrSaeI owif;ydk@ay;+yD;
               usaemf. xifjrifcsufudkvnf; azmfjyay;ygonf? ae@pOfvdkvdkyif owif;oHk;oyfcsufrsm;udk oGm;a&muf
               zwf & _ E d k i f a om [d k u f y gvif h c f (hyperlinks) trsm;ES i f h t wl yl ; wG J a zmf j yEd k i f + yD ; / usaemf u
               Oya'jyXmef;r_topfrsm;ESifh TudpPESifh ywfoufI tpdk;&r[kwfaom (tef*sDtdk) tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;.
               aqmif&Gufaecsufrsm;udk rSwfcsufa&;om;ygonf? Todk@jzifh usaemf. bavmhu *smrefbmompum;
                                               l_                   _ Gf                    k f
               ajymaom t&yfbufvrtzG@J tpnf;rsm;/ vlrue&ufrsm; t=um;wGif qHcsuozG,f qufwuf zG@H +zKd ;vm                         kd
               cJhygonf? qufvufjzef@jzL;ay;rnfh vlr_a&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;twGuf tcsuftvufrsm;vnf; axmufyHhay;
               Edkifygonf? tvm;wl bavmha&;om;ae=uaom rdwfaqGrsm; odk@vnf; t"duusaom jy\emrsm;ESifh
               ywfoufI a&;om;ay;yg&ef arwWm&yfcH+yD; owif;rsm;udk ydkrdkv#ifjrefpGm jyef@yGm; apygonf? usaemfu



                                                                                  e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 49


HandBook.pmd                                   49                                                   11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? *smrPD



        (RSS) pepf owif;zwfonfh ud&d,mudk tm;udk;I oHk;oyfcsufay;&rnfh owif;rsm;udk taqmwv#if
           d             kd f                                      f
        &&Satmif &SmazGEiygonf? yxr (10) vtwGi;f rSmyif usaemfu rdwaqGtcsK@d . tultnDjzifh aqmif;yg;
        (800) cef@udk yHkESdyfjzef@csdEdkifcJhygonf?




        Copyright: linuxwochen.at

        tHh=o&onfhtcsufrSm ysrf;r#vlOD;a& (2˜500) cef@u usaemf. bavmhudk vmzwf=ujcif;jzpf+yD;/ vli,f
        rsm;xHrS aumif;rGefa=umif; tm;ay;onfh wkH@jyefr_rsm; &&SdcJhygonf? olwdk@udkvnf; udk,fydkifbavmhrsm;
        pwif&ef usaemfu tm;ay;cJhygonf?

        uHaumif;axmufronfrSm *smrefEdkifiHwGif vGwfvyfpGmazmfjyajymqdkcGifhtwGuf Oya'jzifh umuG,fay;
        xm;jcif; jzpfygonf? tpdk;&udk a0zefjcif;twGufvnf; usaemhfudk axmifxJydk@rnfhol r&SdcJhyg? tm%m&Sif
                         G        kf                             d             G
        pepfrsm; atmufwif aexdi&if; olw@kd .b0rsm;udk &if;I owWajymifajrmufpmjzifh olw@kd .bavmhrsm;udk
        topfwifydk@ae=uaom olrsm;udk txl;yif av;pm;rdygawmhonf?

        rm;ukpf bufuD'g;vf (Markus Beckedahl) u touf 28 ESpft&G,f&Sd+yDjzpf+yD;/ tcrJh
        vltrsm; vGwfvyfpGmoHk;Edkifaom enf;ynmrsm;ESifh ‚udpPqdkif&m r[mAsL[mrsm;twGuf
        vkyfaqmifay;aeonfh Xmewckjzpfaom “topfjrif qufoG,fa&;” (Newthinking
        Communications) tzGJ@. tr_aqmifrefae*sm jzpfygonf? *smrefEdkifiH.
        'pf*spfw,ftcGifhta&;qdkif&m tJef*sDtdkwckjzpfaom (Netzwerk Neue Medien) .
        pwifwnfaxmifolESifh OuUXvnf; jzpfygonf? ol. bavmhtrnfrSm
        www.netzpolitik.org jzpfygonf?




        50 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           50                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                            yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? bm&def;




                                                                                                      bm&def;
                                   usaemfwdkYu tpdk;&&JY owif;vuf0g;BuD;tkyfxm;rIudk csKd;zsufcJhavNyD
                                                                     csef tuf'f bm&defeD (Chan’ad Bahraini)


               usaemfu ta=umif; (2) ckjzifh bavmha&;om;&ef pwifvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? (1) yHkrSefuef@owfcsufrsm;
                  d            k             h d                l      df                               k     f
               r&SbJ a&;om;Edijf cif;/ rnfonftcsef +y;D &rnf[aom tcseuef@owfcsuf r&Sjd cif;ESihf tjcm;vdtyfcsursm;
               r&SdbJ rdrdpdwfóuuf a&;&onfrSm aysmf&$ifzG,f jzpfouJhodk@ (2) bm&def;. a'ocH yifrowif;rD'D,m
               avmuwGif tav;ay;azmfjyjcif; rcH&onfh udpPrsm;udk aqG;aEG;wifjy&efESifh qufvufaqG;aEG;
               jiif;ckef=u&eftwGuf }uKd;yrf;Edkifjcif;a=umifh jzpfonf?

               vuf&SdtajctaewGif bm&def;EdkifiHwGif&Sdaom ±kyfjrifoH=um;ESifh a&'D,dktoHv$ifhXmersm;rSm tpdk;&u
               csKyfudkifxm;+yD; xkwfv$ifhaejcif; jzpfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&;ESifh odyfroufqdkifaom
               owif;rsm;/ jy\emrsm;udk xkwfv$ifhay;jcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif; r&Sdoavmufyif jzpfonf? jynfwGif;&Sd owif;
               pmrsm;rSm yk*~vduydkifrsm; jzpf=u+yD;/ olwdk@u tpdk;& xkwfv$ifhaeonfh owif;pmrsm;xufpmv#if ydkI
               vGwfvyfpGm azmfjyEdkif=uonf? yHkESdyfxkwfa0ae=uaom owif;rD'D,mrsm;wGifyif tajctaeu odyf+yD;
               xl;jcm;wdk;wuf rvmcJhyg? ta=umif;rSm t,f'Dwmrsm;u =oZm}uD;rm;aomolrsm;udk ajymifajymifwif;
               wif; a0zefajymqdk&eftwGuf owWdr&Sd=uyg? Oyrm tpdk;&tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ bk&ifhrdom;pk0ifrsm; (txl;ojzifh
               bk&ifESifh ‚.OD;av;awmfpyfol 0ef}uD;csKyf) udk a0zef&ef r&J=uyg?

               odk@aomfvnf; tifwmeufrsm;u vlwOD;csif;udk ‚wdk@.tjrifrsm;twdkif; jynfolvlxkudk wifjy&ef
               twGuf enf;vrf;jzpf vmapygonf? Todk@a&;om;=u&mwGif tpdk;&. apmifh=unfhwnf;jzwfr_vnf;
               rcH=u&yg? bm&def;tpdk;&u EdkifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;udk apmifh=unfhjcif;/
               ydwfyifjcif; jyKonfh tpOftvm&SdcJhaomfvnf; vGefcJhaom wpfESpf/ ESpfESpfwmumvtwGif; tenf;i,f
               av#mhayghay;vmcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf; r=umao;cifumvrsm;u tajctae jyefvnfqdk;&Gm;vmcJh
               jyefonf? xdkr#ru vlwOD;u 0ufbfqdkufwck wnfaqmuf&ef vG,fulvmjcif;/ (usaemf,ck a&;ouJh
               odk@) trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;I &Edkifjcif;wdk@a=umifh tpdk;&rsm;u pma&;olrsm;udk ta&;,lEdkif&ef cufcJ
               vm&ygonf?

                                                  kfH                                 hf               f
               Tta=umif;rsm;a=umifh usaemfu (Ediia&; tygt0if) jy\emtm;vH;k udk yGivif;&if;ES;D pGm/ vGwvyfpm  G
               aqG;aEG;Edkif=uaom ae&mvdkonf[k cHpm;vm&ygonf? txl;ojzifh 'Drdkua&pDpepfodk@ ul;ajymif;aeyg
               onf[k azmfjyaeonfh EdkifiHwckwGif ydkI vdktyfygonf? Todk@jzifh tifwmeufu taumif;qHk;enf;vrf;
               jzpfvm+yD;/ usaemf. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;vmEdkifygonf? usaemfu bm&def;EdkifiH
               . bavmh*grsm;xJwGif ueOD;pwifzefwD;cJhol rmrGwf (www.mahmood.tv) udk awG@&aomtcg
               tm;wuf&ygonf? olu usaemfpwif ra&;rD wESpfausmft=umuwnf;u a&;om;aecJhol jzpfonf?
               tpdk;&ESifhvnf; jy\emrwufcJh&yg?
                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 51


HandBook.pmd                              51                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? bm&def;



        usaemhbavmh. t"duOD;wnfcsufwckrSm bm&def;EdkifiHwGif; jzpfysufaeaom tjzpftysufrsm;udk
        aqG;aEG;/ oHk;oyfEdkif=u&ef jzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; &&SdEdkifaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;u tuef@
        towf&Sdaoma=umifh usaemfu owif;orm; tppfvnf; r[kwf/ w0ufwysuf twk owif;pm
        ynmjzifh vkyfaqmifcJh&ygonf? qdkvdkonfrSm tajctaeay; or# usaemfu udk,fwdkif tcrf;tem;rsm;udk
        vdkufwuf&ygonf? (txl;ojzifh uef@uGufqENjyyGJrsm; wuf&ygonf?) usaemhbavhmwGif Tta=umif;
        udk jyefa&;I "gwfyHkrsm;vnf; azmfjyay;ygonf?

        ,ckawmh bm&def;wGif bavmh*gtcsKd@&SdvmcJh+yD;/ ‚wdk@u vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;u tusKd;&Sdwefoavmuf
        &Sdygonf? aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefEdkif&ef ae&mwck&vm+yD; tus,ftjyef@aom jy\emrsm;udk ±dk;om;pGm aqG;aEG;
        EdkifcJh=uygonf? tjcm; bm&def;EdkifiHom; bavmh*grsm;xHrSaeI usaemfu trsm;tjym; avhvm&,l
        EdkifcJhygonf? Towif;rsm;udk tjcm;rnfonfhae&mrsm;rS &,lEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg? Ttodkuft0ef;rSm tGefvdkif;
        avvd_if;xJwGifom &Sdae=uonf r[kwfyg? bm&def; bavmh*grsm;u tjyifwGifvnf; awG@qHk=u+yD;/
        wvw}udrfcef@ awG@=uonf? udk,fa&;jy\emrsm;ESifh usaemfwdk@ bavmha&;ae=uaom udpPrsm;udk
        zvS,faqG;aEG;=uygonf?

                                                 f kd   f S                             h      f kd
        od@k aomfvnf; rsm;pGmaom bm&de;f &Sd tGevi;f v_y&m;r_rsm;rSm tma&Asbmom pum;jzifyif tGevi;f wGif
        aqG;aEG;a&;om;=u+yD;/ tGefvdkif;wGif aqG;aEG;=uaom zdk&rfrsm; (Oyrm bahrainonline.org wdk@rSm)
        umv=um&Snfuyif &Sdae+yD; jzpfygonf? bavmha&;jcif;rSm ,cktcsdeftxd bm&def;wGif vltrsm;t=um;
        a&yef;odyfrpm;vSao;yg? yifra&pD; owif; rD'D,mtjzpf a&mufrvmao;yg? rnfodk@jzpfap usaemfwdk@.
        qdkufrsm;u aygif;ul;bavmhrsm; tjzpf ydkIydkI ae&m,lvm cJh=uygonf? aygif;ul;bavmh (“bridge
        blogs”) qdonfrm [lpef 'g&uf&ef u ol. bavmh (http://hoder.com/weblog/archives/
                    k      S    d          S
        013982.shtml). wGif &Si;f jyxm;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm bm&de;f &Sd bavmh*grsm;rSm t*Fvybmomjzifh
                                                                                            df




        52 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           52                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                              yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? bm&def;



                                                           Sf               G f kd f                 l
               a&;om;=uaoma=umifh usaemfw@kd u bufEpbufv;kH od@k qufo,Eiygonf? urBmt&yf&yf&dS jynforsm;
               ESifh qufoG,fEdkifovdk/ usaemfwdk@. owif;rsm;udk tajcjyKI owif;rsm;ay;Edkifaoma=umifhvnf;
               bm&def;EdkifiHwGif rnfodk@jzpfysufaeyHkudk “trSeftwdkif;” today;EdkifcJh=uygonf?


               Oyrmtm;jzifh (bahrainonline.org) . pDrHcef@cGJol armf'a&wm 3 OD;/ 2005 ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGif
               tzrf;cH&aomtcg usaemfwdk@u Tta=umif;udk bavmhrsm;wGif a&;=uygonf? Towif;rsm;u
               urBmodk@ysH@ESH@cJh+yD; bm&def;EdkifiHtwGif; owif;ysH@onfxuf jyifyurBmwGif ydkjrefcJhygonf? e,fpnf;rjcm;
               owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@u TudpPtay: zrf;cH&onfhae@rSmyif a=ujimcsuf xkwfjyefEdkifcJhygonf? EdkifiHw
               um tm±Hkpdkufr_ &vmapcJh+yD;/ aemuf&ufowWywf tenf;i,fwGif Tolrsm;udk jyefv$wfay;&ef tpdk;&u
                            f                               _ dS h                                      kd
               qH;k jzwfcsucs&mY rsm;pGmoufa&mufr&apcJa=umif; usaemf,=kH unfygonf? a,bk,sq&v#if usaemfw@kd
               . bavmhrsm;u bm&def;EdkifiHESifh jyifyurBmt=um; qufoG,fa&;wGif tpdk;&u vuf0g;}uD;tkyf csKyfudkif
               xm;onfh tajctaeudk csKd;zsufEdkifcJhay+yD?
               ajym&v#if bm&def;EdkifiH&Sd bavmh*grsm;rSm ola&;om;aeonfh ta=umif;t&mESifh ywfoufI tpdk;&u
               jypfwif ta&;,lr_ tusKd;qufrsm; cH=u&jcif; r&Sdyg? odk@aomfvnf; TtajctaerSm TESpfqef;ydkif;rSpI
               ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmcJhjcif; jzpfyg onf? txufwGif azmfjycJhonfhtwdkif; tGefvdkif; aqG;aEG;cef; zdk&rfwckudk
               pDpOf=uol 3-OD;rSm azaz:0g&DvwGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&+yD;/ “tpdk;&tay: t=unfndKysufapatmif v_H@aqmf
               onf”[laom pGyfpGJcsufjzifh zrf;qD;cH&jcif; jzpfonf? ‚wdk@teufrS armf'a&wm pDpOfolwOD;jzpfonfh
               tmvD tA'lrifrSm ol.udk,fydkif bavmhwckvnf; &Sdxm;ygonf? {+yDvwGif tpdk;&u 0ufbfqdkuf
               ydkifqdkifxm;ol tm;vHk; tpdk;&. jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;XmewGif rSwfyHkwif&rnfjzpfa=umif;ESifh r[kwfygu
               Oya't& ta&;,lcH&rnfjzpfa=umif; xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhygonf? Tonfudk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh tpdk;&u
               tifwmeuftay: (bavmhrsm; tygt0if) em;vnfr_ r&Sdao;a=umif; jyoaeygonf? tGefvdkif;pma&;ol
                                       d                                                       kf G f
               rsm;u ‚wd@k udk +cr;f ajcmufaeonf [k ,lqvmaom tajctaeY rnfo@kd udiw,&ef rodao;a=umif;
               vnf; jyoaeygonf?

               rlvu ta&S@awmiftm&Sa'ozGm;jzpfaomfvnf;/ csef tuf'f bm&defeDrSm ,cktcgwGif bm&def;EdkifiHY
               aexdkifv#uf &Sdygonf? ol. bavmhtrnfrSm http://chanad.weblogs.us jzpfygonf?
               olu ,cktcsdefwGif trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;aeqJ jzpfygonf?




                                                                         e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 53


HandBook.pmd                               53                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk




        tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
        tckawmh usaemfawG;rdorQudk a&;EdkifayNyD
        a*s; ±dkqif (Jay Rosen)


        0ufbavmhwck rnfodk@vkyf&rnfudk usaemfu teD;tem;&Sdvlrsm;udk vdkufvHar;jref;cJhpOfu tajztrsKd;
                 d hJ                               H S                          k kd
        rsK;d &&Sconf? vltm;vH;k uay;=uonfh t=uwckrm yd@k pfrsm;a&;om;&mwGif wdwa&;oifjh cif;yif jzpfonf?
        'gu ol@yHkpH pwdkifyJ? tcsKd@u ajymonf? 'Dvdka&;&if tvkyfydkjzpfw,f? tcsKd@u jznfhpGufygao;onf?
          k           f              f                 f S               H             f
        ydI pdwxJ ouFmruif;zG,yif jzpf&aom tcsurm/ tcsK@d u t=uay;onf? 0ufbtrsm;od@k vSnvnf          hf
        =unfhae=uolrsm;u rtm;vyf=u? wdkwdkawmif;awmif;om zwfzdk@ ar#mfvifhxm;=uonf[k qdkygonf?
                                       f JG       df d                                        kd
        olw@kd rSm cifAsm;bavmhukd Zdrqzwfz@kd tcser&Sb;l / cifAsm; av;av;eufeufpOf;pm; a0zefci;f aewmawG
        tvkyfrjzpfEdkifbl;[kyif qdk=uygonf? trsm;vkyfovdkyif vdkufvkyfzdk@ &Sdawmhonf?

        Todk@ ajym=ujcif;udk usaemf oHo,&Sdaeonf? usaemfu &Snf&Snfvsm;vsm; pmvHk;a& (2˜000) ausmf
                          G f                                   f                   fS
        a&;&efvnf; &nf&,rxm;yg? od@k aomfvnf; usaemf. pOf;pm;csursm;udk bavmhpmrsuEmay: wifonfh
        tcg &Snfvmygonf? TudpPu tjcm;olrsm; ajymrae=uaom udpPjzpfIvnf; &Snf&Snfvsm;vsm;awmh
        &Sif;&rnf? odk@aomfvnf; owdjyK&eftcsuf wck &vmygonf? (usaemfwdkvdkonfh tcgwGifvnf;
        wdkEdkifygonf?) usaemfu twm;tqD; tuef@towfawG &Sdaewm rvdkcsif/ usaemf a&;or#udk
        udk,fhbmom vGwfvGwfvyfvyfa&;csifonf? usaemfu y&ufpf oifhcf (Press Think) udkvnf;
        'Dtwdkif;yJ jzpfapcsifonf?

        “vlawGrSm tcsdefr&Sdbl;”[laom ta=umif;jycsufrSm usaemhftwGuf t"dy`g,fr&Sd[k jrifygonf? usaemf
        r,Hk=unfyg? T t=uHjyKcsufrsKd;u usaemhftwGuf usaemf.vGwfvyfcGifhudk csKyfcs,fonf[k jrifygonf?
        usaemf vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:cGifh/ a&;cGihfudk csKyfcs,faeonf[k jrifygonf? usaemf y&ufpf oifhcfudk
        pwifcJhaom ta=umif;rSmvnf; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf jzpfygonf? “a[; æ usaemhfrSm udk,fydkif
        r*~Zif;&Sdae+yD/ usaemfa&;csifwm a&;vdk@&+yD” T&nf&G,fcsufrsKd; jzpfygonf? usaemf pdwf0ifpm;aom
        tcsufrSm twGif;usus pOf;pm;/ av;av;eufeuf awG;vdkol tcsdef&Sdolrsm;twGuf jzpfonf?
        ta&twGuf udef;*%ef;u oufaojy&ef cufcJaomfvnf;/ ork'N&mwckrS wckodk@/ ydk@pfwckrS wckodk@
        ul;ajymif;zwfaeol rsm;vnf; &Sdonf[k ,lqygonf?

        usaemfu csnf;uyfaomyHkrSm “'DrSm y&ufpf oifhcf r*~Zif;vm+yD? oifóuufygovm;/ jyefvmzwfyg”
        [lIyif jzpfonf? usaemf aqmif&Gufcsufu ao;i,fcsifi,frnf? rxifr&Sm;0dk;w0g; jzpfcsifjzpfrnf?
        odk@aomf usaemfhbavmhu owif;rD'D,m aps;uGufwckwGif;&Sd bavmhwck jzpfcsifjzpfrnf? *drf;&_d;
        tpDtpOfrsm;/ abmvHk;yGJrsm;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; (Law and Order) [laom tpDtpOfudk
        xyfcgxyfcg ausmhjyaeaom wDAGDtpDtpOfrsm;ESifh ,SOf+ydKifae&onfh rD'D,mwckom jzpfygonf? usaemfu

        54 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          54                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                            yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk



               Todk@rxifyg? apwemh0efxrf;trsm;&Sdae=uaom EdkifiHwckrS vGwfvyfaomEdkifiHom;wOD; jzpfonfh
                                  hf        f            f kd f     D       h        l     k
               usaemf . y&ufpf oifcu aps;uGutwGi;f +yKd iqiaeaom rD',mrsm;uJo@kd jyKrp&mrvd[k ,lqygonf?
               Ttcsufuyif usaemfbavmha&;&jcif; jzpf+yD;/ usaemf. umv=um&Snf prf;oyfcsufvnf; jzpfygonf?

               owdjyK&eftcsufrSm 0ufbfrsm;onf tjcm;qef@usifbufudpPtrsm;twGufvnf; aumif;onf[k
               xifygonf? owif;rsm;udk tv#iftjref&Edkif&ef tifwmeufudk oHk;=uonf? tjcm;e,fy,fwckudk jzwfzdk@
               tifwmeufudk oHk;=uonf? pum;ajym&ef/ tjyeftvSef qufoG,f&ef tifwmeufudk oHk;=uonf?
               xdkr#ru av;av;eufeufudpP pOf;pm;vdk=uolrsm;/ vl@rSwf^m%frsm; odkavSmifrSD;xm;&m ud&d,mtjzpf
               oHk;=uolrsm;/ csufcsif;vufiif;&Edkifaom pm=unfhwdkuf/ udpPrsm;udk qefcgcs&ef oHk;=uolrsm;vnf; &Sdonf?
               tav;teuf ydkif;jcm;oHk;oyfr_rsm;twGuf 0ufbfbavmhrsm;udk tm;rudk;oifha=umif;/ ta=umif;rSm
               toHk;csoltrsm;pku Todk@udk;um;=urnfr[kwfa=umif; ajymolrsm;rSm owif;rD'D,moabmt&
                                      d hf                   f d PS
               awmfv#if awmf=uygvrrnf? tifwmeuf 0ufbupEihf ywfoufI wH;k vGe;f olrsm;[kom qd&ygvrrnf?     k    d hf
               odk@aomfvnf; usaemfu owif;rD'D,m vkyfief; vkyfaejcif; r[kwfyg? xl;qef;aomtcsufrSm usaemfu
               wdkwdk/ tusOf;csKyf csifhcsdefa&;aepOfwGif pmrsm;u &SnfI &SnfI oGm;wwf=uonf? tcsKd@aom
               pmvmzwf=uolrsm;u Ttcsufudk apm'uwufwwf=uygonf? (“a&G;cs,frSm;aeaom acgif;pOf
               twGuf pmvHk;rsm;pGm ðzef;wD;aeonf” [k a&;=uygao;onf? Tta&;tom;rsKd;u tpOfvdkvdk awG@&
               ygonf?) TwkH@jyefa&;om;csufrsm;a=umifh usaemf c%wðzwf &,farm&ygao;onf?

               bavmhaumif;wdkif;vdkvdku tpOD;ydkif;wGifyif ar;cGef;wckjzifh 0ufbfay:wufvmap&ef pwifavh
               &Sdygonf? usaemfwdk@u rdrdrl&if;tjzpf wifjycsufudk awmif;qdkaeonfh y&dowfrsm; &Sdygovm;[laom
               ar;cGef;yif jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh usaemf wifjyrnfhtcsufudk zwfrnfhol &Sdrnfvm;? Todk@tajzudk
               oJoJuGJuGJ rodao;cifumvwGifyif/ bavmhudk pwifa&;&awmhrnf jzpfygonf?

               y&ufpf oifhcf[laomtrnfrSm tkyfpktvdkuf pkqHkaqG;aEG;r_ (Group think) [laom pum;vHk;rS
               ,lxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? Tae&mY tkyfpkqdkonfrSm owif;rD'D,m (Press) udk qdkvdkjcif;yif jzpfonf?
               Tacgif;pOfuyif owif;rsm;upOf;pm;awG;ac:Edkifr_twGuf twdkaumuftrnfjzpfovdk/ owif;axmuf
               wOD;. ,Hk=unfonfh t,ltqcH,lcsufvnf; jzpfonf? owif;axmufwOD;. bmomw&m;[lIvnf;
                      kf                         f                                       hf
               ajymEdionf? Tonfu usaemf pdw0ifpm;aom bmom&yfjzpfonf? y&ufpf oifconf a0zefo;kH oyfol
               ESifh pma&;q&mwOD;tjzpf usaemf,Hk=unfpGm vkyfaqmifaeomudpPvnf; jzpfonf? usaemfbavmha&;
               onfhtcg xnfhoGif;azmfjyaeaom/ usaemfay;&ef }udK;pm;aeaom udpPvnf;jzpfonf? usaemfht,ltq
               rSm owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjyae=uonfh jzpf+yD;om;tjzpftysufrsm;rS vrf;cGJI y&ufpfoifhcfudk jr‡ifhwif&ef
               jzpfonf? prf;oyf=unfh&ef jzpfonf? odk@r[kwf tjcm;olrsm;tvm;wl vkyfaqmifvmap&eftwGuf qGJ
               aqmif&efvnf;jzpfonf? Tonfuyif usaemfay;xm;aom emrnfuazmfjyvdkonfh tcsufjzpfonf?
               bavmhu “y&ufpfoifhcf” ta=umif;yifjzpfonf? Tbavmhu owif;pmrsm;xuf ydkrdkawG;awm
               qifjcifap&ef v_H@aqmfay;rnfh ud&d,myifjzpfonf? usaemf,lqonfrSm tcsKd@aombavmh*grsm;u
               olwkd@. acgif;pOfrsm;twGif;odk@ av;av;eufeufawG;ac:r_rsm; xnfhoGif;azmfjyjcif;r&Sd=uyg? usaemfh


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 55


HandBook.pmd                             55                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk



        twGufrl bavmhtrnfaumif;wckudk pwif&ef tqifoifhrjzpfao;rDumv txdwdkif usaemfbavmh
        udk pwifa&;om;aejcif; jzpfonf?

        usaemfu t,l0g'a&;&mrsm; tpGJjyKI owif;rsm;udk a0zefoHk;oyfaejcif;udk tjcm;olrsm;twGuf
        xm;vdkufygonf? woD;yk*~v vltrsm;ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm aqmif&Gufae=uygonf?
        aumif;rGefpGmvnf; aqmif&Gufae=uygonf? usaemfu owif;rD'D,mtcsKd@udk apmifh=unfha0zefcJhonfh
        wdkif y&ufpf oifhcfu owif;rD'D,mrsm;udk apmifh=unfhavhvm ppfa=umaeonfh qdkufwck r[kwfyg?
        y&ufpf oifhcfu rnfolbufvdkufonfudk xdkifa0zefaeonfh trJvdkufrkqdk; r[kwfyg? odk@aomfvnf;
        a,bk,stm;jzifh usaemfu bufvdkufonf[k jrifonfhudpPudk a&;cJhygonf? usaemfu a*smhbk&Sfudk
        raxmufcHyg/ odk@aomfvnf; ol. owif;tay:tjrif y&ufpf oifhcfudk a&;cJhygonf? usaemf. 0ufbf
        bavmh rdwfquf ed'gef;wGif a&;cJhovdk “usaemfwdk@ ,ae@a&;om;xkwfv$ifhae=uaom owif;rD'D,m
        rsm;a=umifh urBmay:wGif &v'ftjzpf jzpfysufawG@ñuHvm&rnfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk &SmazGazmfxkwfEdkif&ef
        usaemfóu;yrf;aqmif&Gufaeygonf” [k a&;om; xm;cJhygonf?

        wpHkwa,mufu usaemhfwGif bavmha&;enf; “enf;ed\,rsm;” &Sdoavm[k apma=um; ar;jref;&ef
           d                                                   f $ hf f             h
        &Sygonf? usaemfu owif;rsm;udk zwfonf? owif;xkwvicsursm;udk =unfonf? usaemh bavmhx&dS              J
        =unfh&rnfhpm&if;rsm;udk vdkufI uvpfvkyfonf/ vSefavSm=unfhonf? t&nf&$rf;onfh/ vufiif;jzpfysuf
        aeonfudk azmfjyxm;onfh/ pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onfh owif;rsm;udk &SmazGteH@cH trJvdkufonf?
        xdk@aemuf oufqdkif&mvifhcfrsm;udk pkonf? xdk@aemuf usaemf.tjrifudk pa&;ygonf? tu,fI wpHk
        wa,mufu tD;ar;vfydk@vmcJhaomf Towif;udk tajccHIvnf; usaemhydk@pfwyk'f jzpfoGm;Edkifygonf?
        rsm;aomtm;jzifh tjzpftysufwck jzpfysufvm+yD;/ usaemf. pmzwfolrsm;u pdwf0ifpm;rnf ,lqygu
        usaemfu ydk@pfa&;wifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; usaemfhwGif yHkpHpwdkif (Style sheet) [k ac:Edkifrnfh
        cdkifcdkifrmrm csxm;aom udk,fydkifenf;emawmh &Sdygonf? y&ufpf oifhcf ydk@pfwckudk vkyfawmhrnfqdkv#if
        rdrdukd,fwdkifcsrSwfxm;aom Tenf;emrsm;twdkif; wdwdususvdkufemygonf?

        ,ck aqmif;yg;uJhodk@aom yHkrSefwifjyaeonfh y&ufpf oifhcf wifjycsufydk@pfwckonf “ypfrSwfudk
        aoaocsmcsmxdap&ef twGuf nifnifomom owif;pmudkcsyg” qdkonfhtwdkif; a&;ygonf? (http:/
        /journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2005/03/29/
        nwsp_dwn.html) udk =unfhyg? TyHkpHwGif jznfhpGuf&eftwGuf tuGuf (5) ck&Sdygonf? acgif;pOf/
        acgif;pOfi,f/ tufaq;/ (aemufqufwGJ udpPrsm;/ Oyrm- rSwfpkrsm;/ wkH@jyefcsufrsm;ESifh csdwfquf&ef
        vifhcfrsm;) ESifh rSwfcsufa&;om;=uonfrsm; jzpfygonf? TyHkpHyg tcsufwckcsif;pDwGif usaemhftwGuf
        oD;oef@ rwluGJjym;aomyHkpH &Sdygonf? Tydk@pfu rnfonfhtcsufudk azmfjyxm;a=umif; tESpfcsKyfoabm
        ouf0ifaponfh acgif;pOf/ vltrsm;udk qGJaqmifEdkifrnfh pum;vHk; ponfjzifh &Sdygonf? acgif;pOfi,fwGif
        aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkcsufudk azmfjyygonf? tufaq;ta=umif; t+rD;oabm azmfjycsufjzpfonf? tufaq;u
        pmvHk;a& 1˜500 rSonf 2˜500 txd yg0ifonfh pmudk,fjzpfonf? Tae&mwGif vifhcf 20 rS 30
        cef@vnf; yg0ifygvdrfhrnf? Tvifhcfrsm;u ‚wdk@. udk,fydkif[efudk azmfjy=urnf jzpfygonf? aemufquf
        wGJudpPrsm; tcef;wGif Tta=umif;t&mtay: tjcm;bavmh 0ef;usifrsm;Y aqG;aEG;a&;om;ae=uonfh

        56 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           56                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                               yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk



               tcsufrsm;udk wnf;jzwf azmfjyrnfjzpfonf? usaemfwifxm;aom ydk@pftay: wkH@jyefcsufvnf; yg0ifrnf
               jzpfygonf? rSwfcsufac: (Comments) u tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;jiif;ckHr_udk pwifapvdrfhrnf jzpfonf?

               aumif;rGefatmifjrifonf[k ,lqEdkifonfh y&ufpf oifhcfydk@pfrSm Ttcsuf (5) ckvHk;u tjyeftvSef
               taxmuftuljyKae =u+yD;/ tcsufwcku tcsufwckudk tjyeftvSef jiif;csufxkwfae=uaom
               bufpHkaxmifhpHk azmfjyr_rsKd; jzpfygonf? jyefvnf ajc&mcHEdkifaom (tracebacks) rsm;/ rSwfcsufrsm;
               (Comments) ponfh azmfjy+yD;aemufydkif; wkH@jyefvmcsufrsm; r&Sdao; or#umvywfvHk; jynfhpHk+yD[k
                        kf                         h kH                         h
               r,lqEdiyg? wcgw&H Tod@k jynfpap&eftwGuf wywf=umr# apmif&wwfygonf? Tonfrm 0ufbavmh             S
               wck. vnfywfyHk oufwrf;umv[kyif qdk&ygvdrfhrnf? Todk@ tcsuftvufrsm; jynfhpHkvmonfhtcg
               (vlóuufrsm;I =unfhvmonfrsm; &SdEdkifovdk/ ºuif;usef&pfonfrsm;vnf; &SdEdkifonf?) ta=umif;t&m
               w&yftay: tajcwnf aqG;aEG;=uonfh zdk&rfwckozG,f ajymif;oGm;wwf=uygonf? Tzdk&rfonfyif
               oifhcf (Think) [k usaemfazmfjyvdk onfh aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;=u&ef ta=umif;t&m jzpfawmhonf? ,cifu
               usaemfu TpwdkifyHkpH/ ydk@pfrsm; wifjyonfh tajccH pOf;pm;csufudk rod&SdcJhyg? odk@aomf rkqdk;pdkifoifqdkovdk
               vkyf&if;/ rSm;&if; jyifqif&if;jzifh Toabmw&m;udk awG@&Sdvmjcif; jzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh usaemf
                     H      k       S                        f       f      kf
               t=uay;vdonfrm oif.0ufbavmhukd pvkyyg? vky&if;udi&if;jzifom rnfo@kd h
               aqmif&Guf&rnfudk odvmygvdrfhrnf?

               usaemfu y&ufpf oifhcf rpwifrDu owif;pmynm (*sme,fvpfZif)ESifh owif;
               axmufrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh usaemf awG;xifxm;onfh ta=umif;rsm;udk
               owif ; pmrsm;u wqif h o m azmf j y&ygonf ? ‚wd k @ uvnf ; *d w f a yguf
               tapmifhrsm;ozG,f usaemhudk wm;qD;ydwfqdk@xm;=uygonf? ,cktcg usaemhf
               udk,fydkif r*~Zif;&Sdaeyg+yD? ,cifuuJhodk@ usaemfu apmifhaep&m rvdkawmhyg?
               *dwfayguftapmifh vkyfae=uolrsm;uyif usaemhf bavmhodk@ vm=unfhI usaemf
               pOf;pm;awG;ac:xm;r_rsm;udk zwfae=u&yg+yD? TonfrSm t}uD;tus,f ajymif;vJ
               uGmjcm;oGm;r_yif jzpfonf? ,ckawmh usaemfu ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifh
               &oGm;cJh+yD[k qdkcsifygawmhonf?

               a*s; ±dkqif (Jay Rosen) u e,l;a,mufwuUodkvfwGif 1986
               ckESpfrSpI *sme,fvpfZif owif;pmynm ydk@csaecJhol ygarmuQwOD;
               jzpfygonf? (1999) rS (2005) ckESpftxd TXme. OuUXtjzpf
               wm0ef,lcJhonf? olu e,l;a,mufòr@wGif aexdkifolwOD; jzpfonf? olu
               y&ufpf oifhcf[k ac:aom owif;pmynmESifh ‚. csifhcsdefydkif;qr_
               usifh0wfudk azmfjyxm;onfh www.pressthink.org bavmhudk
               a&;om;aeolvnf; jzpfonf? olu (2003) ckESpf/ pufwifbmvrSpI
               (http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzones/weblogs/
               pressthink) bavmh pmrsufESmudk pwifa&;om;aecJholvnf; jzpfonf?


                                                                          e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 57


HandBook.pmd                               57                                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        58 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                    58            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                     yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? a[mifaumif




                                                                                        a[mifaumif
                                                    usqHk;oGm;cJh&olrsm;tay: usaemfwdkY uwdwnfygrnf
                                                           ,ef &Srf &Sufu,fwGef (Yan Sham-Shackelton)

               ,ae@u ZGefv (4) &ufae@ oef;acgifausmfI eHeufcif; tpOD; jzpfonf? tcsdefu oef;acgifpGef;p
               12;23 em&D? ,ae@u 1989 ckESpfwGif jzpfyGm;cJhaom ab*sif;/ wD,eftifrif ,ifjyif qENjyyGJudk
               +zKdcGJacsr_ef;cJhonfh tpktjyHKvdkuf vlowfr_}uD;. 16 ESpfajrmuf ESpfywfvnfae@vnf; jzpfonf? xdktcsdef
               1989 ckESpfu usru a[mifaumif&Sd qif[Gmowif;Xme±Hk;. tjyifbuf OriftwGif;Y xdkifaecJhonf?
               Tae&mwGif vltrsm;u tpmtiwfcH qENjy&ef pDpOfxm;=u+yD;/ usrwdk@u w±kwfEdkifiHrS qENjyausmif;
               om;rsm;udk axmufcHaomtm;jzifh qENjyaecJh=ujcif;vnf; jzpfonf? usrwdk@u olwdk@udk 'Drdkua&pD
               tcGifhta&;rsm; cHpm;&&Sd apcsifovdk/ usrwdk@udk,fwdkifuvnf; 'Drdkua&pDudk cHpm;vdk=uonf? usrwdk@u
               +Adwdo#udkvdkeD tpdwftydkif;wcktjzpf raecsifovdk/ uGefjrLepfygwD. vufatmufcH tpdwftydkif;wck
               tjzpfvnf; raevdk=uyg? usrwdk@u vGwfvyfpGm aevdk=uygonf?

                                                              f               d hf       kd S
               aemufxyf 2 em&Dcef@t=um/ 3 em&Dcef@t=umwGivnf; jzpfcsijf zpfvrrnf/ a&'D,rwqifh aoewforsm;    H
               udk pwif=um;cJh =u&onf? xdk@aemufwGif oDcsif;oH+ydKif[pfaºu;oHrsm;/ atmf[pfoHrsm;/ wifhum;rsm;u
               eH&Hrsm;udk wdkuf+zdKoHrsm;udkvnf; =um;aecJh&ygonf? usrwdk@u wOD;udkwOD; =unfhvdkufrd=uaom
               tcsdefwGif rsuf&nfrsm; usrwdk@ rsufvHk;rsm;xJwGif awGawG pD;usaeonfukd jrifcJh=u&ygonf?

               tckawmh 'Drdkua&pDqENjyawmif;qdkolrsm;udk wifhum;rsm;oHk;I acsr_ef;ae+yDudk usrwdk@ odvdkuf=u&yg+yD?
               ,cifu usrwdk@u Todk@awG;xif rxm;cJh=uyg? 1989 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk &_H;edrfhoGm;+yDjzpfa=umif;
               a&'D,dkrSwqifh usrwdk@ odvdkuf&onf? Ttcsdefu usrwdk@OrifxJY rD;acsmif;tvif;a&mifrsm; atmuf
               wGif xdkifae=uqJjzpfonf? TtcsdefwGifyif usracgif;xJY }uD;av;aom awmif}uD;wck ay:xGef;vmonf
               [k cHpm;vdkuf&ygonf? xdktcsdefu usr touf 15 ESpfom&Sdygao;onf?

               Ttcsdefu ay:xGef;vmcJhjcif; r[kwfv#ifaomfrS/ rsm;r=umrD aemufydkif;umvwGif ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;
               jzpfygvdrfhrnf? urBm}uD;ESifh ywfoufI tawG@t=uHKvHk;0 r&Sdao;[k qdkEdkifonfh rdef;ri,fav; wOD;om
               jzpfonfh usru uwdjyKcJhygonf? oHo,pdk;pOf;r# r&SdbJ TuwdudkjyKcJhjcif; jzpfygonf?

               “ig olwdk@udk vHk;0rarhbl;? ig olwdk@vkyf&yfawGudk tjrJwrf; trSwf&aer,f? usrb0udk ydkwdk;wuf
               aumif;rGefatmif wnfaqmufr,f? tm;vHk;twGuf usr qufvkyfay;r,f? ta=umif;uawmh usru
               touf&Sifusef&pfae+yD;/ olwdk@u toufr&SifEdkif=uawmhbl;? 'Dvdk tjzpfqdk;rsKd; aemufwcg xyfrjzpf
               ap&bl;? wD,iftefrif &ifjyifu ausmif;om;awG udk,fpm;/ olwdk@udk,fpm; usr urBmudk qufvuf


                                                                      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 59


HandBook.pmd                             59                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? a[mifaumif



        E_d;aqmfowday;aer,f? olwdk@[m usr&J@ ol&Jaumif;awG jzpfw,f? usr&J@ tudktrawG? ol&Jaumif;
        awG jzpfw,f?“

        usru Tuwdudk tv#iftjrefyif jyKcJhonf? vHk;0ra=umufr&G@H/ ±dk;om;pGmyif opPmjyKcJhonf? jyKcJhonfh
        opPmtwdkif; jzpfEdkif-rjzpfEdkif usr rawG;awmrdcJh? Tuwdtwdkif; txajrmufap&ef rnfodk@ qufvuf
        aqmif&Guf&rnfudkvnf; usr rpOf;pm;rdcJh? usrodonfuawmh Ttcsufu rSefonfxifonfhtwdkif;
                    f                                                    k
        qH;k jzwfcsucscjhJ cif;om jzpfonf? usef vl}u;D trsm;uvnf; Ttwdi;f avmufpyDum toHcs@J pufraeIS
        atmf[pfaºu;a=umfae=uonf r[kwfygvm;?

                                        df Gf                f hJ
        ,ckn usrTpma&;aeonfh tcsewirS usr Tjzpfysucor# t&mtm;vH;k udk jyefI owd&aerdygonf?
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        wqifh aqmif&GufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? usroabmwlnD vufcHaqmif&GufcJhonfh awG@qHkar;jref;cef; tifwm
        AsL;rsm;/ usr xkwfazmfa&;om;cJhonfh Zmwfvrf;rsm;rSm vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifhudk udkifpGJaqmif
        &GufcJh±Hkr#omru/ usrudk,fwdkif TvGwfvyfcGifhtay:wGif t&l;trl; ,Hk=unfouf0ifI aqmif&GufcJhjcif;
                          k              k                 d f         S f d hf kd f
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        jzpfEdkifonf? bavmha&;om;jcif;u usqHk;cJh&olrsm;twGuf usrjyKcJhaom uwdu0wfudk jznfhqD;
        Edkif&eftwGufrsm;pGm taxmuftuljyKcJhonf?

        usr ,ckuJhodk@ a&;ae&jcif;rSm “ausmufawmif”(Glutter) [laom bavmhpmpOfudk zefwD;I
        qufvufa&;om;cJh&jcif; ta=umif;udk vltrsm;od&Sdap&ef vdktyfrnf[k ,lqrdaoma=umifhvnf;
        jzpfonf? usru tjcm;olrsm; csrSwfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk rvdkufembJ/ rnfonfhyHkpHudkr# ul;rcsbJ
           k f kd f      h               S               f                     f
        ud,yi[efjzifh pcJonf? aocsmonfrm usremrnf}u;D csiaoma=umifh r[kwovd/k vltrsm; tm±Hpur_     k kd f
             k        h           f                        k d f kd f
        &vdaoma=umifvnf; r[kwyg? wcgw&H vltrsm;u tm±Hoypuvm=uonftcg usru bavmhwifh                        G
        wdwfae+yD;/ bavmhudk acwWc%r# aooGm;ap&efvnf; &yfqdkif;xm;cJhygao;onf? ta=umif;u usra&;
                                                                      vdkonfudkom a&;om;azmfjyae
                                                                      aoma=umifh jzpfonf? rnfonfh
                                                                      zdpD;r_r#r&SdbJ ta=umif;t&m wck
                                                                      ud k od o if h o nf [ k ,l q onf h
                                                                      twdkif; a&;om;vdkaoma=umifh
                                                                      vnf; jzpfonf? usr}uKdufovdk
                                                                      tvdkus a&;vdkaoma=umifhvnf;
                                                                      jzpfonf?




        60 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           60                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                       yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? a[mifaumif



                                         H                           H     k    S      kd f kd f
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               udkr# em;raxmif&ef jzpfygonf? tjcm;olrsm;. bavmhrsm;udkvnf; tm;us=unfharm raeygESifh?
               +ydKifqdkifraeygESifh? rnfonfhudpPrsm;udk “rjzpfraeaqmif&Guf&ef”[lI pm&if;csxm;+yD; vkyfaejcif;/ wckck
               udk &nf&G,fcsufxm;+yD; vkyfaejcif;vnf; vkyfraeygESifh? usru pnf;rsOf;trsm;tjym; csKd;azmufrdcJhonf?
               &Sif;&Sif;av;/ usru Tpnf;rsOf;rsm;udk od&Sdrxm;ovdk/ usr aumif;onf xifonfhtwdkif; vkyfaeaom
               a=umifhvnf; jzpfonf?
               oifbavmhwckudk pa&;rnfqdkv#if bavmhpzGifh/ a&;vdkuf±Hkomjzpfonf?

               quf+yD; bavmhudk quf&Sifoefaeapvdkv#if oifajymcsifor#udk a&;om;/ rSwfwrf;wifxm;vdkuf±Hkom
               jzpfonf?

               usrwdk@tm;vHk;vdkvdkyif/ wcsdefr[kwf wcsdef EdkifiHa&;xufoefEdk;=um;vmr_rsKd;udk =uHKzl;ygvdrfhrnf? qdkvdk
                      S                                                 h d         P            S
               onfrm rw&m; rr#wr_ukd usrwd@k odjrifem;vnfvmonftcse/f Tudpukd jyKjyifr&awmhrnf[k jrifvm
               onfh tcsdefrsKd;jzpfygonf? odk@r[kwfygu oif.udpPwckckudk vufudkifxm;+yD; wpdkufrwfrwf aqmif&Guf
               v_yf&Sm;aeonfh v_yf&Sm;ol tufwDApfwOD; jzpfrvmEdkifyg? Todk@ udpPwcktay: rw&m;/ ajymif;vJ&awmh
               rnf[k odjrifem;vnfvdkufr_u oifhudk vrf;a=umif;ay; vrf;!$efOD;aqmifoGm;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? xdktcg
               tajymif;tvJjzpfay:vmap&eftwGuf wdkufcdkuf&ef/ v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf&ef tjcm;olrsm;udk wdkufwGef;E_d;
                                  h Gf          d     hf                  k                 dM      kd
               aqmfz@kd vnf; oifwitm;rmef &Svmvdrrnfjzpfonf? oif. cdi=f unfaom oHEXmefuvnf; tjcm;olrsm;
               xH ul;pufa&muf&SdapEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? Ttcsufu 'Dwn usrr#a0csifaom usr. pOf;pm;
               awG;ac:csufom jzpfonf?

               tckawmh n 2; 33 em&D &Sd+yD? aoewfoHrsm;udk usr=um;ae&onf? 'dkif;-'dkif;-'dkif;? ,ckvdktcsdefrsKd;wGif
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               &Sdao;onf? usr ñuHawG@cJh&ovdk tjzpfrsKd;twGuf odyfEke,fvGef;ao;aom t&G,frsKd;vnf; jzpfcsifjzpf
               ygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf tcsKd@aomolrsm;u i,f&G,fEke,fpOfrSmyif aoqHk;cJh=u&av+yD æ ?

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               'Drdkua&pDay:xGef;apvdkaom tom;ay;azmfjycsufrsm;a=umifh w±kwfEdkifiHrS tjrJwap
               qifqmjzwfawmuf ydwfqdk@jcif; cHcJh&ygonf?


                                                                         e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 61


HandBook.pmd                               61                                            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tD&ef




        tD&ef
        usaemfwdkUu bavmhrsm;ay:wGif vGwfvyfpGm a&;EdkifayNyD
        tm&mh&Sf pD*g*sD (Arash Sigarchi)

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        rjrif&onfh tifwmeufvd_if;rsm;u csdwfqufrdvm=u+yD; tm&Swdkuf/ tar&duwdkuf/ Oa&mywdkuf/
          k             f D G                  k f                           kd f
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        odaeEdkif=u+yD?

        ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm owif;pmynmqdkonfh *sme,fvpfZifu csKyfaESmifwnf; pnf;=uyfxm;r_rsm;ESifh
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        usaemfu owif;axmufwOD;jzpf+yD;/ usaemf. vkyfief;rsm;udk yHkrSef rvkyfaqmifEdkifatmif csKyfcs,fxm;
        onfh EdkifiHwckY aexdkif&ol jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif urBmhowif;rD'D,m avmuwGif ñuHawG@ae&onfh
        “tzGJ@tpnf;tcsif;csif; qufqHa&;” udpPrsm; &SdouJhodk@/ Oya't& xdef;csKyfxm;r_rsm;/ tpdk;& odk@r[kwf
        vlyk*~dKvfwOD;OD;. =oZmoufa&muf v$rf;rdk;r_ponfh “tzGJ@tpnf;jyify udpPrsm;” vnf; &Sdaeao;onf?
        xdk@r#ru wbufowf owif;axmufyHh ay;ae=uolrsm;/ zdtm;ay;onfh tkyfpkrsm;ESifh aiG&Sifa=u;&Sifrsm;
                                                                      kfH                   d kfH
        ponfrsm;uvnf; zdtm;oufa&mufae=uonf? zG@H òz;wd;k wuf+y;D Ediirsm;xufpmv#if rdrw@kd Ediirsm;wGif
        TuJhodk@aom zdtm;rsKd;u ydkrsm;aeonf? xdktcsufrsm;u usaemhfEdkifiH. vGwfvyfr_ tajctaeudk
        jyefawG;rdap ouJhodk@/ owif; tppftrSef wyk'fqdkonfrSm rnfodk@enf;[k jyefawG;rdaponf? usaemf.
        owif;a0zefcsufrsm;udka&m rnfodk@ azmfjyEdkifygrnfenf;? Todk@ aESmifhqGJzifhav;aeapaom udpPrsm;udk
        ausmfv$m;&ef wckaomenf;rSm bavmha&;&efyif jzpfawmhonf?

        usaemfwdk@u bavmhay:wGif vGwfvyfpGma&;Edkifonf? bavmhrsm;u yHkESdyfxkwfa0&ef rvdktyfouJhodk@/
        toH±kyfjrif (Audio-visual) udpPrsm;ESifhvnf; r&_yfaxG;aoma=umifhvnf; owif;a&;jcif;/ rdrdtjrif
        wifjyjcif;udk ydkI vGwfvyfpGm/ v#ifjrefpGm aqmif&GufEdkifonf? bavmhudk owif;pmi,fuav; tjzpf
             kd f h             f f                                             kf
        jrifEiouJo@kd / owif;rSwcsuay;onfh Xmetjzpfvnf; wm0efxrf;aqmifapEdionf? a&;olvnf;ud,/f    k
        t,f'DwmcsKyfvnf; udk,fyif jzpfawmhonf?

                                                      k                  f
        tcsKk @d aomolrsm;u bavmhrsm;onf owif;rsm;udcsn;f tav;xm;vkyaqmifr_ enf;onf[k qdygonf?   k
        vltrsm;u rdrdae@pOf aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;rSwf&m xm;EdkifouJhodk@/ taysmfwrf; pma&;olrsm;
        uvnf; vufaoG;Edkifygonf? pmzwfy&dowfawmh &Sdygonf? tenf;qHk; oli,fcsif;rsm;/ aqGrsKd; todkif;
        t0dkif;rsm;u zwf=uygvdrfhrnf?

        62 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          62                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tD&eff




                                      S                                         kfH                 _
               od@k aomfvnf; xif&m;aom owif;pmq&mrsm;/ tEkynmonfrsm;/ Ediia&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;/ tm;upm;
                                    f                                                  kf
               avmursm;rS yk*Kd~ vrsm;uvnf; olw@kd .tjrif/ olw@kd .ta=umif;udk wifjyEdiygonf? olw@kd ae@pOfb0udk
               a&;±Hkr#ESifhvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkolrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;aejcif;/ ausmf=um;r_wdk@a=umifh
               olwdk@ wifjyor#udkyif owif;jzpfaewwfygonf? xdkolrsm;u ta=umif;t&mtaxGaxGudk a&;om;
               wifjyEdkif=u+yD;/ pmzwfolrsm;udk qGJaqmifEkdif=uygonf?

               usaemf ,Hk=unfxm;onfrSm bavmhwdkif;u ‚udk,fydkif pmzwfolrsm;&Sd+yD; xdkolrsm;. pdwf0ifpm;r_
               tvdkuf qGJaqmifxm;Edkif=uygonf? bavmha&;om;jcif;wGif rnfonfhcsKyfcs,fr_r# r&Sdyg?

               usaemfu bavmha&;&eftwGuf enf;vrf; (2) ckudk a&G;ygonf? yxrwGif w&m;0ifyHkpH r[kwfaom
               azmfjyr_rsKd;jzifh vufiif;umv jy\emrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rdrdtjrifudk csjyjcif; jzpfygonf? (yGifhvif;
               &if;ESD;aom yHkpHjzifha&;onf?) 'kwd,enf;rSm owif;rsm;/ owif;a0zefcsufrsm;/ tifwmAsL;rsm;/ tpD&ifcH
               pmrsm;/ odk@r[kwf tufaq;rsm;udk a&;om;jcif; jzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh usaemhftwGuf pmzwfol
               (2) pk &&Sdapygonf? wpku ,ckwavm usaemfbmvkyfaeoenf;udk od&Sd pl;prf;vdkaom tkyfpkjzpf+yD;/
               usefwpku usaemf owif;pmq&mtjzpf/ pma&;q&mtjzpf/ uAsmq&mtjzpf a&;om;onfudk zwfvdk
               aom tkyfpk jzpfygonf?

                             kd     S                      f kd           D
               bavmhqonfrm wenf;tm;jzifh tGevi;f owif;rD',myifjzpfI pma&;ola&;or#tay: pmzwforsm;u                l
               &if;ESD;yGifhvif;pGmjzifh tjrifESifh a0zefcsufjyefay;Edkifonfh ae&mvnf; jzpfonf? pmzwfolrsm;udk pmjyefEdkif
               ovdk/ rdrdudk,fudkvnf; wdk;wufatmif aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? Todk@ pmzwfolrsm;ESifh eD;uyfpGm &Sdaeonfh
               tajctaewGif bavmha&;olrsm;u pmzwfolrsm;udk wdkuf±dkuf!$ef=um;Edkif+yD;/ pmzwfolrsm; t}udKuf
               awG@aprnfh tjrifrsm;/ udpP&yfrsm;udk ydkI a&;om;azmfjy EdkifcGifh&Sdygonf?

                                h k           kd f H G              f     k dS f k f
               usaemfazmfjycJovdyif/ tD&efEiiwif tu,fI pmtkywtkyf yHEyxwa0rnf/ uAsmwtky/f 0wˆKwtkyf
               yHkESdyfrnf qdkygu/ aemufqHk; owif;pm/ r*~Zif;wapmif xkwfa0rnfqdkygu tm%mydkifrsm;xHrS cGifhjyKcsuf
               &,l&ygvdrfhrnf? pma&;ol trsm;pkrSm Todk@wif;usyfxm;r_rsm;udk rausmfEdkif=uyg?

               0wˆKwtkyf/ uAsmwyk'f/ tufaq;wyk'f/ owif;pmwapmif/ r*~Zif;wtkyf xkwfa0rnfqdkv#if qifqm
               wnf;jzwfcH=u &rnfuawmh aocsmvSygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh tD&ef&Sd pma&;q&m trsm;pku
               bavmhwGif a&;=uygonf? ukefuspm;&dwf enf;ovdk/ rdrdudk,fwdkif vufcsdefI qifqmwnf;jzwf

                                                                          e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 63


HandBook.pmd                               63                                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                k      f             k
                                              ae&jcif;rsK;d udvnf; vkyaqmifp&m rvdawmhyg? Ttcg w±kwf
                                              EdkifiHuJhodk@yif tjcm;aom tpdk;& trsm;uvnf; tifwmeufudk
                                              ydwfqdk@uef@owf vm=uygawmhonf?

                                              tifwmeuf owif;pmynmac: tifwmeuf *sme,fvpfZif
                                              a=umifh vGwfvyfpGmazmfjy ajymqdkcGifhudk wdk;wufvmapovdk/
                                              ydkIus,fjyef@aom tjrifrsm;udkvnf; wifjyEdkifcJh=uygonf?
                                              usaemfhtaejzifh tD&efEdkifiH w&m;±Hk;rS tjypf&Sdonf[k pGJcsufcs
                                                                         f h f           f
                                              aomfvnf; usaemf. ar#mvifcsursm; ukecrf;roGm;yg? usaemf
                                              ,lqxm;onfrSm aemifvmrnfhESpfrsm;wGif usaemhfEdkifiH.
                                              tpdk;&uvnf; tifwmeuftwGif; owif;rsm; vGwfvyfpGm
                                              pD;qif;jzwfoef; oGm;vmcGifhudk em;vnfoabmaygufvmrnf/
                                              vGwfvyfpGm azmfjyajymqdkcGifhudk wm;qD;r&Edkif[k oabmayguf
                                              vm=uygvdrfhrnf?

                                              owif;pmq&mESifh owif;axmufwOD;jzpfol tm&mh&Sf pD*gcsD
                                              (Arash Sigarchi) udk 1978 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf?
                                              &Sm;bk&ifudk awmfvSefðzwfcscJhaom awmfvSefa&;jzpfay:
                                              aeaom umvwGif arG;zGm;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? 1993 ckESpf/
                                              touf 15 ESpf t&G,fwGifyif owif;axmufvkyfief;udk
                                              pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf? jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'D orw
                                              rdk[mrufcgwmrD a&G;aumufcH&pOf (1997) ckESpfY
                                              jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'Drsm;. owif;pmavmuodk@
                       Source: Gheraf.ir      ol0ifa&muf yl;aygif;cJhonf? (2000) ckESpf {+yDvwGif
        owif;pmrsm;tm;vHk; &yfqdkif;cH&+yD;aemuf tD&efEdkifiH ajrmufydkif;odk@ ajymif;a&$@aexdkifcJh+yD;
        pmrsufESm (12) rsufESmyg owif;pm *Dvef trfa&mufZf (Gilan Emrouz) udk (,ck
        *Dvefowif;pm[k ac:onf) wnf;jzwfcJhonf?

        *DvJh rm'f (*DvefrS vlrsm;) (Gileh Mard) [kac:aom vltrsm;pkaygif;a&;om;onfh
        bavmhjzifh (2001) ckESpfrSpI bavmh pa&;cJhonf? (2002) ckESpfwGif yef*sm&J@ t,fvfwD[ufbf
        (Panjereh Eltehab) [kac:aom ar#mfvifhcsuf jyLwif;ayguf[k t"dy`g,f&onfh
        udk,fydkif0ufbfqdkufudk pwifcJhonf? www.sigarchi.com

        (2005) ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif ol@udk owif;ESifh vHkðcHa&;0ef}uD;Xmeu (2) v=umr# xdef;odrf;xm;
        cJh+yD;aemuf axmif'%f (14) ESpf jypf'%fcsrSwfcJhonf? toem;cHpmwif+yD;aemuf
        qdkif;iHhaxmif'%fjzifh jyefvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?


        64 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          64                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                               yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? eDayg




                                                                                                            eDayg
                                        jyifyurÇmudk jzpfaeonfh tajctaetwdkif; trSefwifjyEdkifNyD
                vGwfvyfaom eDayga&'D,dk (Radio Free Nepal) (http://freenepal.blogspot.com)

               (2005) ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv 1 &ufae@wGif eDaygbk&if *smeif'&mu tm%modrf;,lvdkuf+yD;/ Tta=umif;
               udk ±kyfjrifoH=um; rdef@cGef;rSwqifh vltrsm;odk@ odapcJhonf? rdef@cGef;qHk;oGm;onfhtcg usaemfu EdkifiH
               wumrS TudpPtay: rnfodk@ wkH@jyefrnfudk odvdkvmonf? odk@ESifh w,fvDzkef;jzifh ac:&onfh (dial
               up) tifwmeufudk zGifhvdkufonf? odk@aomfvnf; zkef;vdkif; jywfaea=umif;/ rnfonfhzkef;r# csdwfquf
               xm;r_ r&Sda=umif;om ay:vmcJhonf? zkef;vdkif;yg jzwfvdkuf+yD qdkonfudk usaemfodvdkufonf? ol.
               vkyfaqmifcsuftay: uef@uGufqef@usif=uonfh owif;rsm; jyifyodk@ ysH@ESH@roGm;apa&;twGuf vkyfvdkuf
               jcif; jzpfonf? bk&ifu tifwmeufqmAmrsm;udk zGifhray;&ef ppfwyfudk !$ef=um;xm;onfh tjyif
               w,fvDzkef; qufoG,fa&;pepfrsm;udkyg ydwfcsvdkufonf?

               TtcsdefwGif vltrsm;u jzpfvmEdkifonfh aumif;usKd;qdk;usKd;rsm;udk ajymae=uonf? tcsKd@u Todk@
               vkyfaqmifcsufudk tm;ay;=uonf? usaemfvkyfonfh owif;pm±Hk;wGifawmh vlwdkif;u arSmifrdkif;aeonfh
               tem*wfudk óuwifjrifI &ifav;ae=u+yD;/ ppfwyftm%mydkifrsm;u ±kyfjrifoH=um; owif;±Hk;cef;rsm;odk@
                         f d k f                                                  df G
               usL;ausmor;f yduum qifqmjzwfawmuf=uawmhrnf jzpfonf? Ttcsewif usaemfu t=u&onfrm        H    S
               ae@pOfjzpfysufor#udk 'dkif,m&DozG,f rSwfwrf;wifxm;v#ifawmh oifhawmfvdrfhrnf/ zwf&olrsm;uvnf;
               'dkif,m&D ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wck ozG,fyif oabmxm;=uvdrfhrnf? Todk@jzifh jzpfysufor#udk usaemhf
               uGefjyLwmxJwGif rSwfwrf;wif odrf;qnf;xm;cJhygonf?

               azaz:0g&Dv (8) &ufae@wGif tajccH w,fvDzkef;vdkif;rsm;ESifh tifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_rsm; jyefzGifhay;
                     h                                  G           f hJ
               vmcJonf? vltrsm;uvnf; eDaygwif rnfo@kd jzpfysuconfukd tD;ar;vfjzifh ar;vm=uonf? usaemfu
                           S f                         S f    kf
               usaemfrwwrf;jyKxm;aom ae@pOfrwwrf; 'di,m&Duav;awmh Tae&mwGif toH;k wnf+y[k ,lqvm  D
               onf? tar&duefEdkifiHrS rdwfaqGrsm;u T'dkif,m&Duav;udk bavmhozG,f aemufa=umif;jyef ae@pGJ
                                                                         kd h d P d G
               rsm;jzifh jyefa&;&ef t=ujH yKc=hJ uonf? usaemfuvnf; bavmhqonfuprsK;wif tpdr;f oufouf? usaemf
               u bavmhwckzGifhvdkuf+yD; ydk@pfrsm; pxnfhoGif;onf? usaemfu trnfrazmfbJ a&;v#if ydkaumif;rnf
               oabm&ovdk/ usefolrsm;udkvnf; trnfrazmfbJ a&;aponf? odk@rSom ESdyfuGyfcH&jcif; uif;vdrfhrnf/
               axmifuswef;usjzpf&r_ uif;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf?

               tapmydkif;umvrsm;wGif owif;rD'D,m qifqmwnf;jzwfr_u jyif;xefvGef;vS+yD;/ a&'D,dkz&D;eDaygqdkuf
               wGif owif;rsm;u vGwfvyfpGm wufvmEdkifjcif;a=umifh csufjcif;qdkovdkyif vl}udKufrsm;vmcJhonf?
               (blogger.com) uyif Tqdkufodk@ oGm;=unfh&ef !$ef;cJh&onf? tar&duef&Sd usaemf. rdwfaqGrsm;


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 65


HandBook.pmd                              65                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? eDayg



        uvnf; Tqdkufudk vltrsm;ydkI vm=unfhapa&;twGuf v_H@aqmfpnf;±Hk;ay;cJh=uonf? &ufowWywf
        twGif;yif tawmfemrnf}uD;vmonf?

        a&'D,dkz&D;eDayg (RFN) qdkuf wnfaqmuf&ef qHk;jzwfcJhaoma=umifhom bk&if. wdkuf&dkuftkyfcsKyfa&;
        pepftay: eDaygjynfolrsm;u rnfodk@xifjrif=ua=umif; urBmudk odapEdkifcJhonf? qifwmwif;usyf
        xm;onfh atmufwGif eDaygEdkifiHwGif;&Sd owif;rsm;u bk&iftóuufudkom a&;om;azmfjy=u&+yD;/ wrdk;vHk;
        azsmufqdwf jzpfaeapcJhonf? odk@aomf jynfolvlxk. oabmxm;trSefudk rxif[yfapEdkifcJhyg? a&'D,dk
        z&D; eDayg (RFN) qdkufudk woD;yk*~v vlwOD;wa,muf. óu;yrf;csuf/ vltcsKd@. yg0ifjznfhqD;
        ay;r_jzifh aqmif&GufcJhaomfvnf; vltrsm;pk. toHudk xif[yfazmfjyEdkifcJhonf? qifqmwnf;jzwf
        r_rS uif;vGwfaecJh+yD;/ zrf;qD;ESdyfuGyfrnfudk a=umuf&GH@p&mrvdkbJ usaemfwdk@ a&;om;EdkifcJh=uonf?

        a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) qdkufwGif ueOD;wifjycsufrsm;onf 'dkif,m&Dqefqef jzpf+yD;/ ae@pOf jzpfysuf
        or#udkom wifjycJhjcif; jzpfonf? aemufydkif;wGif xifjrifcsufrsm;/ owif;a0zefcsufrsm;ESifh tjcm;udpP
        rsm;vnf; pHknDa0qm azmfjyvmEdkifcJhonf? vlxkqENudk ausmfvGefI bk&ifu wdkuf±dkuftkyfcsKyfvmonfh
        eDaygEdkifiH. EdkifiHa&;tajctaeu yHkrSefwifjyae&ef cGifhrjyKawmh/ a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) uJhodk@aom
        bavmhrsKd;u ydkI oifhavsmfonfh =um;cHjzpfvmonf? ta=umif;u omrefvlrsm;. oabmxm;rsm;udk
        xif[yfazmfjyvmEdkifaoma=umifh jzpfonf?

        usaemf trSefwu,f awmif;waomudpPrSm EdkifiHtwGif; 'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;vmapa&;yif jzpfonf?
                 h    kfH                       kf
        Tenf;jzifom Ediiukd wd;k wuf}u;D yGm;Ediaprnf jzpf+y;D / usaemf oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyKaeonfh owif;pm
        ynmjzifhvnf; t"dy`g,f&Sd&Sd vkyfudkif pm;aomufEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? qifqmwnf;jzwfr_ atmufwGif
        pma&;ae&jcif;u o=um;rygbJ aumfzDaomuf&ouJhodk@ &Sdonf? t&omr&Sd? ,cifu usaemfwdk@u
        owif;rsm;&&Sdaomfvnf; owif;pm pmrsufESmrsm;ay: ra&mufEdkifcJh? ,ckawmh a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg
        (RFN) wGif bk&if. ydkifqdkifr_rsm;udk enf;vrf;wus ppfaq;&ef azmfjyEdkifcJh=uonf? owif;pmq&m
        trsm;pku Towif;rsm;udk od=uonf? a0zefajymqdkae=uonf? bk&ifudk [movkyfae=uonf?
        odk@aomf Ttcsufrsm;udk ra&;EdkifcJh=uyg? pmrsufESmay: rwifEdkifcJh=uyg?

        a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) u vkyfaqmifEdkifcJhaom tjcm;tcsufwckrSm eDaygEdkifiH. tajctaeudk
                            l                   k
        urBmwv$m;&Sd jynfotrsm;od@k wifjyEdijf cif; jzpfygonf? tu,fI Tbavmhom jzpfrvmcJygu axmif     h
        aygif;rsm;pGmaom olrsm;rSm eDaygEdkifiH. tajctaeudk od&SdEdkif=uvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? TEdkifiHESifhywfoufI
        urBmhjynfolrsm;t=um; ydkrdkEdk;=um;od od&SdEdkifatmifvnf; pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhygonf?

        tDvufx&Gef;epf enf;ynmwdk;wufr_rsm;u usaemfwdk@ vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;twGuf rsm;pGm tusKd;aqmif
        ay;cJhygonf? bavmhay:wGif a&;aejcif;a=umifh usaemfu twm;tqD;r&Sd/ ta=umuftvef@r&Sd a&;om;
        aeEdkifcJhygonf? bavmhay:wGif a&;jcif;/ odk@r[kwf tar&duef&Sd rdwfaqGxH tD;ar;vfydk@I bavmhwif
        apjcif;jzifh aemufa=umif;cH vdkufjcif;udkvnf; uGif;a&SmifEdkifcJhygonf? enf;ynmawmf±Hkr#/ omref
        wif;usyfr_rsKd;r#jzifh od&SdazmfxkwfEdkif&ef rvG,fulawmhyg? tu,fI usaemfh EdkifiHwGif 'Drdkua&pD jyefvnf

        66 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            66                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                            yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? eDayg



               xGef;um;vmygu/ vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom avxkudkom &_&d_ufcGifh &Sdvmygu usaemfu rdrdóu;yrf;
               aqmif&GufcJhr_rsm;twGuf *k%f,laernf jzpfygonf? usaemfu wpHkw&m/ tenf;tusOf; yHhydk;ay;EdkifcJhr_
               twGuf 0rf;omaerdrnf jzpfonf?

               usaemhfxHodk@ tD;ar;vfrsm;jzifh vlrsm;pGmu jyefar;vm=uygonf? Twifydk@xm;aom owif;rsm;udk
               rnfr# ,Hk=unf&ygrnfenf;[k ar;jref;cJh=uygonf? usaemfhemrnf&if; azmfajymvdkuf±Hkr#ESifhyif ToHo,
               rsm;udk uG,faysmuf roGm;apEdkifyg? 'Drdkua&pD a&mifeDroef;ao;or# umvywfvHk; usaemf. trnf
               tppftrSefudk zGifhajym&ef qENr&Sdyg? tajctaeu ydkqdk;oGm;Edkifovdk/ usaemfvnf; bavmha&;ojzifh
               axmifxJ a&mufoGm;Edkifygonf? usaemf axmifus&rnfudk ra=umufyg? odk@aomfvnf; a&'D,dk z&D;
               eDayg (RFN) u urBmodk@ owif;rsm; qufvuf ray;ydk@Edkifawmhrnfh tajctaeudk pdk;&drfrdygonf?
               bk&iftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf tqHk;owfcJhygu usaemfu trnfrSefudk zGifhajymrnf[kom olwdk@udk jyefajymEdkif
                 h
               cJygonf?

               Ttcsdefumvwdkif oifwdk@. axmufcHyHhydk;r_rsm; qufvuf&&Sdaeao;onfhtwGuf aus;Zl;txl;
               wif&Sdygonf?

                                                                a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) bavmh*g/ eDaygEdkifiH?
                                                                 (wewantdemocracy@gmail.com)

               a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) u bk&if *smeif'&m wdkuf±dkuftm%m xdef;csKyfvdkufr_ESifh
               owif;rD'D,m qifqmwnf;jzwfr_udk tmcHqef@usifaeaom bavmhwck jzpfygonf? a&'D,dk z&D;
               eDayg (RFN) onf eDaygEdkifiHwGif jzpfysufaeaom owif;rsm;udk yxrOD;qHk; urBmodk@today;
               wifjyaeonfh bavmhpmrsufESm jzpf+yD;/ tm%mydkifrsm;. &efa=umifh trnfrazmfbJ
               a&;om;ae=uolrsm; jzpfygonf?




                                                                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 67


HandBook.pmd                            67                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        68 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                    68            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                               toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;




                                                               trnfrazmfbJ
                                                 rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;
                                                                    tDoef Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman)


               Taqmif;ygu trnfrazmfbJ bavmha&;om;&eftwGuf ta&;ay: vrf;!$efcsufr#om jzpfygonf?
                            hf                d                G f                               f
               tpd;k &u yGivif;jrifomr_ r&Sb/J xifovdk aqmif&uae=uaom tajctaeY tpd;k &vkyief;rsm;twGi;f rS
               TudpPrsm;udk azmufonfcs today;rnfh rD;vSef@oHacsmif;acgufolwOD;. ae&mrS cHpm;a&;om;xm;jcif;
                               d       ~ d       P           f                              f                 f
               jzpfygonf? rdrw@kd . yk*vuudprsm;udk v#K@d 0Suvrf;a=umif;rSwqifh ay;yd@k zvS,ae=uonfh u|r;f usiol
               ynm&Sif qdkifzmyef@cfrsm; (cypherpunks) twGuf &nf&G,fxm;jcif; r[kwfyg? zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;wGif
               aexdkif=uonfh ta=umif;wckudk wifjyrnfqdkv#if ‚wdk@. yk*~dKvfa&;vHkðcHa&;twGuf pdk;&drfae=u&onfh
               olrsm;twGuf &nf&G,fazmfjyxm;jcif;om jzpfygonf? ‚wdk@. yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm;udk
               vHkjcKHpGm xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifrnfh vufawG@usaom enf;vrf;rsm;udkom azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf?

               tDvufx&Gefepf a&S@wef;ppfrsufESm azmifa';&Sif; (Electronic Frontier Foundation) .
               vrf;!$ef “vHkjcHK tEW&m,fuif;pGm bavmha&;enf;” (http://www.eff.org/Privacy/
               Anonymity/blog-anonymously.php) onfvnf; ,ck vHkðcHa&;udpPESifh ywfoufI t=uH
               aumif;rsm; ay;Edkifonfh pmwrf;wck jzpfygonf? zwf&_zG,f pmwrf;wck jzpfygonf?

               tusOf;csKyf- qm&mESifh rdwfqufay;jcif;
                            tqifh 1) emrnf0Suf
                            tqifh 2) vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwm
                            tqifh 3) trnfrazmfaom ya&mufqDrsm;
                            tqifh 4) Tw}udrfwGifawmh vlyk*~dKvfu ulnDay;jcif;
                            tqifh 5) (Onion Routing through Tor)
                            tqifh 6) (Mixmaster, Invisiblog and GPG) ud,aysmuf tifApfqD bavmh
                                                                              k f
                                      ESifh *sDyD*sD
                            rnfodk@aom tajctaeu trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;jcif;twGuf vHkavmuf+yD[k ,lqEdkif
                                      ygoenf;?

               qm&mESifh rdwfqufay;jcif;
               qm&mu tpdk;&±Hk;wckwGif aiGpm&if;udkif 0efxrf;wOD; jzpfonf? olr. txufvl}uD; 'kwd,0ef}uD;
               jzpfolu tpdk;&b¾mrS aiGt}uD;tus,fcdk;,laea=umif; olrowdjyKrdvmonf? ,ckuJhodk@ tpdk;&0ef}uD;


                                                                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 69


HandBook.pmd                            69                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



        udk,fYu &mZ0wfr_usL;vGefaeonfudk urBmodk@ olu today;wifjycsifvmonf? odk@aomfvnf;
                             f G       kd             f                             hf    d
        wbufu tvkyjf yKwom;rnfuvnf; pd;k &drae&jyefonf? tu,fI (0ef}u;D ESiawG@&ef cse;f qdk cGijhf yKcsuf
        &cJhv#ifaomfrS) 0ef}uD;xHwifjy&ef rjzpfEdkif? olr tvkyfjyKwfoGm;Edkifonf? olru a'owGif; xkwfa0
        aeaomowif;pmwapmifrS owif;axmufwOD;udk zkef;ac:I Tta=umif;udk owif;ay;onf? ‚u
        aocsmcdkifvHkaom tjcm;taxmuftxm;rsm; r&SdygbJESifh Towif;udk razmfjyEdkif[k qdkjyefonf?

        Todk@jzifh qm&mu olrodor#udk bavmhwGifa&;I wurBmvHk;udk today;&ef/ 0ef}uD;XmetwGif;
        jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udk ukd,fwdkifa&;&ef qHk;jzwfcsuf csvdkufawmhonf? odk@aomf olrtwGuf vHkðcHa&;
        vdkao;onf? olr. bavmhwGif azmfjyxm;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk olrudk,fwdkif a&;aerSef;
        vltrsm;u rodap&efvnf; vdktyfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh olru trnfrazmfbJ bavmha&;&ef
        pOf;pm;vm& awmhonf?

        Todk@ trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;aepOfwGif olrudk vlrdEdkifonfhta=umif; (2) csuf&Sdonf? wcsufu
        olra&;om;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk,fYu olra&;aea=umif; ay:vGifazmfjyaejcif; jzpfonf? Oyrm
        tm;jzifh- “usaemfu owWKwGif;0ef}uD;Xme 'k0ef}uD;.&Hk;rS t}uD;tuJ.trdef@udk vdkufemtaumif
        txnfazmf&aom pm&if;udkifjzpfonf” [k azmfjyxm;v#if zwf&olu csufcsif; olra&;aerSef;
        odawmhrnf?

        qm&mudk zrf;rdEdkifaom aemufwenf;rSm oloHk;aeaom 0ufbfba&mufZm (Web browser) rS
        ay;ydk@vmaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;/ tD;ar;vfyg uGefjyLwmowif; tcsuftvufrsm;udk
        aumuf,lI odEdkifjcif;jzpfonf? tifwmeufESifh csdwfqufxm;aom/ odk@r[kwf &S,f,mvkyf a0iSoHk;
        aeaom pepftwGif;&Sd uGefjyLwmwdkif;wGif vdyfpm&Sdygonf? ‚udk tdkifyD tuf'&ufpf (IP Address)
        [kac:ygonf? ‚rSm okn (0) rS (255) txd udef;*%ef;rsm;jzpfI tpuf (dos) rsm;jzifh jcm;I
        azmfjyxm;onfh vdypmjzpfonf? Oyrm (213.24.124.38) uJo@kd jzpfygvrrnf? olru olr0ef}u;D .
                            f                                     h            d hf
        bavmhtwGif; rSwfcsufjyKazmfjy a&;om;onfhtcg olray;ydk@vdkufonfhpmwGif olr. vdyfpmyg
        yg0ifazmfjyaeygonf?

        tenf;i,fr# vdkuf±Hkr#ESifhyif 0ef}uD;. uGefjyLwmynm&Sifu qm&m. tdkifyDvdyfpmrSwqifh olr
                                          kf                           f S G
        rnfojl zpfonfukd &SmazG awG@oGm;Ediygonf? tu,fI qm&mu tdrruejf yLwmudk oH;k I w,fvze;f jzifh   Dk
        ac:&aom (dial up ISP) rSwqifh tifwmeufudk toHk;jyKyguvnf; qmAmu rnfonfhtcsdefu
        rnfonfhzkef;eHywfrS ac:qdkxm;onfudk &SmazGI awG@Edkifygonf? tcsKd@aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif 0ef}uD;jzpfolu
        Ttcsuftvufrsm;udk &,l&eftwGuf w&m;±Hk;rS cGifhjyKcsufawmif;cH&ef vdktyfaumif; vdktyf
        ygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; tpdk;&udk,fYu tifwmeufqmAmrsm;udk csKyfudkifxm;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGifrl
        tifwmeuf0efaqmifr_ay;aeaom qmAmu Ttcsuftvufrsm;udk tvG,fwulyif &SmazGxkwfay;
        ygvdrfhrnf? qm&m 'kuQawG@oGm;zG,f &Sdygonf?



        70 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           70                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                 trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



               odk@aomfvnf; tifwmeufoHk;aepOfumvwGif qm&mu olr rnfolqdkonfudk azsmufxm;Edkifonfh
               enf;vrf;trsm;tjym; &Sdygonf? a,bk,spnf;rsOf; Oya'orSm olru ydkIvHkðcHpGm a&;om;vdkv#if/
               olru tyifyef;cH tvkyfydkvkyf&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? odk@rSom olr. Oy"d±kyf tppftrSefudk zkef;uG,fxm;
               Edkifrnf jzpfonf? qm&m odk@r[kwf bavmhwckudk trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;vdkolrsm;twGuf ‚wdk@.
               rl&if;trnf tppftrSefudk zkef;uG,f&ef/ rnfr# pdk;&drfa=umuf&GH@ae&onfudk em;vnf&ef vdktyfygonf?
               Todk@ tGefvdkif;ay:wGif rdrd. yifudk,f±kyf tppftrSefudk zkef;uG,fa&;om;=u&mwGif rnfr#}udK;yrf;
               aqmif&Guf=u&a=umif;/ pufydkif;qdkif&m enf;ynmrsm;ESifh AsL[mrsm; trsm;tjym;vdka=umif; awG@=u
               &ygvdrfhrnf?

               tqifh 1) emrnf0Sufrsm;
               qm&mu olr. yifudk,fOy"d±kyfudk azsmufEdkifaomenf;rSm 0ufbfay:rS tcrJhay;aom ar;vfrsm;udk
               toHk;jyKjcif;yif jzpfygonf? odk@r[kwf rdrdEdkifiHjyifyrS tcrJhay;aom bavmh (free blog host)
               rsm;udk toHk;jyKjcif; jzpfonf? (ydkufqHay;&onfh tD;ar;vf/ odk@r[kwf 0ufbfvufcH&m tdrf&Sifrsm;udk
               toHk;jyKjcif;onf csifhcsdefydkif;qr_enf;&m a&mufygonf? rdrday;&aom aiGa=u;wefzdk;rSwqifh c&uf'pfu'f
               ac: taºu;0,fu'fjym;/ b%fpm&if;/ ay;y,fvf (Paypal account) pm&if;wdk@ESifh csdwfqufxm;r_
               &Sdaeygonf? Tcsdwfrsm;rSwqifh qm&mudk &SmazGEdkifygonf?) olru aemufxyf Oy"d±kyftopf- emrnf
               0Sufudk zefwD;&ef vdktyfygonf? olru TtcrJh tD;ar;vfudk 0ifonfhtcsdefwGifjzpfap/ 0ef}uD;u olr
               bavmhudk awG@oGm;onfjzpfap ‚u trnfrazmfxm;olwOD;/ tD;ar;vfvdyfpm (anonymous.
               whistleblower@hotmail.com) pojzifhudkom awG@&rnf jzpfonf?

               tcrJhoHk;Edkifaom 0ufbftajccH tD;ar;vf 0efaqmifr_rsm;rSm-
                             Hotmail, Yahoo wd@k jzpfonf?
                             Hushmail u vHkðcHr_ ydkaumif;aom 0Sufpmpepfjzifh ydk@Edkifonfh 0ufbfar;vf jzpfonf?

               tcrJh 0ufbfbavmh&,lEdkifaom 0efaqmifr_rsm;rSm-
                        Blogsome— Free wordpress blog
                        Blogger
                        Seo Blog pojzifh jzpfonf?

               Tenf;emAsL[mwGifvnf; jy\em&Sdygao;onf? qm&mu olr. tD;ar;vf qm;Apfudk (sign up)
               vkyfonfjzpfap/ 0ufbfbavmhudk 0ifonfjzpfap olr0ifonfh 0ufbfba&mufZmu olr. tdkifyD vdyfpm
               (IP address) udk rSwfwrf;wif (log) vkyfxm;ygonf? Todk@ toHk;jyKjcif;udk tdrf&Sd uGefjyLwmrS
               oHk;onfjzpfap/ tvkyfrSjzpfap oHk;ygu olrxHodk@ aemufa=umif;cH vdkufvmEdkifygonf? tu,fI tD;
               ar;vf 0efaqmifr_ay;aom ukr`%D/ 0ufbfbavmhukr`%Dudk Towif;rsm;ay;&ef twif;tusyf
                        k                                 d kd f
               awmif;qdvmygu aemufq;kH olrudk &SmazGawG@&SEiygonf? od@k aomfvnf; Tod@k tcrJh 0ufbf 0efaqmifr_
               ay;aom ukr`%Dtrsm;pkrSm Todk@tcsuftvufrsm;udk vG,fvG,fulul azmfxkwfay;wwfonfh Xmersm;
               r[kwf=uyg? Oyrm tm;jzifh- a[mhwfar;vf (hotmail) qdkygpdk@? 0ef}uD;u qm&mtoHk;jyKcJhaom

                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 71


HandBook.pmd                             71                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



        tdkifyD vdyfpmudk &&Sdvdkonf qdkygpdk@/ w&m;±Hk;cGifhjyKcsufukd awmif;cHwifjy&ef vdktyfvdrfhrnf jzpf+yD;
        tar&duefjynfaxmifpk&Sd Oya'pnf;=uyfa&;Xmersm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef vdktyfvmygvdrfhrnf?
        odk@aomfvnf; oltoHk;jyKaom tD;ar;vf0efaqmifr_ay;onfh ukr`%D/ 0ufbfbavmh ukr`%DrS olr.
        tcsuftvufrsm;udk xkwfay;&ef tpdk;&u awmif;qdkcH&rnfh taetxm;rsKd;udk qm&mu rvdkvm;rnf
        uawmh trSefyif jzpfonf?

        tqifh 2) vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwm
        qm&mu ‚. udk,fydkifOy"d±kyfudk azsmuf&eftwGuf vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh aemufxyftqifh wqifhrSm
        olr. bavmhxHodk@ vltrsm;toHk;jyKaeaom uGefjyLwmrS 0ifI ydk@pfa&;jcif;yif jzpfonf? olr. tdrf&Sd
        uGefjyLwm/ ±Hk;rS uGefjyLwmrS olr. 0uftajccH tD;ar;vf/ 0ufbfbavmh taumifhudk zGifhrnfhtpm;
        qdkifbmuzD; ponfh vltrsm;oHk;onfh uGefjyLwmrsm;rS aeI topfzGifhonfu ydkIaumif;ygonf?
                          h kd         kd                                                          G f kd
        xd@k tjyif pm=unfwu/f wuUovf uGejf yLwmtcef;rsm;&Sd uGejf yLwmrsm;udk toH;k jyKIvnf; aqmif&uEif
                                                         f f                  kfD df
        ygonf? 0ef}u;D u ar;vfy@kd vmonf/h od@k r[kwf rSwcsua&;om;vmonfh tdiyvypmudk aemufa=umif;cH
        vdkufyguvnf; qdkifbmuzD;wcku ydk@xm;a=umif;om awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? vltrsm;u toHk;jyKae=uaom
        ae&m jzpfaoma=umifhvnf; rnfolqdkonfudk pGyfpGJ&ef cufygvdrfhrnf?

                            f               f    d                      kf
        Tenf;emAsL[mwGivnf; tm;enf;csursm; &Saeygao;onf? Oyrm qdibmuzD;u rnfonfuejf yLwm      h G
                 l            h df G          hJ       f
        udk rnfou rnfonftcsewif toH;k jyKca=umif; rSwwrf;wifxm;ygu qm&mudk aemufq;kH &SmazGawG@&Sd
              kf                                                 k   f                f
        oGm;Ediygonf? qm&mu vltrsm;uGejf yLwm roH;k =uaom nydi;f wGivnf; Ttcsursm;udk wify@kd vdvrhfk d
        rnf r[kwfyg? ta=umif;rSm uGefjyLwmtcef;wGif olrwOD;wnf;om usef&Sdaeonfudk vlrSwfrdEdkif+yD;/
        wm0ef&Sd apmifh=uyfae&olu olrudk tvG,fwul rSwfrdazmfajymEdkifygvdrfhrnf? xdk@tjyif olru qdkifbm
        uzD;ac: uGefjyLwmqdkifrsm;udkvnf; r=umc%qdkovdk ajymif;a&$@I toHk;csoifhygonf? tu,fI
        0ef}uD;u wifydk@vmor#aom ydk@pfrsm;onf yifrvrf;r}uD;&Sd (Joe’s Beer and Bits) qdkifrSom
        ydk@vmaea=umif; awG@&Sdygu ‚qdkifbmuzD;udk apmifh=unfhaeap&ef vlwa,muf v$wfxm;aumif;
        apv$wfxm; Edkifygonf? qm&m bavmha&;aepOfvnf; &SmazGawG@&Sd oGm;Edkifygonf?

        tqifh 3) trnfrazmfaom ya&mufqDrsm; (Anonymous proxies)
        qm&mu bavmhodk@ ydk@pftopfa&;vdkwdkif; tjrJwap (Joe’s Beer and Bits) qdkifodk@oGm;I
        ydk@ae/ a&;ae&onfudk +iD;aiG@ vmonf? tdrfeD;csif;&Sd uGefjyLwmu|rf;usifolwOD;. tultnDjzifh olru
        olr uGefjyLwmudk trnfrazmfaom ya&muf qD qmAm (anonymous proxy) rSwqifh 0ufbo@kd               f
        wufEdkif&ef pepfwck qifcdkif;vdkufonf? tcktcg olru a&;aeus/ oHk;aeus 0ufbfar;vfESifh
        0ufbavmhodk@ wufEdkif+yD? ‚0ufbfwGif usefcJhrnfh trSwftom;uawmh olrtoHk;jyKonfh ya&mufqD
        qmAm. vdyfpmom usefchJawmhrnf? tdrf&Sd olruGefjyLwm. vdyfpm usef&pf raeEdkifawmh? olr.
        0ef}uD;taejzifh ,ckqdkv#if &SmazGazmfxkwf&ef ydkIcufoGm;+yD jzpfonf?




        72 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            72                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                              trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



               yxrtaejzifh olru tGefvdkif;ay:wGif ya&mufqDqmAmrsm; pm&if;udk &SmazG&vdrfhrnf? *l;*Jvf &Smpuf
               (Google search-engine) wGif [lI “proxy server” ±dkufI &SmEdkifonf? olru
               (publicproxyservers.com) [laom ae&mrS ya&mufqD qmAmwckudk a&G;cs,fvdkufonf?
               Tae&mu trnfrazmfvdkaom tqifhjrifhae&m (high anonymity) tjzpf owfrSwfxm;onfh
               ae&mjzpfonf? olru Tya&mufqD qmAm. tdkifyD vdyfpmudk a&;csvdkuf+yD;/ ya&mufqDpm&if;wGif
               azmfjyxm;onfh ydk@wf (port) trnfrsm;udk rSwfom;vdkufonf?

               vltrsm;oHk;Edkifonfh tm;xm;avmufaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;rSm -
                   • publicproxyservers.com, anonymous and non-anonymous
                          proxies,
                   • Samair (http://samair.ru/proxy/) -only anonymous proxies, and
                          includes information on proxies that suport SSL.
                   • rosinstrument proxy database (http://tools.rosinstrument.com/
                          proxy/) - searchable database of proxy servers.
                          wdk@ jzpfonf?

               xdk@aemuf olru 0ufbf ba&mufZm (web browser) &Sd a&G;cs,f&ef “preference” ae&mudk
               zGifhygonf? “General” “network” “security” [laom acgif;pOfrsm;atmufwGif olru
               ya&mufqDrSwqifh tifwmeuf wuf&efenf;udk qifxm; (set up) Edkifygonf? zdkif;,m; azmufpf
               (rD;v#HajracG;[k jrefrmtrsm; ac:qdkae=uaom firefox browser ba&mufZm) wGifrl Todk@vkyf&ef
               (Preferences— General— Connection— Settings) wGif awG@Edkifygonf?)

               olru “manual proxy configuration” udk zGifhvdkuf+yD; ya&mufqD qmAm. tdkifyD vdyfpmudk
               jznfhoGif;ygonf? xdk@aemuf (HTTP proxy and SSL proxy) udk jznfh+yD; olr. qufwif
               (setting) udk aqhzf (save) vkyfygonf? olru ba&mufZmudk ydwfI aemufw}udrf jyefzGifh+yD;
               0ufbfay:odk@wufI vdkufoGm;Edkifygonf?

               0ufbfrsm;tay:odk@ vdkufIoGm;=unfh&onfrSm tenf;i,faES;onf[k olr cHpm;&ygonf? ta=umif;rSm
                            h                f     fS
               olr oGm;=unfor#aom 0ufbpmrsuEmrsm;onf auG@ywfI vm&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? a[mhar;vf
               (hotmail.com) od@k wdu±uf qufo,rnftpm; olru ya&mufqo@kd qufo,+f y;D / ya&mufqrS
                                        k f kd        G f h                   D         G             D
               wqifhcHI a[mhwfar;vfodk@ qufoG,f,laoma=umifh jzpfygonf? a[mhwfar;vfxHrS olrxHodk@ jyefvm
               aomtcgwGifvnf; ya&mufqDqmAmxHodk@ t&ifa&mufygonf? aemufrS olrxHodk@ a&mufygonf?
               xdk@tjyif 0ufbfqdkufrsm;udk oGm;a&muf=unhf&_&onfrSm jy\emtenf;i,f&Sdonf[kvnf; cHpm;&wwf
               ygonf? txl;ojzifh Tya&mufqDqmAmrsm;u (log in) vkyf&ef awmif;qdkonfh tcgrsKd;wGif jzpfyg
               onf? odk@aomfvnf; olr. tdkifyD vdyfpmrSm 0ufbfbavmhay:wGif usef&pfaevdrfhrnf r[kwfyg?



                                                                  e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 73


HandBook.pmd                           73                                       11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



        ya&mufqD toHk;jyK&eftwGuf avhusifhapvdkygonf? aysmfp&maumif;rnf[k ,lqygonf?
        vltrsm;u rdrdar;vfrsm;udk vrf;a=umif;v$J&mwGif toHk;rsm;=uonfh (noreply.org) udk oGm;yg?
        ‚pmrsufESmu oifrl&if;vm&m tdkifyD vdyfpmudk azmfjyI E_wfqufóuqdkygvdrfhrnf? Oyrm (“Hello
        pool-151-203-182-212-wma.east.verizon.net 151.203.182.212, please to
        meet you.”) [k pojzifh azmfjyygvdrfhrnf?

        ,cktcsewif (anonymizer.com) od@k oGm;yg? Tae&mrSwqifh (tcsK@d aom) 0ufbpmrsuEmrsm;
               df G                                                                 f      fS
        udk trnfrazmfaom ya&mufqD qmAmudkjzwfI zwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? (anonymizer.com) .
        pmrsufESm nmbufxdyfwGif (URL for http://noreply.org this link) odk@r[kwf (http://
        anon.free.anonymizer.com/http://noreply.org this link) udk oGm;I uvpfvy&yif         k f kH
        jzpfygonf? ,cktcg (noreply.org) u oifu (vortex.anonymizer.com) rS vmonf[k
        ,lqrSwom;aeygvrrnf? (anonymizer) onf oif. ba&mufZm qufwifukd ajymif;vJjcif;r&SbJ
                f         d hf                                                                     d
        oif. ya&mufqD ajymif;vJr_ &Sd-r&Sd prf;oyf=unfhEdkifonfh enf;yif jzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf;
        tqifhjrifhaom 0ufbf0efaqmifr_rsm;/ 0ufbf ar;vfrsm;ESifh 0ufbfbavmh qmAmrsm;twGufrl
        tvkyfvkyfrnf r[kwfyg?)

        aemufqHk;taejzifh txufazmfjyxm;onfh enf;vrf;rsm;twdkif; vdkufemI oif. 0ufbfba&mufZmudk
        (set up) vkyf+yD;aemuf (noreply.org) odk@oGm;I oifvm&mae&m tdkifyDvdyfpmudk jyefI
        =unfhEdkifygonf?

        tif; æ æ ya&mufqDrsm;onfvnf; jynfhpHkvHkðcHonfh udpP r[kwfao;yg? tu,fI qm&m aexdkifonfh
        EdkifiHonf uef@owfcsKyfcs,fxm;onfh tifwmeuf Oya'rsm; jyXmef;xm;jcif; &Sdygu tpdk;&u wm;jrpf
        xm;onfh qkdufrsm;odk@ ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;udk oHk;I oGm;=unfhol trsm;tjym; &SdEdkifygonf? odk@twGuf
        a=umifh vlodrsm;onfh ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;&ef tpdk;&u trdef@xkwfxm;aumif;
        xkwfxm;Edkifygonf? tifwmeuf toHk;jyKolrsm;u ya&mufqD topfrsm; xyfoHk;=urnf? tpdk;&uvnf;
        Tya&mufqDrsm;udk vdkufvHydwfyif=uygvdrfhOD;rnf? Todk@jzifh 0dkif;}uD;ywfywf 'la0a0 jzpfaeygvdrfhrnf?
        Todk@ tqifhrsm;udk jzwfoef;aqmif&Guf&rnfrSm tcsdef=umjrifh+yD; cufcJyifyef;vSygonf?

        qm&mwGif aemufxyf jy\emwck &Sdaeygao;onf? ta=umif;rSm TEdkifiHwGif vltenf;pkuom
        ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;udk oHk;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf? olr. bavmhwGif wifxm;onfh ydk@pfrsm;rSm ya&mufqD
        qmAmwckwnf;rSom vmonfudk awG@&Sdygu 0ef}uD;u EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd (ISPs) qmAmrsm;tm;vHk;rS
        tifwmeuf wufxm;or# pm&if;rsm;udk awmif;I ppfaq;Edkifygao;onf? Ttcg qm&m. uGefjyLwm
        wckwnf;uom ya&mufqD qmAmwckodk@ t}udrf}udrf wufaea=umif; awG@&Sd azmfxkwfEdkifygonf?
        qm&mu ya&mufqD qmAmudk oHk;I bavmha&;aea=umif;awmh twdtus azmfxkwfEdkifvdrfhrnf
            f                             D kd        f                        f         kd f  hf
        r[kwyg? od@k aomfvnf; Tya&mufquo;kH I 0ufbbavmha&;aea=umif; ed*;kH csKyo;kH oyfEiyg vdrrnf?



        74 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           74                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                     trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



               vltenf;i,fuom ya&mufqDoHk;aeaoma=umifh oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;t& olrom Todk@
               bavmha&;aea=umif;vnf; azmfxkwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? qm&mtaejzifh ya&mufqD qmAmudk u|rf;usifpGm
               toHk;jyKEdkifygu ‚a'otwGif; vltrsm;toHk;jyKaeaom ya&mufqD/ odk@r[kwf ya&mufqDrsm;udk
               ajymif;vJtoHk;jyKI aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?

               tqifh 4) Tw}udrfwGifawmh vlyk*~dKvfu ulnDay;jcif;
               tu,fI olrtoHk;jyKaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrSwqifh ayguf=um;cJhv#ifawmh qm&mwa,muf
               tvGeftrif; tHhtm;oifh&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? tu,fI 0ef}uD;u ya&mufqD qmAm ukr`%Dodk@
               Oya'a=umif;t& jzpfap/ aiGay;vmbfxdk;I jzpfap csOf;uyfwdkufwGef;Edkifygu ol.EdkifiHrS Tya&mufqD
               odk@ wufvmaom olrsm;/ vdyfpmrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;&ef olwdk@u rnfonfhqdkufrsm;udk toHk;jyKae
               onfudk od&Sd&ef/ aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? qm&mu ya&mufqD qmAmudkom olr twGuf tumtuG,f
               tjzpf vH k ; 0 tm;ud k ; ae&aoma=umif h v nf ; / Tya&muf q D qmAmud k rnf o l u xd e f ; csKyf u d k i f
               wG,faeonfudkyif owdjyKrdcsifrS jyKrdygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; ya&mufqD qmAmydkif&Sifrsm;u olr
               Tae&mrS jzwfI oHk;aea=umif;vnf; owdjyKrdcsifrS jyKrdygvdrfhrnf? ta=umif;rSm ya&mufqDrsm;udk
               tr_rJh trSwfrJhoabm zGifhxm;wwf=uaoma=umifhvnf; jzpfygonf?

               qm&mu uae'gEdkifiHwGif oli,fcsif;wOD; &Sdonf qdkygpdk@? uae'gEdkifiHu qm&m. EdkifiHxufawmh
               tifwmeufvGwfvyfr_ ydk&SdEdkifygonf? ‚u qm&mtwGuf bavmhwifay;&ef ulnDay;Edkif+yD;/ qm&mu
               aqmif & G u f a ea=umif ; zk e f ; uG , f x m;Ed k i f y gonf ? qm&mu ‚ud k zk e f ; quf I ol . pepf w G i f
               “Circumventor” jyifqifay;&efvnf; awmif;qkdEdkifygonf? “Circumventor” qdkonfrSm
               vltenf;i,fom oH;k onfh ya&mufqD qmAmrsK;d jzpf+y;D / ‚. uGejf yLwmudk ya&mufqD qmAmtjzpfo;kH &ef
               cGifhjyKxm;ay;onfh pepfrsKd; jzpfygonf?

               qm&m. oli,fcsif; *sifrf u “Circumventor” udk (peacefire.org) &Sd (http://www.
               peacefire.org/circumventor/simple-circumventor-instructions.html)
               vifhcfwGif a'gif;vkyfvkyfI ‚udk,fydkif 0if;'dk;pf pepfwGif xnfhoGif; (install) vkyf&efyif jzpfonf?
               (install) vkyf&onfrSmvnf; vG,fonfawmh r[kwfyg? olu uGefjyLwmwGif (Perl, Open SA)
               xdk@aemufrS (circumventor) wkd@udk tifpawm (install) vkyf&ef vdkygonf? ,cktcsdefrSpI
               ‚. uGefjyLwmudk tifwmeufESifh pOfqufrjywf csdwfqufay;xm;&ef vdktyfygonf? xdktcg qm&mu
                         hf          H                       k                D       df           kd
               ol@udk zGiay;&ef xyfrta=umif;=um;p&m rvdawmhbJ ya&mufqukd tcsera&G; toH;k jyKEi+f yD jzpfygonf?
               olu T aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; qif+yD;aomtcg qm&mxH zkef;ac:I ya&mufqDrSwqifh tifwmeufrsm;ay:
               av#muf=unfhEdkif+yD jzpfonfh (URL) vdyfpmudkay;&ef vdkygonf? bavmhvnf; a&;Edkif+yD jzpfonf?
               Tenf;u ydkI tqifajyygonf? qm&mu tdrf&Sd uGefjyLwmrS jzpfap/ tifwmeufuzD;rS jzpfap
               ya&mufqDudk toHk;jyKEdkif+yD jzpfaoma=umifhyif? olr. pepftwGif;wGifvnf; rnfodk@r# ajymif;vJr_rsm;
               vkyfaqmif&ef rvdktyfawmhyg?



                                                                          e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 75


HandBook.pmd                               75                                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



        qm&mu *sifrf. ulnDapmifrr_twGuf txl;aus;Zl;wif&SdaecsdefwGif TpDpOfaqmif&Gufxm;r_wGif
        t"dujy\em &SdvmEdkifygonf? *sifrfu zGifhxm;onfh uGefjyLwm r=umc%qdkovdk (reboot)
        jyefvkyf&ef vdkygonf? TtcsdefwGif ol. tdkifyDvdyfpmonfvnf; vdyfpmtopfwcktjzpf ajymif;vJ
        oGm;wwfygonf? Todk@jzpfwdkif; qm&mtaejzifh oHk;I &Edkifawmhrnf r[kwfyg? *sifrfu qm&mxH
        xyfrHqufoG,f&ef vdktyf+yD; qmurfAifhwmESifh csdwfqufxm;onfh tdkifyDvdyfpmtopfudk xyfay;&ef
        vdkygvdrfhrnf? Todk@aqmif&Guf&onfrSm aiGukefa=u;usrsm;ovdk &Hzef&Hcg pdwfysufzG,fvnf; jzpfygonf?
        qm&mu tdkifyDvdyfpmwckudk umv=um&SnfpGm oHk;aev#if Tvdyfpmudk tpdk;&u &dyfrd+yD; ydwfyifcH
        &onfvnf; ñuH&Edkifygonf? TtwGufvnf; qm&mu pdk;&drfylyefpdwf &SdaeEdkifygonf?

        tqifh 5) (Onion Routing Through TOR)

        *sifrfu qm&mudk (Tor) pepfudk prf;oHk;=unfh&ef t=uHjyKaumif; jyKEdkifygonf? TpepfrSm rdrdtrnfudk
        vlorcHbJ aumifrevðkH cpm toH;k csEionfh pepfopfwrsK;d jzpfygonf? (Onion Routing) qdonfrm
              d           Gf HG             kd f                                                   k    S
        ya&mufqD qmAm tajccHrS t=uHxkwfI jyKjyifxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? uGefjyLwmwcku oif.udk,fpm;
        aqmif&Gufay;jcif; jzpf+yD;/ tqifhjrifhenf;ynmqdkif&m &_yfaxG;r_rsm;jzifh aqmif&Gufxm;ygonf? oifu
        awmif;qdkvdkufaom pmrsufESmwdkif;onf (Onion Routing network) rSwqifhoGm;+yD; tjcm;
        uGefjyLwm 2-ckrS tck 20 ausmfudk jzwfI oGm;ygonf? xdktcg rl&if;wufvmaom uGefjyLwmudk
        aemufa=umif;cH vdkufEdkifa&;twGuf tawmfcufcJoGm;+yD jzpfygonf?

        (Onion Routing Chain) uGif;quf. tqifhwdkif;onf 0Sufxm;aompepfjzifh oGm;aoma=umifh
                 kf            k f H S         k      J          k              J
        qm&m. EdiiH tpd;k &u vduv&mazG&ef ydI cufcapygonf? xdr#ru Tpepfx&dS uGejf yLwm tvH;k wdi;f k
        uvnf; teD;qHk; tdrfeD;csif;uGefjyLwmudkom od&Sdygonf? wenf;qdk&wm a&mufwm bD (Router
        B) u TuGefjyLwm qufoG,fr_udk awmif;qdkvmonfh (Router A) uGefjyLwmudkom od&Sdygonf?
        xdkrSwqifh uGefjyLwm (Router C) udk xyfrHydk@ay;jyefonf? Todk@ uGefjyLwmcsif; qufoG,f
                k_                          f                                     f
        awmif;qdrtm;vH;k onfvnf; pum;0Supepfjzifh jzwfvmjcif; jzpfonf? od@k twGua=umifh rl&if; qm&mu
        awmif;qdkvmaom pmrsufESmudk od&SdEdkifrnf r[kwfyg? aemufqHk; awmif;qdkonfh pmrsufESmodk@
        a&mufoGm;onfh uGefjyLwmudkvnf; od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg?

        Todk@enf;ynmu tqifhjrifh&_yfaxG;aomfvnf; tifpawm (install) vkyf&onfrSm vG,fulvGef;vS
        ojzifh qm&mu thHtm;oifh 0rf;om&ygonf? (Onion Routing system) y±dk*&rfudk (http://
        tor.eff.org/cvs.tor/doc/tor-doc-win32.html) rS a'gif;vkyfvkyfI xnfhoGif;Edkifygonf?
        olru (Tor) y±dk*&rfudk a'gif;vkyf vkyfvdkuf+yD; olr. puftwGif; xnfhoGif; (install) vkyf±Hkyif
        jzpfonf? xdk@aemuf (Tor) ESifh yl;wGJ tvkyfvkyfrnfh ya&mufqDudk a'gif;vkyfvkyfI tifpawmvkyf&ef
        vdkygonf? Tpepf. tm;aumif;csufrSm qm&moGm;=unfhrnfh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;rS a=umfjim
        (Ad) rsm;udk z,f&Sm;csefxm;cJhjcif;yif jzpfonf?



        76 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          76                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                 trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



               aqmhzf0J,m;udk tifpawmvkyfI pufudk jyefvnfzGifh+yD;aomtcg qm&mu (noreply.org) udk
               jyefI ppfaq;=unfhygonf? olr. pufudk (Tor system) pepfu atmifjrifpGm 0Sufxm;ay;+yD
               jzpfa=umif; awG@vdkuf&ygonf? Oyrm- (noreply.org) u olrtaejzifh [m;AwfwuUodkvf&Sd
               pufwvHk;rS wufvmonf[k ,lqaeygonf? olru aemufw}udrfjyef prf;jyefonf? ,ckawmh *smreDu
               wufvmonf[k ,lqaeonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh olrawmif;qdkor# pmrsufESmrsm;udk (Tor) pepfu
               tdkifyD vdyfpmrsm;ajymif;I &SmazGay;aea=umif; awG@&ygonf? olr. yifudk,fOy"d±kyfudk zkef;uG,fxm;Edkif
               +yD jzpfygonf?

               TpepfwGif xl;qef;aom tjcm;tusKd;quf aemufqufwGJrsm;vnf; &Sdygao;onf? olru *l;*Jvfudk
               (Tor) pepfrSwqifh oHk;I &SmazGaomtcg olr. bmompum; (language) udk ajymif;jypfygonf?
                     d f G        df                                         d f G
               w}urwif t*Fvybmomjzifh azmfjyaomfvnf; aemufw}urwif *syefbmomjzifh azmfjyygonf? *smref/
               'def;rwf/ 'wfcsf pojzifh rdepftenf;i,ftwGif;rSmyif trsKd;rsKd; ajymif;aeygonf? qm&mu bmompum;
               topfrsm; avhvm&onfhtwGuf 0rf;ajrmufaomfvnf; tjcm;tusKd;quf jy\emrsm;twGuf
               pdwfylygonf? qm&mu 0DuDyD;'D, (Wikipedia) tifwmeufpG,fpHkusrf;wGif 0ifa&;&jcif;udk oabm
               awG@ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; olru (Tor) pepfoHk;I 0DuDyD;'D,wGif 0ifa&mufjyifqifjcif;/ jznfhpGuf
               a&;om;jcif;udk ydwfyif xm;ygonf?

               qm&m tjcm; ya&mufqDrsm;wGif awG@&ovdk/ (Tor) pepfjzifhvnf; jy\emtcsKd@ ñuH&ygao;onf?
               olr. tifwmeufrsm;tay: av#mufvnfonfhtcg tjcm;ya&mufqDrcHbJ oGm;&onfESifh pmv#if
               tenf;i,faES;oGm;ygonf? olru Tpepfudk uef@owfxm;onfh 0ufbfqdkufrsm;odk@ oGm;onfhtcg/
               bavmha&;onfh tcgrSom oHk;ygawmhonf? jyify&Sd uGefjyLwmrsm;wGifvnf; Tpepfudk tvG,fwul
               xnfhoGif;I r&aoma=umifh tdrf&SduGefjyLwmrSom bavmha&;& ygawmhonf?

               ydI pd;k &drz,tcsuwckrm wcgw&H (Tor) pepfu tvkyrvkybJ &yfqi;f aeonfvnf; &Swwfygonf?
                 k         fG f  f S                               f   f     kd              d
               ta=umif;rSm olr. tdkifyDvdyfpmu (Tor) pepf. uGefjyLwmwckwGif wpfqdk@ &yfwef@aeaoma=umifh
                                                  h                   h kd      f       fS k
               jzpfygonf? wcgw&H rdepftcsK@d apmifae&wwfygonf? olr=unfvonfh 0ufbpmrsuEmudvnf; rjrif&/
               rzwf&yg?

               tqif h 6) (Mixmaster, Invisiblog and GPG)
                         udk,faysmuf tifApfqDbavmhESif *sDyD*sD
               ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;ESifh ywfoufjcif; r&SdbJ bavmha&;jcif;oufouftwGuf tjcm;ajz&Sif;Edkifaom
               enf;vrf;rsm;vnf; &Sdygao;onf? Tpepfuvnf; (Tor) pepfuJhodk@yif tqifhjrifhygonf?

               olrt&yf&Sd uGefjyLwmu|rf;usifolESifh &ufowWywftcsKd@r# tcsdefjzKef;+yD;onfhtcg qm&mu aemufxyf
               enf;vrf;wck &vmygonf? udk,faysmuf tifApfqDbavmh (Invisiblog—http://invisiblog.
               com/) [kac:aom enf;jzpfonf? =opa=wvsEdkifiHrS (vigilant.tv) [kac:onfh trnf rxif&Sm;/
               azmfjyrxm;onfh tzGJ@wcku aqmif&Gufaejcif; jzpfonf? Tqdkufudk pdwfylyef pdk;&drfr_ &Sdae=uolrsm;

                                                                      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 77


HandBook.pmd                             77                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



        twGuf &nf&G,fI xGifxm;jcif;jzpfovdk/ Tqdkuf'fudk vkyfudkifae=uolrsm;rSmvnf; Tvdk vlpm;rsm;yif
        jzpfonf? oifu 0ufbfrSwqifh tifApfqDbavmhxHodk@ wifydk@I r&yg? ±dk;±dk;yHkrSef bavmh wifydk@yHktwdkif;
        azmfjywifydk@&ef cGifhjyKrxm;yg? oifu txl;pDrHjyKjyifxm;aom tD;ar;vfrSwqifh ydk@&ef vdktyfygonf?
        (MixMaster remailer system) pepfrSwqifh ay;ydk@&ygonf? vufrSwfozG,f (sign) xdk;I
        pm0Suf (encrypt) +yD; ydk@&ygonf?

        qm&mu tay:pmydk'f aemufqHk;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh pma=umif;u bmqdkonfudk t}udrftenf;i,f
        }udK;yrf;=unfh±HkESifhyif oabmaygufvmygonf? aemufqHk; olru (GPG) (http://gnupg.org/)
                   f kd f         k                f S             f        f             _ dS   D Jf
        pepfukd vkyui&ef vdtyfvmygonf? t"dyg` ,rm txl;aumif;rGeonfh yk*Kd~ va&; vHjk cKH r&aom *ste,l
        taumiftxnfazmfr_pepf (the GNU implementation of Pretty Good Privacy)
        jzpfygonf? vltrsm;twGuf oHk;Edkifonfh pm0Sufpepf (public-key encryption system)
        jzpfonf? (http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Publiv-key_cryptography)

        Tpma=umif;wGif udpP (2) ck&ygonf? vltrsm;oH;k aomhjzifh pm0Sujf cif; (public-key encryption)
                                   dS
        qdkonfrSm wpHkwa,mufxHodk@ olrydk@aompmudk xdkoluom zwfEdkifaom enf;ynmjzpfonf? v#Kd@0Suf
        aomhudk r#a0xm;&efvnf; rvdktyfyg? tjcm;olrsm;u qm&mxHjyefydk@aom pmrsm;udkvnf; Tenf;jzifh
        zwfEdkifygonf? (public-key encryption) u rdrdpmudk 'pf*spfw,fpepfjzifh vufrSwfa&;xdk;Edkif
        &efvnf; cGifhjyKxm;ygao;onf? odk@twGufa=umifh tjcm;olrsm;u twkvkyf&efvnf; rjzpfEdkifyg?

        olru ydk@pftwGuf ay;ydk@&mwGif oHk;Edkifrnfh aomhwHwpHk (key pair) udk zefwD;vdkufygonf? ydk@pfwckudk
        olrudk,fydkifaomh (private-key) jzifh vufrSwfa&;xdk;I ay;ydk@onf? bavmhqmAmwGif &Sdaeolu
        olray;xm;onfh trsm;oHk;aomh (public-key) rS wqifh olr. pmudk zwfEdkifygonf? xdk@aemuf
        bavmhtay:wifay;ygonf? (oif. tD-ar;vfudk udk,fydkif yk*~vduudpPtjzpf ,Hk=unfpGm ay;ydk@enf;
        tcef;wGifvnf; =unfhEdkifygonf?)

        xdk@aemuf olru (MixMaster) udk (set up) vkyfygonf? TpepfrSm pmydk@aompepfjzpf+yD;
        rl&if;ydk@onfhae&mudk azsmufxm;ygonf? (MixMaster) pepfu jyefvnfar;vfydk@ay;onfh
        pepf&n}f u;D (anonymous remailer chain) udk toH;k jyKxm;ygonf? Tpepfu yd@k ol. ud,a&;
              S                                                                                        k f
                       P           f           d k                f
        ta=umif;udprsm;udk ðzwfcsexm;+y;D / rdry@kd vdaom ae&m vdypmod@k pma&mufap&ef yd@k aompepfjzpfygonf?
        odk@twGufa=umifh tD;ar;vfwckudk rdrd rnfolrSef; rodap&bJ vHkðcHpGm ay;ydk@Edkifygonf? TpepfwGif
        (2) ckrS (20) cef@aom ul;ajymif;tD;ar;vfay;ydk@onfh uGefjyLwm trsm;udk jzwfoef;oGm;+yD;rS wbufodk@
        a&muf&SdoGm;jcif; jzpfygonf? tD;-ar;vf. rl&if;udk vdkufvH&SmazG&ef tvGefcufygonf? tu,fI
        =um;cHuGefjyKwm wvHk; uazmufI rdrdudk,fa&;tcsuftvufrsm; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf xm;OD;/
        Todk@ od&SdEdkif&ef rvG,fulyg? olru (MixMaster) y±dk*&rfudk qdk@pfuk'frsm; (source code)




        78 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           78                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                  trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



               pkaqmif;I wnfaqmuf&ygonf? Tvkyfief;u enf;ynmt& u|rf;usifr_&Sd&efvdktyf+yD; uGefjyLwm
               u|rf;usifolrsm;xHrS tultnD &,l&efvnf; vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?

               olru (MixMaster) jzifh yxrOD;qHk; tD;ar;vfudk tifApfqDbavmhodk@ ay;ydk@ygonf? TtD;ar;vf
               wGif olru trsm;oHk;&ef jyifqifxm;onfh trsm;oHk;aomh (Public key) yg&ygrnf? tifApfqD
               bavmh u Taomh (uD ; ) ud k od r f ; qnf ; xm;I bavmh t opf w ck zG i f h a y;ygonf ? qd k y gpd k @ /
               (“invisiblog.com/ac4589d7001ac238”) jzpfvdrfhrnf? Tpma=umif;&Snf }uD;wGif olr
               *sDyD*sD uD; (GPG Key) . aemufqHkpma=umif;rS 16 bdkuf (16 bytes) yg0ifygonf? xdk@aemuf
               olr aemufxyfa&;vdkaom ydk@pfrsm;udk tifApfqDbavmhodk@ ydk@ygonf? pmom; (text) jzifh a&;om;+yD;/
               vltrsm;oHk; uD; (public key) jzifh vufrSwfa&;xdk;I (MixMaster program) rSwqifh
               ay;ydk@vdkuf±Hkyif jzpfonf?

               Tenf;u ,cifolr bavmha&;&oavmuf rjrefqefyg? (MixMaster) pepfu olr. tD;ar;vf
               rsm;udk vrf;a=umif;v$J oGm;aeaponfrSm ‚tD;ar;vf qmAmodk@a&mufap&ef wcgw&H 2-em&D/
               wcgw&H 2-&ufr# =umwwfygonf? xdk@tjyif olru bavmhodk@ jyef=unfhrnfqdkv#ifvnf; tvGef
               owdxm;&ygonf? tu,fI olru r=umc% jyef-jyef=unhfaernf qdkyguvnf; olr. tdkifyD
               vdyfpmu xdkbavmhwGif usef&pfaeygvdrfhrnf? xdktcg bavmhydkif&SifrSm olrjzpfa=umif; od&Sd
               oGm;Edkifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tifApfqDbavmhpepfuyif ydkif&SifrSm rnfoljzpfrSef; rodap&atmif
               tmrcHxm;aoma=umifh olr tenf;i,fpdwfat;&ygonf?

               tifApfqDbavmh. t"dujy\emrSm toHk;jyK&ef cufcJvS+yD;/ omrefvlrsm; raqmif&GufEdkifjcif;yif
               jzpfonf? vltrsm;pku *sDyD*sDpepf (GPG system) pwif (set up) vkyf&efyif cufae=uygonf?
               xdk@tjyif rdrdudk,fydkifxm;&rnfh aomhESifh trsm;twGufaomh (private key and public key)
               pojzifh &_yaxG;aewwf=uygonf? vltrsm;tvG,o;kH Ediaom pm0Suf onfpepfrm qdizm&D (Ciphire)
                          f                                     f kf              h  S kf
               jzpfygonf? enf;ynm odyfu|rf;usifp&m rvdktyfbJ aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? TtwGufa=umifh vltenf;pk
               om (tvGef@tvGef vHkðcHr_ vdktyfvGef;aom olrsm;rSom) tD;ar;vfudk pm0Sufpepfjzifh ydk@jcif;
               (encryption) jyK=uygonf?

               (MixMaster) pepfonf vltrsm;twGuf enf;ynmt& cufcvygonf? 0if;'d;k pfpepf toH;k jyKorsm;
                                                                               J S                             l
               u ,cif (Dos) pepfudkoHk;I Tae&mrS (http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/
               maxima er/mix204b46.zip?download) a'gif;vkyfvkyf,l Edkif=uygonf? usaemfu
               a'gif;vkyfvkyf,l+yD; prf;oyf=unfhygonf? tvkyf rvkyfyg? odk@r[kwf usaemf ydk@xm;aom tD;ar;vfu
               tjyeftvSef qufydk@ae=uaom (remailers) uGefjyLwmrsm;t=um; tvkyfrsm;aeqJvnf; jzpf
               Edkifygonf? odk@r[kwf ydkItqifhjrifhaom Am;&Sif; odk@r[kwf vif;eufpepf/ ruf pepfrsm;jzifh toHk;jyKvdk
               olrsm;twGuf olwdk@udk,fwdkif pkaqmif;&,l&ef vdktyfygonf? Tvkyfief;onf omrefenf;ynm
               u|rf;usifr_xuf ydkI od&efvdktyfonfh cufcJaom vkyfief;rsKd; jzpfygonf? tu,fI 0ufbfrsm;rSwqifh
               ydk@Edkifonfh xyfqifhar;vfydk@onfhpepf (web remailer) udk vufcHygu tifApfqDbavmhudk ydkI

                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 79


HandBook.pmd                             79                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;



        vlo;kH rsm;vmzG,f &Sygonf? Oyrm (riot.eu.org) uJo@kd xyfqifar;vfy@kd Edionfh 0ufbrsK;d jzpfygonf?
                            d                                      h             h          kf             f
        od k @ aomf v nf ; ,ck t csd e f t xd tif A pf q D b avmh r S m trS e f w u,f v d k t yf a eol r sm; toH k ; jyKEd k i f
        avmufatmif ulnDyHhydk;r_ rjzpfEdkifao;yg?

        xdk@tjyif tvGeftrif;zdESdyfxm;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif txl;v#Kd@0Suf pm0Sufaejcif; (strong en-
        cryption) uvnf; jy\emwck jzpfaeygonf? tu,fI qm&m. uGejf yLwmudk tpd;k &u odr;f qnf;
        &rd+yD;/ pm0Sufpepf aomhrsm; (encryption keys) xm;onfudk awG@&Sdygu qm&mudk bavmha&;
        aeonf/ v#Kd@0SufudpPrsm; vkyfaeonf[k ouFmruif;jzpfcH&rnfrSm aocsmvSonf? pm0Sufpepfudk
        us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ roHk;=uaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif (MixMaster system) jzifh ydk@vmaompmrsm;
        awG@yguvnf; qm&m. tifwmeufvkyfudkifyHkrsm;udk qufvufapmifh=unfh&ef taxmuftxm; vHk
        avmufae+yD jzpfonf?

        rnfodk@aom tajctaeu trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;jcif;twGuf vHkavmuf+yD[k ,lqEdkifygoenf;/
        rnfr#twdkif;twmtxd 'kuQcHEdkifrnfenf;
        qm&mtaejzifh pm0Sufjcif; (encryption) ta=umif;/ (MixMaster) aqmhzJ0J,m;ta=umif;
        avhvmwD;acgufrdor# avhvmxm;EdkifcJh+yD? trSefwu,f olrtwGuf taxmuftuljyKonfh
        tajzavm? odk@r[kwf tqifh 1 rS 5 txdudk yl;wGJoHk;v#if vHkjcKHygrnfavm? wdusaom tajzr&Sdyg?
        trnfrazmfbJ a&;vdkonfh taetxm;tm;vHk;wGif ol@umvH a'otvdkuf xl;jcm;csufrsm;&Sdygonf?
        oif. enf;ynm u|rf;usifwwfajrmufr_/ oifrnfr# pdk;&drfae&aom tajctae ponfhtay:wGifvnf;
                                                            f          k               h G
        rlwnfygonf? tu,fI oifu ar;vfwcky@kd &rnfukd pd;k &draeygu/ y±d*&rftopfwck xnfoi;f &rnfukd
        pdk;&drfae&ygu/ (Tor) pepfrSwqifh ay;ydk@jcif;onfom taumif;qHk;enf;vrf; jzpfygonf?

        aemufxyfwcsuf usefygao;onf? oifu trnfrazmfvdkbJa&;xm;onfh bavmhydk@pfudk oif.
        trnfrSefESifh vufrSwf rxdk;rdap&ef jzpfygawmhonf?

                                      tDoef Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman) onf
                                      [m;AwfwuUodkvf/ Oya'ausmif;&Sd tifwmeufESifh vlr_tzGJ@
                                      tpnf;qdkif&m A[dkXmerS tqifhjrifhynm&SifwOD; jzpfygonf?
                                      TXmewGif olu t&yfom;vlxkrsm;. owif;pmynm (*sm
                                      e,fvpfZif)ESifh 0d0g'uGJp&mudpPrsm;udk ydk@aom owif;rD'D,mrsm;/
                                      txl;ojzifh zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;&Sd tajctaeudk avhvmaeol
                                      jzpfygonf? olu *dudkaumhyf (Geekcorps) tzGJ@udk
                                      wnfaxmifolwOD;ESifh ,cif'±dkufwm wm0ef,lcJholvnf;
                                      jzpfonf? TtzGJ@u zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;odk@ enf;ynmqdkif&m
        oifwef;rsm; ay;aeonfh tusKd;tjrwfr,lonfh tzGJ@vnf; jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif x±dkifaygh
        (Tripod) [kac:onfh 0ufbftdrf&SifjyKonfh ukr`%Dudk pwifwnfaxmifcJholvnf; jzpfygonf?


        80 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                                 80                                                  11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                   toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;




                                qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef
                                                 enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m
                                                                              emwf ADvefEl; (Nart Villeneuve)

               rmwdum
               • tifwmeuf&Sd ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfjcif;
               • ausmcGoGm;aom enf;ynm (Circumvention Technologies)
               • rdrdvdktyfcsufESifh pGrf;aqmif&nftay: rlwnfI qHk;jzwfjcif;
               • 0ufbftajcjyKI wnfaqmufxm;aom qmurfAif;wm (Circumventors) rsm;
                        vltrsm;oHk; 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_rsm;
                        0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wm aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
                        0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; (vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
               • ya&mufqD qmAmrsm; (Proxy Servers)
                        ya&mufqD qmAm aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
                        vltrsm;oHk;Edkifaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;
                            - yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;udk &SmazGjcif;?
                            - yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;? (yHkrSefr[kwfaom ydk@wfrsm;)
                        ya&mufqD qmAm (vHkðcHa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
               • ajrmif;azmufI oGm;jcif; (Tunneling)
               • trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfhpepf (Anonymous Communications System)
               • ed*Hk;

               tifwmeuf&Sd ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfjcif;
               tifwmeufygta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfonfh enf;ynm (Filtering technology) tm;jzifh
               tifwmeufay:wGif&Sdaeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk r&,l/ r=unfh±_Edkifatmif xdef;csKyfxm;Edkifygonf?
               odk@aomfvnf; Tenf;ynm. tpysKd;&nf±G,fcsufrSm vlwOD;csif;twGuf yk*~vduoHk;&ef jzpfygonf?
               oabmrSm rdbrsm;u rdrd.uav;rsm;udk roifhavsmfonfh tifwmeufyg ta=umif;t&mrsm; r=unfhrd
               ap&ef wm;qD;jcif;rsKd; jzpfygonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap ,cktcg Todk@tifwmeuf pDppfonfhenf;ynmudk
                                     kfH                  f
               tzG@J tpnf;rsm;a&m/ Ediitrsm;tjym;yg us,us,jf yef@jyef@ toH;k jyKae=u+yD jzpfygonf? tifwmeufay:wGif
               &Sdonfhta=umif;t&mrsm;udk xdef;csKyfxm;&ef tzGJ@tpnf;tcsKd@uvnf; t"duOD;pm;ay;aqmif±Gufae
               =u+yD; Oyrmtm;jzifh ausmif;rsm;/ pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ aumfydka&;&Sif;rsm;u oHk;=uygonf? EdkifiHtrsm;tjym;
               uvnf; Tenf;ynmudk toHk;jyKvm=uygonf? wdwdusus uef@owfxm;onfh tifwmeufpmrsufESm
               rsm;udk vltm;vHk;u =unfh±_Ir& Edkifatmif ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; vkyfxm;=u+yD;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh rnfonfh
               ta=umif;a=umifh aqmif±Gufxm;&a=umif; wm0ef,l&Sif;jyr_ tenf;i,fr#om &Sdygonf?

                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 81


HandBook.pmd                              81                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



        tifwmeufyg ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfonfhenf;ynm (Content filtering) onf pm&if;Z,m;
        wcktay: tajccHI ydwfqdk@xm;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh t"duusaom pum;vHk; (keyword
        matching) rsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;onfh enf;ynmESifh yl;wGJI toHk;jyK=uygonf? 'dkrdef;trnfrsm;
        (domain name) ESifh tifwmeufvdyfpm (URL) rsm;udk pkaqmif;+yD;/ trsKd;tpm;cGJjcm;um
                   h                      h G                         G                               f
        pDppfonfenf;ynmtwGi;f od@k xnfoi;f xm;ygonf? Taemufwif tcsK@d aom trsK;d tpm;rsm;udk ydwq@kd r_
                            l       f         fS                    h
        jyKygonf? toH;k jyKou 0ufbpmrsuEmod@k 0if&ef }uKd ;pm;onftcg pDppf&ef jyKxm;aom aqmhz0,m;uf J
        ppfaq;um pm&if;wGifyg&Sdaom vdyfpmrsm;qdkygu ydwfqdk@r_ jyKygonf? tu,fI t"duusonfh
        pum;vH;k rsm; (keywords) ydwq@kd onfenf;ynm yg&ygu aqmhz0,m;u 0ufbpmrsuEm wckwi;f
                                        f        h           dS         f J              f     fS       kd
        ('dkrdef;trnf/ URL vdyfpm/ yify pmrsufESm&Sd pmom;rsm;) udk ppfaq;+yD; ydwfqdk@&rnf[k owfrSwfxm;
        onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm; yg0ifygu ydwfqdk@ay;ygonf?

        Todk@ tifwmeuf ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfydwfqdk@onfh enf;ynmonf rl&if;ADZoabmt&yif
        tm;enf;csuf (2) ck &Sdaeygonf? vGefuJ ydwfqdk@jcif;ESifh av#mhenf;I ydwfqdk@jcif; jzpfygonf? &Hzef&Hcg
        qdkovdk tcsKd@aom trsKd;tpm; tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;udk rSm;,Gif;ydwfqdk@wwf+yD;/ wcgw&H ydwfqdk@
        &rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk rydwfqdk@rdbJ &Sdaewwfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; jy\emrSm ydwfqdk@&efpm&if;
        xnfhoGif;xm;onfh udpPu v#Kd@0SufI vltrsm;rod=ubJ vkyfaqmifxm;aomudpPjzpf+yD;/ Tpm&if;rsm;
        t&om ydwfqdk@r_vkyfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; yGifhaeaom&if;jrpfrsm; (Open source lists) &Sdae+yD;/
        txl;ojzifh tjymnpfnrf;"gwfyHkrsm;udk wifxm;wwf=uygonf? tcsKd@u pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&ma=umfjimrsm;udk
        pDppfydwfqdk@ay;ygonf? wcgw&H EdkifiHtrsm;u ydwfqdk@=uonf? odk@aomf rnfonfhpm&if;rsm;udk tajccHI
        ydwfqdk@xm;a=umif;rSm v#Kd@0Sufcsuf jzpfaeygonf? pD;yGm;a&;t& ydwfqdk@xm;onfh pm&if;rsm;wGif ypPnf;
                      f k               kd f G hf d P                                           dS
        rsm;wGif xkwvy=f uolrsm;. rlyiciuprsm;/ ypPn;f trsK;d tpm;rsm;rSmvnf; vltrsm;od&atmif xkwjf yef
        ay;xm;jcif; r&Sd=uyg? odk@aomfvnf; tcsKd@aom tifwmeufpDppfonfh enf;ynm/ aqmhzf0J,m; xkwfvkyf
        a&mif;csolrsm;u rnfonfh 'dkrdef;vdyfpm/ URL rsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;=ua=umif; ‚wdk@. tifwmeuf
                fS                                                     k                      f         d
        pmrsuEmrsm;wGif pm&if;azmfjyxm;=uygonf? od@k aomfvnf; wpHv;kH pm&if;rSmrl v#K@d 0Sutaejzifh &SaeqJ
        jzpfygonf?

                          kfH                   kf                          h G                    kfH
        rsm;aomtm;jzifh Ediirsm;u pD;yGm;a&;qdi&m pDppfaomenf;ynmrsm; xnfoi;f xm;=u+y;D / olw@kd Ediirsm;.
        tajctae xl;jcm;csuftvdkuf pm&if;xnfhoGif;xm;=uygonf? ydwfqdk@xm;aom 0ufbfqdkufrsm;rSm
              k f kd f H       D            k f                       hf               kfH
        twdutcHEiia&;ygwrsm;ESihf twdutcHowif;pmrsm;/ vl@tcGita&;tzG@J rsm;/ Ediiwum owif;Xme
        rsm;/ odk@r[kwf tpdk;&udka0zefazmfjyaeonfh qdkufrsm; jzpfavh&Sdygonf? EdkifiHtrsm;u a'ocHbmom
                                                 fS      k      k
        pum;jzifh wifjyonfh tifwmeufpmrsuEmrsm;udk ydItm&Hxm;avh &S=d uygonf? od@k aomfvnf; t*Fvyf        d
                                        k f        k       f
        bmomjzifh a&;om;xm;onfh qdursm;udvnf; ydwyifwwf=uygonf? xd@k tjyif tjyeftvSef qufo,f            G
                                                      k       k               S f          f
        I&aom bavmhrsm;ESihf aqG;aEG;pum;ajymcef; zd&rfrsm;udvnf; txl;ypfrwxm; ydwq@kd vm=uygonf?




        82 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           82                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                   qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               ausmcGoGm;aom enf;ynm (Circumvention Technologies)
               tpdk;&rsm;u tifwmeufrsm;udk ydwfqdk@onfh/ apmifh=unfhaeonfh vkyfief;rsm;!$ef=um;vkyfudkifvm
               =uaoma=umifh Todk@ ydwfqdk@pDppfxm;r_rsm;udk toHk;jyKolrsm; ausmfv$m;Edkif&ef ausmfcGoGm;onhf
               enf;ynmrsm; (Circumvention Technologies) vnf; ay:ayguvmygonf? ,cktcg Ediiom;
                                                                                       f                     kfH
                                     l_                                     HG              kd f
               rsm;ESihf t&yfzufvrtzG@J tpnf;rsm;taejzifh tifwmeufukd vHðk cpm toH;k jyKEi&ef/ od@k r[kwf tifwmeuf
               ydwfqdk@xm;r_/ qifqmjzwfawmufr_/ apmifh=unfhaer_rsm;udk uGif;a&SmifoGm;Edkif&ef/ enf;ynmrsm;
               zGH@+zdK;ap&ef aqmif±Gufaeonfh pDrHcsuftrsm;tjym;vnf; &Sdae=u+yD jzpfonf? TuJhodk@aom enf;ynm
               ud&d,mrsm;udk ausmfcGoGm;aom enf;ynmrsm; wenf; (Circumvention Technologies) [k
                                                                                 d f                 kfH
               ac:=uygonf? a,bk,stm;jzifh azmfjy&v#if tifwmeufrsm;udk pDppfywq@kd xm;aom Ediiwck&dS toH;k jyK
               olwOD;. awmif;qdkvmr_udk tjcm;=um;cHpufwckrS jzwfoef;I olvdk&modk@ a&mufapjcif; jzpfygonf?
                                   G            f            kfH     k f Hd f            kd      d
               Tjyify&Sd =um;cHuejf yLwmudk ydwq@kd xm;aom Ediiu vduvywq@kd pDppfEijf cif; r&Syg? ‚uGejf yLwmu
                    d                    f                       l H
               &&Svmaom owif;tcsursm;udk rl&if;u awmif;cHoxo@kd jyefvnfy@kd ay;ygonf? wcgw&H Tenf;ynm
               u pDppfydwfqdk@xm;aom EdkifiHwck/ tajctaewcktwGuf oD;oef@pDpOf aqmif±Gufay;xm;jcif; jzpfyg
               onf? useftajctaersm;wGif tifwmeuftoHk;jyKolrsm;u vufiif;&Sdaeaom ausmfcGoGm;onfh enf;
               ynmrsm; (Circumvention Technologies) udk toHk;jyKI vdktyfonfrsm;udk &SmazGEdkifygonf?
               Tenf;ynmrsm;uvnf; olvdktyfcsuftwGuf &nf±G,fI wDxGifxm;jcif; jzpfcsifrS jzpfygvdrfhrnf?

               Tenf;ynmrsm;rS tcsKd@udk yk*~vduukr`%Drsm;u wDxGifxm;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf? tjcm;aom enf;ynm
               trsKd;rsKd;rSm uGefjyLwmu|rf;usifI xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufEdkifol [ufumrsm; (hackers) uaomf
               vnf;aumif;/ v_yf&Sm;wufºuolrsm;uaomfvnf;aumif;/ pepfwusr[kwfbJ ,m,DpkzGJ@aom
               tkyfpkrsm;uaomfvnf;aumif; aqmif±Gufxm;jcif; jzpfEdkifygonf? tcsKd@aom enf;ynmrsm;rSm
                     f                        f G f l                   k
               vkyief;ao;ao;twGu/f vG,v,uul pDpOfxm;onfh y±d*&rfrsm;jzpf+y;D / tcsK@d rSm tqifjh rifh zefw;D xm;
               onfh rdwfaqGtcsif;csif; zvS,foHk;Edkifonfh uGef,uf enf;pepfrsm; (network protocol) jzpf=u
                                        f                  d                    J l
               ygonf? Tod@k tus,tjyef@enf;ynmrsm; &Saeaoma=umifh oH;k pGou tm;omcsu/f tm;enf;csursm;udk   f
               csifhcsdefI olwdk@ESifh vufawG@udkufnDrnfh enf;ynmudk oHk;Edkifygonf?

                    fG G                                          d              fG G
               ausmcom;onfh enf;ynmudk toH;k jyKol (2) rsK;d &Sygonf? ausmcom;onfh enf;ynmudk zefw;D axmufyhH
               ay;xm;olrsm; (Circumvention provider) ESihf ausmcom;enf;udk toH;k jyKorsm; (Circum-
                                                                               fG G              l
               vention user) jzpf=uygonf? ausmfcGoGm;onfh enf;ynm (qmurfAif;&Sif;) axmufyHhay;xm;ol
               rsm;u tifwmeufpDppfydwfqdk@xm;r_ r&Sdonfh ae&mwGif &Sdae=u+yD;/ olwdk@. 0efaqmifr_udk toHk;jyKI
               ydwfqdk@xm;aom EdkifiHrsm;rS toHk;jyKolrsm; oHk;Edkif&ef pDpOfay;xm;=uygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh ESpfOD;
               ESpfzuf tusKd;jzpfapygonf?

               Tpmwrf;. &nf±G,fcsufrSm qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmtoHk;jyKvdkolrsm;udk rnfonfhtcGifhtvrf;rsm;
               &Sda=umif;ESifh csifhcsdefI qHk;jzwfEdkifap&ef jzpfygonf? toHk;jyKolu rdrd.vdktyfcsufESifhtnD rnfonfh
                                                                                       l   k       fS d
               taetxm;u taumif;qH;k jzpfa=umif; odap&ef jzpfygonf? toH;k jyKou vdtyfcsuEihf rdr. pGr;f aqmif


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 83


HandBook.pmd                             83                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



        Edkif&nftay:rlwnfI qHk;jzwfvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? tvm;wl axmufyHhay;oluvnf; vdktyfcsufESifh
        pGrf;aqmifEdkif&nftay:rlwnfI aqmif±GufEdkifygonf? xdk@tjyif aemufqHk;toHk;jyKolxHwGif vHkjcHKr_
        tqifhtwef;udkvnf; xnfhwGuf&ygvdrfhrnf? xda&mufaom/ vHkjcHKaom/ wnf+idrfpdwfcs&onfh qmurf
        Aif;&Sif;pepfwckjzpfap&ef oifhavsmfaomenf;ynmESifh oifhavsmfaom toHk;jyKoljzpf&efvnf; vdktyfyg
        onf?

        rdrdvdktyfcsufESifh pGrf;aqmif&nftay: rlwnfI qHk;jzwfjcif;
        qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmrsm;onf wcgw&H yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;ESifhvmaom toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf pDpOfaqmif
        ±Gufxm;jcif; jzpf+yD;/ toHk;jyKolrsm;wGif u|rf;usifr_tqifh trsKd;rsKd;&SdEdkifonf? toHk;jyKolrsm;wGifvnf;
        &Sdaeonfh t&if;tjrpftrsKd;rsKd; jzpfaeEdkifygonf? wcsdefwGif tvkyfjzpfaomfvnf; wcsdefwGif tvkyfrjzpf
                         kf                                                                 l
        onfrsK;d =uKH &Ediygonf? toH;k jyKrnfh qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;ynmtwGuf toH;k jyKoa&m/ axmufyay;olyg   hH
        atmufygar;cGef;rsm;udk ar;=unfh&ef vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?
               • toHk;jyKol rnfr# &SdEdkifoenf;? bef;'f0pf'f (bandwidth) rnfr# &SdEdkifoenf;? (qmurf
                      Aif;&Sif; axmufyHholESifh toHk;jyKol)
               • ar#mfvifhxm;onfh toHk;jyKvmrnfholrsm;u rnfonfhae&m (Primary point of
                      internet access) rS wufvm=urnfenf;? rnfonfhudpPrsm;twGuf oHk;=urnfenf;?
               • enf;ynmu|r;f usir_ tqifh rnfr#&=dS urnfenf;? (qmurfAif;&Si;f axmufyoEihf toH;k jyKo)
                                         f                                                        hH l S       l
               • aemufqHk;toHk;jyKrnfh olrsm;twGuf EdkifiHjyify&Sd ,Hk=unf&onfh tquftoG,f rnfr#&Sdrnf
                      enf;?
               • T qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmudk oHk;ygu/ tu,fI zrf;qD;rdcJhygv#if tjypf'%f rnfr#
                      csrSwfcH=u&rnfenf;?
               • T qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmudk oHk;jcif;tm;jzifh/ jzpfay:vmEdkifonfh tEW&m,f tusKd;quf
                      rsm;udkvnf; oHk;pGJolu ausvnfpGm oabmaygufem;vnfxm;ygovm;?
                      ponfh ar;cGef;rsm; jzpfygonf?

                     toHk;jyKol ta&twGufESifh bef;'f0pf'f (bandwidth)
                                          hH                                         J l
        qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;ynmaxmufyay;xm;olu Tenf;ynmudk toH;k jyKvmrnfh oH;k pGota&twGuukd      f
        cef@rSe;f xm;&ygrnf? ta=umif;rSm &&SEior#aom bef'0pf'f (bandwidth) ESihf cseqEdi&efjzpfygonf?
                                             d kd f        f                       df kf
                             l                       f       f       d hf
        aemufq;kH toH;k jyKouvnf; olw@kd . bef;'f0pf'ukd wGuqxm;&ygvrrnf? ta=umif;rSm Tod@k ausmcG  f
        oGm;onfh qmurfAif;&Sif;enf;ynmu olwdk@. tifwmeufrsm;udk aES;oGm;aprnf jzpfaoma=umifhyif?

        vltrsm;oHk;Edkifonfh ya&mufqD aqmif±Gufxm;ay;rnfholrsm;u }udKwifwGufxm;&rnfrSm olwdk@.
        0efaqmifr_udk tjcm; r&nf±G,fxm;onfh/ qifqmydwfxm;jcif; r[kwfonfh EdkifiHrsm;rS vltrsm;vnf;
                                                                 G f
        vma&muftoH;k jyK=urnf qdjk cif;yif? Oyrmtm;jzifh aqmif±uxm;onfh qmurfAifwmpepfu ±ky&iwck  f Sf
        vHk;udk a'gif;vkyf vkyf qGJcs,l&ef &nf±G,fxm;jcif; r[kwfaoma=umifh/ Todk@ toHk;jyKvmygu bef;'f0pf'f
        trsm;tjym; ukefqHk;apEdkifygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh oif. qmurfAifwm toHk;jyKr_udk uef@owfxm;r_


        84 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            84                                            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                  qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               jyKaumif;vnf; jyKygvdrfhrnf? tjcm;enf;ynmtrsKd;rsKd;a=umifhvnf; T aqmif&Gufvdkor#aom vkyfief;
               tcsKd@/ odk@r[kwf vkyfief;rsm;tm;vHk;udk aqmif±GufI &apEdkifygonf?

                                 yxrpwifI toHk;jyKvm=urnfholrsm;.ae&m
                                 (Primary point of internet access)
               yxr pwifI toHk;jyKvm=urnfholrsm;. ae&mtay:rlwnfI olwdk@. qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_udk
                               H     G f    kf h                           h        _      h G
               trsK;d rsK;d pDraqmif±uxm;EdiouJo@kd / TpepftwGi;f rnfonf0efaqmifrrsm; xnfoi;f ay;xm;&rnfukd
               vnf; odxm;Edkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwmrsm;/ tifwmeufuzD;rsm;rS toHk;jyKvm
               =uolrsm;onf uGefjyLwmtwGif;odk@ aqmhzf0J,m; topfrsm; xyfrHxnfhoGif;cGifh r&Sd=uaoma=umifh/
               0ufbfay:rS wdkuf±dkuf&,lEdkifaom enf;ynmrsKd; xnfhoGif;xm;&ef vdktyfygonf? tcsKd@aom olrsm;u
               0ufbfrS &SmazG,l&onfh tajctae (HTTP) xuf ydkI oHk;pGJvdkonfvnf; &SdEdkifygonf? Oyrm -
               tD;ar;vfydk@jcif; (SMTP) ESifh zdkifrsm; a0iSay;ydk@jcif; (FTP) rsm;vnf; aqmif±Gufvdk=uayrnf?
               xdkolwdk@u olwdk@uGefjyLwmtvkyfcef;twGif; aqmh0J,m;rsm; xnfhoGif;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ olwdk@
               uGefjyLwmqufwifudk ajymif;I vSnfhpm;Iaomfvnf;aumif; aqmif±Gufvdkolrsm;vnf; &Sdayrnf? Todk@
                            G f S         l       G
               aqmif±u&efrm toH;k jyKobufwif enf;ynmu|r;f usir_ wpHw&m vdtyfonfrm trSeyif jzpfygonf?
                                                                        f    k    k      S       f

                           enf;ynm u|rf;usifr_ tqifhtwef;
               enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ tqifhtwef; jrifhavav (Todk@aom toHk;jyKolrsKd;u tenf;tusOf;om &SdEdkifyg
                                                           kd f k                                         f l
               onf?) qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;ynmudk toH;k jyKEir_ ydus,jf yef@avyif jzpfonf? enf;ynm ru|r;f usiorsm;
               twGufrl aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; xnfhoGif;&mYaomfvnf;aumif;/ qufwifajymif;&mYaomfvnf;aumif;/
               (configuration change) jyKjyifajymif;vJ&mY aomfvnf;aumif; tcuftcJ &SEiygonf? qmurf
                                                                                              d kd f
               Aif;&Sif; enf;ynm toHk;jyKvdkv#if tydkvkyfief;rsm; aqmif±Guf&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;
               enf;ynm axmufyHhay;ola&m/ toHk;jyKolrsm;twGufyg u|rf;usifr_ vdktyfygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;
               enf;ynmudk rSm;,Gif;toHk;jyKrdygu rvdkvm;tyfaom tEW&m,frsm; toHk;jyKolrsm;bufwGif usa&muf
                 kf
               Ediygonf?

                              ,Hk=unf&avmufaom tquftoG,frsm; &Sdxm;r_
                 kf                                               f   d
               EdiijH yifywGif ,H=k unf&avmufaom tquftoG,rsm; &Sxm;onf/ rnfo@kd aom qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;em
               rsm;udk oHk;I &onfudk odxm;ygu aemufqHk;toHk;jyKoltwGuf rsm;pGm taxmuftyhHjzpfapygonf?
               tu,fI toHk;jyKolwGif ,Hk=unf&avmufaom tquftoG,frsm; r&Sdxm;ygu olwdk@u vltrsm;oHk;
               ae=uaom pepfrsm;xJrSyif a±G;cs,foHk;=u&awmhrnf jzpfygonf? toHk;jyKoluyif Todk@ qmurfAif;&Sif;
                                kf                         d kd f                   d f
               enf;ynmoH;k Edionfh ae&mrsm;udk &SmazGawG@&SEiv#i/f tifwmeuf pDppfywq@kd aeolrsm;uvnf; odxm;
               =urnfyif jzpfonf? tu,fI ,Hk=unf&avmufaom tquftoG,frsm; &Sdxm;ygu ‚wdk@ESifh olwdk@.
               vdktyfr_twdtusudk azmfjyI nd‡Ed_if;aqmif±GufapEdkifygonf? axmufvSrf;&SmazGrawG@Edkif ap&efvnf;
               vHkjcHKpGm xm;Edkifygonf? atmifjrifxda&mufonfh/ a&&SnfcHonfh/ wnf+idrf pdwfcs&onfh qmurfAif;&Sif;
                                         D                              kfH      kH          G f      kf
               pepfrsK;d udk tifwmeufpppfjzwfawmufjcif; rcH&onfh jyifyEdiiae vl,u aqmif±uxm;ay;Ediygonf?


                                                                    e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 85


HandBook.pmd                            85                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



                    jypf'%fcH&Edkifaom tvm;tvm
        tu,fI toHk;jyKaeolu qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmudk toHk;jyKaea=umif; azmfxkwfzrf;qD;&rdygu
        rnfodk@jypf'%fcsrSwf cH&rnfudk od&Sdxm;&ef vGefpGmta&;}uD;ygonf? jypf'%f tjyif;taysmhudk vdkufI
        ajymif;vJvkyfaqmif&ef vdktyfygonf? tu,fI Oya't& aysmhajymif;nifomr_&Sd+yD;/ jypf'%fus
        cH&Edkifr_vnf; oufomzG,f &Sdygu toHk;jyKolu a±G;cs,fp&m tcGifhtvrf; ydkrsm;ygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;
                          f                         d S                                        k
        enf;pepfjzifh ausmaeaomfvnf; vHjk cKH r_ r&Svyg? tu,fI tEW&,f}u;D aom tajctaeqdygu enf;ynm
        pwifxnfhoGif;&mY owd}uD;pGmxm;&ef vdktyf+yD;/ vHkjcHKaom xdk;azmufr0ifEdkifaompepfrsKd; xm;&ygvdrfh
        rnf? tcsKd@toHk;jyKolrsm;uvnf; w&m;0ifajz&Sif;Edkifrnfh qifajcay;csufrsm;/ yHkzsufzkef;uG,fxm;aom
        Zmwfvrf;rsm;/ tjcm;a00g;apEdkifonfh udpPrsm; }udKwifjyifqifxm;&ef vdkygonf?

                    vHkjcHKr_ tEW&m,f (ayguf=um;Edkifr_)
        rsm;aomtm;jzifh qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmtoHk;jyKolrsm;udk Tpepfta=umif; jynfhpHkpGm &Sif;vif;jyjcif;
        r&SdbJ toHk;jyK&ef wdkufwGef;apcdkif;=uygonf? &ifqdkif&Edkifaom tEW&m,frsm;udkvnf; vHkavmufpGm
        }udKwif od&Sdxm;apoifhygonf? odk@rSom taumif;qHk; enf;ynmudkoHk;I enf;vrf;rSefuefpGm toHk;csEdkif
        vdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?

        0ufbftajcjyKI wnfaqmufxm;aom qmurfAif;wm (Circumventors) rsm;
                                                     f
                                              0ufbtajcjyKI wnfaqmufxm;aom qmurf
                                              Aif;wm (Circumventors) rsm;rSm txl;pDrH
                                                               f     fS
                                              xm;aom 0ufbpmrsuEmrsm; jzpf+y;D / Tae&mrS
                                              wqif h toH k ; jyKol u =unf h v d k o nf h vd y f p m
                                              (URL) udk wifay;Edkifygonf? xdktcg 0ufbf
                                              tajccH qmurf A if ; wmu awmif ; qd k a om
                                              pmrsufESmudk &,lvm+yD;/ zwfoludk vmjyefjyyg
                                                               lS d
                                              onf? toH;k jyKoEihf &&Svmonfh pmrsuEm=um;  fS
                                              wGif wdkuf±dkufqufpyfr_ r&Sdyg? qmurfAif;wm
                                                        hf                 D       S
                                              pepfu yGivif;pGm ya&mufqpepfraeI ESpzuf       f
                                              t=um; pOfqufrjywf qufoG,fay; aeygonf?
                                              0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;u vifhcf
                                              (link) rsm;udk jyefa&; (re-write) vkyfay;
                                              +yD;/ qmurfAif;wmpepfxHodk@ jyefydk@ay;aeaom
                                              a=umifhvnf; taESmifht,Sufr&Sd yHkrSeftwdkif;
                                              0ufbf pmrsufESmrsm;udk av#mufzwf oGm;Edkif
                                              ygonf? 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;udk
                                              toHk;jyKaomtcg toHk;jyKolu uGefjyLwmrsm;
                                              xJwGif rnfonfh aqmhzf0J,m; y±dk*&rfudkr#
                                              xnfhoGif;p&mrvdkyg? olwdk@ 0ufbf=unhfaeonfh

        86 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          86                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                   qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               ba&mufZmudkvnf; qufwif ajymif;vJ&ef rvdktyfyg? pmzwfoltaejzifh vkyfaqmif&efudpPrSm qmurf
               Aif;wm. vdyfpm (URL) udk xnfhoGif;±Hkyif jzpfonf? ay:vmaom yHkpHtwGif; olwdk@=unfhvdkonfh
               0ufbfvdyfpmudk ±dkufxnfhay;I awmif;qdkvdkuf±Hkyif jzpfygonf? (0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;rSm
                    S hf                                            kf      kH S    l
               wckEiwck jcm;em;onfh oGijf yif&=dS uaomfvnf;/ tajccHvyaqmifyrm twlwyif jzpfygonf?) od@k twGuf
               a=umifh txl;u|rf;usifr_ rvdktyfbJ rnfonfhae&m (Point of access) rSrqdk toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?

               tm;omcsursm;  f
               0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmpepfrSm oHk;&ef ydkIvG,ful+yD;/ aemufqHk;toHk;jyKolxHwGif rnfonfh aqmhzf
               0J,m;r# xnfhoGif;&ef rvdktyfyg?
               vltrsm; toHk;jyKEdkifonfh qmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_rSm tvG,f&Edkif+yD;/ jyify&Sd tifwmeuf qifqm
                                 d    kfH G                    d        f          P d         kd f
               jzwfawmufr_ r&Saom Ediiwif tquftoG,f r&Sxm;v#ivnf; udpr&Syg? toH;k jyKEiygonf? vltrsm;
               toHk;jyKEdkifonfh qmurfAif;wmudk u|rf;0ifvmjcif;tm;jzifh rdrdvdktyfonfh qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_udk
               twdtus a±G;cs,fvmapEdkifygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;uvnf; pHkprf;od&SdEdkif&ef tcGifhtenf;enf;ygonf?

                            f
               tm;enf;csursm;
               0ufbftajcjyK qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfonf rsm;aomtm;jzifh (HTTP) 0ufbfpmrsufESmrsm;odk@om
               oGm;=unfh&ef uef@owfxm;+yD;/ 0SufpmpepfoHk;aom ae&mrsm; (encryted access, SSL) odk@
               oGm;=unfh&ef r&wwfyg? 0ufbftajccH tD;ar;vfrsm;wGif pm0Suf (Password authentication)
               xnfhoGif;&mY wcgw&H tvkyf rvkyfwwfyg?

                                 kd f                                                       dS
               vltrsm;toH;k jyKEionfh qmurfAif;&Si;f pepfrsm;rSm vltrsm;u a,bk,stm;jzifh od&xm;=u+y;D / tm%m
               ydkifrsm;u }udKwifydwfqdk@xm;onfvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf? TqmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_udk pD;yGm;a&;t&
               pDppfwnf;jzwfEdkifonfh aqmhzf0J,m;trsm;pku }udKwifydwfqdk@xm;=u+yD; jzpfygonf?

               yk*~vdu oD;oef@pDpOfxm;onfh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_udk oHk;&ef qdkonfrSm/ tifwm
               euf pDppfwnf; jzwfr_ r&Sdaomae&mwGif rdrdtqiftoG,fu pDpOfxm;ay;&ef vdktyfygonf? xdkr#ru
               Tol 2-OD;=um;wGif vG,fvG,fulul axmufvSrf;I r&Edkifonfh tjcm;qufoG,fa&;enf;pepfvnf;
               &Sdxm;&ef vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?

                              vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkifonfh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_rsm;
               vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkifonfh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; &Sdovdk/ 0efaqmifr_rsm;vnf;
                         f dS                                   _         h                             _
               tqifoih&aeyg onf? trsm;pkaom T0efaqmifrrsm;rSm tcrJo;kH I &+y;D / tcsK@d aom0efaqmifrrsm;wGif
               toHk;jyKp&m enf;emtrsm;tjym;/ vkyfief;trsm;tjym; cGifhjyKxm;wwfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- 0Sufpm
               vdktyfaomae&mrsm; (encrypted access) udkvnf; tcay;ygu toHk;jyKEdkifonfh ae&mXme
               rsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? tcsKd@aom 0efaqmifr_rsm;rSm pD;yGm;a&;ukr`%Drsm;u aqmif±Gufxm;jcif;jzpfaomf



                                                                      e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 87


HandBook.pmd                             87                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



        vnf;/ tcsKd@rSm vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkif&ef apwemh0efxrf; vkyfaqmifxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? atmufygwdk@rSm
        toHk;jyKEdkifaom ae&mrsm;. erlemvdyfpmrsm; jzpfygonf?

                http://www.anonymizer.com/                        http://www.unipeak.com/
                http://www.anonymouse.ws/                         http://www.proxyweb.net/
                http://www.guardster.com/                         http://www.webwarper.net/
                http://proximal.com/                              http://www.the-cloak.com/

                      f df                  dS
        T 0ufbvypmrsm;rSm vltrsm;u od&xm;=u+y;D jzpfaoma=umifh tifwmeuf pDppfjzwfawmuf=uonfh
        aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;wGif Tpm&if;rsm;udk ydwfqdk@&ef xnfhoGif;xm;=u+yD; jzpfygonf? EdkifiHtrsm;uvnf;
        olwdk@ qifqmjzwfawmufydwfqdk@&mwGif xnfhoGif;xm;+yD; jzpfaewwfygonf? tu,fI T0ufbf
        pmrsufESmrsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;ygu/ toHk;jyKolu oHk;Edkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? xdk@tjyif vltrsm;
        toHk;jyKEdkifonfh 0ufbf qmurfAif;wmrsm;rSm T0efaqmifr_ay;onfhae&mrsm;ESifh toHk;jyKolt=um;
        vHjk cKH a&;0Supmpepf (encryption) rxm;&S=d uyg? od@k twGua=umifh toH;k jyKou awmif;qdvuaom
                        f                                         f                 l          k kd f
        pmrsufESm/ owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_ay;aeolu od&SdaeEdkifygonf?

        0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_rsm;udk oHk;rnfholrsm;rSm vHkjcHKa&;t&tEW&m,f odyfr}uD;aom
        ae&mrsm;wGif aexdkif=uolrsm;jzpfygu ydkI oifhav#mfygonf? xdkolrsm;u jyifywGif ,Hk=unf&avmuf
        aom tquftoG,fr&Sdygu/ ,m,Dtm;jzifh csufcsif; qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_vdktyfvmygu oHk;Edkifyg
        onf? ta&;}uD;aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ay;ydk@&ef rjzpfoifhyg?

                     0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; tEkxnf (aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;)
        0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; tEkxnf (aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;) xnfhoGif;&eftwGuf enf;ynmt& u|rf;
        usifr_ wpHkw&m vdktyfovdk/ oifhav#mfaom t&if;tjrpf &Sd&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? (Oyrm-t&if;
        tjrpf[k qdk&mY 0ufbfqmAmESifh bef;'f0pf'fwdk@ jzpfonf?) yk*~vdu qmurfAif;wmudk wnfaqmufxm;
                   S f                 h l                                  kf
        +y;D / owfrwxm;aom toH;k jyKrnforsm;udk om today;xm;yg+y;D oH;k apEdiygonf? vltrsm;oH;k aeaom
                                                  G f kd f              _               dS
        qmurfAif;wmrsm;ESihf trnfrazmfbJ qufo,Eionfh 0efaqmifrrsm;rSm trsm;u od&xm;+y;D jzpfaom
        a=umifh (pD;yGm;a&;t& a&mif;csonfh tifwmeufpDppfydwfyifa&; aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;uyif od&Sdydwfyif
        xm;+yD; jzpfaewwf=uygonf?) yk*~vdu qmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_udk toHk;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh/ vltrsm;oHk;
        ae=uaom 0efaqmifr_rsm;xufpmv#if axmufvSrf;od&SdEdkifr_/ ydwfqdk@cH&r_ ydkI oufomzG,f &Sdygonf?

        yk*~vdu qmurfAif;wmrsm;udk tenf;i,f u|rf;usifr_&Sd&HkESifhyif aqmif±GufEdkif+yD;/ aemufqHk;oHk;rnfhol
                k      f S hf           G f     kf                         f _ kd
        rsm;. vdtyfcsuEitnD aqmif&uxm;Ediygonf? tcsK@d aom u|r;f usirvtyfonfuprsm;rSm 0ufbfh d P
        qmAm vnfywfaeonfh ydk@wf trSwf (port number) ajymif;vJjcif;ESifh vHkðcHonfh pm0Sufpepf
        (encryption) toHk;jyKEdkifjcif;wdk@ jzpfygonf? (Secure Sockets Layer—SSL) onf
                                      f                  H G              kf
        tifwmeufay:wGif owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk vHðk cpm jzwfoef;ay;yd@k Ediaom pepf jzpfygonf? Tpepf
        udk 0ufbfqdkufrsm;u &Hzef&Hcg vHkðcHa&;vdktyfonfh tcsuftvufrsm; wifydk@&efoHk;+yD;/ Oyrmtm;jzifh

        88 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           88                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                   qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               taºu;0,fu'fjym; (c&uf'pfu'f) tcsuftvufrsm; ay;ydk@&ef jzpfygonf? (SSL) vkyfaqmifEdkifaom
               0ufbfqdkufrsm;rSm (HTTP) tpm; (HTTPS) pepfjzifh oGm;ygonf?

               (SSL) pepfudk toHk;jyKaom aemufxyfenf;wckrSm 0ufbf qmAm. t&if;tjrpf (root of web
               server) wGif ouFmruif;jzpfzG,f r&Sdaom/ tEW&m,fr&SdapEdkifaom 0ufbf pmrsufESmwck zefwD;
               xm;+yD;/ qmurfAif;wm pepfudk zHk;uG,fI usyef;pepf zdkifemrnfrsm;/ vrf;a=umif;emrnfrsm; (random
               path and file name) jzifh oGm;apjcif; jzpfonf? =um;cH aqmif&Gufay;aeolu toHk;jyKaeol
               qufoG,faeaom qmAmudk od&SdEdkifaomfvnf;/ rnfonfhvrf;a=umif; (path) udk oGm;=unfhaerSef;
               od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? ta=umif;rSm Todk@oGm;=unfh&ef awmif;qdkr_ owif;pum; wpdwfwydkif;udk
               0S u f p mpepf j zif h jyKxm;aoma=umif h jzpf y gonf ? Oyrmtm;jzif h - toH k ; jyKaeol u “http://
               example.com/secretcircumventor/” udk qufoG,fv#if =um;cHaqmif&Gufay;aeolu
               (example.com) udk qufoG,foHk;aea=umif; od&Sdaomfvnf;/ tao;pdwf oloGm;=unfhaeonfh
               ae&mudkrl od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? tu,fI qmurfAif;wm pDpOfxm;olu (example.com)
               wGif ±dk;±dk;omrefozG,f/ ouFmruif;jzpfp&m r&Sdonfh 0ufbfpmrsufESm wck pDpOfxm;&SdcJhv#if/ apmifh=unfh
               aeonfjzpfap qmurfAif;wmudk zkH;uG,fxm;aoma=umifh oloGm;a&mufaom pmrsufESmrsm;udk
               axmufvSrf; od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg?

                       • CGIProxy: A CGI script acts as an HTTP or FTP proxy.
                         http://www.jmarshall.com/tools/cgiproxy
                       • Peacefire’s Circumventor: An automated installer program
                       that makes it much easier for non-technical users to install
                       and configure CGIProxy.
                         http://www.peacefire.org/circumventor/simple-
                       circumventor-instructions.html
                       • pHproxy: An experimental, highly configurable web-based
                       circumventor.
                         http://ice.citizenlab.org/projects/phproxy
                       • Psiphon: An SSL-enabled webserver with built-in web-based
                       circumventor.
                         http://soon to be released

               yk*~vdu 0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;onf/ pm0Sufpepf (emcyrption) udk oHk;Edkifjcif;&Sdygu
                     d                                       l             h
               wnf+irf onfh qmurfAif;&Si;f pepfukd toH;k jyKorsm;twGuf toifawmfq;kH jzpfygonf? jyify&Sd tifwmeuf
               qifwmwnf;jzwfxm;jcif; rcH&onfhae&mwGif &Sdaeonfh ,Hk=unf&aomrdwfaqGu 0ufbftajccH qm
               urfAif;wmudk pDpOfxm;ay;Edkifygonf? oifhav#mfonfh enf;ynmESifh bef;'f0pfudkvnf; toHk;jyKxm;&rnf
               jzpfonf? Tenf;onf omref0ufbfpmrsufESmrsm;odk@ oGm;&ef/ txl;aumif;rGef vG,fulonfh enf;jzpf+yD;/
               axmufvSrf;cH&&ef/ ydwfqdk@cH&&ef tcGifhtvrf;enf;ygonf?

                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 89


HandBook.pmd                             89                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



                        0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; (vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
        qmurf;Aif;&Sif;pepfonf trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;ay;ydk@onfh pepfudk aqmif±Gufxm;ay;jcif; r&Sdyg?
        aemufq;kH toH;k jyKo. ud,a&;tcsutvufrsm; (identity) udk olom;a&mufconfh 0ufbqu.
                                l k f        f                                        G          hJ f kd f
        pDrHcef@cGJol rjrif&ap&ef umuG,fay;xm;aomfvnf;/ toHk;jyKolESifh qmurfAif;wmt=um; qufoG,f
        onfh bmompum;rSm &dk;&dk;pmom; (plain text—HTTP) om jzpfygonf? tcrJhay;xm;aom
        0efaqmifr_rsm;wGif qmurfAif;wmudk oHk;&onfhtcg ay;ydk@qufoG,faer_rsm;udk tvG,fwul=um;jzwf
        zrf;,lEdkif+yD;/ =um;cHay;aeolu tvG,ftul oHk;oyftuJjzwfEdkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- tifwmeuf
        qm;Apf 0efaqmifr_ay;aeol (ISPs) rsm;u =um;jzwfzrf;,lum od&SdEdkifygonf? qmurfAif;wmjzifh
        rdrdtvdk&Sdonfh ae&mudkausmfI =unfhEdkifaomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u Ttcsufudk axmufvSrf;
        od&SdEdkifygonf? toHk;jyKolu 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrSwqifh oGm;a&muf=unfhaea=umif;
             kd f          k           h                       h hJ
        odEiygonf? xdr#ru rnfonfta=umif;t&mudk =unfconf/ rnfonfh 0ufbqursm;od@k wufa&muf    f kd f
        cJhonfudkyg odEdkifygonf?

        0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;onf &dk;&dk;pmom; (text) udk (pm0Sufpepf r[kwfyJ) (non-
        encrypted) toHk;jyK=u+yD;/ wcgw&HwGif (Uniform Resource Locators—URL) yg
        t"duusaom pum;vHk;rsm; (keyword) udk pDppfydwfqdk@xm;aom pepfudk ausmfEdkif&eftwGuf
        zke;f uG,vnpm;±Hr#om (URL obfuscation) aqmif±uEiygonf? Oyrmtm;jzif- vG,uaom
                 f S hf k                                     G f kd f                   h       f l
        (ROT-13) pepfudk oHk;rnfqdkygpdk@? Tae&mwGif rdrd.rl&if; pmvHk;udk ‚&Sd pmvHk; 13 vHk;rS wckckESifh
        zvS,fay;±Hkom jzpfygonf? (URL) (http://ice.citizenlab.org) u (uggc://vpr.
        pvgvmrayno.bet) odk@ ajymif;ay;±Hkr#om jzpfygonf? tusKd;oufa&mufr_t& (URL) .
        t"duusaom pum;vHk;udk ajymif;vJvdkufonfhtwGufa=umifh pDppfwnf;jzwfvdkonfh pm&if;yg
        (URLs) ESifh vGwfuif;I oGm;=unfhEdkifygawmhonf? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@ ‚quf&Sif tydkif;wGif
        vkyfaqmifcJhor#udk teH@cH=unfh±_ ppfaq;Edkifygao;onf?

        xd@k tjyif (cookies) ESihf (scripts) toH;k jyKrtay: rlwnfI tEW&m,f &Saeygao;onf? 0ufbtajccH
                                                           _                              d                    f
        qmurfAif;wmrsm;u uluD; (cookies) ESifh pc&pfyf (scripts) rsm;udk z,f&Sm;ay;=uaomfvnf;/
        trsm;pkaom qdkufrsm; (Oyrm- 0ufbf tajccHar;vfydk@Edkifonfh qkdufrsm;) rSm uluD; (cookies)
        ESifh pc&pfyf (scripts) rsm; toHk;jyK&ef vdktyfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh Tenf;emrsm;udk toHk;jyKrnf
        qdkygu txl;owdxm;oifhygonf? xdk@tjyif oufqdkifaeom tjcm;tEW&m,fwckrSm T0efaqmifr_
        (service) rsm;udk 0ifygu trnf (Logins) ESifh pum;0Sufrsm; (passwords) jznfhoGif;&ygonf?
        TwGif qmurfAif;wmrsm;udk ±dk;±dk;pmom; (plain text) ESifh 0if=u&+yD;/ (encrypted servers)
        rsm;rS owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk awmif;,l&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? TtajctaewGif qmurfAif;
        wmrsm;u awmif;qdaomtcsuf tvufrsm;udk vHjk cKH r&aom qdursm; (SSL-enabled servers)
                             k                                    _ dS        k f
        rS v#Kd@0Sufpm0Sufrsm;jzifh &,lvdkuf+yD;/ toHk;jyKolxHodk@ ±dk;±dk;pmom;jzifh jyefvnfay;ydk@onfhES,f jzpfaeyg
        onf? xdktcg =um;jzwfzrf;,l=unfh±_aernfqdkygu rdrd. ta&;}uD;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk
        ay:vGifaponfhES,f jzpfapygawmhonf?


        90 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                              90                                             11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                    qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               Todk@ vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&mjy\emrsm;udk 0ufbftajccH ya&mufqD (proxies) rsm;rS pum;0Suf qufo,f          G
               r_ (encrypted connection) oH;k I ajz&Si;f Ediygonf? tcsK@d aom 0ufbtajccH ya&mufqrsm;onf
                                                                kf                         f                D
               (SSL) (HTTPS) toH;k jyKEi&eftwGuf pDpOfxm;=uygonf? Tpepfu aemufq;kH toH;k jyKaeolEihf
                                                   kd f                                                             S
               0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wm=um;wGif ±dk;±dk;pmom; r[kwfawmhbJ 0Sufay;ygonf? Todk@ toHk;jyKonfh
               tajctaewGif/ =um;cHvlu toHk;jyKaeoltaejzifh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmudk oHk;aea=umif;om
               cef@rSef;Edkif+yD;/ oltoHk;jyKonfh quf&Sif. ta=umif;t&mudk rodEdkifyg? odk@twGufa=umifh toHk;jyKolrsm;
               taejzifh (SSL-enabled web-based circumventors) udk oHk;&ef txl;t=uHjyKvdkygonf?

               rnfodk@yif qdkapumrl/ aemufqHk; toHk;jyKolESifh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmt=um; qufoG,fr_rSm
               vHkjcHKonf[k qdk&rnfjzpfaomfvnf;/ 0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmudk jzwfoGm;aom owif;tcsuf
               tvufrsm;udk 0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wm ydkifqdkifolu =um;jzwfod&SdEdkifygonf? tjcm;pdk;&drfzG,f
               udpPwckrSm qmurfAif;wmu odrf;qnf;rSwfwrf; wifxm;rnfh tcsufrsm; jzpfygonf? qmurfAif;wm
               wnf&Sdaeonfh ae&mtay:rlwnfI/ odk@r[kwf qmAmwnf&Sdaeonfh ae&mtay: rlwnfI tm%mydkif
               rsm;u xdkolrsm;. (log files) rsm;udk &,lEdkif=uygao;onf?

               xdkr#ru toHk;jyKolrsm;taejzifh (SSL-enabled web-based circumventor) rsm; toHk;jyK
               aomfvnf; tjcm;pdk;&drf owdxm;zG,f tcsufrsm;vnf; &Sdaeygao;onf? Todk@ pm0Sufpepf (en-
               cryption) udk oHk;aoma=umifh qmurfAif;wmoHk;aeolrsm; t=um; txl;owdxm;apmifh=unfhcH&zG,f
               &Sdaeygonf? ae&mtrsm;tjym;wGif Todk@ pm0Sufpepf (encryption) toHk;jyKr_onf Oya't&
               wm;jrpfxm;csuf jzpfaewwfygonf? xdk@tjyif vHkjcHKaom0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmrSwqifh
               toHk;jyKolu rnfonfh0ufbfqdkufrsm;odk@ oGm;aea=umif;vnf; pDppfae=uonfh tm%mydkifrsm;u
               (HTTPS fingerprinting and Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks) rsm;jyKI
               od&SdoGm;Edkifygao;onf? odk@aomfvnf; v_yf&Sm;r_&Sdaeaom pmrsufESmrsm; (dynamic content)
               ESifh qmurfAif;wmrsm;u usyef; 'DudGKif; pmom;rsm; (random decoy text) r=umc%
               (content) txJodk@ xnfhay;jcif;tm;jzifh odomapEdkifonfh tEW&m,f avsmhusapEdkifygonf? tu,fI
               toHk;jyKolu (fingerprint) ac: vHkjcHKa&; vufrSwfxdk;jcif; (security signature of the
               SSL certificate) ay;xm;ygu/ rSef-rrSef ppfaq;Edkif+yD; =um;jzwfI (MITM attack)1
               rsm;udkvnf; a&Smif&Sm;Edkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf?



               1
                   For potential attacks on circumvention systems, see Bennett Haselton’s
                   article (“List of possible weaknesses in systems to circumvent Internet
                   censorship”) at http://peacefire.org/circumventor/list-of-possible-
                   weaknesses.html and a reply by Paul Baranowski at www.peek-a-booty.org/
                   pbhtml/downloads/ResponseToLopwistcic.pdf


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 91


HandBook.pmd                              91                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



                   ya&mufqD qmAmrsm; (Proxy Servers)
                            k    S                     f           h h l                    d
        ya&mufqD qmAm qdonfrm toH;k jyKol (Oyrm-0ufbukd wuf=unfrnfo) ESihf qmAm t=um;&Saeonfh
        =um;cH qmAmyif jzpfygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmu toH;k jyKoEihf qmAmt=um; =um;cHZkH ozG,f (buffer)
                                                           lS
        jyKrlygonf? ‚u (data request including web traffic (HTTP), file transfer
        (FTP) and encrypted traffic (SSL) rsm;udk aqmif±GufcGifhay;ygonf?

                                                                       ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;udk vlwOD;
                                                                       csif;uaomfvnf;aumif;/ tzGJ@
                                                                       tpnf;rsm;uaomfvnf;aumif;/
                                                                       Ed k i f i H r sm;uaomf v nf ; aumif ;
                                                                       ta=umif ; rsKd ; pH k j zif h toH k ; jyK=u
                                                                       ygonf? Tta=umif;tcsufrsm;
                                                                       wGif vHkðcHr_twGuf/ trnfrazmf
                                                                            k h
                                                                       vdonftwGu/f pDppf qifqmjyK&ef
                                                                       (caching and filtering)
                                                                       twGuf toHk;jyK=uygonf?
                                                                       ya&mufqD qmAmudk toHk;jyK&ef
        twGuf aemufqHk;toHk;jyKrnfholu ol. 0ufbfba&mufZm qufwifudk (IP address or host
        name of proxy server) ya&mufqD qmAm. tdkifyD vdyfpm/ odk@r[kwf tdrf&Sif [dk@pftrnfjzifh
        jyifqif&ef vdkygonf? xdk@tjyif ya&mufqD qmAm tvkyfvkyf aeaom ydk@wfeHygwfudkvnf; ajymif;vJ&ef
        vdkygonf? Todk@ajymif;vJ&efrSm odyfcufcJaom udpP r[kwfyg? odk@aomfvnf; vltrsm;oHk;ae=uaom
        pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ tifwmeuf uzD;rsm;ESifh vkyfief;Xmersm;wGif Todk@ ba&mufZmudk jyifqif
        ajymif;vJ&ef rjzpfEdkifyg?

        tm;omcsursm;  f
        a±G;cs,fp&m ya&mufqD aqmhzf0J,m; trsm;tjym;&Sd+yD;/ ‚wdk@u (web traffic HTTP) tjyif
        yGifhvif;jrifomonfh ya&mufqD qufoG,fr_ (transparent proxy traffic) udkvnf; aqmif±Guf
        ay;Edkif=uygonf? ‚wdk@u yHkrSef pHowfrSwfcsufr[kwfaom ydk@wfrsm; (non-standard ports)
        wGifvnf; tvkyfvkyfEdkif=uygonf? vltrsm; toHk;jyKEdkifonfh ya&mufqD qmAm trsm;tjym;&Sdygonf?

        tm;enf;csursm;   f
        trsm;pkaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufxm;r_ yHkpHt&yif pm0Sufpepf (encryp-
        tion) udk toHk;jyK&ef r&yg? odk@twGufa=umifh toHk;jyKolESifh ya&mufqDt=um; qufoG,fa&;rSm
        vHkjcHKr_r&Sdyg?




        92 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                             92                                            11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                  qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               toHk;jyKolu ba&mufZm qufwif (browser setting) udk jyKjyifajymif;vJ&eftwGuf cGifhjyKcsuf
               awmif;&ef vdktyfygonf? tu,fI tifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_ay;ol (ISPs) u ‚. ya&mufqD
               qmAmudk jzwfoGm;&rnfh owif;tcsuf tvuftm;vHk;udk &,laernfqdkygu vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom
               ya&mufqD qmAm (Open proxy server) udk oHk;&ef rjzpfEdkifyg?

                                 kd f                                                                        S
               vltrsm; toH;k jyKEiaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk &SmazGjcif;ESihf toH;k jyKjcif;onf w&m;r0if[k owfrwf
               xm;jcif; &Sdaumif; &SdEdkifygonf? xdk@tjyif Tya&mufqDrsm;uvnf; rdrdtoHk;jyKvdkonfh tcsdefwdkif;
               tvkyfvkyfcsifrS vkyfygvdrfhrnf?

                           ya&mufqD qmAm aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
                                       f J                                          H       kf
               ya&mufqD qmAm aqmhz0,m;udk tifwmeufqifqm pDppfwnf;jzwfc&onfh EdiijH yify&Sd ,H=k unf&onfh
               rdwfaqGu enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ tweftoifh &Sd±Hkr#ESifhyif xnfhoGif;Edkifygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmaqmhzf
               0J,m;udk bef;'f0pf'ftrsm;tjym; toHk;jyKcGifhay;aom/ pm0Sufpepf (encryption technology)
               ay;oHk;onfh ae&mrsm;wGif wyfqifoifhygonf? tzGJ@tpnf;wck/ odk@r[kwf ±Hk;i,fwcku qmurfAif;&Sif;
               pepf oHk;vdkonfh tajctaersKd;wGif wyfqifxm;&ef oifhav#mfygonf? ydwfyifcHxm;&onfh EdkifiH&Sd vlwOD;
               u olwdk@. 0ufbf ba&mufZmrsm;udk jyifqifvdkuf+yD;onfESifh ya&mufqD qmAmrSwqifh tifwmeuf
               xJodk@ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf av#muf=unfhEdkif+yD jzpfygonf? txl;tqifhjrifh v#Kd@0Suf qmurfAif;&Sif;
               (0ufbfausmfv$m;enf;) tajz r[kwfaomfvnf; yk*~vduoD;oef@ydkif ya&mufqD qmAm&Sdjcif;tm;jzifh
               ydkI vGwfvyfpGm v_yf&Sm;aqmif±GufEdkifygonf? Tpepfu 0ufbftajccH ya&mufqD pepfxufydkI
               xda&mufr_ &Sdapygonf? T ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;xm;jcif;u/ 0ufbfay:&Sd ay;xm;aom ya&mufqDrsm;
               oHk;jcif;xuf ydkI pOfqufrjywf qufoG,fEdkif+yD;/ 0ufbftajccH ar;vfydk@qufoG,fr_rsm;twGuf vHkðcHa&;
               pepf (authentication) ESifh uluD;rsm; (cookies) twGufvnf; tqifajyapygonf? ya&mufqD
               qmAmrsm;udk aemufqHk; toHk;jyKrnfhol. vdktyfcsuft& jyifqifxm;Edkif+yD;/ tpdk;&. ydwfqdk@wnf;jzwf
               aer_udk ausmfv$m;&efvnf; pDrHxm;Edkifygonf?

                    • Squid is free proxy server software and can be secured with
                    Stunnel server.
                      http://www.squid-cache.org
                      http://www.stunnel.org
                      http://ice.citizenlab.org/projects/aardvark
                    • Privoxy is a proxy with advanced filtering capabilities for
                    protecting privacy.
                      http://www.privoxy.org
                    • Secure Shell (SSH) has a built-in socks proxy ($ ssh -D port
                    secure.host.com)
                      http://www.openssh.com


                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 93


HandBook.pmd                             93                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m




               • HTTPport/HTTPhost allows you to bypass your HTTP proxy,
               which is blocking you from the internet

        yk*~vdu oD;oef@vkyfxm;I pm0Sufpepf (encryption) udk cGifhjyKaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf
        tkyfpkwck/ odk@r[kwf ±Hk;wck&Sd toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf txl; oifhavsmfygonf? Tpepfu yHkrSef/ wnf+idrf
        onfh 0ufbfrsm;udk ausmfcG qufoG,fEdkifonfh qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfudk aqmif±Gufay;rnf jzpf+yD;/
        EdkifiHjyifywGif &Sdaeonfh ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&onfh rdwfaqGu (enf;ynm tweftoifh u|rf;usifr_&Sdv#if/
        vdktyfaom bef;'f0pf'f&Sdv#if ya&mufqD qmAm wnfaxmifay;xm;Edkifygonf?

                   vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkifaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;
                   (Publicly Accessible Proxy Servers)
        vltrsm;oHk;&ef zGifhxm;ay;aom ya&mufqDqmAmrsm; (Open proxies) onf &nf±G,fcsufwckjzifh
        aomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;ta=umif;rsm; a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif; ta0;uGefjyLwmrsm;rS qufoG,fEdkif
               hf                                                                 hf
        &ef zGixm;ay;onfh qmAmrsm; jzpfygonf? vltrsm; toH;k jyK&ef[k a=ujimI zGixm;ay;aom ya&mufqD
        qmAmrsm;[lI r=um;zl;yg? odk@r[kwf olwdk@u uGefjyLwm. uGefzpf*ga&;&Sif; (configuration)
        wGif tvGJvGJtrSm;rSm;jzpf+yD; &nf±G,fcsuf r&Sdaomfvnf; vltrsm;oHk;ozG,f jzpfaeonfrsKd;vnf; jzpfEdkif
        ygonf?

        owdjyK&ef?    ? a'oqdkif&m Oya'rsm;. t"dy`g,fzGifhqdkcsuft& yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;
        (Open proxy servers) udk oHk;jcif;onf/ cGifhjyKcsufr&bJ qufoG,fjcif;[k owfrSwfEdkifygonf?
        TudpPtwGuf Oya't& ta&;,lcH&r_rsm; &SdEdkifygonf? yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk toHk;jyK&ef
        twGuf t=uHrjyKvdkyg?

                     yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;udk &SmazGjcif; (Locating Open Proxies)
        0ufbfqdkuftrsm;pku yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;udk pm&if;azmfjyxm;wwf=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf;
                       D                                                  kd f
        Tya&mufqrsm; qufvufI oH;k I&aeao;a=umif; tmrrcHEiyg? Tpm&if;azmfjyxm;aom ya&mufqD
        rsm;twGufvnf; tmrcHcsuf r&Sdyg? rdrd trnfrazmfbJ aqmif&GufEdkifonfh vHkjcHKpdwfcs&r_/ ya&mufqD.
        wnf&Sdaeonfh yx0Dtaetxm;/ rnfonfhudkr# tmrcHcsuf rjyKEdkifyg? Tya&mufqDrsm;udk oHk;ygu
        oifhudk,fydkif tEW&m,fudk pOf;pm;csifhcsdef+yD;rS oHk;apvdkygonf?




        94 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           94                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                  qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m




                      yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD 0ufbfqdkufrsm;
                              http://www.samair.ru/proxy/
                              http://www.antiproxy.com/
                              http://tools.rosinstrument.com/proxy/
                              http://www.multiproxy.org/
                              http://www.publicproxyservers.com/


                      aqmhzf 0J,m; (Proxy Tools/LocalProxy)
                            http://proxytools.sourceforge.net


                              yGifhaeom ya&mufqDrsm; (yHkrSefr[kwfaom ydk@wfrsm;)
                              (Open proxies: uncommon ports)
               tcsKd@EdkifiHrsm;u pH0if ya&mufqD ydk@wfrsm; (standard proxy ports) udkom pDppfydwfqdk@ xm;avh
               &Sd=uygonf? ydk@wf “port” qdkonfrSm wdusowfrSwfjyXmef;xm;onfh pnf;rsOf;rsm;twdkif; ae&mwckESifh
               qufoG,fjcif;yif jzpfygonf (a logical connection used by specific protocols)?
               rwluGJjym;aom tifwmeuf qm;Apf (0efaqmifr_) rsm;u owfrSwfxm;aom ydk@wf eHygwfrsm;rS jzwfoef;
               I tcsuftvuf (a'wm) rsm;udk ay;ydk@=uygonf? tcsKd@aom ydk@wfeHygwfrsm;rSm wdwdusus owfrSwf
               ay;xm;+yD;/ tifwmeuf eHywfcsay;aom tm%mydkifrsm; (Internet Assigned Numbers
               Authority— IANA) u owfrSwfay;xm;=uygonf? olwdk@u owfowfrSwfrSwf y±dkwdkaum
               pnf;urf;rsm; (protocols)/ 0efaqmifr_ qm;Apfrsm; owfrSwfay;xm;=uygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh-
               ydk@wfeHygwf (80) (Port 80) udk tdyfcsf wDwDyD jzwfoef;r_ (HTTP traffic) rsm;twGuf toHk;jyK
               =uygonf? oifu oif. ba&mufZmrSwqifh 0ufbfqdkufwck udk oGm;=unhfaomtcg/ ydk@wf 80 ay:wGif
               vkyfudkifxm;aom qmAmwckudk 0ifa&mufoGm;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;wGifvnf;
               ydk@wfeHygwf&Sd+yD;/ olwdk@udk rl&if;'DZdkif;t& (default) yif owfrSwfxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? odk@twGuf
               a=umifh 0ufbfrsm;udk pDppfydwfqdk@&ef pDpOfxm;aom aqmhzf0J,m;trsm;pku Tae&mrsm;odk@oGm;&ef
                    f                                          f           G     fG G kf          k f
               ydwq@kd xm;avh&=dS uygonf? od@k twGua=umifh atmifjrifpm ausmcom;Edi&ef jyKvyxm;aom ya&muf
               qDrsm;onf yHrer[kwaom yd@k wf eHygwrsm;jzifh pDpOfaqmif&uf (configure) vkyxm;avh &S=d uygonf?
                                kSf       f                  f               G                  f

                          http://www.web.freerk.com/proxylist.htm




                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 95


HandBook.pmd                             95                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
            qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



                     ya&mufqD qmAmrsm; (vHkðcHa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
        ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk pDpOfaqmif±Guf (configuration) &mY txl;ta&;}uD;vSygonf?
        ta=umif;rSm Tpufrsm;u puf. vHkjcHKa&;ESifh trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fEdkifr_udk pDrHxdef;csKyfay;rnf
        jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? pm0Sufpepf wyfqifrxm;yJ csKd@,Gif;ae±Hkr#ru/ ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;u
        aemufqHk; toHk;jyKrnfhol. udk,fa&;tcsuftvufrsm;udk tjcm;wbufodk@ ayguf=um;apEdkifygonf?
        Oyrmtm;jzifh tjcm;0ufbfqdkufwckodk@oGm;&ef awmif;cHonfh tdkifyDvdyfpmrsm; ºuif;usef&pfaumif;
        usef&pfEdkifonf? xdkr#ru oifESifh ya&mufqD qmAmt=um; qufoG,fr_onf ±dk;±dk;pmom; (Plain
        text) jzifh qufoG,fr_vnf; jzpfaeEdkifygonf? xdktcg tay:rSxdkifapmifhI pDppfapmifh=unfhae=uaom
                  kf            f                       kd
        tm%mydirsm;u tvG,tulyif =um;jzwfzrf;,lEi=f uygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmudk jzwfoef;oGm;onfh
        owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udkvnf; ya&mufqD qmAmydkifqdkifonfholu =um;jzwfzrf;,l od&SdaeEdkifygao;
        onf?

        vltrsm; toHk;jyK&ef cGifhjyKxm;aom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk &SmazGprf;oyf=unfhjcif;/ toHk;csjcif;rsm;udk
        t=uHrjyKvdkyg? yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk wcgw&HtoHk;jyK=ujcif;rSm tvG,ftul toHk;jyKI
                     h                                     f d                 f
        &aoma=umifom jzpf+y;D / vHjk cKH a&; twGuf tmrcHcsur&Syg? od@k aomf ydwyifxm;aom tifwmeufrsm;udk
        ausmfcGI=unfh&ef jzpfaumif; jzpfEdkifygvdrfhrnf?

        0ufbf tajccH ya&mufqDrsm;wGifvnf; ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf vHkjcHKa&;twGuf tvm;wl pdk;&drf
        ylyef&r_ &Sdaumif; &SdaeEdkifygonf? tEW&m,f&SdapEdkifaom pmom; pc&pfrsm; (scripts) / uluD;rsm;
        (cookies) aemufqHk; toHk;jyKaeolxHodk@ jzwfoef; ydk@v$wfay;=u&onf jzpf+yD;/ pm0Sufpepf
        (encryption technology) jzifh a&mpyfI toHk;jyKonf qdkapOD;awmh/ ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf
        (MITM) wdkufcdkufr_rsm; (txufwGif &Sif;jycJh+yD;/ jyef=unfhyg) ESifh vHkðcHa&;vufaAG&m (HTTPS
        fingerprinting attacks) &SmazGwucurrsm; =uKH &Ediygao;onf? xd@k tjyif aqmhupf ya&mufqD
                                                  kd f kd f _       kf                         f
        (a socks proxy) toHk;jyKaeqJumvwGif tcsKd@aom ba&mufZmrsm;rS ta&;}uD;onfh owif;rsm;
        aygu=f um;Ediygao;onf? aqmhupf ya&mufqD qdonfrm 0ufbf jzwfoef;oGm;vmr_ (web traffic)
                     kf                    f                  k   S
        tjyif/ tjcm;aom yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh jzwfoef;oGm;vmr_rsm; (traffic) udkvnf; aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonfh
        ya&mufqDrsKd; jzpfygonf? 0ufbfqdkufwckodk@ =unfh&efawmif; qdkonfhtcg 'dkrdef;trnf (domain
        name) udk tdkifyD vdyfpmxJodk@ ydk@v$wfay;ygonf? tcsKd@aom ba&mufZmrsm;rSm a'otwGif;Yyif
           H        G f                                         D                     d
        pDraqmif&uxm;=uonf jzpfaoma=umif/h ya&mufqukd jzwfoef;I oGm;jcif; r&Swwfyg? Tod@k jzpf&yfrsK;d
        wGif ydwfqdk@xm;aom 0ufbfqdkufwck. vdyfpmudk awmif;qdkvmaom tdkifyD vdyfpmonf ydwfqdk@
        qifqmjzwf awmufxm;onfh EdkifiHwck twGif;&Sd 'dkrdef;trnf pepf (Domain Name System
        (DNS) Servers) xJYom tvkyfvkyfaoma=umifh usefae&pfEdkifygonf? 2



        2
            For more, see the Tor site: http://tor.eff.org/cvs/tor/doc/CLIENTS


        96 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           96                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                    qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               yGifhaeaom/ vltrsm; toHk;jyKEdkifaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk toHk;jyK&ef a,bk,stm;jzifh
                     H    kd                                    f G     kf l                  k
               t=urjyKvyg? ody+f y;D tEW&m,fr}u;D vSonfh 0ef;usiwif aexdiorsm;om (,m,D oH;k vdv#i/f od@k r[kwf
               c%wmr# trnfrazmfvdkbJ oHk;vdkv#if) toHk;jyKoifhygonf? ta&;}uD;aom owif;rsm;twGuf
               toHk;rjyKygESifh?)

                             ajrmif ; azmuf I oG m ;jcif ; ? (Tunneling)
               ajrmif;azmufI oGm;jcif; (Tunneling)
               qdkonfrSm wenf;tm;jzifh ydk@wfrsm;udk quf
               ay;ydk@jcif; (Port forwarding) r#om
               jzpfygonf? pm0Sufxm;aom pepf (encry-
               pted protocol) wcktwGif;Y vHkðcHr_ r&Sd
               aom/ pm0Sufxm;r_ r&Sdaom tcsuftvuf
               rsm; (insecure and unencrypted
               traffic) udk zHk;tkyfoGm;apjcif; jzpfonf?
               tifwmeuf ydwfqdk@xm;onfh EdkifiHwckwGif
               aexd k i f toH k ; jyKrnf h o l u aqmh z f 0 J , m;
               (client software) udk a'gif;vkyfvkyf&ef
               vdktyf+yD;/ ydwfqdk@xm;r_r&Sdaom EdkifiHwck&Sd
               uGefjyLwmwckodk@ ajrmif;azmuf,ljcif;yif jzpf
                                    l
               onf? toH;k jyKo. uGejf yLwmwGif tjcm;vkyf
               ief;rsm;rSm yHkrSef jzpfaomfvnf;/ toHk;jyKolu
               tifwmeuf=unfh&ef awmif;cHvmonfhtcg pm0Sufxm;onfh ajrmif;ayguf (encrypted tunnel)
               rSwqifh/ ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; cH&r_r&Sdaom ae&mrS uGefjyLwmodk@ qufoG,frnf jzpfonf? ‚u toHk;jyK
               aeol. awmif;qdkvmr_udk yGifhvif;pGm jyefvnfv$Jajymif;ay;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? Todk@ ajrmif;azmufonfh
               ozG,f oHk;Edkifonfh enf;em ud&d,mtrsKd;rsKd; &Sdygonf? toHk;jyKolu ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; r&Sdonfh EdkifiH&Sd
               rdwfaqGxH qufoG,fI yk*~vduoufouf oHk;Edkifaom ajrmif;zufxm;onfhozG,fpepf (Tunneling
               service) udk aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? Todk@ tquftoG,f r&Sdolrsm;u pD;yGm;a&;t& a&mif;0,f
               0efaqmifr_ay;aom ajrmif;azmufxm;onfhpepfudk &,lEdkifygonf? yHkrSeftm;jzifh vpOf ay;oGif;&ygonf?

               tcrJhoHk;Edkifaom ajrmufazmufxm;onfh pepfrsKd;wGif wcgw&H a=umfjimrsm;yg ygvmwwfa=umif; awG@&
               ygvdrfhrnf? Todk@ a=umfjimrsm;udk &,l&ef ±dk;±dk;pmpepf (Plain text request) jzifh ydk@v$wfae=u+yD;/
               =um;cH qm;Apfaqmif&Gufay;aeolu (Oyrm- tm%mydkifrsm;u) ,ck toHk;jyKaeolonf ajrmif;azmuf
               onfozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) udk oH;k aea=umif; od&cef@rSe;f Edi=f uygonf? xdr#ru
                   h                                                                 dS    k                k
               ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;onf aqmhufpf ya&mufqDrsm;
               (socks proxies) udk oHk;=uaoma=umifh/ 'dkrdef;trnfawmif;cHr_rsm;vnf; ayguf=um;wwfygonf?



                                                                        e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 97


HandBook.pmd                              97                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m




                   http://www.http-tunnel.com/
                   http://www.hopster.com/
                   http://htthost.com/


        tm;omcsursm; f
        ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;u pm0Suf uGef&ufpepf
        (encrypted network) jzifh v$Jajymif;ay;Edkif=uygonf?
        ajrmif;azmufonfozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;u ya&mufqD y±dwu;kd (proxy
                           h                                                                  k kd
        protocols) trsm;udk vHkjcHKpGm aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh jyKygonf? 0ufbf v$Jajymif;ay;ydk@r_rsm;omru ydkI
        aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
        pD;yGm;a&;t& 0efaqmifr_ay;aeaom vkyfief;rsm;vnf; &Sdae+yD;/ jyifywGif tquftoG,f r&Sdolrsm;u
        0,f,loHk;pGJEdkif=uygonf?

                     f
        tm;enf;csursm;
                              _            f                        dS             f
        pD;yGm;a&;t& 0efaqmifray;aeaom vkyief;rsm;onf vltrsm;od&ae=u+y;D / ydwq@kd xm;onfh pm&if;wGif
        yg0if+yD;vnf; jzpfaewwfygonf?
        Todk@ ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;udk vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwm
        rsm; (Oyrm pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ tifwmeuf uzD;rsm;) wGif oHk;I rjzpfEdkifyg? aqmhzf0J,m; xnfhoGif;&ef
        vdktyfaoma=umifh jzpfonf?
        Tenf;ynm oHk;&eftwGuf enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ tweftoifhvdktyf+yD;/ tjcm;ausmfcGr_ enf;ynmrsm;
        xuf ydkrdkcufcJygonf?

        T ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) ay;aom enf;ynmudk enf;ynm
        u|rf;usifoljzpfygu oHk;pGJ&ef toifhavsmfqHk;jzpf+yD;/ vHkjcHKpGm oHk;Edkifygonf? (odk@aomf trnfrazmfbJ
        oHk;EdkifonfhudpP r[kwfyg?) 0ufbf=unfh±Hk xufydkI oHk;pGJ&ef jzpfEdkifygonf? odk@aomf vltrsm;oHk;
        uGefjyLwmrsm;rS oHk;pGJ&ef rjzpfEdkifyg? pD;yGm;a&;t& 0efaqmifr_ay;aeaom ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f
        0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;rSm qifqmwnf;jzwf ydwfqdk@xm;onfh EdkifiHrsm;&Sd vlxkrsm;
        twGuf txl;oifhawmf+yD;/ jyifyEdkifiHrsm;wGif todrdwfaqGr&Sdolrsm; oHk;Edkifygonf?

        trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm; (Anonymous Communications
        Systems)
        ausmfcGoGm;onfh qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmrsm;ESifh trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;rSm
                                              d f      d                        D             S f f
        wln+D y;D / tcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSef cswqufr_ &Sae=uygonf? od@k aomf rwlnaom enf;pHowfrwcsursm;
        atmufwGif tvkyfvkyfudkif=uygonf? trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfhpepfrsm;onf toHk;jyKol.
        udk,fa&;tcsuftvufrsm; vHkjcHKr_&Sdapa&;Y tav;xm;+yD;/ awmif;cHvmonfh toHk;jyKol. udk,fa&;

        98 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           98                                           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                    qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



               tcsutvufrsm; (identity) udk zH;k uG,ay;xm;ygonf? olom;=unfh 0ufbquukd pDrcef@cGaeolu
                      f                                f                     G               f kd f      H J
               rjrif&yg? xdk@tjyif tqifhjrifhpepfrsm;u tqifhqifh vufv$Jajymif;ay;ydk@ (variety of routing
               techniques) +yD; TtrnfrazmfbJ qufoG,faeonfh pepfudk,fYuyif rjrif&apatmif zkH;uG,fay;
               xm;ygonf? ausmfcGoGm;I tifwmeufoHk;Edkifonfh qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfwGif TtrnfrazmfbJ qufoG,f
               onfhudpPtwGuf tav;xm;jcif; r&Sdyg? olwdk@u toHk;jyKaeol. pGrf;aqmifEdkifcGifhxuf/ wm;qD;ydwfqdk@r_
               rsm;udk ausmfvGefI tifwmeufrS owif;rsm;&,ljcif;/ ay;ydk@jcif; jyKEdkifatmif aqmif&Gufay;jcif;r#om
                                                       fG       kf k
               jzpfygonf? uef@owfxm;onfrsm;udk ausmcI oGm;Ediap±Hr#om jzpfygonf? Tod@k ausmcom;Ediap&effG G kf
               aqmif&Guf&mwGif vHkjcHKpGmqufoG,fEdkifonfh enf;pepfvdktyf+yD;/ &Hzef&Hcg v#Kd@0SufzHk;uG,fxm;r_&Sdaomf
               vnf; trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fa&;enf;pepfuJhodk@ vHk;0yHkazsmufEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg?

               trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;udk wcgw&H ausmfcGoGm;onfh qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfrsm;
                       f                                               f S          f      d f
               twGuvnf; toH;k jyKavh &S=d uygonf? Tpepf. tm;aumif;csuwckrm tvG,wul cswqufEionfh       kd f
               toifh&Sd+yD;om; uGef&ufrsm; (network) &Sdae=u+yD;/ qifqmwnf;jzwfxm;r_udk ausmfjzwfoGm;&ef
               twGuvnf; toH;k jyKEi=f uygonf? tm;omcsurm rdr.Oy"d±yf (identity) udk rjrif&apjcif;jzpfygonf?
                     f              kd                 fS d         k

               T trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;udk ausmfcGoGm;&ef qmurfAif;&Sif; pepftwGuf
               oHk;onfhtcg tcsKd@uGefjyLwmrsm;Y cGifhjyKcsufr&bJ tjcm;aemufxyf aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; xnfhoGif;cGifh
               rjyKwwf=uaoma=umifh tcuftcJ&SdEdkifygonf? vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwmrsm;rS aeI tifwmeuf wufol
               rsm;/ pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ tifwmeufuzD;rsm;rS oHk;olrsm;taejzifh Tpepfjzifh ausmfcGI qmurfAif;&Sif;
               pepfozG,f oHk;&ef rjzpfEdkifyg? xdkr#ru Tenf;ynmoHk;jcif;tm;jzifh tifwmeuf qufoG,fr_vnf;
               aES;auG;apEdkifygonf?

               EdkifiHwck odk@r[kwf tdkiftuf
               pfyD (ISP) wckrS tifwm
               euf wm;qD ; pD p pf x m;r_ u d k
               ausmf & ef t wG u f q d k v #if
                        kd f
               oufqi&m tm%mydirsm;u    kf
               Todk@ trnfrazmfbJ quf
                       f h
               oG,onfenf;pepfukd }uKd ;pm;
               ol r sm;twG u f tqif h v d k u f
                     f                kf
               ydwq@kd r_vnf; =uKH &Ediygonf?
               tu,fI Tpepfudk toHk;jyK
               olu wae&mwnf; (wnf+irf       d
               aeaom ae&mXmewck ) rS
               toHk;jyKaeygu qifqmwnf;
               jzwf pDppfonfh aqmhzf0J,m;


                                                                       e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 99


HandBook.pmd                                 99                                       11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
            qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m



                    f                S    dS G k                   G f          k kd f
        u tvG,wul axmufvr;f od&om;Edi+f y;D / qufvufqufo,&ef jiif;qdEiygonf? vltrsm;pktwGuf
        vlodrsm;aom trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;qdkv#if/ ydwfqdk@cH&ap&ef tcGifhtvrf; ydkrsm;
        ygonf? tu,fI Todk@ toHk;jyK&ef rdwfaqGtcsif;csif; toHk;jyKaeaom Ek'f (Peer node) odk@r[kwf
        vltrsm; od&Sdxm;=uaom Ek'frsm; (publicly known node) rSaeI toHk;jyKrnfqdkygu ydwfqdk@
        xm;=uaom tm%mydkifrsm;u oGm;a&mufqufoG,fcGifhudk ydwfqdk@xm;Edkifygonf? qifqmwnf;jzwf
        pDppfae=uaom tm%mydkifrsm;u olwdk@udk,fydkif Ek'fudk toHk;jyKaeaomfvnf;/ Tae&modk@ tjcm;quf
        oG,fvmr_rsm;udkvnf; pDppfapmifh=unfh ae=uvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? tcsKd@aom wif;usyfpGm csKyfcs,fxm;
        onfh EdkifiHrsm;wGif/ vlodrsm;aom pepfrsm;udkvnf; apmifh=unfhae=u+yD;/ Tpepfrsm;udk toHk;jyKolrsm;udk
        vnf; owdjyKI apmifh=unfhae=urnf jzpfygonf? 3

        tm;aumif;csursm;  f
        vHkjcHKa&;twGufa&m/ trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fEdkifr_twGufyg aqmif&Gufay;ygonf?
        vkyfief; y±dkwdkaum (protocols) trsm;pkudk vHkjcHKpGm aqmif&GufEdkifap+yD;/ 0ufbf=unfh±Hk (web
        traffic) oufoufxuf aqmif&GufEdkifpGrf; &Sdygonf?
                     k      D_ kf                              k f
        enf;ynmydi;f ulnray;Ediaom TpepftoH;k jyKaeolrsm; todut0ef;rsm;ESihf TpepftwGuf zG@H òz;ap&ef
        0dkif;0ef;a&;qGJ ae=uolrsm; &Sdygonf?

                    f
        tm;enf;csursm;
        Tpepfonf ausmfcGoGm;&ef qmurfAif;&Sif;pepftwGuf &nf&G,fI jyKvkyfxm;jcif; r[kwfyg? vltrsm;u
        Tpepfudk od&Sdxm;=uaoma=umifh ydwfqdk@qifqmjzwfawmufxm;+yD;vnf; jzpfaeEdkifygonf?
                                                h kd f
        vltrsm;oH;k uGejf yLwmrsm; (Oyrm- pm=unfwursm;/ tifwmeufuzD;rsm;) rSaeI Tpepfukd toH;k jyKI
        r&yg? ta=umif;rSm vdktyfonfh aqmhzf0J,m;udk xnfhoGif;I r&aoma=umifh jzpfonf?




        3
          For more on potential attacks on circumvention systems, see Bennett
        Haselton’s article
        (“List of possible weaknesses in systems to circumvent Internet censorship”)
        at http://peacefire.org/circumventor/list-of-possible-weaknesses.html
        and a reply by Paul Baranowski at:
        www.peekbooty.org/pbhtml/downloads/ResponseToLopwistcic.pdf


        100 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           100                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                 qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m




                    •    (Tor) pepfqdkonfrSm ajrmufazmufonfhozG,f qufay;Edkifonfh pepf (virtual
                         tunnel) jzpf+yD;/ vlrsm;/ tzGJ@rsm;udk ‚wdk@. tifwmeufudk vHkjcHKpdwfcspGm/ trnf
                         razmfbJ oHk;Edkifap&ef twGuf taxmuftuljyKygonf? TpepftwGif; rlvu
                         wnf;u yg&Sdaeaom yk*~dKvfa&;vHk jcHKa&;qdkif&m vkyfief;rsm; (built-in privacy
                         features) jzifh aqmhz0,m; a&;Ekiorsm;u rdrbmom topfaom qufo,a&;
                                                   f J       df l         d                          G f
                         pepfukd a&;,lEiygonf? (Tor) pepfonf tjcm; toH;k csrrsm;twGuvnf; tajccH
                                         kd f                                       _        f
                         azmifa';&Sif;ozG,f aqmif&Gufay;aoma=umifh/ tzGJ@rsm;/ woD;yk*~v vlyk*~dKvfrsm;u
                         vltrsm;oHk; uGef&uf (public networks) rsm;rSwqifh rdrdudk,fa&; tcsuf
                         tvufrsm;udk vlodrcH&apbJ owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk jzef@jzL; ay;Edkifygonf?
                                 http://tor.eff.org
                    •    (JAP) pepfonf tifwmeufay:wGif rdrdtrnfudk rodapbJ oGm;a&mufvnfywf
                         Edkifapygonf? 0ufbf qmAmodk@ wdkuf±dkufqufoG,fjcif;rsKd; r[kwfbJ/ vrf;a=umif;
                         v$Jajymif;/ auG@aumufoGm;+yD; =um;cHuGefjyLwm rsm;rSwqifh pm0Sufpepf (encry-
                         ption) jzifom;+y;D / &&Sapygonf? T=um;cH jzwfom;aom uGejf yLwmrsm;udk a&maxG;
                                      h G        d                          G
                         apolrsm; (mixes) [k ac:ygonf?
                                http://anon.inf.tu-dresden.de/index_en.html
                    •    z&D;euf (freenet) qdkonfrSm tcrJhay;oHk;aom aqmhzf0J,m;jzpf+yD;/ qifqm
                         jzwfawmufr_udk pdk;&drfa=umifh=uae&ef r&SdbJ tifwmeufay:rS owif;tcsuf
                         tvufrsm; &,l&ef toHk;jyKEdkifygonf? Tpepfonf A[dkcsufrwckwnf;rS xdef;csKyf
                                               f                        l                              kd
                         xm;aom pepfr[kwb/J cGjJ zef@xm;+y;D toH;k jyKorsm;rSm trnfrazmfbJ toH;k jyKEi=f u
                         ygonf?
                                http://freenet.souurceforge.net

               Tpepfrsm;udk toHk;jyKjcif;onf enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ vdktyfygonf?
               Todk@ trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fEdkifonfh enf;ynmrsm;onf tifwmeufrsm;udk ausmfcGwufI
                                                        k                       h f
               toH;k jyK&ef/ trnfrazmfbJ toH;k jyK&ef vdtyfaeolrsm;twGuf txl;oifavsmaom enf;ynmjzpfygonf?
               Tpepfrsm;u 0ufbf=unfh&Hkoufouf (web traffic) xuf aqmif&Gufay;Edkif=uaomfvnf;/ jyify
               vltrsm;oHk;ae=uaom uGefjyLwmrsm;rS vkyfudkifaqmif&GufEdkifjcif; r&Sd=uyg?




                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 101


HandBook.pmd                            101                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m




        ed*Hk;
        Todk@ tifwmeufrsm;udk ausmfcGoGm;&ef qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmrsm;udk toHk;jyKolrsm;taejzifh
        tav;teuf csifhcsdefpOf;pm;&ef vdktyf+yD;/ rdrd. vdktyfcsuf tao;pdwf/ &&SdEdkifonfh t&if;tjrpf
        (resources) rsm;ESifh aemufqHk; toHk;jyKrnfhol. vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyefzG,f tcsufrsm;udk
        xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&rnf jzpfygonf? toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf Tenf;ynmrsm;ESifh ywfoufI a&G;cs,fp&m
        trsm;tjym; &Sdaeygonf? odk@aomfvnf; Tenf;pepfrsm;udk wnf+idrfpGm/ xda&mufpGm tifwmeuf
        wm;qD;jzwfawmufxm;r_rsm;udk ausmfv$m;Edkif&efrSm ta=umif;tcsuf rsm;pGmtay: rlwnfaeygonf?
        toHk;jyKol. enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_/ jzpfvmEdkifaom tEW&m,frsm;/ qifqmwnf;jzwf xm;onfh EdkifiHjyify
                 D kd f    f dS               h         h G
        wGif ulnEirnfh rdwaqG&-r&Sd ponfjziftay: xnfoi;f pOf;pm;=u &rnf jzpfygonf? tpd;k &rsm;uvnf;
        Todk@tifwmeuf ausmfcGI qufoG,f=uonfh enf;ynmrsm;udk ydwfqdk@Edkifonfh pGrf;&nf &Sdaumif; &Sd
        ygvdrfhrnf?

                                   fG G kf                                  G           d f G
        tifwmeufrsm;udk ausmcom;Edionfh qmurfAif;&Si;f pepf xda&mufpmESihf wnf+irpm toH;k jyKEi&efrm  kd f S
                   _S       kd f             kd f                S hf            kd f
        ,H=k unfrEihf oufqiovdk toH;k jyKEionfh pGr;f aqmif&nfEivnf; oufqiygonf? qmurfAif;&Si;f pepf
        rsm;u tajctaewckatmufY &Sdaeonfh toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf &SmazG&&SdEdkifap&rnf jzpf+yD;/ aemufqHk;
                      h l        k      f                                 d hf
        toH;k jyKrnforsm;. vdtyfcsut& pGr;f aqmifxm;ay;jcif;rsK;d jzpf&ygvrrnf? Tpepfrsm;onf vHðk cr&&ef  H _ dS
        vdktyfouJhodk@/ vdktyfovdk jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; (configure) vkyfEdkif&ygvdrfhrnf? xdk@tjyif v#Kd@0Sufr_
        trnfrayguf=um;apr_ &Sd&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;pepf axmufyHhay;xm;olESihf aemufqHk;
        toHk;jyKaeolt=um; ,Hk=unfr_ &Sdaeap&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? ‚wdk@t=um;&Sd Oya'ydkif;qdkif&mt&/
        EdkifiHa&;t& tcif;tusif;rsm;udkvnf; em;vnfxm;ygu ydkaumif;ygonf? xdk@tjyif pwiftoHk;rjyKrD
        uwnf;u qmurfAif;&Sif;enf;ynm. tuef@towfrsm;udkvnf; od&Sdxm;oihfygonf?




        102 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            102                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                               qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m




               emwf ADvefEl; (Nart Villeneuve) onf uae'gEdkifiH/ wdk&Gefwdk wuUodkvf/ ref@cf (Munk)
               EdkifiHwumavhvma&; Xme&Sd ynm&yfXmeaygif;pk "gwfcGJprf;oyfcef;/ EdkifiHom;rsm;. vufbf
               (Citizen lab) rS enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m u|rf;usifolwOD;vnf; jzpfygonf? ynm&SifwOD;jzpfovdk/
               aqmhzf0J,m; a&;aeol ynm&Sifvnf; jzpfonf? urBmw0Srf; tifwmeufrsm;
               pDppfjzwfawmufjcif;ESifh apmifh=unfhaejcif;rsm;udk avhvmokawoejyKaeonfh (OpenNet
               Initiative) wGif vuf&Sd wm0efxrf;aqmifaeolvnf; jzpfygonf? olu vuf&Sd
               toHk;jyKae=uaom qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;pepfrsm;udk oHk;oyfavhvmaeolvnf; jzpf+yD;/
               ‚aqmhzf0J,m; enf;ynmrsKd;udk a&;om;zGH@òz;ap&ef aqmif&Gufaeolvnf; jzpfygonf?
               ol.pdwf0ifpm;onfh bmom&yfrsm;wGif tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdk@ wnf;jzwfr_tjyif/
               (hacktivism) ac: tifwmeuf xdk;azmuf0ifa&muf u|rf;usifolrsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_/ qdkifbm
               t=urf;zuf vkyfief;rsm;ESifh tifwmeufvHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m udpPrsm;udkvnf; avhvmaeygonf?
               ewf ADvefEl; (Nart Villeneuve) onf wdk&GefwdkwuUodkvf/ +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh yÉdyuQrsm;
               avhvma&;XmerS r=umao;rDu bGJ@&&SdcJholvnf; jzpfygonf?

               aus;Zl;wifrSwfwrf;
               Michelle Levesque, Derek Bambauer and Bennett Haselton




                                                                e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 103


HandBook.pmd                          103                                     11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t& vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;




        oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t&
        vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;
        vl'dkApfuf yD&ufwf (Ludovic Pierrat)

        ,cktcg tpdk;&trsm;wGif tDvufx&Gefepfenf;jzifh ydk@vmonfh owif;rsm;/ pmrsm;udk apmifh=unfhaxmuf
        vSrf;Edkifonfh enf;emrsm; &Sdae=uonf? zdESdyfaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif TudpPtwGuf aqmif±Guf=urnfh
        “qdkifbmykvdyfrsm;” xm;&SdI EdkifiHa&;t& twdkuftcHa&;om;rnfholrsm;udk &SmazG/ zrf;qD;jcif; jyK=u
        ygonf? tcsKd@aomol trsm;tjym;rSm tD;ar;vfydk@jcif;/ pmwckudk xyfrHjzef@a0jcif; (forwarding)
        twGuf axmifoGif;tusOf;cscHcJh=u&ygonf? armvf'dkufzfpf EdkifiH&SdvlwOD;rSm tjynfjynfqdkif&m vGwf+idrf;
        csrf;omcGifhtzGJ@}uD; (Amnesty International) odk@ tD;ar;vfqufoG,fr_jzifh (2002) ckESpfwGif
        axmif'%f (15) ESpf csrSwfcH&ygonf? (2003) ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGifvnf; qD&D;,m;EdkifiHrS tifwmeuf
        toHk;jyK olwOD;onf tD;ar;vfowif;pmwapmifudk jzef@a0ay;ydk@r_ESifh axmifcscHxm;&ygonf?

        ,ckatmufwGif azmfjyrnfhenf;rsm;onf oif. tD;ar;vfu yk*~dKvfa&;t& vHkjcHKpGm ay;ydk@Edkif&eftwGuf
        taxmuftul jyKEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?

        oif. tD;ar;vfudk vufcHzGifhay;xm;onfh tifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_ ukr`%Drsm; (Internet Service
        Providers— ISP) (Oyrm attdkt,fvfjzpfap/ 0efem'l; jzpfap/ tcrJh tD;ar;vfyifjzpfap)/
        odk@r[kwf tjcm;ukr`%Drsm;jzpfap/ olwdk@u oif. yk*~vduvHkjcHKa&;udk wm0ef,lrnfr[kwf=uyg? oif.
        pm/ odk@r[kwf tD;ar;vfjzwfoef;oGm;rnfh uGef&ufrsm;u tvG,fwulyif =um;jzwfzrf;,lI zwf±_Edkif
        =uygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd tD;ar;vfrsm;/ tifwmeufoHk;olrsm; tay: axmufvSrf;
        vdk=uaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif ‚ (ISP) rsm;udk jzwfoGm;aom tD;ar;vfrsm;udk zwf&_avh &Sd=uygonf?

        &[l;/ a[mhwfar;vfwdk@uJhodk@aom 0ufbfar;vfrsm;wGifrl ydkI vHkjcHKr_ &Sdygonf? ta=umif;rSm ‚wdk@u
        a'ocH (ISP) qmAmudk toHk;rjyK=uaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? 0ufbfar;vfudk toHk;jyK&eftwGuf
        oifu tifwmeuftwGif; a&mufap&ef vrf;xGif&+yD;/ =um;jzwfzwf&_vdkygu 0ufbfay:&SdaepOf umv
        twGif;om zwfEdkifygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh axmufvSrf;&ef ydkI cufcJygonf? odk@aomfvnf; TvHkðcHr_
        rsKd;rSm Ed_if;,SOfcsuft& tenf;i,fom omvGefr_&Sdygonf? u|rf;usifol qdkifbmykvdyfrsm;/ [ufum
        (hackers) ac: uGefjyLwmazmufxGif;0dZ…mrsm;u oif. 0ufbfar;vfrsm;udk cdk;,lzwf±_Edkif=uygonf?

        pm0Sufjcif; (encryption) (uk'frsm;jzifh umuG,fay;xm;jcif;) onfom oif. tD;-ar;vfrsm;u
        yk*~vduoufouf/ vHkjcHKr_&Sdap&ef tmrcHay;Edkifonfh pepfjzpfygonf? (2) rsKd; &Sdygonf?



        104 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                           104                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                   oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t& vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;



               yHkpH±dk;±dk; (usrf;±dk;) pm0Sufpepf (Classic Encryption)
               tef;ESifh rdkufu,fu tjyeftvSef v#Kd@0Sufowif;rsm;/ pmrsm; zvS,fae=uygonf? olwdk@u pm0Sufpepf
               oHk;&ef oabmwlnD=u+yD;/ pmjyefazmf&efttwGuf uk'frsm;/ aomhrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? Tpepfudk oHk;I
               pmay;ydk@zvS,f=uygonf?

               Tpepf. tm;enf;csufrSm tjcm;wwd,vlwOD;u tef;ESifh rdkufu,fwdk@ aomhudkzvS,faepOf ‚aomh
               csufudk &xm;ygu zwf&_&ef jzpfEdkifouJhodk@/ tef;ESifh rdkufu,fxHodk@vnf; pmtwkrsm; a&;om;ay;ydk@
               Edkifygao;onf? odk@twGufa=umifh tef;ESifh rdkufu,fwdk@ aomhzvS,faepOfwGif rnfolr# rod&Sdap&ef
               vdktyfygonf? Oyrm vlcsif;awG@qHkI ay;Edkifygonf?

               zufrnDaom pm0Sufpepf (Asymmetric Encryption)
               Tjy\emtwGuf taumif;qHk;enf;rSm zufrnDaom pm0Sufpepf “asymmetric encryption”
               udk oHk;jcif; jzpfonf? TudpPtwGuf aomh 2 ck vdktyfygonf? wckrSm pm0Suf&efaomhjzpf+yD;/ tjcm;wckrSm
               pmazmf&efaomh jzpfygonf? pm0Suf&rnfhaomh (encryption key—public key) tao;pdwf
               tcsuftvufrsm;udk tifwmeufay:rSwqifh pdk;&drfp&mrvdkbJ zvS,fEdkifonf? ta=umif;rSm Taomhjzifh
               pmazmf&ef rjzpfEiaoma=umifh jzpfonf? pmazmfaomh (decryption key) rSm v#K@d 0Suaomh (secret
                                  kd f                                                            f
               key) jzpf+yD; vHk;0 ray;ydk@&yg?

               TzufrnDaom pm0SufpepfY tef;wGif olrudk,fydkif aomhwpHk &Sdygonf? (olrudk,fydkifodrf;xm;&rnfh
               (secret key) ESifh olrsm;odk@ ay;Edkifonfh (public key) jzpfonf?) tef;u rdkufu,fxHodk@
               aomhudkay;ygonf? xdkolu TaomhudkoHk; pm0SufI olrxH jyefydk@rnf jzpfonf? rdkufu,fuvnf;
                                                                                                G             G
               ol. aomhukd tef;xH jyefI yd@k xm;ygonf? olruvnf; Taomhukd oH;k I vH;k 0vHjk cKH pm jyef=um;qufo,f
               Edkif=uygonf?

               odk@aomfvnf; trsm;oHk;aomh (public key) udk tifwmeufay:wGif txl; tumtuG,fr&Sd
               zvS,f=uaomtcg ‚aomh. vHkjcHKpdwfcs&r_udk ydkif&SifESifh jyefppfaq;onfu taumif;qHk;jzpfygonf?
               aomhwdkif;wGif (fingerprint) [k ac:onfh vufaAG&m &Sdygonf? ‚vufaAG&mqdkonfrSm pum;vHk;
               twdkav;rsm; jzpf+yD;/ vludk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ zkef;ay:rSaomfvnf;aumif; qufoG,fI ppfaq;
               Edkifonf?

               Todk@ twnfjyKcsufr&aom aomhonf pdwfcs&aom aomhr[kwfyg? tjcm;wwd,vlwOD;rS zefwD;I
               0ifay;onfvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf? Todk@ r±dk;om;aomt=uHjzifh 0ifa&mufvmygu rdrdwdk@pm0Sufae
               or#vnf; tcsD;ESD;jzpf&awmhrnf jzpfonf? TzufrnDaom pm0Sufpepf (asymmetric encryp-
               tion) wckvHk;onf v#Kd@0Sufxm;&rnfh rdrdaomhudk vHk;0odrf;qnf; xm;Edkifr_ESifh tjcm;ol. ay;vmaom
               aomh (public key) tay:wGif ,Hk=unf&r_tay: rlwnfaeygonf?



                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 105


HandBook.pmd                             105                                       11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t& vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;



        vGwfvyfpGmoHk;Edkifaom yD*sDyDpepf (OpenPGP—Open Pretty Good Privacy) onf
               S f           h                f       f
        pHowfrwxm;onfozG,f aumif;rGeonfh pm0SupepfwrsK;d jzpfygonf? vlo;kH rsm;aom tjcm;pepfwckrm  S
        (GnuPG—GNU Privacy Guard) jzpf+yD;/ aomhtpHkudk zefwD;Edkifjcif;ESifh pma&;om;quf
        oG,fr_udk vHkjcHKpGm aqmif&GufEdkif=uygonf? ‚udk oef;'g;b'f (Thunderbird)/ atmufvGwfcf
        (Outlook) ponfh ar;vfydk@onfh y±dk*&rfrsm;ESifhvnf; yl;wGJ toHk;jyKEdkif=uygonf? tjcm; 0ufbf
        ar;vfrsm;/ csufcsif; pmydk@pepfrsm; (instant messaging) jzifhvnf; wGJI toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?

        *sDtef,l yD*sD (GnuPG) udk (www.gnupg.org) ae&mwGif a'gif;vkyf vkyf,lEdkifygonf?
        0if;'dk;pf pepftwGuf txl;Am;&Sif;udk (www.winpt.org) ae&mwGif a'gif;vkyf vkyf,lEdkifygonf?

        vl'dkApfuf yD&ufwf (Ludovic Pierrat) onf “0” "Wa" ukr`%Dudk aqmif±Gufaeonfh
        uGefjyLwm tif*sifeD,mwOD; jzpfygonf? owif;enf;ynmt=uHay;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh xkwfvkyfa&;
        aqmif±Gufaeonfh ukr`%Dwck jzpfygonf?




        106 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                          106                                   11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 107


HandBook.pmd   107              11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
        108 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                     108           11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                                       tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;




                           tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;
                                                                                                            *sLvD,H ydef (Julien Pain)



               urBmay:&Sd tm%m&SifEdkifiH trsm;pku ‚wdk@.EdkifiHom;rsm; tifwmeuftGefvdkif;ay:wGif zwfvdkor#/
               vk y f u d k i f a qmif ± G u f vd k o r#ud k xd e f ; csKyf & ef }uKd ; yrf ; avh & S d = uygonf ? ol w d k @ u “jiif ; y,f z G , f ”
               “Objectionable” [k ,lqonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ydwq@kd &ef ydIydI u|r;f usif vkyaqmifvm     f    k k                      f
               Edkif=uygonf? txl;ojzifh Tenf;ynmrsm;udk tar&duef ukr`%Drsm;rS 0,f,lcJh=ujcif; jzpfygonf?
               w±kwfEdkifiHu TudpPrsKd;wGif txl;ydwfqdk@Edkif+yD;/ urBmhcsHyD,H[kyif qdk&ygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; r=um
               ao;rDESpfrsm;u ydkrdk+yKdifqdkifr_ jyif;xefvmonfhtwGufa=umifh ,cktcg pdk;&drfylyefvmae&+yD jzpfygonf?
                                           kfH                              h kH                h G
               atmufazmfjyyg Ediirsm;pm&if;rsm;rSm rjynfpyg? rsm;pGm xnfoi;f azmfjy&ef vdtyfvrO;D rnf jzpfygonf?    k          d hf
               odk@aomfvnf; TEdkifiHrsm;u ‚wdk@udk,fydkifenf;em pepfrsm;jzifh tm;}udK;rmefwuf aqmif±Gufae=uyg
               onf? ‚wdk@. &nfrSef;csufrSm tifwmeufudk ydwfqdk@xm;Edkifa&; +ydKifyGJY xdyfpD;u tom&aeapa&;yif
               jzpfygonf?

               urBmhcsHyD,H w±kwfEdkifiH
               w±kwfEdkifiHu tifwmeufr&SdbJESifh ‚wdk@rvkyfaqmifEdkif[k yxrOD;qHk;oabmaygufvmcJhonfh zdESdyfol
               tm%m&Sif EdkifiHwck jzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifhvnf; tifwmeufudk cGifhay;cJh+yD;/ xdef;csKyfr_atmufY
               xm;&SdapcJhygonf? TEdkifiHonf ‚wdk@. tpdk;&udk a0zefqef@usifaeonfh t&mudpPrsm;tm;vHk;udk
               ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;Edkifonfh wckwnf;aom EdkifiHjzpfygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif tifwmeufudkvnf;
                                       G f h             P               f fS            f HS
               us,jf yef@ap&ef aqmif±uaecJygonf? TudptwGuf v#K@d 0Sucsurm &if;ES;D jrK‡ yEr/_ enf;ynmESihf oHwref
               a&;udk aygif;pyfI toHk;csaejcif;om jzpfygonf?

               ab*sif;tpdk;&u a':vmoef; q,fESifhcsDoHk;I tifwmeufudk wnf;jzwf&ef/ qifqmvkyf&ef pufypPnf;
               ud&d,mrsm; 0,f,laecJhygonf? txl;tqifhjrifhonfh enf;ynm pufypPnf;rsm;udkvnf; 0,f,lwyfqif
               xm;cJhygonf? ‚wdk@oHk;aeaom pepfu vlqdk;pm&if;[k owfrSwfcH&onfh 0ufbfqdkuf/ tifwmeuf
               pmrsufESmrsm;udk tcsdefESifhtr# tvdktav#muf jznfhqD; (update) vkyfay;aeonfh pepfjzpfygonf?
               “tzsuftarSmifh” [k owfrSwfcHxm;&onfh ae&mrsm; &Sdygonf? tjyma&mif npfnrf;yHkrsm;[k qdk&mY
               t"dy`g,fus,fjyef@pGm zGifhxm;+yD;/ EdkifiHa&; a0zefcsufrsm;/ wdbufta&;ESifh wdkif0rfvGwfvyfa&;udk
               axmufcHonfh ponfh tifwmeuf pmrsufESmrsm; jzpfygonf? TpmrsufESmrsm;udk EdkifiH&Sd tifwmeuf
               ausm&dk; “backbones” [k ac:onfhae&mrS ydwfxm;ygonf? (qufoG,fxm;onfh yifrae&m
               (major connection node) [k qdk&ygvdrfhrnf?) qifqmydwfqdk@r_rSm Tr#ESifh &yfwef@raeyg?
               tm%m&Sitpd;k &u 0d0g'uGjJ ym;zG,/f rouFmzG,f t"duusonfh pmvH;k rsm; (“dubious” keyword)
                         f
               ygonf h qd k u f r sm;ud k v nf ; tvd k t av#muf yd w f q d k @ xm;ygao;onf ? Oyrm- wD , ef t if r if

                                                                                         e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 109


HandBook.pmd                                      109                                                       11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;



        (Tianamen) (taygif;) tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf owfjzwfr_ (massacre) ponfh udpPrsKd; &SmazGvmyg
        uvnf; wm;qD;xm;ygao;onf?

        tm%m&Siftpdk;&u tGefvdkif;aqG;aEG;r_rsm;udkvnf; qifqmwnf;jzwfr_ jyKae+yD;/ csufcsif; &yfqdkif;ypfEdkif
                                        h                     kf        df           d dS G f kd
        ygonf? aemufq;kH ay: tqifjh rifenf;ynmrsm;ESihf qdibmykvyrsm;u owW&pm tGevi;f twGi;f aqG;aEG;
        ae=uolrsm;udk apmihf=unfhae=uygonf? xdkolrsm; ta&twGufrSm aomif;*%ef;ausmfI &Sdrnfjzpf+yD;
                    kfH             k f                                    S f
        ‚wd@k udk Ediia&;t& twdutcGjyKae=uolrsm;[kvnf; owfrwxm;=uygonf? (vGecaom ESptenf;        f hJ      f
        i,ftwGif;wGif ydkI wufºupGm aqmif±GufaqG;aEG;vmcJh=uygonf?) Oyrmtm;jzifh- a±G;aumufyGJrsm;
        jyKvkyfay;&ef awmif;qdkjcif; ponfh aqG;aEG;r_rsKd;rSm tGefvdkif;wGif em&D0ufr#om ajymqdk&+yD; jzwfawmuf
        cH=u&ygonf? pufr_ESifh jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;Xmeu bavmhrsm;udkvnf; txl;owdxm;apmifh=unfh ae+yD;/
        toHk;jyKolrsm;udk qifqmwnf;jzwfEdkif&eftwGuf w±kwftajcpdkuf bavmhrsm;udk zefwD;xm;ay;ygonf?
        bkef;awmf}uD; 'vdkifvm;rm;ta=umif; tifwmeufay:wGif azmfjycsufonf trJa&mifrifokwfxm;onfh
        azmfjycsufrsm;jzpfap&ef tvdktav#muf zefwD;xm;ygao;onf? Tpum;vHk;rsm;u “w&m;0ifazmfjy
        cGifhr&Sd” aom pum;vHk;rsm;[k owfrSwfxm;=uygonf?

        odk@aomfvnf; w±kwfEdkifiHtaejzifh Tr# tqifhjrifhonfh enf;ynmrsm;/ pufypPnf;rsm;udk rnfodk@
        &vmoenf;[k ar;p&m &Sdaeygonf? vGefcJhaom q,fpkESpfu TEdkifiHwGif tifwmeufukr`%Drsm;yif
        r&SdcJhao;yg? ta=umif;rSm tar&duef ukr`%D}uD;rsm;. tultnDjzifh &vmjcif;yif jzpfonf? Oyrm
        (Cisco) uJo@kd aom ukr%rsK;d u OD;aqmifvyay;aeygonf? Tukr%rsm;u w±kwEii. aps;uGuf
                      h          ` D                  k f                 ` D            f kd f H
        wpdwfwydkif;udk &onfyif jzpfap/ tusKd;tjrwfrsm;aoma=umifh rufvHk;ozG,f jzpfaeygonf? w±kwfEdkifiH
        wGif tifwmeuftoHk;jyKol oef; (100) ausmf &Sdaeygonf? olwdk@u rsufaphydwfI yl;aygif; aqmif±Guf
                             h                               kf
        ae=uygonf? rnfonfenf;ynmudk oH;k onfjzpfap 0ifvy&efvnf; 0efrav; jzpfae=uygonf? tcsK@d aom
        ukr`%Drsm;u tm%m&Siftpdk;&ESifh wdkuf±dkufyl;aygif;aqmif±GufI tifwmeufrsm;udk pDppf&ef/ apmifh=unfh
        &ef vkyfief;rsm; 0ifulae=uygao;onf?

        w±kwEiiu urBm. yifr&Smpuf (search-engine) [kq&rnfh ukr%}D u;D uyif 'l;axmufc,vm
                   f kd f H                                        kd     `
        ap&ef aqmif±GufEdkifcJhygonf? &[l;ukr`%Du vGefcJhaomESpftenf;i,ftwGif;u w±kwfbmompum;
        jzifhay;onfh Am;&Sif;rS w±kwftpdk;&udk qef@usifonfh ta=umif;t&mtm;vHk;udk y,fzsufay;&ef oabm
              D hJ            f k ` D       k            hJ                            l
        wlncygonf? *l;*Jvur%u tpydi;f wGif jiif;qefcaomfvnf; ,cktcg tvm;wl jyKrvm&+yD jzpfonf?

        w±kwfEdkifiH. &Jrsm;ESifh w&m;±Hk;rsm;uvnf; w±kwfuGefjrLepfywDtpdk;&u csrSwfxm;onfh Oya'pnf;rsOf;
        rsm;udk rvdkufemonfh 0ufbfqdkuft,f'Dwmrsm;qdkv#if tnd‡K;taw;xm;I jyif;xefpGm tjypfay;avh
        &Sdonf? qdkifbmtwdkuftcHorm; (75) OD;wdk@rSm ,cktcsdefwGif vGwfvyfonfhowif;rsm; tifwmeuf
        tGefvdkif;ay:wGif ay;ydk@azmfjyr_a=umifh tusOf;cscHae=u&qJjzpf+yD;/ tcsKd@olrsm;rSm axmif'%f (10) ESpf
        xufydkI csrSwfcHxm;=u&onf?



        110 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            110                                         11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                       tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;



               odk@twGufa=umifh w±kwfEdkifiHwGif oifu bavmhwckudk pwif (set up) rvkyfrDuyif rnfonfh
               Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm; csxm;onfudk od&Sdygu taumif;qHk;jzpfonf? urBmhtGefvdkif; qifqmwnf;jzwfr_wGif
               AdkvfpGJaeonfh TEdkifiHY aexdkifae=uaom bavmh*grsm; taejzifh owdtxl;&Sd&ef vdktyfovdk/ wDxGif
               zefwD;r_vnf; &Sd&ef vdkygvdrfhrnf?

               tvGefwif;usyfonfh tzGJ@jzifh ESdyfuGyfxm;onfh AD,uferfEdkifiH
               AD,uferfEdkifiHu w±kwfEdkifiH. Oyrmudk opPm&SdpGm vdkufaeonf? odk@aomfvnf; ‚u t,l0g'a&;&m
               t& ydkI wif;usyfonf? ta=umif;rSm ‚u tdrfeD;csif;w±kwfEdkifiHuJhodk@ enf;ynmESifh pD;yGm;a&; rufvHk;
               ay; qGJaqmifEdkifonfh pGrf;&nf r&Sdaoma=umifh jzpfonf? TEdkifiHwGif “tzsuftarSmufvkyfief;rsm;”[k
               owfrSwfxm;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onfh 0ufbfqdkufrsm;udk apmifh=unfhaernfh qdkifbm
                     d f d                            k              S                kf      k f
               ykvyrsm;&Sovd/k tifwmeufuzD;rsm;udvnf; axmufvr;f ae=uonf? qdibm twdutcHorm;rsm;ESihf
               bavmh*grsm;udkrl jyif;jyif;xefxef ESdyfuGyfavh &Sdonf? 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;a=umif; tGefvdkif;ay:wGif
                  hf       k J hJ h                                                 f              S        h
               zGi[ajymqd&conftwGuf vl (3) OD;udk zrf;qD;cJ+h y;D axmif'%f (3) ESpausmf jypf'%fcsrwf xm;cJonf?

               pHjy Zmwfaqmif wleD;&Sm;
               orw Zdkif; t,fvf-tmbD'if; bif tmvD (Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali) . rdom;pku wleD;&Sm;
               EdkifiH. tifwmeufvkyfief;rsm;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkyf xdef;csKyfxm;+yD;/ tGefvdkif; v_yf&Sm;r_rSefor#udk qifqm
               vkyf wnf;jzwfEdkifrnfh pepfrsm;vnf; xda&mufpGm wyfqifumuG,fxm;cJhonf? twdkuftcHrsm;.
               0ufbfqdkufrsm;odk@ oGm;=unfh&ef }udK;yrf;r_rsm; tm;vHk;udk ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;onf? xdk@tjyif toHk;jyKol
                                                       rsm;rSm tcsKd@aomowif;Xmersm;. qdkufrsm;udkyif oGm;=unfhI
                                                       r&wwf=uyg? Oyrm- jyifopfEdkifiHxkwf vpfbma&;&Sif; (vGwf
                                                       vyfa&;) owif;pmrsKd; jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif ‚tm%m&Sif tpdk;&
                                                       u vlxktrsm; 0ufbfar;vfrsm; oHk;onfudkvnf; tm;ray;cJhyg?
                                                       Tpepfu yHkrSeftD;ar;vfrsm;xufpmv#if axmufvSrf;&ef ydkcuf
                                                       cJonf r[kwfygvm;? &[l;ar;vfodk@ wuf&ef wleD;&Sm;&Sd qdkifbm
                                                       uaz;wckrS }udK;pm;ygu rdepf (20) cef@ tcsdef ,l&wwfygonf?
                                                       wcgw&H tcsdefukef+yD (Time out) [laom azmfjycsufrsKd;/
                                                       pmrsufESm &SmrawG@yg (page not found) [laom azmfjy
                                                       csufrsKd; jyefvmwwfygonf? e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;
                                                       tzGJ@. 0ufbfqdkufudk TEdkifiHwGif;rS zwf±_I r&yg?
               orw Zdkif; t,fvf-tmbD'if; bif tmvD
               EdkifiHwum rdom;pku wleD;&Sm;EdkifiH. tifwmeufxdef;csKyfxm;yHkudk rESpf+rdK@/ vufrcHEdkif=uao;
               aomfvnf; ukvor*~ESifh qufEG,faeonfh tzGJ@tpnf;wckjzpfaom tjynfjynfqdkif&m w,fvDuGefjrLeD
               au;&Sif; qufoG,fa&;or*~ (International Telecommunication Union—ITU) u
               2005 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvwGif wleD;&Sm;EdkifiHwGif owif;enf;ynm vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;. urBmhxdyfoD;tpnf;
               ta0; (World Summit on Information Society—WSWS) tdr&itjzpf vufcusi;f y      fSf           H


                                                                        e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 111


HandBook.pmd                              111                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;



                   f hJ                kfH                                                 f hJ     f
        &ef a±G;cs,cygonf? wle;D &Sm;Ediiukd tifwmeufz@HG òz;r_. pHjyZmwfaqmiftjzpf a±G;cs,confh pdwu;l rSm
        ausmcsrf;zG,f aumif;aeygawmhonf?

        qdk;&Gm;azmufjyefonfh wyfzGJ@ESifh tD&efEdkifiH
        tGefvdkif;qifqmwnf;jzwfr_udk tm&Swdkuf&Sd uGefjrLepf tpdk;&rsm;uom aqmif±Gufonf r[kwfyg?
        vGefcJhaom ESpfrsm;twGif; tD&efEdkifiHwGifvnf; tGefvdkif; qifqmwnf;jzwfr_rsm; wdk;wufaqmif±Guf
        vmcJhygonf? owif;jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD; Xmeu 0ufbfqdkufaygif;odef;ESifhcsDI ydwfqdk@xm;Edkif+yDjzpfa=umif;
                     f hJ            k kd f H      f kd f
        ºum;vH;k xkwcygao;onf? xdEiiukd csKyuixm;onfh bmoma&;acgi;f aqmif rlvmrsm;u vdirupEihf        f _ d PS
        ywfoufaom 0ufbfqdkufrsm;tm;vHk;udk wif;usyfxm;+yD;/ vGwfvyfpGm azmfjyonfh owif;Xmersm;/
        qdkufrsm;udkvnf; onf;nnf;cHavh r&Sd=uyg?

        Ttm%m&Sif tpdk;&u tqdk;±Gm;qHk;aom qifqmwnf;jzwfr_udk aqmif±Gufae+yD;/ (2005) ckESpfwGif
        bavmha&;ol (20) cef@udk axmif'%f (10) vausmf csxm;cJhjcif;jzifh urBmhpHcsdefcsKd;cJhygonf? ‚wdk@
        teufrS (3) OD;rSm (2005) ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@wdkif axmifrsm;twGif; uscHae&qJ jzpfygonf?

        '¾m&DxJu usL;bm;EdkifiH
        usL;bm;EdkifiHrS tm%m&Siftpdk;&onf ‚. w,fvDzkef;=um;jzwf em;axmifjcif;rsm;twGuf ausmf=um;
        ovdk/ tGefvdkif; tifwmeuf qifqmjzwfawmufr_rsm;wGifvnf; txl;u|rf;usifvSygonf? w±kwfEdkifiH.
        Oyrmjzpfonfh wbufwGif tifwmeufudk csJ@xGifaeaomfvnf;/ wbufwGif xdef;csKyfaeonfhyHkpHrSm
        vGefpGmaiGukefa=u;us rsm;vSygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh orw zD',f uufpx±dku aps;oufomonfh
        enf;udk a±G;cs,fcJhygonf? tifwmeufudk omrefusL;bm; jynfolvlxkrsm; vufvSrf;rrDEdkifap&ef vkyf
                                                       xm;vdkufjcif;om jzpfonf? usL;bm;EdkifiHwGif tif
                                                       wmeuf wufEdkifolrsm;rSm tcGifhxl;cH vlenf;pk
                                                       tenf;i,fr#om &Sdygonf? ‚wdk@rSm usL;bm;
                                                       uGefjrLepfygwDudk cGifhjyKcsufawmif;cH+yD;rS oHk;pGJEdkif
                                                       =ujcif; jzpfonf? wcgw&H w&m;r0if tGefvdkif;
                                                       wufI&aomfvnf;/ txl;qifqm wnf;jzwf
                                                       xm;onfh udpPrsm;udkom zwf±_Edkifrnf jzpfygonf?

                                                                       kfH                   G f
                                                              usL;bm;EdiirS tifwmeufqufo,I &rSe;f od&dS
                                                              ol tenf;i,fr#om &Sdygvdrfhrnf? urBmay:&Sd EdkifiH
                                                              rsm;teuf tifwmeuftoHk;jyKol tenf;qHk;EdkifiH
                                                              wckvnf; jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif tGefvdkif;wGif oGm;
                                                              =unfhI&aom ae&mrsm;rSmvnf; yHkESdyf owif;rD'D
                                                              ,mrsm;uJhodk@yif wif;usyfpGm qifqmwnf;jzwf
        zD',f uufpx±dk                                        xm;ygonf? rnfonfhtwGufa=umifh vltrsm;u


        112 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                            112                                          11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
                                                                    tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;



               Ttcsuf u d k rod & S d b J jzpf a e&ygoenf ; ? ta=umif ; rS m vl t rsm;u '¾m&D o zG , f j zpf a e/
               ,HkrSwfrSm;aecJhonfh usL;bm;awmfvSefa&;a=umifh rjrifrawG@Edkif zkef;uG,fae&jcif; jzpfygonf?

               aqmf'Dtma&As- &nf&G,fxm;onfh apwem
               aqmf'Dtm%mydkifrsm;u tifwmeufudk qifqmwnf;
               jzwfa=umif; ajymifzGifh[ 0efcH=uygonf? w±kwfEdkifiH
               uJhodk@ pmrsufESm&SmrawG@yg “Page not found”
               [lI r&Sdyg? wm;jrpfxm;onfh tifwmeuf pmrsufESm
               wckodk@ oifoGm;=unfhygu tpdk;&u ydwfyifwm;jrpf
               xm;a=umif ; ajymif y if zG i f h a jymygonf ? tpd k ; &.
               w&m;0iftifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_ ,lepfu tifwmeuf
               qdkuf (4) odef;ausmfudk ydwfyifxm; a=umif; *k%f,l
               azmfjyxm;ygonf? xdkr#ru rnfonfh tifwmeuf
               pmrsufESmudk xyfrHydwfqdk@oifha=umif; t=uHjyKEdkifrnfh
               (Form) yHkpHudkyif ay;xm;ygao;onf? tpdk;&u
                                                                        bk&if tAŠ'lvm bif tufbf'J tmZpf t,fvf-qk'f
               ajym&mY Todk@ydwfxm;&jcif;rSm EdkifiHom;rsm;udk
                   kd f               P
               xdcuepfemaprnfh udprsm;/ tpPvmrf pnf;rsO;f usix;kH    hf
               rsm;ESifh rnDaomudpPrsm;rSaomfvnf;aumif;/ vlr_a&;xHk;wrf; pOfvmrsm;udkvnf;aumif; umuG,fay;
               xm;jcif;jzpfa=umif; qdkygonf?

               pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onfh tcsufwckrSm tar&duefukr`%Dwckjzpfonfh (Secure Computing)
               u ‚. tGefvdkif; qifqmwnf;jzwfa&;pepfudk Ttm%m&Siftpdk;&xHodk@ a&mif;csay;xm;jcif;yif
               jzpfygonf?

               OZbuf upPwef (u|rf;usifolrsm;udk cyfwkH;wHk;enf;ynmjzifh ausmfwufcJhol)

               “'DEdkifiHrSm tifwmeufudk qifqmvkyfzdk@ b,fvdkenf;eJ@rS rjzpfEdkifygbl;“[k OZbuf upPwef owif;
               jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;u (2005) ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif ajymqdkcJhonf? twdkuftcHrsm;. tifwmeufpmrsufESm
               rsm;udk =unfhIr&onfh EdkifiH/ tGefvdkif; owif;a&;aeolrsm;udk tjrJwap +cdrf;ajcmufaeonfh EdkifiH/
               udk,fxdvufa&muf wdkufcdkufaeonfhEdkifiHrS Todk@azmfjycsufrsKd; =um;&onfrSm txl;tqef;yif jzpfaeyg
               awmhonf?

               *sLvD,H ydef;onf e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@. tifwmeufvGwfvyfcGifhqdkif&mXme.
               t}uD;tuJjzpfygonf?




                                                                     e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 113


HandBook.pmd                             113                                        11/6/2007, 11:30 PM
          yHkESdyfrSwfwrf;




               REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERS
               (e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@)
               (qufoG,f&ef vdyfpm)
               International Secretariat
               5, rue Geoffroy-Marie, 75009 Paris, France
               Tél.: 33 1 4483-8484
               Fax: 33 1 4523-1151
               Website : www.rsf.org
               (t,f'Dwm) Editor: Sylvie Devilette / devilette@rsf.org
               (qufoG,fa&;) Communication: Anne Martinez-Saiz / communication@rsf.org
               (*&yfzpf'Zi;ESihf tjcm;o±kyazmfyrsm;) Graphic design and extra illustrations:
                        D kd f            f    kH                                                   Nuit de Chine
               ndc@nuitdechine.com
               ISBN: 2-915536-36-8 (rl&if;pmtky)       f
               (rlydkifcGifh) Copyright: Reporters Without Borders 2005
               (rl&if;pmtkyf yHkESdyfjcif;) Printed August 2005, France.

                                 k dS f S f
               (jrefrmbmomjyef yHEyrwwrf;)
               bmomjyef- Aung Thu Nyane
               pmrsuEmtjyiftqif- Kyaw Win / http://mrbalance.blogspot.com
                      f S
               Printed November 2007, Thailand.
               Fonts: English- Tw Cen MT, Times New Roman & Arial
                        Burmese- Wwin_AM_Burmese, Metrix & Pinny
               Size & Pages: 14.5 cm x 21.0 cm & 114 pages.
               (National Endowment for Democracy . axmufyHhulnDrljzifh xkwfa0onf?)


        114 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY


HandBook.pmd                               114                                     11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

				
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