On the travel agency business travel agency macro-analysis of the macro-environment

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On the travel agency business travel agency macro-analysis of the macro-environment Powered By Docstoc
					On the travel agency business travel macro macro environment analysis

 travel agency business macro-environment

 [Paper Keywords] travel agency business macro-environment
 [Abstract] macro environment is Travel important business activities external
environment, both provided by operating activities for the travel direction, standards,
ways and conditions for project selection or management, but also must be from the
constraints on the activities of the role of travel agents. From the macro environment
analysis, travel agents can not make the right strategic planning and business
decisions. Analysis of the macroeconomic environment is indispensable travel agency
operations content.
 travel agency business activities, not only depends on the perfection of its internal
operation, but also depends on its external business environment. Survival and
development of travel agencies can not do without its external business environment,
corporate external business environment can be divided into two major areas: the
macro environment and micro environment. Macro-environment is an important
business activity of the external environment, macroeconomic environment by a
number of large-scale of, and conditions related to macroeconomic factors or force
composition is of travel agencies outside political and legal environment, economic
environment, natural environment, technological environment and culture
environment so general. These environmental factors on the business activities of
tourism enterprises little effect on short-term, but long-term strategic planning and
business decisions have a profound impact. These trends both macroeconomic factors
and the development of enterprise opportunities, but also the survival and
development of tourism enterprises pose a challenge. This paper attempts in recent
years, some changes in the macroeconomic environment and development trends on
the business activities of travel agencies to conduct a preliminary analysis.

 1, political and legal environment
 refers to those constraints and political factors affect and legal system and its
operational status, including the political system, institutional, political, principles and
policies, etc. factor. Political and legal factors that protect the basic production
conditions for business activities. For the tourism industry is to develop service
strategies to be considered an important factor, which is determined by the
vulnerability of the tourism industry. Adjustment of the national statutory holiday,
according to statistics of China from October 1999 to adjust the public holiday system,
the annual Spring Festival, "51", "11" three Golden Week holiday, quickly push the
domestic tourism market development and maturity. Golden Week, seven days a large
nationwide long-distance migration of unprecedented popularity in China in 2008
abolished the "51" holiday, the Tomb Sweeping Festival, Dragon Boat Festival,
Mid-Autumn Festival to increase the statutory holiday, "11" leave unchanged, the
Spring Festival Eve holiday will include the day before the move included.
Cancellation of Golden Week, a short holiday in the increase in food for the holidays
used to rely on travel agents for change in a business environment. Which contains
both a challenge and also hold the opportunity. Although the use of centralized
organization long Golden Week travel is severely curtailed, but a short holiday, there
will inevitably increase as the travel agencies organize tours to create the conditions
for short-term. To this end, travel agencies should actively respond to and comply
with changes in business environment, adjust their thinking, the increase in the short
run swim intensity, developed the popular short tour project, make short term business
travel routes. This has become an important future development of travel assignments,
travel management strategy is an important opportunity to adjust.
  This shows that the adjustment of national legal holiday adjustment of the travel
agency business strategies have a major impact. In addition, cross-strait political
relations to the good, the beginning of 2009, mainland residents traveling to Taiwan
and the forthcoming approved May 1, 2009 to implement the new "Travel
Regulations", the government promulgated a number of other tourism-related laws,
administrative laws, regulations, management system and will also tour the operation
and development will have a major impact.

  2, the economic environment
  (a) general economic conditions
  View from the overall economic development, gross national product is commonly
used to measure an indicator of macroeconomic conditions, it reflect a country's
overall economic strength. In general, the high per capita GNP of countries,
international and domestic tourism are more developed. According to international
practice, when per capita GDP reached 1,000 U.S. dollars, domestic tourism
consumption will start; per capita GDP reached 3,000 U.S. dollars, the international
tourism consumption start. Tourism development practice in developed countries
show that per capita GDP of a country to achieve from 3000 to 5000 U.S. dollars, will
enter the tourism consumption of explosive growth, domestic tourism and outbound
tourism has emerged as a significant growth. At present, China's tourism market is the
per capita GDP reached 1,000 U.S. dollars in the conditions of formation. In
accordance with the 2005 revised GDP data calculated from 1979 to 2004 the per
capita growth rate of 9.6%, nearly three years still stayed around 10% growth.
Although started in 2008 by the international financial crisis, China's economic
growth rate will decline this year, but China will be the world's most dynamic and
fastest-growing economy among the countries. To be sure that China's per capita GDP
to 3,000 U.S. dollars will be irreversible beyond the consumer market, consumption
structure, industrial structure will be marked changes in consumer demand will
greatly enhance the tourism, the overall economic situation continues to improve,
Tourism continues to boom in China will be an important driving force. From the
travel agency business strategy perspective, in the international financial crisis on the
global economy has not bottomed out, when out of the woods of Western developed
countries, no clear case of expectations, travel agencies should pay full attention to
the development of domestic tourism consumption demand, especially many
organizations can travel abroad to make up for losses caused by reduction in the
number of inbound tourism.
  (b) Income and Consumption
  income and consumption from the perspective of further analysis of the situation,
income and consumption situation is affecting travel demand and behavior factors.
The higher the income, may represent more discretionary funds. Less revenue for the
enjoyment and development spending less money. It is only in the physical needs of
the premise, would have higher level of spiritual needs. The tourism, high-level
spiritual needs are and how much discretionary funds linked. Survey showed that: the
developed countries for tourist consumption expenditure residents more than 20% of
household income, and our residents for travel expenses are less than 1% of income. It
is anticipated that with China's rapid economic development, China will continue to
raise the standard of living. According to Engel's law, people's consumption
expenditure structure will change, for travel expenses will gradually increase,
according to Nelson, the world's leading media's latest survey, in recent years, China's
average annual growth of personal income consumers 10%, more than half (53%) of
consumers plan to spend surplus funds on leisure travel, the proportion of home first
in 14 countries in Asia, higher than Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Japan and India.
Income
  continued growth of tourism will also enable the individual needs are becoming
increasingly apparent. Although China's domestic tourism demand at this stage a
larger total, but the level of demand is far below international standards. Tourists per
capita consumption is low, the quality of the pursuit of tourism activities are not
strong, just hold "a visit there" mentality are very public, and thus failed to form a
strong innovation pressure on travel agents. And with the growth in incomes and
consumer spending changes in the structure, residents of the travel and tourism
product innovation, quality of service requirements will be more and more and more
emphasis on personalized service, tourism demand has started from the previous
single, sightseeing, entertainment, etc. form of leisure, personalized and participatory
change. A variety of vacation travel, special tourism projects more and more visitors
welcome, these tourism projects have personalized, participatory and strong features.
This requires travel agencies to take precautions to change the concept, to take
measures, according to the individual needs of tourists, as they have targeted the
development of tourism products, and then concentrated to them branding,
promotions and other activities, by meeting the individual needs of visitors to achieve
business objectives.

 3,
 natural tourism resources in China is a big country, rich in unique tourism resources
for the travel industry provides a natural advantage, 20 years rapid development of
China's tourism industry has also promoted Travel growth and maturity. China has a
vast, complex and diverse geography, is extremely rich in natural resources, their
spatial distribution throughout the tour offers a variety of different advantages.
Enterprises in which the natural resources and ecological environment, related to
Travel to determine the orientation of investment, development and other major
tourist routes to improve business decision making.
  (1)
  climatic conditions in most parts of China as a continental monsoon climate.
Summer and winter wind change significantly, with four distinct seasons, climate
changed much. Different seasons of scenery, and organizational conditions suitable
for tourism activities in different seasons, so that tourism activities in a region rich but
not monotonous. Chunlan, Dream of Qiu Ju, Dong-Mei is a true reflection of seasonal
scenery. Different view of the scenery in different seasons, which also had to repeat
the same tourist spots around the significance.
  (b) topography, geological and geomorphological conditions
  country with four distinct seasons and the terrain is not only complex and diverse.
China's topography from west to east, into the ladder-like distribution, altitude,
mountains, hills, basins, plains five landforms co-exist. It is this complex and unique
kind of geography and topography formed in such geological features form the unique
tourism resources. In the geological formation of granite under landscape, sandstone
landscape, mountain valleys, landform landscape, providing a wealth of natural
tourism resources. These natural conditions are easy to travel around the travel agency
organizing activities such as mountain tours, Yangtze River Three Gorges Tour.
  (c) of the Natural Resources
  climate with four distinct seasons, complex and diverse terrain, numerous rivers and
lakes as well as the numerous plant and animal species, constitute the elements of
sightseeing as well as travel agencies external resources to survive. Natural resources
and ecological environment is the people's survival and development of the most
important condition, people in the use of natural resources and ecological
environment, but also consumes the limited resources and the environment. In the
current serious environmental damage, unprecedented awareness of environmental
protection today, attention and development of eco-tourism should be the subject of
critical thinking travel agencies. Travel survival and development depends on the
natural environment, development of eco-tourism small negative impact on the
natural environment, contribute to the protection of species and wildlife, but also help
meet many of the environmental motivation of tourists and improve the quality of
tourists, and enhance tourism by environmental awareness and create the harmony
between man and nature.
  4, technological environment,
  is the travel agents in their environment, science and technology elements and with
the elements of the various social phenomena are directly related to the collection.
Technological environment can affect the timely adjustment of strategic
decision-making travel agency to get a new competitive advantage. Technological
environment changes, on the one hand, the invention and application of new
technologies, develop new products to the travel agents to create the conditions and
increases the attractiveness of tourism products, Tigao the level and quality of tourism
services, increase service efficiency and service accuracy. On the other hand, the
concept of new technology, sooner or later, talent introduction, also brought some
tourism enterprises to the challenges. The following only in respect of transport and
the impact of the Internet on a brief tour of operations.
  (a) of the modern tourist traffic conditions change
  tourist from the settlement to be achieved to travel between destinations, to be with
good transportation condition, the same time, their characteristics, mode of
transportation will become a kind of tourist attraction. At present, the rapid
development of transportation technology to make travel modes of transport increased
faster, comfort enhancement, a tourist destination is increasingly accessible.
Destination from the residence to reduce the perception of distance, making travel
more convenient for tourists, tourists visit the time prolonged, but also enrich the
tourist routes of travel agents, travel demand also increased. Travel demand potential
is bigger, there is no safe and convenient transportation, business travel will be
seriously restricted activities. Therefore, the modern tourist traffic conditions change
the travel agency to carry out business activities to provide a solid backing, is the
development of modern travel indispensable condition.
  (b) use of the Internet
  information on the Internet as a new medium to enrich the tourist information search
selectively, to meet the information society initiative tourist information search and
interactive needs. Online travel information service for development of the industry
bring new competition and development advantages. Online Travel Agencies travel
agency should attach great importance to development, effective use of the network
platform to launch brand promotion, product launches, interactive consulting,
customer relationship management and other business activities, breaking the
traditional promotional marketing Fang Shi, Travel Agencies to improve the
flexibility of offering tourists Geng good multi-dimensional information services to
meet their individual needs, so the competition in the information society to seize the
initiative.

 5, social and cultural environment
 social and cultural penetration in all business activities of tourism, but tourism
operators activities are everywhere implies social and cultural. Social and cultural
environment is an enterprise in which the social structure, social customs and habits,
beliefs and values, behavior, lifestyle, cultural traditions, major cultural events and
educational level of the formation and changes in other factors. The following
perspective of social cultural events and social changes in family structure, and
religious factors to analyze the impact of tour operators.
 (1) Social and cultural events
 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing as a major social and cultural event, including
tourism development in all aspects of Chinese society will have far-reaching impact.
From the tourism industry, the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games held in China's tourism
market has broadened and increased customer base, and other related industries, and
will accelerate our tourism industry and upgrading of the structure. International
experience shows that many countries that hosted the Olympic Games, three to five
years after the Olympic Games are inbound peak period. In the post-Olympic era,
China's travel agencies should continue to use this valuable social cultural heritage,
design more and the Olympic host city, venues and even the Olympic sports stars the
tourism products to attract more foreign tourists.
 (b) changes in family structure
 in China's modernization process, the implementation of family planning policy,
more frequent job changes, population movements and migration accelerated the
improvement of material living standards and awareness of spiritual pursuit, to
promote changes in family structure to nuclear families. According to census data, the
average family household size of 4.79 people in 1985 has decreased to 3.13 persons in
2005, and in some economically developed provinces and cities or even lower than 3,
the family has become the reality of small, nuclear families accounted for a large
proportion, while the proportion of empty nest households are increasing.
 1. Extended family to nuclear family changes in
 reduction in family size so that more families of women from the daily family affairs
to extricate a professional women, so that the overall household income and per capita
income increased substantially, their lifestyles and consumption patterns change,
while also making the small number of relatively easy travel decision-making.
Suitable for small family tourism tours has become a selling point. As a result, the
design that is able to relax and can ease the pressure on child growth in knowledge of
tourism products will be a direction of travel product design.
 2. Empty-nest households increased
 2003, China's elderly population over 65 years more than 7% of total population, to
enter an aging society. Currently some of the major cities in China, accounted for the
elderly empty-nest families family 1 / 3. The next 10 years, with the only child of
parents who step aging stage, the empty-nest families will be the major form of
elderly households, the proportion may reach 90%. At present the country's aging
population is increasing by 3% per year. Have expected that, by 2023, China's aging
population will reach 310 million, accounting for 20.4% of population into the high
aging stage. The advent of an aging society, but also indicates that old age will face a
huge tourism development opportunities. Survey shows that tourism is now the
number of elderly in China each year, have accounted for more than 20% of the total
number of tourism, a great old tourist market opportunities. Travel agents should be
well prepared for this early study the characteristics of the elderly tourist to launch
tourism products for the elderly. Such as the elderly generally have a pair of Chinese
history and traditional culture of aspiration, with a nostalgic feeling homesick, like
The source, tracing friends and relatives; the elderly as slow, and poor physical health,
demanding comfort, leisure and tourism sector high quality service standards; older
and more leisure time, the annual tour at any time can make the trip; the future elderly
will be much better off financially, etc., these are old travel agency travel product
design should be taken into account.
 (3)
 religious belief, religious belief is also a travel agency business and an important
social and cultural environment. Religious culture is an important part of human
culture, it is unique, there are extremely attractive cultural tourism resources. The
relationship between religious culture and tourism are very close analysis of religion's
development, adjustment of the travel agency business strategy, design and
development related to tourism product is important. China's reform and opening up,
get a better implementation of religious policy and religious believers to protect the
legitimate activities of religious influence is gradually expanding. February 7, 2007
English, "China Daily" released an article entitled "three times in the estimation of
religious believers," the article, the disclosure since 2005, East China Normal
University, Professor Tong Shijun and Professor Liu Zhongyu, a relevant religious
leader Faith's first large-scale survey, the number of 4,500 people surveyed, found that
more than 16 years by 31.4% of Chinese people there, and so calculated, which is
about 3 million people are believers. Including Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism,
Christianity and Islam is the 5 major religions, representing 67.4% of those beliefs.
Although we can not know the specific changes in the structure of growth, but we can
say, and the last century about 100 million people of 50 years compared to the number
of believers in China have had significant growth in the influence of religion has
gradually expanded trend. From religious tourism development, the current scale is
gradually expanding the number of religious tourism is an indisputable fact that the
religious activities of tourists diversified content. Travel agencies should pay close
attention and careful analysis of changes in the external business environment, timely
introduction of targeted, personalized service to meet the religious needs of tourists.
  summary, travel agencies as an independent open system, on the one hand to
passively accept the role of macroeconomic environment, on the other hand positive
reaction in the macro environment. Between travel agents and the macroeconomic
environment in the process of this action and reaction is its constantly changing to
adapt to the environment and means of access to the development of dynamic process.
Travel only to embrace the macro-environment changes, changing concepts, adjust
strategies, to take measures to make travel agents continue ongoing operations and to
continue to grow in the competition.

 Reference
 [1] Xi, corporate external business environment analysis [M] Higher Education Press
in July 2001 1st Edition
 [2] Yan Zhiwu, Tourism Studies (Revised) [M] Wuhan University Press in March
2005 1st edition
 [3] ZHAO Xi-bin, the business climate of the few basic theoretical issues [J] Wuhan
University of Technology (Social Science Edition) 2004 No. 1
 [4] National Bureau of Statistics website 2005 National 1% Population Sample
Survey Major Figures
 [5] Xue Qun-hui, modern tourism psychology [M] Science Press, 1 August 2005
Science / center>

				
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