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On eco-tourism eco-tourism and green technology innovation

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					On eco-tourism eco-tourism and green technology innovation

 eco-tourism green technology innovation

 [Abstract] how to develop eco-tourism, economic, social and environmental benefits
coordination, is the face of eco-tourism development is an important issue, and in
eco-tourism in the development of green technological innovation but the key to
ecological health tourism.
 [Key words] eco-tourism; green technologies; innovation strategy

 1, of the problem

 tourism in the global economy occupies a very important position, As early as 1992
had become the world's largest industry [1]. In recent years, from the national
development situation, the pace of development of tourism are generally higher than
the GDP of a country or region's growth rate, this trend more prominent tourism
importance in economic development, and tourism development in nature still
contains the natural and cultural heritage protection, education and social welfare
aspects of function, because functional Ding Wei too single, and makes global
environment of tourism resources, Yu Zhao Zheng destruction or face extinction.
Currently living in the world in the international tourism industry is facing the first
crossroad of the hesitation [2], is the pursuit of tourism development in the economic
function is to focus on resources and environmental protection has become a dilemma
of choice. It is in this context, "ecotourism" concept came into being, the 20th century
80s IUCN (IUCN) Special Adviser, Mexico expert 谢贝洛斯拉斯 Karui first
proposed the "ecological tourism" The concept of the 20th century, 90s, eco-tourism
for sustainable development of tourism, the main form in the world began to be
widely accepted and practiced. Proposal of the concept of eco-tourism is a traditional
mode of tourism development reflect the practice in many countries has also achieved
good results. But the emergence of the concept of eco-tourism is not a real solution to
the problem of environmental damage during travel a panacea, as the World
Ecotourism Society (TIES) has pointed out, "despite the eco-tourism has a positive
environmental and social impact potential, but if implemented properly, will work as a
destructive mass tourism. "In China, eco-tourism and ecological destruction is
widespread, according to China National MAB Committee, a survey showed: 22%
have a natural protected areas as a result of ecotourism to protect objects of
destruction, 11% of the tourism resource degradation occurs. Therefore, how to
develop eco-tourism in the economic, social and environmental benefits of
co-ordination, is encountered in the development of eco-tourism is an important issue,
but in the implementation of eco-tourism in the green technology innovation is
undoubtedly an important way out of this predicament 1. However, eco-tourism in the
green technology innovation has not drawn sufficient attention from scholars, from
the view of existing literature, only one document related to the tourism industry in
innovation in green technology, that Shun was "on the tourism industry in Western
China green technology innovation strategy of "[3]. So far, no eco-tourism scholars
need green technology innovation, barriers and explore innovative measures carried
out.

 2, ecotourism and green technology innovation

  (a) of the definition of ecotourism
  80 early in the 20th century, the term eco-tourism had emerged, However,
eco-tourism has still not a widely accepted concept, background, scholars of different
disciplines with different definitions, but all the controversy. Of course, in the course
of debate, the concept of eco-tourism are also some basic agreement, mainly in the
following areas: eco-tourism with the native object should not be compromised;
eco-tourism and environmental protection the role and function of environmental
education; eco-tourism with a high level, professional and strong features; emphasis
on community participation, local residents benefit from eco-tourism.
  (b) of the definition of green technology innovation
  green technology is all the environmental knowledge, skills and material means the
system consisting of the sum, including clean production technologies, pollution
control technology and improve the ecological technology [4], while the green
Technical innovation is part of a technological innovation in general to the protection
of the environment of technological innovation is called green technology innovation
[5].
  (3) green technological innovation and eco-tourism inner link
  from eco-tourism and green technology innovation in content point of view,
eco-tourism focus on its target is not compromised, green technology innovation
emphasizes environmental protection goals and starting point, so that environmental
protection is their essential requirement. In practice, environmental protection is a
basic requirement for eco-tourism, and green technology innovation to meet
environmental protection requirements of eco-tourism important means to carry out
eco-tourism activities seek maximum protection of ecological environment, tourism,
tourist resources and reduce negative environmental impact, however, eco-tourism
development, tourism will inevitably continue to bring different levels of
environmental stress, how to simultaneously meet the needs of tourists has made
eco-tourism eco-tourism activities on the environment maintained at a pressure within
the affordable, eco-tourism in practice this is the most important problem facing,
green technology innovation and the power of using technology to meet the visitors
can tour needs while reducing the environmental impact of eco-tourism, eco-Lvyou
Ye Dangzhongshiyong Yinci in green technology and make continuing innovation is
to solve the problem of a feasible way. In short, according to eco-tourism and green
technology innovation in content, from the practical requirements of eco-tourism
point of view, green technology innovation and eco-tourism are closely linked.
  (4) eco-tourism and green technology innovation
  eco-tourism and green technology innovation refers to the eco-tourism activities
throughout the whole process a variety of green technology innovation, according to
industry sectors involved, can be divided into residential, catering, transport,
sightseeing, shopping and entertainment and other industries and green technology
innovation, these technologies include accommodation in green technology, green
food technology, green transportation technology and green technology, visit;
according to the nature and characteristics of green technology division can be
divided into eco-tourism in the process of clean production technologies, pollution
control technology and eco-tourism eco-tourism resource protection technology, and
innovation, including eco-tourism cleaner production technologies include clean
energy technologies, such as co-generation technologies, solar hot water system
technology, photo-electric system technologies, wind power technology, bio-fuel
technologies, small hydropower systems and technology; eco-tourism, including
tourism waste pollution control technology for technology, wastewater treatment
technology, vegetation restoration techniques; eco-tourism resources protection
technology is In the application of eco-tourism resource protection among the various
high-tech means, such as modern information technology, 3S technology.

 3, eco-tourism green technology innovation barriers

  (1) eco-tourism green technology innovation led to the allocation of resources are
outside of misconduct
  market is a complete resource configuration of the main means there is no market
failure in the premise of a market economy can achieve the Pareto optimal allocation
of resources. Green Technology Innovation of eco-tourism, however, there are
significant positive externalities, as green technology has significant spillover effects,
green technology innovation with the social benefits than private benefits of
innovative enterprises. In this case, because of lack of green technology innovation
and enterprise to bring the full benefits of innovation, so in this market, often appear
less than the result of innovation.

  shown in Figure 1, the horizontal axis and vertical axis represent the number of
green technology innovation and price axis, MRP, said eco-tourism enterprise green
technical innovation of the marginal private benefit, and that eco-tourism enterprises
MRS Green technological innovation brought about by the marginal social benefits,
because of positive externalities, the marginal social benefit will be greater than the
marginal private benefits MRS MRP, MC, said eco-tourism enterprises in the
marginal cost of green technology innovation, corporate profit maximization under
conditions of equilibrium selection The number of Q1, the number is less than the
optimal level required by society Q2.

 (b) free use of environmental resources and green technology innovation to the lack
of corporate power
 under the conditions of the existing technological paradigm of technological
innovation of enterprises are starting from the enterprise economy, and very few
consider production externalities, technical progress in reducing the marginal internal
costs of production, while often presented the marginal external costs of production
increase, which under the traditional paradigm of green technology innovation
enterprises often lack the internal motivation [6]. Eco-tourism enterprises in green
technology innovation to reduce the marginal external costs of production, and this
part does not require companies to bear the cost, eco-tourism enterprises that are not
inherent incentive to reduce the marginal external costs of carrying out the green
technical innovation.
  (3) eco-tourism consumption of immature green technology innovation to enterprises
lack the pressure of
  In general, the enterprises of green technology innovation motivation often comes
from market pressures, with the awareness of the social environment awakening, and
consumers for their own health concerns, they will ask enterprises to adopt green
technologies, to provide green products, companies in this paper in order from
www.5udoc.com [worry document] the collection and sorting, to thank the original
author! Based on the market, we must as far as possible to meet consumer demand for
this green, which also will consciously pursue green technology innovation. Shows a
mature consumer groups often bring benefits, green technology innovation market
pressures. However, China's eco-tourism consumption is still at a very immature state,
mainly for the needs of the majority of those eco-tourism does not have good
environmental awareness and has a professional tour technology. Because of the lack
of strict eco-tourists and eco-tourists on the existing tourism product is too lenient, the
demand for eco-tourism eco-tourism are very difficult to bring green technology
innovation company's market pressures.
  (d) information asymmetry and reduce the scale of green technology innovation
initiative
  domestic eco-tourism as the concept of generalization and abuse of domestic
eco-tourism market, quite a mixed bag, often close to many eco-tourism eco-tourism
enterprises label, still operates the mass of non-ecological tourism. As the eco-tourists
and eco-tourism enterprise information asymmetry between, eco-tourism eco-tourist
business has more than adequate information on the production of eco-tourism,
eco-tourists in the eco-tourism market, often in the information disadvantage, in
which information is not complete cases, they have a hard real eco-tourism business
separate from the market, so there came the so-called "adverse selection" problem.
Eco-tourists in case of incomplete information will only pay the price in line with the
expected utility level, at this price level, a number of real eco-tourism enterprises are
forced out of business, leaving behind those who would counterfeit the ecological
tourism enterprises, in the so-called "lemon market" will be mainly filled with people
close to the label of eco-tourism tourism enterprises, tourism enterprises, these masses
do not solve the asymmetric information problem in the premise, it is impossible to
actively carry out technological innovation and green become a true eco-tourism
enterprises.

 4, ecotourism green technology innovation strategies
  Green Technology Innovation for Eco-tourism a major obstacle factors, such as
eco-tourism in the successful implementation of green technology innovation, we
need government management, eco-tourism enterprises, research institutions,
non-governmental organizations and visitors work together, each doing its own power,
eco-tourism green technology innovation to lift all barriers to the system and
technology innovation and green technology for eco-tourism shop flat road.
  (1) to develop eco-tourism demand, with market leading enterprise green technical
innovation
  eco-tourism, eco-tourists need green technology innovation. Eco-tourists with high
environmental awareness, they pursue the original eco-tourism environment, tourism
during the tour will try to use green technology, so they want eco-tourism attractions
and other tourism enterprises can consciously use green technology to to safeguard
the ecological environment of this original. However, if eco-tourism businesses that
deviate from their requirements, these tourists will choose "voting with their feet" to
abandon these do not meet their requirements of tourist attractions or businesses.
When the eco-tourism market is more and more of this true ecotourists, the
eco-tourism enterprises in order to compete for tourists, and actively carry out
technological innovation to become a green inevitable choice.
  (b) The eco-tourism certification, regulation of eco-tourism enterprise information
  market mechanism, or incomplete information to solve the problem of information
asymmetry is to build a more effective way of business "reputation." The so-called
reputation, can be seen as consumers of a subjective evaluation of corporate behavior,
if the relationship between buyer and seller is relatively fixed, and the repeated game,
the reputation mechanism is easier to build. However, tourism is often one-off
transactions Sheng Tai, in this case, the credibility of the mechanism of De Jian Li on
the more difficult, therefore, where the market mechanism and can not resolve
ecotourism market of information asymmetry. Under such circumstances, the
Government is necessary to regulate ecotourism enterprise information. The main
purpose of information control to ensure consumers are fully and properly market
information, an increase of the market "transparency" so that they can make a correct
choice. In the eco-tourism market, the government regulation of information is the
most effective way to market in the implementation of eco-tourism eco-tourism
certification. Government to develop tourism enterprises must first ecotourism
certification standards, followed in applying for certification for eco-tourism
enterprises based on careful examination, presented "ecotourism enterprises" signs,
allowing businesses to use eco-tourism slogan and, finally, of these enterprises
certified after rigorous supervision and management, if not meet certification
requirements to give a deadline for correction or cancellation of its "eco-tourism
enterprises". Government, through the implementation of eco-tourism eco-tourism
market, certification, eco-tourism business which really make the information can be
displayed, so that tourists can easily distinguish between ecological real eco-tourism
enterprises and the general public, tourism enterprises, which will help to make a
reasonable eco-tourists choice. Eco-tourism market information asymmetry is
resolved, the real eco-tourism enterprises have been welcome visitors will be higher
than the average corporate earnings, which will make some non-green eco-tourism
enterprises to actively carry out technological innovation, to complete from the
non-ecological tourism enterprises to changes in eco-tourism enterprises, some of the
existing eco-tourism enterprises will actively continue to carry out green technology
innovation to maintain market position of its inherent and image.
  (c) actively intervene to change the benefits and costs of enterprise innovation
  green technology innovation relies on eco-tourism is the main eco-tourism
micro-enterprises, eco-tourism business itself is a rational individual, it is the pursuit
of economic the maximization of profit, if not in the green technology innovation to
benefit, to make these micro-main as the main force of innovation and green
technology is not feasible in reality. To make eco-tourism enterprises to consciously
participate in green technology innovation, should focus on the benefits of their
innovation and innovative changes in costs, specifically, to the extent possible, reduce
costs and improve their innovative new revenue. On the one hand, the Government
can through financial subsidies and tax breaks and other ways to reduce the
eco-tourism enterprises in the direct cost of green technological innovation, green
technology can also strengthen the basic knowledge required to research platform,
increase the spread of basic knowledge of the scope and intensity of play a basic
knowledge of the "spillover effect" and reduce the eco-tourism enterprises in the
indirect cost of green technological innovation; the other hand, certification can
enhance eco-tourism, eco-tourism market access on a rigorous review and guide to
eco-tourists The company certified by eco-tourism spending increased by means of
eco-tourism business benefits of green technology innovation.

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