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Somali Conflicts

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					     Somali Conflicts
• Modern Somalia- “lawless
  state”?
• Traditional conflict management
  – Culture of confrontation  godob
    (revenge for cumulative
    grievances)
  – Council of elders (xeer) with
    powers of expulsion, holy men
  – Diya – blood money
  – Intermarriage between clans
  – Qat chewing
  – Poetry – expressing clan positions
 Somali Conflicts 2
• Colonialism: British/Italian
  – Partitioning of Somali people
  – Issues of land ownership,
    productivity  disruption
  – Colonial military/bureaucratic
    elite
  – Imposition of colonial law
• Independence = 1960
  – Lack of gov’t diversity
  – Push for “development” –
    export crops
  – State-controlled military to
    replace xeer
  – Control of national resources
 Somali Conflicts 3
• General Siad Barre regime
  (1969-91)
  – Personal power, clan
    exclusion
  – “modernization”
  – Cold War politics of arms and
    aid
  – 1991 coup
• Outside involvement
  – United Nations
  – U.S./U.S.S.R
  – Ethiopia
  – “New World Order”
    New World Order
• collapse of USSR end of Cold
  war  “New World Order”
• one size fits all model of state
• “rule of law” replaces other
  authorities
• international congregation of
  states, United Nations to “police”
• collective security vs.
  peacekeeping
  Somali Conflicts 4
• 1994-2006: Warlords,
  Moneylords
• 1994: Transitional Federal
  Government (TFG), led by
  Abdullah Yusuf
• Businessmen support clan militia
  leaders (NOT traditional elders)
• For U.S., issue of terrorism,
  Somalis involvement in Kenya
  and Tanzania bombings
• Union of Islamist Courts (UIC)
   – take over Mogadishu, 2005
   – establish order, some peace
   Somali Conflicts 5
• Dec, 2006: Ethiopia invades,
  with U.S. backing
• growing Islamist insurgency
• at present: Drought,
  displacement, looming
  famine, ongoing piracy
• need for “security,
  reconciliation, capacity”
• power sharing instead of a
  “victor’s peace”

				
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