U.S. Produce Imports from Mexico

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					U.S. Produce Imports from Mexico

           Linda Calvin
   USDA-Economic Research Service
          Heather Stamps
            U.C.-Davis

    Immigration Reform: Implications for
  Farmers, Farm Workers, and Communities.
      Washington, DC—May 8-9, 2008
     U.S. imports of Mexican fruit and
       vegetables (fresh and frozen)
   Million mts
    3.50
                        3.2
    3.00
    2.50
    2.00                                    1.8   1990
    1.50                                          2007
                 1.2
    1.00                      0.7
    0.50

    0.00
                 Vegetables         Fruit


U.S. Department of Commerce
          U.S. imports of Mexican fresh
                 vegetables, 2007
                 Others 14 %
        Asparagus 4%
        Onions 6%                    Tomatoes 31%

     Squash 7%


Broccoli/cauliflower 7%

                                 Peppers 19%
                 Cucumbers 12%
      U.S. imports of Mexican fresh fruit,
                     2007
                      Others 8%
           Mangoes 8%                           Avocados 26%

Other berries 8%


  Strawberries 11 %
                                                Grapes 15 %


                   Citrus 11%     Melons 12 %
        U.S. tomato situation
                      1990   2007 Change
                             Percent

U.S. per capita        -        -      29
consumption
U.S. production        -        -       22
Imports from Mexico    -        -      170
MX share of U.S.      20       34       71
consumption
MX share of U.S.      98       89       -9
imports
                Technology:
       U.S.-Canadian fresh tomato trade
       1000 mts
 150                 U.S. exports to Canada
 130
 110
  90
  70
                                     U.S. imports from Canada
  50
  30
  10
       1991   1993    1995   1997   1999   2001   2003   2005   2007



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
        Factors Affecting Trade
•   Climate and biology
•   Labor costs
•   Phytosanitary barriers
•   Food safety problems
           Climate and biology
• Winter
Winter field tomato production areas
        Climate and biology
• Winter
• Perennial crops
Western table grape production areas
 U.S. shipments of grapes, 2007
 100,000 lbs
4000
3500
3000
2500                                       ROW
                                           Chile
2000
                                           Mexico
1500                                       United States
1000
 500
  0
       Jan   Mar   May   Jul   Sep   Nov



Source: AMS, Market News
   U.S.-Mexico trade in fresh grapes,
             1990-2007
 1000 mts
  180
  160
  140
                      U.S. imports from Mexico
  120
  100
   80
   60                                      U.S. exports to Mexico
   40
   20
   0
        1990   1992   1994   1996   1998     2000   2002   2004   2006




Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
        Climate and biology
• Winter
• Perennial crops
• Weather-induced shortages
U.S. lettuce production
      U.S. imports of Mexican lettuce
1000 mts
 14
 12
 10
  8                                           2000
                                              2007
  6                                           2008
  4
  2
  0
      Jan   Mar    May     Jul    Sep   Nov


Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
              Labor costs
• Green onions
• Frozen broccoli
• Fresh asparagus
Green onion production
   U.S. shipments of green onions
  100,000 lbs
 3,500

 3,000
                                Mexico
 2,500

 2,000

 1,500   United States
 1,000

   500

     0
           1980          1990            2000




Source: USDA, AMS
       U.S. frozen broccoli supply,
                1978-2007
Million lbs
900
800
700
600
500
400                             Mexico
300
200                                             Others
100      United States
  0
       1980              1990            2000




Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, ERS
       Broccoli imports, 2007
                              Frozen
Import share of consumption         87
Import share:
 Mexico                            68
 Guatemala                         16
 Ecuador                           10
 China                              5
 Canada                             *
       Broccoli imports, 2007
                              Fresh     Frozen
Import share of consumption        10         87
Import share:
 Mexico                           94         68
 Guatemala                         *         16
 Ecuador                           *         10
 China                             0          5
 Canada                            6          *
      U.S. supply of fresh asparagus,
                1900-2007
400
350
300
250                                                 Peru
200
150                                     Mexico
100
 50
                             United States
 0
 1990   1992   1994   1996    1998   2000    2002   2004   2006



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
  U.S. asparagus imports from Mexico
    and tariff rate for February-June
Imports (1000 mts)                                             Tariff rate
  60                                                                  30




  50                                                                  25



  40                                                                  20



  30                                                                  15



  20                                                                  10



  10                                                                  5




   0                                                                  0
       1990   1992   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006




   Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
 Asparagus shipments, 1900 and 2007
  700                                    700
  600     Mexico                         600
  500                                    500
  400                                    400
  300                  United            300                   Peru
  200
                       States
                                         200
  100                                    100
    0                                          0
        Jan          Jul                           Jan   Jul




Source: USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service
       Phytosanitary barriers
 U.S. avocado imports, 1990-2006
Million lbs
 600

 500                                                Mexico
 400

 300
                                            Chile
 200

 100

   0
       1990   1992   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006


 Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
             Food Safety Problems:
            U.S. imports of cantaloupe
   1000 mts
  500,000
  450,000
  400,000
                                 Outbreaks
  350,000
  300,000
  250,000
  200,000
                      Central America
  150,000
  100,000
   50,000                          Mexico
        0
            1990   1992   1994    1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006




Source: U.S. Department of Commerce
                   Summary
• Imports of fruit and vegetables from Mexico
  have increased
• Many factors affect trade levels
  –   Climate and biology
  –   Labor costs
  –   Phytosanitary barriers
  –   Food safety problems
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