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									     EC Assistance to Somalia



Urban Development Programme
         for Somalia
 In support of decentralisation and towards
             achieving the MDGs



        EC Somalia Operations, January 2005
                                              1
                    POLITICAL CONTEXT

   No recognised government for 14
    years. Divided in – emerging
    local and federal structures.
   Clan dimensions
   Decentralisation
    •   History of highly centralised
        dictatorship.
    •   New Transitional Federal Institutions
        in late 2004.
    •   Constitutions of Puntland and
        Somaliland – decentralised in
        principle but not fully in practice.



                                                2
                                                                                    SOCIAL CONTEXT
                                                 Somali Wealth Map
                                                    Dense = poor
                                                   Light = wealth                                                             BOSSASO
            DJIBO UT I                                                                                                           #
                                                                                                                                 Y



                                                                                                    CEER IGAAB O
                            AWDAL                                                              Y
                                                                                               #


                                                                                                    SANAG
                                            GALBEED                                                                                             BARI
                                 BOROMA
                            Y
                            #

                                                                      BURCO
                                            #
                                            Y                     Y
                                                                  #
                                        HARGEYSA


                                                                                                    SOOL
                                                         TOGDHEER
                                                                                                    LAS CAANOOD
                                                                                               #
                                                                                               Y
                                                                                                                   Y
                                                                                                                   #    GAROOW E
                                                                                                                             NUGAL




                                                   ET
                                                      OP
                                                     HI
                                                        IA
                                                                                                #
                                                                                                Y
                                                                                                    GALKACYO                     •                     Estimated population of 6.8 million
                                                                                                            MUDUG


                                                                                   DHU SA-MAREEB
                                                                                                                                                       (2/3 under 10 years)
                                                                                                                                 •                     Over 40% live on less than 1 $/day
                                                                               #
                                                                               Y




                                                              BELET -W EYN E
                                                                               GALGADUD



                                                                                                                                 •
                                                          Y
                                                          #




                                        #
                                        Y
                                         BAKOL
                                    XU DUR
                                                                HI RAN
                                                                                                                                                       Large Diaspora (brain drain)
                                                                                                                                 •
        GARBAH AREY

     GEDO
              Y
              #                  BAYDHABA
                                    Y
                                    #


                                                                  Y
                                                                  #   JOWHAR
                                                                                   M. SHABEL LE
                                                                                                                                                       Important Refugee / IDP populations
                                   BAY

                                                              [
                                                              %   MOGADISHU

        M. JUBA                                    Y
                                                   #   MER KA

A                                               L. SHABELLE
 Y                # BUAALE
                  Y
N
 E
K
                                                                                   SOMALIA
     LOWER                                                                           Capit al                          Inter nat ional boundary
                                                                               %
                                                                               [
     JUBA                                                                            Regional c apit al
                                                                               Y
                                                                               #
                                                                                                                   Regional Boundar y
                      KI SMAYO
                  #
                  Y
                                                                                                                   coast line




                                                                                                       N



                                                                               0      50     100      150   200        250     300 Kilometers




                                                                                                                                                                                         3
                                                                                    Social context …cont
                                                                          SOMALIA: POST GU 2004 CRITICAL AREAS

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Alula
                               DJBOUTI                                                                                                                   BOS SASO




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Deteriorating humanitarian
                                                                                                                                                                #
                                                                                                                                                                Y               Kandala

                                                  Zeylac
                                                                                                                                                 Las Qoray/      Bos aso
                                                           Lughaye
                                                                                                                                                 Badhan
                                                             Bak i



                                                                                                                                                                                                          and livelihood emergency
                                            Boram a                                      Berbera                                      Erigav o                                    Is kushuban
                                                                                                                      El Afw ein
                                                                                          Sheik h
                                                           Gabiley
                                                                         Hargeisa
                                                                                                                                                                                          BAND ARBE YLA
                                                                                                                                                                      Gardo                     #

                                                                                    Odw eine

                                                                                                   Burc o
                                                                                                              Caynaba




                                                                                                                 Buhodle
                                                                                                                                    Xudun




                                                                                                                                      Las anod
                                                                                                                                                     Taleh




                                                                                                                                                    Garow e
                                                                                                                                                                                    Bender Beila


                                                                                                                                                                                                          in several areas (north,
                                                                                                                                             Burtinle
                                                                                                                                                                         Ey l

                                                                                                                                                                                                          central and south)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • food access problems
                                                                                                                      Goldogob         Galk ayo               Jariban
                                                                                                        A
                                                                                                     PI
                                                                                                   IO




                                                                                                                                                                                                              • civil insecurity
                                                                                               H
                                                                                          ET




                                                                                                                        Adado
                                                                                                       Abudwaq                                   Hobyo



                                                                                                                  Dusa Mareb



                                                                     El Barde
                                                                                       Belet W eyne
                                                                                                                        El Bur         Haradhere
                                                                                                                                                                        nO
                                                                                                                                                                           ce
                                                                                                                                                                              a n                             • low purchasing power
                                                                                                                                                                    d ia



                                                               Hudur
                                               Biy oley
                                                                                                                                                                In




                               Dolo                                                            Bulo Burti
                                                                            Tieglo                                         El Der
                                           Luuq      Wajid
                                                                                                      Jalalaqsi Aden Yabal



                                                                                                                                                                                                          Higher than usual
                Belet H awa
                                                          Baidoa
                               Garbahare
                                                                                                   Jowhar     Adale
                                                                           Wanle W ey ne
               El W aq                    Qans ah Dere
                                                                      Bur Hak aba                     Balad


                   Bardera
                                           Dinsor
                                                                        Qory oley
                                                                                    Af goye

                                                                                               [
                                                                                               %     MOGADISHU
                                                                                                                                                                                                          malnutrition rates
K ENYA




                                                          Kurtun W arrey               Marka
                          Sak ow
                                                     Sablale
                                                                                                                       VULNERABLE GROUPS
                                          Buale
                                                              Brav a                                                   Humanitarian Emergency (level 1)
                                                  Jilib
                  Afmadow                                                                                              Humanitarian Emergency (level 2)


                          Kis may o
                                           Jamam e
                                                                                                                       Livelihood Crisis
                                                                                                                       Alert                                                                              Number of IDPs 400,000
                                                                                                                       Non-Alert, with chronic vulnerability
              Badhadhe
                                                               N
                                                                                                                       Areas with IDPs
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (250,000 in Mogadishu)
                                      0      50           100 150 200 250

     No vem be r, 20 04                             Kilom eters
                                                                                     Fo od Security Anal ysis Unit - Soma lia
                                    P .O. Box 1230 Vil lage Ma rke t, N airo bi, Ke ny a     Em ail : fsa uinfo@ fsa u.o r.ke tel : 254-20-3745734 fax :254-20-3740598
                           FSAU is ma na ged by FAO, funde d by EC a nd USA ID- Som ali a FSA U Pa rtners are F EW S, WF P, FAO, U NOCH A SCF- UK, UN ICEF, C ARE, UN DP
                               The bounda rie s a nd na me s o n these ma ps do not imply official endor se me nt or a cce pta nce by the U ni te d N atio ns. The re gi onal &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4
                                                Di str ict boundarie s re fl ect tho se endo rsed by the Gov ernme nt o f the Republ ic o f So mal ia in 1986.
                    Urban context
   Rapid expansion of cities
       • Economic migration / devastation of rural economies
       • Insecurity, creation of large urban IDP camps.
   Expansion has happened in an unplanned
    manner, with limited governance. Basic statistics:
       • 35% Urban – Few large cities Mogadishu 1 m+, Hargeisa 0.5
       • 19.2% Adult literacy (34.9% Urban)
       • 14.3% of urban households headed by women
       • 7.5% of deaths in urban areas due to war 2% rural
       • 40% urban dwellings in of a non permanent nature
       • 38% economically active in urban areas 60% rural
       • 25-30% urban income originates from remittances.
       • 16.9 % enrolled in primary schools.

                                                               5
                Urban context


Poverty
Estimated household income

                             Rural and
Income               Urban               Somalia
                              nomadic

Total household
                     672.4       875.2   1,536.5
income ($ million)

Per capita
household income       291        195        226
($)
                                              6
               Challenges for Urban sector in
                         Somalia

 Hierarchicalprocess
 based on past
 interventions to ensure
 coherent approach to
 address the following
 problems:
    Rapid urban growth
    Serious lack of structures to
     guide and manage
     development


                                                7
             Relevance of MDGs to
              Urban development
   In decentralised governance structures, municipalities have a
    key role in delivery of social services.
   Gender empowerment – Specific training
   HIV/AIDS – Training and co-ordination with specialist
    agencies and municipalities.
   Environmental protection – special focus on sanitation.
   Drinking water – strong interlink with UNICEF
   Reduction of slum dwellings – focus on IDPs and improved
    security.
   Good governance – central pillar of programme.
   Productive work for youths – Local Economic Development
    (ILO)


                                                               8
                AID CONTEXT


   1992 Council of Ministers authorised the
    Chief Authorising Officer (EC) ‘on behalf of
    the Somali people’ to act as NAO.
   Cotonou Partnership Agreement Decision
    3/2001 of the ACP-EC Council of Ministers
    December 2001, gives access to Somalia for
    EDF funding.
   Strategy for the Implementation of Special
    Aid to Somalia (SISAS) – developed by EC

                                               9
              SISAS - objectives

    A Dual Long Term Objective
        To reduce poverty
        To promote a more peaceful,
         equitable and democratic society


Intervention Objective

  To support the sustainable improvement of the livelihood of
 the Somali people by enhancing food security and economic
growth and improve access to basic public and social services
       as well as the establishment of good governance.
                                                                10
                 SISAS: Sectoral focuses
Focal Sectors:
• Good governance,
  reconciliation and peace
  building.
• Social Services (education,
  health and water).
• Food Security.

Non Focal Sector:
* Private Sector development
  (including economic
  infrastructures)
                                           11
           SISAS Focal sector 1: good governance;
               reconciliation and peace building


 Support administrative
  structures in applying
  principles of good
  governance;
 Support contribution of
  civil society to the
  enhancement of good
  governance;
 Contribute to
  reconciliation and peace
  building.
                                             12
          AID IMPLEMENTATION


   No direct funding through Somali
    counterparts – in the absence of legal
    framework.
   Implementation of aid through grants –
    INGOs and UN Agencies.
   Calls for Proposals as a modality to award
    grants.
   Tenders of FWC for service assignments


                                                 13
                     EU Support
                to Urban Development
                      in Somalia

   Sectoral interventions in urban
    areas (EDF and budget lines)
   Integrated projects in Berbera
    and Bossaso (Italian co-
    financed).
   EC Consultative Guidelines for
    Sustainable Urban Development
    Co-Operation – Towards
    Sustainable Urban Development:
    A Strategic Approach (2000)



                                       14
   Somalia Urban Sector Profile Study (UN-
    HABITAT) – 2 main pillars identified:
    1. Improvement of urban governance –
       programme in training in good local governance
       and leadership (UN-HABITAT).
    2. Improvement of urban management –
       production of a strategy and programme for
       urban development found in:
         An Urban Development Strategy for the EC
          in Somalia (Sept 2002)
         An Urban Development Programme for the
          EC in Somalia (Oct 2003)


                                                        15
             Present interventions




 Call for Proposals issued in mid 2004 – grant
  awarded to UN-HABITAT led consortium (Dec
  04).
    Strong   partnership:
          INGOs (UNA / NOVIB) focus on civil society
          UN Organisations: UNDP, UNICEF (Water) and
           ILO.

     Programme €6 million (18% funded by
 Total
  UNDP.



                                                        16
          Objectives and Priorities


   Objective:
        Improve the quality of life of all citizens in towns
        and cities (over 10.000 people) in Somalia.
   Purpose:
        Improve management and planning of towns
        and cities in Somalia
   Expected results:
        Improved living conditions
        Improved security, health and welfare
        Improved water supply and sanitation systems
        Improved conditions of streets and the physical
        environment


                                                                17
                 Thematic focuses


   Interlinks with municipalities (potential
    associations)
             Information   sharing
             Common advocacy
             Common policy development
             Effective use of resources.
             Interlink with Cotonou agreement

   Relevant central / Federal governance
    structures
             Support  to legislative development
             and implementation
             Financial control and oversight.
             Skills development
             Policy formulation.

                                                    18
                    Thematic focuses
   Integrated City Programmes
        Cross cutting thematic focus
        related to urban governance e.g:
        Financial control, governance .etc.

   Expenditure / financial control
       Budgeting
       Revenue collection, control and
       accounting
       Relations with central / federal
       governance structures




                                              19
                       Thematic focuses

   Land
        Property registration
        Town planning

   City governance
        City constitutions
        Administrative staff
        Councils and executives –
         accountability and participation.
        Civil society
        Private sector etc.
                                         Construction of the New Market




                                                                          20
 Thematic focuses … cont

Local   Economic Development
    Employment   / income generation
Urban    Upgrading
    Focus on IDPs, Migrants and Returnees
    Improve basic transport infrastructure.

Social   Services
    Policydevelopment / framework with central admin.
    Regulation of private sector
    Vocational training suited to local economy / LED
    Focus on informal training
    Preventive health.


                                                   21
                Time frames

   Duration: 36 months
   Inception phase: 4 months
         Community dialogue, administration and
        detailed planning.
   Local project preparations and joint development of
    activities: up to total of 10.




                                                      22
            Many thanks


Apology from Eric Beaume and Somali government.


              EC Delegation Website:
            http://www.delken.cec.eu.int
              Europe Aid internet site:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/cgi/frame12.pl




                                                     23

								
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