Eco-tourism sustainable development of eco-tourism by fdjerue7eeu


									On the eco-tourism eco-tourism for sustainable development

  eco-tourism for sustainable development of tourism
  Eco-tourism is a rapidly developing new forms of tourism, the tourism sector is
currently a hot topic . In 1999 the China National Tourism Administration provides
eco-tourism. The world are forecast to go protected areas, close to nature as the theme
of "Eco Tourism" will rise in the world. People for the tourism industry in our country
is facing rare opportunities and ecstatic, we must attach great importance to the issue
of tourism on the environment caused by the recent and long-term harm. Some people
in particular is the name of the banner of eco-tourism, while actually doing damage to
the environment of tourism. Therefore, eco-tourism must be of real content, together
with the reality of eco-tourism work out laws and regulations and management
measures, and to become an eco-tourism eco-tourists to a big school of education. In
order to protect our natural landscape and cultural heritage tourism into a sustainable
green industry.
  I. Evolution of the concept of eco-tourism and the real content of the
  for eco-tourism is the impact of tourism on the environment of a new generation and
promote tourism. 1988, to eco-tourism is defined as: eco-tourism as a special form of
conventional tourism, tourists watch and visit ancient cultural heritage that exposure
to relatively simple, primitive natural areas, enjoy visits and charming scenery and
wild pleasure plants and animals. This time the concept of eco-tourism is a kind of
tourism in the "Return of Nature", "return to basics" concept. More and more tourists
prefer to visit rather than nature of modern cities and beach resorts, emphasizing the
development of tourism development on the natural landscape. In 1993, the
International Ecotourism Society defines eco-tourism: protect the natural environment
and maintain the dual responsibility of the local population of tourism activities.
Meaning more emphasis on eco-tourism is the protection of the natural landscape, is
the sustainable development of tourism. Eco-tourism should not be expense of the
environment should be in harmony with nature, and must travel to the enjoyment of
contemporary natural landscape and human landscape with equal opportunities and
future generations, that modern people can not enjoy the cost and expense of travel
resources, deprived of future generations should have reasonably equal opportunity
for tourism, even now, without destroying their predecessors to create the human
landscape and natural landscape under the premise of building for future generations
and provide a new cultural landscape. And the whole process of eco-tourism, tourists
must be vivid and specific ecological education.
  true eco-tourism is a study of natural, high-level protection of nature tourism
activities and educational activities, pure profit-making activities is contrary to
eco-tourism. Meanwhile, eco-tourism is also a high tech green industry, need to
ecologists, economists and sociologists multidisciplinary argument, before being put
into production. Need to carefully study the ecological environment and tourism
resources can afford. Otherwise, it will cause irreversible fragile ecosystem
disturbance and destruction. Meanwhile, eco-tourism should integrate environmental
education, science popularization and spiritual civilization as the core of the real
eco-tourism as people learn to nature, love nature, protect nature, a large school.
  2, the status of eco-tourism in China
  eco-tourism activities not only improve people into nature and enjoy the natural
spirits, also increased the natural position of tourism in the tourism industry and the
share of foreign exchange earnings . According to recent World Ecotourism
Conference held in introduction to the global eco-tourism has brought at least 200
billion dollars in annual production, eco-tourism has become the trend of world
tourism development.
  development of eco-tourism in China has good conditions: one has a huge tourism
market, and with the people's ecological consciousness, the demand for eco-tourism
will continue to grow; second is rich in eco-tourism. As of late 1997, China has
established 932 nature reserves (as at the national level 124), was formally approved
to join the World Biosphere Reserve 14. These protected areas focused on China's
natural ecosystems and natural landscapes of the most essential areas, is an ideal place
for eco-tourism. Chinese Man and the Biosphere National Committee of the National
Nature Reserve for more than 100 provincial survey showed that: there are 82
protected areas, which was officially launched tourism, the tourism people in more
than 10 million people in protected areas has reached 12. Nature domestic
eco-tourism in the ascendant, the total nearly 25 million tourist trips, annual travel
nearly 520 million yuan of total revenue. Some nature reserves have become a focal
point of local tourism development, "leading."
  but a short history of our country's tourism development, tourism development in
developing countries currently model. People on the relationship between tourism and
the environment is still a lack of scientific understanding, that "tourism is a smokeless
industry" concept is also more popular, eco-tourism developments are still at the
initial stage, emphasizing the nature of travel, stress the development of tourism
resources while neglecting the environmental impact of tourism itself, and resource
damage. In fact, the development of tourism in our country has to the environment
than the pollution, specifically in the following areas:
, Tourism resources development and extensive use of
  blind in many parts of the relevant government departments in developing tourism
resources, lack of in-depth research and comprehensive scientific evidence,
assessment and planning, hasty development. In particular the development of new
tourism areas, developers looking for quick results, in the absence of proof necessary
conditions with the overall plan will be carried out blindly exploratory, extensive
development. Development of re-development, light protection, resulting in many
non-renewable resources of valuable tourist damage and waste. Such as: known as
"fairy tale world" Jiuzhaigou, now, due to upstream and around a large area of forest
felling, where the original lake water level to reduce the 6-30 cm per year, resulting in
Huanglong travertine dikes have begun to degenerate, color. If we do not take
protective measures, where the karst lakes would be premature decline. Even more
perplexing is relevant to a large number of Showmanship, construction of hotels in
Jiuzhaigou in a large number of serious damage to the natural atmosphere of the
  Cave for tourism development and utilization of China is still in the unplanned.
Found in many parts of a good cave heavens, on the hasty construction of the
development. Not control the number of visitors after the opening, too many tourists
to accelerate the oxidation of the cave sediments. Some hole open too far, too long,
the speed of air flow inside the cave, outside, people exhale carbon dioxide gas
caverns destroyed the balance of the environment, promote Cave aging
  scene of wild animals are also extremely valuable tourism resources. Many places in
the development of the tourism resources, mismanagement, law enforcement, many
wild animals have been indiscriminate arrests indiscriminate killing, and some hotels,
restaurants and even wild animals as a food to attract tourists, so many rare and
endangered species.
, Scenic environment system disorders
  nearly 10 years, the scenic area of artificial, commercialization, urbanization of
national scenic areas, including the "World Heritage List," some of the natural beauty,
has been more and more constructive destruction, as was built in blasting rocks,
cutting down trees, deforestation, severe soil erosion. Or flash floods, landslides
blocked roads, destroyed King wounding; or because of long drought, no rain, water
depletion, water shortage, and some buildings damaged King King impaired, leading
to inconsistent very natural and cultural landscape, destroyed the landscape integrity,
unity. Evergreen Yunnan Xishuangbanna, in recent decades, deforestation form
because when carrying out land reclamation to forest for energy, forest area declined
sharply, so the original sound ecological environment has been severely damaged.
  scenic spot for some economic purpose, keen on hotels, restaurants, construction,
blind expansion of tourism, construction of tourist facilities. To cable, for example,
the world's mountains as a national park on the construction of cable are tightly
controlled, with the U.S., Japan is expressly prohibited. Japan's Mount Fuji 3,776 m
above sea level, road repair only to the more than 2000 meters, more tourists, and also
his board to go step by step. But in China, some of the ancient mountains, on the
construction of the modern cable, or even repair a few. Some climbers relative height
less than 100 meters, but also the construction of cable. Cable in the center of the
region into national landmarks, natural scenic area not only broke the original show,
but also a large number of visitors to focus on the limited capacity of the peak,
resulting in landscape and ecological damage. With Nature Reserve off heat,
protecting fragile ecosystems, the area has also been a fatal blow.
  survey of tourism in protected areas has been carried out, only 16% conduct regular
environmental monitoring, and some protected areas with a measuring instrument
must be no. According to scientific monitoring to control the number of tourists
accounted for only 20% of protected areas, some protected areas have emerged
overcrowding. 23% protection even failing to comply with "The People's Republic of
China Nature Reserve Regulations" provisions in the nature reserves in the core areas
of tourism activities, to allow plants and animals which live in the area Jian Shao, Ta
Men living space and nutrients Ji Tong Ye changes, resulting in the death of animals
and plants here and ecological damage. According to the China National Committee
on Man and Biosphere Reserve Status tourism survey: 22% of nature reserves has
been carried out tourism as a result of damage to protected objects, 11% of the
tourism resource degradation occurs.
  rapid development of urban construction due to a number of scenic areas and
suburbs suffer. Some areas covered in scenic areas close to factories and enterprises
from this paper [worry document] collection and sorting, for the
original author! , Thick smoke billowing sewers; some scenic spots on the monuments
free repairs, electrical equipment placed in the forest temple, the artificial marble, tiles,
artificial traces of heavy dressing, with its "natural character" in harmony; some
scenic spots regardless of the environment , conditions, arbitrary construction of
temples, Buddha statues and an inappropriate theme parks and so on. These not only
destroy the scenic, historic landscape and cultural heritage of the original content, but
also the ecological environment of the tourism landscape structure, pattern and caused
, Scenic spots
  serious pollution, according to tourist scenic spot to provide monitoring data, where
land and water, have different levels of atmospheric pollution. Noise, smoke more
than the required standards. Hazardous substances in the atmosphere and acid rain are
more common. Scenic area in Hunan Wuling sulfur dioxide content of up to 0.62 mg /
m 3, more than 3.68 times the national air standards; forest large yellow, PH value of
4.44 and the emergence of acid mist. China has also expanded the scope of water
pollution, the National 135 contaminated river in the city, 52 serious pollution, the
water quality of irrigation standards are not even reach, let alone the standard of
drinking. Areas such as drinking water in Dianchi Lake, Kunming has become a high
incidence of infectious diseases, and many diseases. Yellow River up to 266 days,
87% of the river water up to 4 pollution, especially in the last few months, the middle
reaches of Yellow River was seriously polluted river, floating on the water a thick
layer of foam, was dark reddish brown below sewage odor irritating odor, dead fish,
light, continuous casting in does not work, the cities along the Yellow River in Henan
Province caused by the threat posed to drinking water. This is the Yellow River over
the years, the most serious pollution. It is a basin-wide pollution.

 large number of our population, the rapid development of tourism, but lack of
planning and management, poor people's ecological consciousness, we can say where
tourist travel, ecological destruction and environmental pollution thus where. Increase
in the scenic area sewage, garbage waste, waste surge. The world famous Huangshan
Mountain, Lushan litter on the streets, and even the Himalayas, roof of the world,
visitors also left a variety of beverages bags, packaging bags and other garbage. Cause
there had to spend huge sums of money to clean up. Nature tourism offer is
increasingly serious environmental problems, there are already 44% of waste
pollution, water pollution occurs 12%, 11% of noise pollution, 3% of air pollution.
 above shows the development of tourism and protection of the environment exists
between the conflicting relationship. That the ecological consumption in the first
place, the ecological resources at the expense of profits consumption practices, we
must attach great importance to the misunderstanding out of eco-tourism has become
the first ecotourism industry problems to be solved.
 3, eco-tourism Sustainable Development Strategy
 eco-tourism to sustainable development, should be a cost without compromising the
environment, tourism in harmony with the environment, development must take
appropriate speed, control reception number of environmental awareness, otherwise,
too many tourists destinations of the environment would be too much pressure,
damage the environment for the survival of eco-tourism, eco-tourism will be
impossible for sustainable development.
 major measures:
 1, strengthen the construction of forest parks, conservation of forest resources,
 natural ecosystem is composed of large and small, must maintain a relative balance.
Forests are the largest terrestrial ecosystem is a natural exchange of matter and energy
hub for the ground floor, there are many of the underground environment, if the forest
as a simple timber production base to cut down, but predatory business , regardless of
vegetation is extremely important function to prevent environmental degradation
(water conservation, protecting water and soil, sand-fixing, climate regulation,
maintenance of ecological balance, etc.), then the final destruction of forests will be
the human consequences of the disaster itself. Disappear from the ancient Babylonian
kingdom to global warming, without exception, proves one point.
 forest park is the development of social civilization and the formation of a relatively
independent of the ecological economic system is based on human, biological and
environment of the joint development as the principle of Chixu use of natural
resources and ecological and environmental improvement for the purpose of They
pursued the goal is: to meet the needs of contemporary people's lives and develop
their own, but also protecting the environment, and do not constitute harm the
development of future generations. This is the basis of the eco-tourism activities
carried out an ideal regional environment. In 1982, China established the first Forest
Park - Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, her wonderful landscape and beautiful
environment to show the world the graceful forest park, eco-tourism in China has
created a success story. As of the end of 1996, China had established different types
and levels of Forest Park 811, to attract tourists in 5000 million. With the increasing
number of forest parks tourism, tourism activities and protection of ecological
environment will inevitably produce conflict, causing such as soil, vegetation, water
quality and wildlife in the environment. Addition of Forest Park, mostly on the basis
of state-owned forest farms established and developed, because of the way business is
changing, and this brings a new ideas, and improve the ecological environment on
forest values and re-understanding. Therefore, the effective protection of ecological
environment, strengthen the construction of forest parks is to ensure sustainable
development of eco-tourism is an important measure. Resource protection in China
should note the following two aspects:
 (1) to strengthen ecosystem management, so that sustainable coordinated
 forest is a whole forest except wood, there are many other species, it is a complex
system composed of many elements. If the forest as a simple timber production base
to cut down, but predatory business, then we adopt the wood, but even worse is the
destruction of the other resources of the living environment more harm than good. Of
course, can not play all the benefits of forest resources. But we protect the forest, not
entirely left to nature. Natural forest will naturally wither, if not cut, left to its own
devices, is a waste of resources. Therefore, changes in forest structure in all but the
premise, for mining large planned to stay small, selective mining, in order to achieve
ecological, social and economic benefits in sustainable development. (2) crack down
on forest crime
 1998 年 10 21, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the State Forestry
Administration, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Supervision jointly issued the
"destruction of forest resources to crack down on criminal activities in the special
struggle notice ", after the national forest public security organs at all levels and
sectors of the hard work against dealing with a group of criminals, recovery of a
number of destroyed and long-term occupation of forest land. As of the end of
December 1998, the national forest public security organs investigated and dealt with
all types of forests and wildlife from the 26,369 cases, of punished criminals 28 131
people, including 791 criminal detention, arrest 681 people for the country to restore a
direct economic loss of 29.28 million yuan confiscated 46,351 cubic meters of wood,
wildlife 209 365 (only), to recover 58,305 acres of woodland, with remarkable
success. However, several important questions in forest law and order has not been
fundamentally resolved, a number of grassroots cadres sense of law and deforestation,
the phenomenon of unauthorized occupation and forest land still occur; criminals after
the struggle in the campaign against the wind committing crimes, such as Kunming,
Yunnan provinces are shipped each month from the city still under the protection of
animals, about 1 ton; illegal logging, looting of state forest, illegal transportation and
sale of timber is still serious in some areas; serious local protectionism in some areas,
not done enough to combat forest crime. Therefore, the above circumstances, to
strengthen the forest legislation and strengthen legal education, to protect the forest.
As long as we follow the law strictly, more severe, there is a fundamental construction
of forest protection.

, Uniform regulations, orderly development of

 good tourism development planning, implementation resources and environmental
protection ideas, not only allows developers to guarantee the success of and also to
prevent the destruction of resources and the environment an important measure.
Therefore, in the preparation of tourism master plan, the need for tourist areas of
geological resources, biological resources and environmental quality of the Ge Lei
involved 到 serious resources investigating this so Kaizhan tourism environmental
damage resulting from the activities carried out adequately prepared and to take
positive measures to eliminate or reduce pollution, enhance environmental quality
monitoring. To ensure the environmental quality of eco-tourism a high quality, tourist
area, the building must follow the appropriate points in order to level development of
the principle, allow any form of development detrimental to the natural action. Each
project must be carried out environmental impact assessments, from the ecological
point of view strictly control the scale of facilities, number, color, material, shape and
style, the main advocate for its natural beauty, local materials, according to King on
the situation, reflects the beauty of nature , on the high input, high pollution and high
consumption of projects to stimulate economic growth and resolutely stop. Economic
development in other scenic areas on the vast land. Even with the scenic area of
tourism, its main services are completely outside the scenic spot construction. All
times mountains, scenic areas and national parks are the place for spiritual rather than
economic areas. Ancient China, the saying down the mountain are equipped with
"town", "town" is dedicated to provide services and facilities. Song provides the
external 7 in Taishan of "cutting, cut." Yuan is under 40 miles away from this paper [worry documentation] to collect and organize, for the original
author! The Culai Mountain prohibit firewood, are for the protection of Taishan. The
U.S. requires that commercial development should be outside the national park,
Yellowstone National Park since its establishment has been found, not only hunting,
logging ban, and gradually moved out of the Indian tribes living there. German Alpine
National Park, an area of more than 300 square kilometers, the park is not a cable, a
number of articles cable are located in the park outside. The function distinction,
viewing area, outside the fine tradition of doing business, we can learn from.
Construction of tourist facilities such as the foot of the mountain, the mountain does
not repair cable, so that visitors bound in the foothills of the hotel accommodation,
local accommodation and food costs definitely earn higher cable fees, and visitors are
scattered throughout, which greatly eased by ride overcrowding caused by the Peak
tramway. Sustainable development of the theory guides, available in Shengtaijishu,
financial terms of Yiji people's sense of Huan Huan Bao Da Budaoweihu
Shengtaipingheng requirement is, must be Baogui the ecological Zi Yuan to our
descendants, not with the developers Dai Jin . Tourist area of environmental capacity,
it should strengthen research capacity in the tourist area of the environment that
before, must control the pace of development of tourism. Some focus on the
protection area, to prevent too many visitors to enter, even if the general tourist areas,
should strictly control the super-capacity to attract tourists. Because the
environmental capacity is limited, easy to repair damage is difficult, if travel exceeds
the environmental capacity, causing massive environmental damage, again very
difficult to control, or even impossible.
, Environmental awareness, and strengthening legal concepts
  view of tourism as an industry specific impact on the environment and the
cumulative damage to eco-tourism must strengthen environmental legislation and
management. Strict enforcement of and compliance with our "Environmental
Protection Law", "Forest Law", "Conservation Law", "Wildlife Protection Law" and
other environmental protection and tourism are closely related to laws and regulations,
and for the impact of tourism on the environment potential, continuity and cumulative
features, increase the supplementary provisions. An increase in environmental
protection in tourism revenue for the repair of damaged environmental management.
Local government and tourism departments should earnestly study and implement the
relevant laws and regulations, strengthen the rule of law concepts, such as the
development of ecological protection areas, according to environmental laws,
regulations which prohibited the development part, which parts of the scale can be
developed and development, open season, and can accommodate the number of
persons. Another example is provided with a fire ban which areas to ban hunting and
the destruction of forests, ban abandoned garbage and household items. On the
offense against the natural persons and strengthen law enforcement, to take
appropriate civil and criminal liability.
  law is more important than ideology. China's ecological planning in the eco-tourism
and ecological education are very weak, and tourism income mainly for the purpose
of profit, many tourist areas of environmental impact assessment did not begin
operating. In the tourist attractions, few eco-conscious establishment propaganda
billboards, word tour guides who rarely touched on ecological and moral education.
Moreover, the tourism guide in the majority of cadres and people have not received
systematic education, ecological education and ecological ethics. Therefore, we
promote eco-tourism, we must first establish the idea of ecological protection,
promotion and education to change the concept of the whole people. Specifically, it is
necessary to pass legislation, to to the tourist area of environmental impact assessment
and measures to implement each and every real attraction, and all of the travel
managers, tour guides have to go through the system of ecological education, to
change that recognize? Quot; Travel industry is a smokeless industry "," tourism
resources renewable "concept and to assess the environmental effects of tourism
development of the phenomenon of lack of knowledge, practical environment for the
tourism industry as the life and image. From the strategic perspective of sustainable
development, the development of objectives and establish tourism standpoint of
ensuring the present and generations, dozens of travel needs of generations, and in
this ideology as a guide, do the specific work environment. Second, the ecological
education and ecological moral education into national education programs in primary,
secondary and university education in the state of the nation to introduce additional
educational content. so that future generations from an early age starting to focus on
sustainable use of natural resources, care for the natural landscape and cultural
landscape, the protection of wild animals and plants and understanding of nature, love
nature, good and evil view of the ecological, ecological conscience, ecological justice,
ecological obligations to become a conscious behavior and ethics of youth. Third, take
full advantage of the lively tourist a large school, so that the whole eco-tourism
process, an ecological education and ecological moral education as a whole. so that
tourists in nature to arouse the passion of green, green pleasure, green thinking,
experience nature's harmony, orderly, and body? quot; Heaven "The traditional culture,
to love nature, Nature, enlightening the purpose of life. Acceptance of ecological
education in the nature and ecological ethics, so that each individual travelers from
ourselves, from each of the little things to protect nature.
 ⑴ Gongxue Hui: "Eco-tourism How can the destruction of ecology", "Guangming
Daily", May 23, 1998
 ⑵ Peng Xixi: "Eco-tourism Sustainable Development Strategy "," international
market ", in March 1998
 ⑶ Xu Jun:" Travel Protection is key to ensure sustainable tourism development ","
Jianghuai Forum "in January 1998
 ⑷ Zheng North Eagle: "destruction of forest crime is still very serious",
"Guangming Daily", January 15, 1999
 ⑸ Dan: "Scenic vigilance creative destruction", "Guangming Daily", January 1999

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