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VIEWS: 140 PAGES: 56

  • pg 1
									   Maritime Logistics


Assistant Professor
Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Elements of Transport
•Transport Demand
•Way
•Vessel
•Terminal
•Energy
•Service Provider
•Regulator
                                   2
        Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
 Structure of Maritime Business

              Maritime Business

Shipping Operator                 Port & Handling Activities

Repair & Building                    Other Related Business

                               • Freight Forwarding
                               • Customs Broker
                               • Inland & Coastal Transport
                               • Off Dock Facilities
                               • Marine Insurance
                               • Manpower Supply
                               • Logistics supporting Services
                               • Others



                                                                 3
               Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Transport Demand
•Freight Transport
•Passenger Transport
                       Transport Demand is Derived Demand
               8,000
               7,000
               6,000                                                                      Dry Cargo
million tons




               5,000
               4,000                                                                      M ain Bulk
                                                                                          Commodities

               3,000
                                                                                          Tanker Cargo
               2,000
               1,000
                  0
                        Year    1980      1990       2001        2002     2003   2004
                        1970

                       main bulk = iron ores, grain, coal, bauxite/alumina, & phosphate


                                                                                                         5
                                               Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Origin of World Seaborne Goods


         Oceania               Africa
          8.9%                  8.6%
Europe                                          America
 22.7%                                           21.4%




                      Asia
                     38.4%

                         ASEAN share is 1/5 of Goods
                         Originated from Asian Region


                                                          6
                   Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Origin and Destination of World Seaborne Cargoes
• Petroleum Product
   – 36.5% of World Seaborne Trade
   – ¾ is Oil and ¼ is other petroleum product
• Origin
   – OPEC, OECD (USA, Canada, Mexico, Norway,
     Russia)
• Natural Gas
   – Main origins are Russia, USA, Canada, Algeria, iran
     and Indonesia
   – Main Destinations are USA, EU, Japan, China
• Major routes
   – Middle East to (1) Far East (2) EU (3) USA


                                                           7
                       Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Major Oil Flows and Chokepoints




                                       Bosphorus
                                         3.0 Hormuz                    Million barrels
                                                                           per day
                                            3.8
                                   Suez            15.3
                                                                             15
  0.4                                       3.3           Malacca
        Panama                     Bab el-Mandab                             10
                                                                11.0
                                                                              3

                                                                              1




                                                                                  8
                 Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
  Origin and Destination of World Seaborne Cargoes

• Steel
   – ¾ of production and consumption is in
     North America, EU, and Asia
• Iron Ore
   – Brazil and Australia represent 2/3 of
     world export
• Coal
   – Major exporters are Australia, Latin
     America, North America and
     Indonesia

                                                     9
                   Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
  Origin and Destination of World Seaborne Cargoes


• Grain
   – Major exporters are Argentina, Australia, EU,
     North America
   – Major importers are Japan, EU, China,
     Middle East and Africa
• Bauxite
   – Major exporters are Australia and Western
     Africa
• Phosphate
   – Major exporter is Africa
   – Major importers are EU and Asia

                                                     10
                     Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Container Trade
                                                 Major Traffic Imbalance
                                                  In Transpacific Route

•   Transpacific Route




                                                         Asia – USA 11.8 TEU
•   Europe - Far East Route




                                                                               4.3 TEU
•   Transatlantic Routes
•   North - South Routes
•   Intra Regional Routes
    – Feeder services linking
        • Singapore
        • Thailand
            – Laem Chabang
        • Malaysia
            – Port Klang
        • China
            – Ningbo, Quingdao, Shenzhen,
              Shanghai, Xiamen
        • Korea
            – Pusan
        • Japan
            – Kobe, Nagoya, Tokyo


                                                                                         11
                      Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
         Way
•International Waterway
•Coastal Waterway
•Inland Waterway




                                    12
         Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Suez Canal

                                        SHORT CUT EUROPE - ASIA




                                                              13
             Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Case Stud of Suez Canal
• Opened in 1869 by French Government and Improve
  continuously
• Physical Qualification
    –   Lengths 193 Kilometers
    –   Depth 22.5 Meters
    –   Width 365 Meters
    –   Cross Section 4,800 Square Meters
    –   Max Tonnage 250,000 DWT
• Managed by Suez Canal Authority
• Major foreign currency earning for Egypt Government. Earning
  approximately $5.3 million / days
• Major fleets channeled through Suez Canal
    – VLCC, LNG, Bulk Carriers, Container Vessels

                                                           14
                  Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
          Major Routes in ASEAN Region
                       Bangkok & LCB
          Songkhla                                                 Ho Chi Minh
Penang

                      Kuantan
                                                   Sihanouville
         Port Klang
                                                            Manila     Brunei




Indian                                                               Kuching
 Ocean                                                   Jakarta

                       Singapore
                                                                           15
                        Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Vehicle


                               16
    Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
 Types of Vessel
• Oil Tankers
• Bulk Carriers
   – Ore and bulk carriers
• General Cargo
   – Refrigerated cargo, specialized cargo,
     ro-ro cargo, general cargo
• Container Ships
   – Fully cellular
• Other Ships
   – Chemical tankers, liquefied gas carriers,
     passenger ro-ro, passengers, tank
     barges, general cargo barges, fishing,
     and offshore supply.

                                                 17
                      Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Oil Tanker




                            18
 Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Dry Bulk Carrier




                               19
    Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Conventional (General Cargo)




                                     20
          Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Roll On/Roll Off




                               21
    Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
                   Size of Vessel
Crude Oil Tankers                             Dry Bulk Carriers
• ULCC                                        • Cape size
  – 300,000+ dwt                                 – 80,000+ dwt
• VLCC                                        • Panamax
  – 150,000 – 299,999 dwt                        – 50,000 – 79,999 dwt
• Suezmax                                     • Handymax
  – 100,000 – 149,999 dwt                        – 35,000 – 49,999 dwt
• Aframax                                     • Handy size
  – 50,000 – 99,999 dwt                          – 20,000 – 34,999 dwt




                                                                         22
                   Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Tanker Size
                     Coastal Tanker (205 m)


                            Aframax (245 m)



                          Suez-Max (285 m)



                             VLCC (350 m)




                              ULCC (415 m)


                                              23
              Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
World Fleet in 2005

               160
               140
               120
 Million DWT




               100
                                                                                                                                         Foreign Flag
                80                                                                                                                       National Flag
                60
                40
                20
                 0
                              Japan




                                                                                                  Taiwan




                                                                                                                       Thailand (32th)
                                                China




                                                                                     Korea
                     Greece




                                                                                                           Singapore
                                                                         HK




                                                                                             UK
                                                        USA

                                                                Norway
                                      Germany




                                                                                                                                                 24
                                                          Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
               Port
•Port
•Derivatives of Port
  – Container Freight
    Station (CFS)
  – Inland Container Depot
    (ICD)



                                       25
            Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Example of Port Operations
•   Discharging
•   Loading
•   Yard Management
•   Gate Control
•   Warehouse Management
•   Stuffing and Un-stuffing




                                              26
                   Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Port Development: Top 20 World Container Ports
                     To kyo             3.5
                       LCB              3.6
                     Tianjin

                    Ningbo
                                         3.8
                                            4
                                                                   Laem Chabang Port ranked 19th in 2004
                 T-P elepas                 4
                         NY                     4.4

                  Quingdao                        5.1
                 P o rt Klang                         5.2
 Million TEUs




                Lo ng B each                            5.8
                   A ntwerp                                 6.1
                      Dubai                                  6.4
                  Hamburg                                         7
                         LA                                        7.3
                 Ro tterdam                                               8.3
                 Kao shiung                                                     9.7
                     B usan                                                            11.4
                  Shenzhen                                                                    13.7
                  Shanghai                                                                         14.6
                 Singapo re                                                                                          20.6
                Ho ng Ko ng                                                                                             21.9

                                0   2   4              6              8         10     12     14      16   18   20    2722
                                                            Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
    Major Container Ports in ASEAN

Brunei                Cambodia                            Myanmar                   Singapore
•   Muara             •       Phnom Penh,                 •      Yangon, Thilawa,   •   Singapore
                              Sihavoukville                      Kyaukphyu




Indonesia                                                                           Thailand
•   Belewan,              Malaysia                      Philippines
                                                                                    •   Bangkok,
    Dumai,                •     Port Klang,             •        Manila,                Laem
    Tanjung, Priok,             Penang,                          Batangas,              Chabang,
    Palembang,                  Johore,                          Subic Bay,             Songkhla
    Panjang,                    Tanjung                          Cebu, Iloilo,
    Pontianak,                  Pelepas,                         Cagayan de
    Tanjung Perak,              Kuantan,                         Oro, Davao,
    Tanjung Emas,               Kemaman,                         General
    Makassar,                   Bintulu,                         Santos,
                                Khching,                         Zamboanga          Vietnam
    Balinkpapan,                                                                    •   Saigon,
    Bitung,                     Sandakan, &                                             Haiphong,
    Jayapura,                   Kota Kinabalu                                           Danang,
    Sorong,                                                                             Cailan
    Banjarmasin



                                                                                                    28
                                      Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
     Inland Container Depot - ICD
• Lat Krabang Inland Container Depot
   – Siam Shoreside Service (SSS)
       • Maersk Sealand
   – Eastern Sea Container Terminal (ESCO)
       • APL, Nedlloyd, K-Line, Hanjin
   – Evergreen Container Terminal (ECT)
       • Evergreen, Uniglory
   – TIFFA ICD
   – Thai Shipping
   – NYK Distribution Service (NICD)
       • NYK, SPIC, Samudera
   – NH Prosperity (Ngow Hock)
       • RCL, MOL, SPIC
• Siam Container Transport & Terminal (SCT)
   – OOCL
• Ekachai Container Terminal


                                                  29
                       Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
    Container Freight Station - CFS
•   NYK Export Service                  •     Navanakorn
    Center                                    Distribution Center
     –   NYK                                    –    K-Line
•   Sankyu Laemchabang                  •     Thai Barge Container
     –   APL, Nedlloyd, K-Line                Services
•   Sagami Thai                                 –    NYK
     –   APL                            •     K-Line Container
•   Pioneer Intermodal                        Service
    Container Services                  •     Rojana Distribution
•   Sintana Chote                             Center
     –   RCK, NYK                       •     Hi Tech Nittsu
•   Thai Intermodal                     •     Thai Freight Terminal
    Systems                             •     C-Fon Container
     –   MOL
                                              Service
•   NBC Container Depot
     –   MOL
•   Thai Container
    Distribution Service
     –   MOL



                                                                      30
                                 Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Container Throughput in ASEAN


                Philippines
       Thailand     9%
         11%
                                                 Singapore
                                                    46%

  Indonesia
     13%

              Malaysia
               21%




                                                             31
                      Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Energy
• Modal Shift from Road to Water
  Transport to Save Energy and
  Cost




                                          32
               Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Transport
 Service
 Provider


                                  33
       Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
International Transport Service Providers

 Ship’s Owner
   Liner
   Tramp
     Voyage Charter
     Time Charter
     Bareboat Charter
 Shipping Agency
                                            34
                Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Liner VS Charter Services

• Services
• Cargoes
• Ships
• Contract




                                        35
             Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Services : Regular VS Tailor Made




                                     36
          Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
 Cargoes
• Finished/Semi-finished VS Primary
• Package VS No Package (Bulk)
• Small Volume VS Large Volume




                                           37
                Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Cargoes




                                 38
      Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Ships

• Container/Multi-Purposes
 versus
• Bulker/Single Decker
• Liquid Bulk
• Dry Bulk
• Special Bulk



                                        39
             Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
            CONTRACT
• Bill of Ladings VS
  Charter Party
• Bill of Ladings (B/L)
  – As an Evidence of
    Contract
  – As a Receipt
  – As a Document of Title



                                        40
             Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
                           Standard form
                           of Bill of Lading




                                               41
Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
                           Standard form of
                             Charter Party




                                              42
Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Types of Chartering

• VOYAGE CHARTER

• TIME CHARTER

• BAREBOAT CHARTER




                                      43
           Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Types of Chartering
• VOYAGE CHARTER
  – Covers a situation where a ship is
    employed to carry a particular cargo
    from a certain port or area, to a
    designated destination- i.e. for a
    voyage - the ship owner being
    reimbursed by freight money paid
    either on a lumpsum basis or in relation
    to the actual cargo quantity carried.


                                               44
                   Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
         Types of Chartering
• TIME CHARTER
  – Arises from an instance where
    Charterers hires a ship for a period
    of time. The ship owner is still
    required to operate his ship but
    instead of freight, he receives
    previously agreed sums of hire
    money, in advance and at regular
    intervals.

     • Trip Time Charter

                                             45
                  Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Types of Chartering

• BAREBOAT CHARTER
  – The ship owner virtually relinquishes
    all responsibilities and rights in
    respect of his vessel for a specified
    period of time, in return for a pre-
    arranged, regular payment of hire.




                                             46
                  Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Why do we Charter Vessel?
• Voyage Charter
     • Economies of Scale
     • Not suitable for Liner
      Services
     • No Liner Services




                                          47
               Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Why do we Charter Vessel?
• Time Charter
     • Operator
     • To serve additional
       demand
• Bareboat Charter
     • Financing
     • Investment Strategy



                                            48
                 Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Top 10 Container Service Operators in 2004

  China Shipping                    236.1

        COSCO                        253

            NYK                        265.2

     Hanjin/DSR                           284.7

       NOL/A P L                           295.2

     CM A -CGM                                        373.2

   P &O Nedllo yd                                           423

      Evergreen                                                 437.6

           M SC                                                               618

 M aersk Sealand                                                                                 900.5


                    0   100   200      300           400          500   600         700   800    900

                                                000 TEU capacity
                                                                                                49
                                     Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Top 11 - 20 Container Service Operators in 2004


 Hamburg Sud                                                       131.1

     Hyundai                                                         139.2

   Yang Ming                                                                     168

 Hapag Lloyd                                                                            186.6

  CSAV Chile                                                                             190.1

      K Line                                                                               195.8

    CP ships                                                                               196.3

         Zim                                                                               196.4

        MOL                                                                                        213.2

       OOCL                                                                                        216.5

               0   20   40   60        80        100         120   140     160    180    200       220
                                           000 TEU capacity

                                                                                                    50
                                  Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Freight Rate (market average)
in 2002 – 2004 (US$ per TEU)
             2000                   1,850




                                                                                                    1,686
             1800
                    1,540
                            1,529




                                                                                                                                              1,437
                                                                                            1,432
             1600




                                                                                                                                      1,269
             1400




                                                                                                                              1,180
                                                                                    1,073
$US / TE U




             1200                                                                                                                                          2002




                                                                                                                  899
             1000




                                                                                                            866
                                                                                                                                                           2003
                                                  826
                                                        802




                                                                                                                        778
                                            751




                                                                           733
                                                                     704
             800                                                                                                                                           2004
                                                               601




             600

             400

             200
               0
                    Asia-USA                USA-Asia           EU-Asia              Asia-EU                 USA-EU            EU-USA

                                                                                                                                                      51
                                                              Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Capacity Share for Transpacific Trade

      Others
       36%                                         Grand Alliance
                                                       23%




                                                         New World
    CMA-
                                                           12%
 CGM/Norasia
     6%        K Line & Yang                  Maersk
                    Ming                      Sealand
                    8%                         15%




                                                                     52
                   Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Transport
Regulator



                               53
    Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Transport Regulations
• How Transport is controlled?
   –   Price control
   –   Quality control
   –   Entry control
   –   Tax and Monetary promotion measures
   –   Others

• Why transport is controlled?
   –   Prevent monopoly
   –   Prevent over competition
   –   Promote accessibility
   –   Safety
   –   Social welfare

                                                 54
                      Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Maritime Transport Safety




                                     55
          Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra
Q&A




                            56
 Dr.Chackrit Duangphastra

								
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