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Cluster industry on the development of China's tourism industry cluster

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					Cluster industry on the development of China's tourism industry cluster

 tourism industry cluster development

 Abstract: This paper discusses the characteristics of industrial clusters and tourism
industry cluster type. By analyzing the tourism industry clusters and the relationship
between the development of China's tourism industry, tourism industry cluster that
represents the emergence of China Tourism Industry Organization in form of
innovation, cluster formation shows that our tourism industry tourism products and
services to extend the value chain, the reasonable operation of the tourism industry
cluster will contribute to regional economic development. And proposed to develop
and strengthen our tourism industry cluster response.
 Key words: competitiveness of the tourism industry cluster development

 Chinese Tourism Industry after 20 years of development, has become a world
tourism power. At present, China's tourism industry one of the issues need to be
resolved is how to increase the competitiveness of the tourism industry. Industry
cluster is to enhance industrial competitiveness in the world an effective model. In
recent years there have been many parts of China Tourism Industry Cluster
Development. Therefore, the study of China's tourism industry cluster formation and
development of the academic study of tourism as an important issue.

 cluster characteristics and the tourism industry cluster

 (a) of the basic content of industrial clusters
 "cluster" concept of strategic management scholars from the U.S. introduction of
Michael Porter , used for around a (more) business industry concentration in a certain
geographical space description of this economic phenomenon. The so-called Chanye
cluster, yes 指 including business, support agencies and the Government of actors in
a particular geographic focus on (Xie) industry and the formation of a Wang Luo
Jizhong, network Neibutongguo Gezhongshekuai and commercial relations between
the various participants Zhichi Zhao's cooperation and exchange, which is linked to
the cluster is "including supply and demand, common technologies, common
market-oriented, the common labor market and local culture, including a number of
factors."

 cluster has the following characteristics:

 regional characteristics. Clusters are geographically concentrated business, and
different regions have different industry base and the development environment and,
therefore, characteristics of different forms of industrial clusters.
 industry association. This is the basic characteristic industrial cluster, the cluster can
form the basis of lies, and also the industrial clusters of shared and mutually important
attribute differences. Whether attached to the same industry, or to extend the industrial
front, or the supporting industry chain of industrial relations is that they gather the
most fundamental features. This paper highlighted that the cluster of industry
characteristics, Guer called industrial clusters.
  specialized division of labor. The affiliated companies "get together", through
specialized division of labor can reduce transaction costs, create an external economic
and collective efficiency, thereby promoting innovation, knowledge formation and
generate spillover effects, gain competitive advantage.
  local embeddedness. This is a new theory of the main concepts of industrial district,
is the judge's landmark new industrial district concept. The implication is that
economic activity deeply embedded in social relations. Cluster only rooted in the
local enterprises, the formation of local contacts, local integration and networks of
social relations, and then integrate into the local culture to create social networking
industry to promote and facilitate the formation of industrial clusters.
  (b) of the tourism industry cluster types and characteristics of
  1. Resource-based tourism industry cluster. To operate a specific geographical space,
the core attraction of the business tourism as the center, inbound tour, hotels,
restaurants, transportation companies as the major insurance, banking and other
service enterprises demand for tourists supplement value chain industry clusters .
  cluster of such tourism in tourist destinations. Landscape travel destinations or
events (trade shows or business meetings) to stimulate or attract tourists play a role, is
a fundamental demand of tourists. Therefore, the provision of core tourism attraction
or business enterprises constitute the center of the tourism industry cluster. Among
enterprises within the cluster direct correlation is not strong. Integration of resources
between them is between multiple points, through the joint to provide high-quality
travel experience of tourists, the formation of a "package tourism products." Such
enterprises within the tourism industry cluster complex behavior and relationship
instability. Cluster enterprise's contact information contact, forming a network of
consumer-centric value system. Value net from a higher level of supply chain theory
was practical thinking of Ji Tong, 将 business Jingyingzhishen modern network
environment, by thinking elevated to mesh chain thinking, Jishi competing enterprises
have had cooperation, the respective value of the value chain links to form networks
to enable enterprises to better meet the unique needs of our customers. Within clusters
has a profound sense of identification with social and cultural background and values.
As the travel of non-core resources, mobility, thus requiring this type of tourism
cluster management system is mainly government-led system. Developed areas in
China's economy is often the formation of such large-scale tourist attractions tourist
industry clusters, such as large international tourism in Jiuzhaigou, Zhangjiajie major
tourist areas such as
  2. The professional market-based tourism industry cluster. Usually with a large travel
agency sales intermediary functions as the leading enterprise groups to tour the many
small and medium enterprises (or franchises joined the community) as the main
factors related to tourism enterprises rely on the formation of the tourism industry
cluster.
  professional market-oriented enterprises in the tourism industry cluster to establish
the relationship between the professional division of labor in the tourism based on the
strong interdependence. Cluster to tour operators or wholesalers for the center, it is
mainly the face of retailers rather than direct sales to the general public. Is specialized
in the external face of the consumer advisory services in tourism, revenue passenger
service agent, or retailer specializing in the business of the franchisees to take. Such
industrial clusters mainly composed of local production through the division of labor
common distribution network. Cluster built on mutual trust and cooperation
mechanism based on competition, but also help enterprises in technological
innovation cooperation, thereby reducing the new product development and
technological innovation costs. Within clusters to e-commerce platform, wholesale,
and retail travel agency network. Cluster formation and development depends on
market forces.
 historical reasons, China's travel service sector, especially travel agents, their
business activities carried out by horizontal division of labor system. As the market
economy and the tourism industry to expand the scale, in our abundant source of
mega-cities and economically developed eastern regions, some travel agencies take
the lead in application of powerful capital and new technologies, the operating
division of the travel agency had re achieved Travel vertical division of labor and
specialization operators. Therefore, professional market-based tourism industry
cluster mainly in our large cities and economically developed eastern regions.

 tourism industry clusters and our modern tourism

 The emergence of China's Tourism Industry Cluster and the gradual formation of
modern tourism development is of great significance, embodied in the following
areas:
 (a) the emergence of the tourism industry cluster represents a form of organization of
tourism industry innovation
 tourism industry cluster is itself a new form of business organization. It appears to
break the tourism industry in China has long been decentralized management
organization operating a single mode of travel products, is a revolution in our tourism
industry. Enterprises within the tourism industry cluster competitiveness and
specialization through mutual cooperation, formed a crisscross network of
relationships to form a space Aggregate, a range of markets and management of a new
space between the forms of economic organization. Such organizations not only help
enterprises to overcome market fragmentation and uncertainty of trading risk, and
reduce transaction costs, can overcome the low efficiency of multi-level organization.
Tourism industry cluster emergence and development of tourism enterprises in China
will increase the economic efficiency and competitiveness.
 (b) show that China's tourism industry cluster formation of tourism products and
services value chain to extend
 longer period of tourism products and services value chain, as the division of work
between tourism enterprises to provide the possibility for new business market access
and create space for development. The new enterprises to enter the tourism cluster to
obtain the key to sustainable competitive advantage, as it is to maintain the vitality of
tourism enterprises cluster key.

  (c) the operation of the promotion of tourism industry cluster economic development
of China's regional tourism industry,
  cluster as a new tourism development model, to raise the level of regional economic
development bridged.
  tourism industry cluster for regional tourism productivity. A large number of
enterprises within the tourism industry, geographically concentrated, can quickly form
a regional tourism scale economies. First, suppliers of tourism association together,
not only increase regional tourism within the bargaining power of suppliers, but also
reduce the travel supplier default risk. Second, the formation of the tourist market
specialization, from the source supply and service product support to sales sites,
tourism clusters in the region can be a huge natural tourism professional market. Also
to promote regional employment rate increased. Third, the inflow of highly qualified
staff. Tourism Industry Cluster on professional and technical staff in terms of tourism
means more jobs and lower liquidity risk, and the resulting concentration of talents.
Fourth, the sharing of professional information from this paper www.5udoc.com
[worry documentation] to collect and organize, for the original author! . The market,
technical and competition-related information may be gathered in the region and
quickly transfer large. Fifth, the Government and other public institutions in the
public services and infrastructure on a large number of inputs. Public services and
infrastructure improvements can also attract a large number of foreign tourist capital,
triggering follow-up of supporting the capital to promote the tourism industry, the
rapid rise in the competitiveness of the upgrade, and then form a tourism industry
advantage.
  regional tourism industry clusters to improve competitiveness. Tourism industry
cluster for the region competition and cooperation in tourism enterprises to provide a
double opportunity. The presence of competitors, forcing travel companies continue to
adopt new technologies, innovative tourism products, improve tourism services,
establish a regional tourism brand. Tourism in clusters in competition and cooperation
in the industrial structure has been optimized. Competition within the industry to
make tourism more specialized division of labor, quality of service standards, and
cooperation between tourism enterprises to the formation of the industry chain more
closely. All this has prompted companies to compete at a higher level. The results
form a space tourism consumers more attractive.

 Chinese Tourism Industry Cluster Development Strategies

 tourism industry cluster is a modern tourist industry development trend, China's
tourism industry is an important source of competitiveness and a concentrated
expression. Accelerating the Development of Tourism Industry Cluster, is to build an
effective way to world tourism power. This article from the current situation of
China's tourism industry, made the following recommendations
 (a) seize the opportunity to quickly create a tourism industry cluster
 present, China's sustained rapid economic growth, people are free to disposable
income is growing, tourism spending increased scale of the tourism industry.
Meanwhile, tourism increasing competition among enterprises, the economic benefits
of tourism enterprises is still low. This indicates that China is only a world tourism
power, but not travel power. To become a tourism power, our tourism industry must
be the reform of industrial organization, quickly create China's tourism industry
cluster, to improve the economic benefits of tourism enterprises and competitiveness.
Rapid economic development and tourism growth in consumption of the formation of
clusters for the tourism industry provides the background conditions.
 (b) understand and follow the laws of the tourism industry cluster formation and
evolution of mechanisms
 tourism in China is government-led industry, but the real development of the tourism
industry cluster, the Government is not a hero. Tourism industry cluster formation is
the purpose of tourism enterprises have gathered in a region, there is a certain
spontaneity. If the government uses administrative measures to force aggregation,
man-made "market manipulation", it lost the essence of the tourism industry cluster.
Government's function is to provide the necessary infrastructure, public services and
market environment, this is a supporting role. Therefore, in our tourism industry
cluster formation and evolution of government functions to clear the boundary.
 (3) improve and strengthen the government's public administration services,
 cluster of public administration services to the tourism industry in the development
of the main functions of government, the tourism industry in China is an important
condition for the formation of clusters. Public functions of government include:
assisting enterprises in the cluster analysis of macro-market demand and provide the
necessary information and data; as human capital, financial capital and technical
factors such as market trading platform established to create favorable conditions;
encourage and guide the public service development, including education and training
institutions, regulatory and advisory agencies, notaries, accounting services
institutions; through government activities to promote exchanges between enterprises
and cooperation, and promote cultural tourism and the tourism industry cluster
business and innovation climate; through legal, administrative and other means ,
committed to maintaining a fair competitive market environment.
 (d) the development of tourism intermediaries
 background in market economy, the trade associations will play an important
function of the government is difficult to replace. This is the world's countries to
develop a basic experience of the industry cluster. At present, tourism industry
associations, tourism, intermediary services organizations and legal development is
still not adequate, especially in tourism industry association also has a relatively
strong government color and affect the normal public function to play. These services
organizations should operate independently to achieve the functions of the
professional, service and operation of social segmentation.
 (5) efforts to cultivate our tourism industry cluster demonstration area
 after 20 years of tourism industry development, has formed a number of tourist
economy is relatively developed areas, such as the Yangtze Delta region, a large
well-known tourist scenic spots, etc.. They either hardware or software from the
tourism perspective, are suitable for a tourism industry cluster carrier. Therefore, we
should strengthen the planning and policy research, has been with the tourism
industry cluster in the shape of the region into China's tourism industry cluster
demonstration area. Foster cluster tourism brand, set up the whole image, to promote
the development of China's tourism industry cluster.

 Reference:
 1. Zhang Meng. Tourism Industry Cluster Development Constraints. Tourism
Tribune, 2006,2
 2. Ma Xue-feng. Tourism Industry Cluster Management and Innovation. Jiangsu
Business on, 2005,9
 3. Zhang Meng. to enhance the regional tourism industry cluster competitiveness.
Economic Observer, 2005,6
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