KENYA PASTORALIST COMMUNITIES NETWORK by arq31336

VIEWS: 70 PAGES: 34

									 KENYA PASTORALIST COMMUNITIES
           NETWORK

                            (KPCN)



             FIVE YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN

                            2004-2008


CHAIRMAN
OLE LELIAH ANTONY
PHONE: 0254-722-631044
FAX+254-020
EMAIL: KPC N004@yahoo.com
EMAIL: pleliah@yahoo.com
Email:kpcn@nativeweb.net


TRESSURER
OLE KULEI JONATHAN
Tel +254-722689441

SECRETARY
Dr. RAMAITA OLE SOLITEI
+254-721567011




                                          1
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVERVIEW………………………… …………………………………………………….
BACKGROUND………………………… …………………………………………
KPCN VISION AND MISSION……………………………………………………
KPCN GOALS AND AIMS……………………… ………………………………..
KPCN TARGET COMMUNITIES…………………………………………………
KPCN STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES………………………………………………..
KPCN VALUES AND PHILOSOPHY …………………………………………….
STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS AND APPROACH……………………….
STRATEGIC PLANNING FRAMEWORK ………………………………………..

CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………………
CAPACITY BUILDING AND COMMUNITY TRAINING
1.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT……………………………………………………………….
JUSTIFICATION AND NEED………………………………………………………….
PROGRAMME STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES……………………………………………
PROGRAMME STRATEG………………………… ……………………………………
EXPECTED PROGRAMME OUTPUTS ………………………………………………..
EXPECTED PROJECT POUT PUT/BENEFITS ………………………………………..
PROJECT INPUTS……………………………………………………………………….
PROGRAMME INPUTS (RESOURCES REQUIRED)…………………………………
PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS……………………… ……………………….
PROGRAMME INDICATORS AND PERFORMANCE ………………………………
OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS ……………………………………

CHAPTER TWO…………………………………………………………………………….
COORDINATION AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT…………………………
2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT……………… ………………………………………………
2.1 JUSTIFICATIONS AND NEED……………………………………… ………………..
2.3 PROGRAMME STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES……………………………………………
2.4 PROGRAMME STRATEGY…………………………………………………………….
2.5 EXPECTED PROGRAMME OUTPUTS ………………………………………………..
2.6 EXPECTED PROJECT POUT PUT/BENEFITS …………………………………… …..
2.7 PROJECT INPUTS……………………………………………………………………….
2.8 PROGRAMME INPUTS (RESOURCES REQUIRED)…………………………………
2.9 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS………………….……………………………
2.10 PROGRAMME INDICATORS AND PERFORMANCE ………………………………
2.11 OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE
INDICATORS………………………………………………
                                                            2
CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………………..
3. WATER AND RESOURCES UTILIZATION & DEVELOPMENT (LAND)………..
PROBLEM STATEMENT…………………………………………………………………
3.1 JUSTIFICATIONS AND NEED……………………………………… ……………….
3.3 PROGRAMME STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES……………………… ………………….
3.4 PROGRAMME STRATEGY…………………………………………………………..
3.5 EXPECTED PROGRAMME OUTPUTS ………………………………………………
3.6 EXPECTED PROJECT POUT PUT/BENEFITS…………………………………… …
3.7 PROJECT INPUTS…………………………………………………………………….
3.8 PROGRAMME INPUTS (RESOURCES REQUIRED)………………………………
3.9 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS………………….………………………….
3.10 PROGRAMME INDICATORS AND PERFORMANCE ……………………………
3.11 OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS ……………………………………..

CHAPTER FOUR…………………………………………………………………………
4. LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT………………………………… ……………………….
4.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT………………………………………………………………
4.1 JUSTIFICATIONS AND NEED……………………………………… …………………
4.3 PROGRAMME STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES……………………… …………………..
4.4 PROGRAMME STRATEGY…………………………………………………………….
4.5 EXPECTED PROGRAMME OUTPUTS ……………………………… ……………….
4.6 EXPECTED PROJECT POUT PUT/BENEFITS …………………………………… ….
4.7 PROJECT INPUTS………………………………………………………………………
4.8 PROGRAMME INPUTS (RESOURCES REQUIRED)…………………………………
4.9 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS………………….……………………………
4.10 PROGRAMME INDICATORS AND PERFORMANCE …………………………… ….
4.11 OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS …………………………………………

CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………………………………
5. HEALTH CARE EDUCATION……………………………………………………………
5.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT……………………………………………………………….
5.1 JUSTIFICATIONS AND NEED……………………………………… ………………….
5.3 PROGRAMME STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES…………………………………………….
5.4 PROGRAMME STRATEGY……………………………………………………………..
5.5 EXPECTED PROGRAMME OUTPUTS……………………………… ………………….
5.6 EXPECTED PROJECT POUT PUT/BENEFITS …………………………………… ……
5.7 PROJECT INPUTS………………………………………………………………………..
5.8 PROGRAMME INPUTS (RESOURCES REQUIRED)…………………………………
5.9 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS………………….……………………………
5.10 PROGRAMME INDICATORS AND PERFORMANCE …………………………… …
                                                               3
5.11 OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS ………………………………………




CHAPTER SIX……………………………………………………………………………….
6. POVERTY REDUCTION……………………………………………………………………
6.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT…………………………………………………………………
6.1 JUSTIFICATIONS AND NEED…………………………………………………………..
6.3 PROGRAMME STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES…………………… ………………………
6.4 PROGRAMME STRATEGY……………………………………………………………..
2.5 EXPECTED PROGRAMME OUTPUTS ………………………………………………..
6.6 EXPECTED PROJECT POUT PUT/BENEFITS …………………………………… ……
6.7 PROJECT INPUTS…………………………………………………………………
6.8 PROGRAMME INPUTS (RESOURCES REQUIRED)……………………………
6.9 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS………………….…………………………
6.10 PROGRAMME INDICATORS AND PERFORMANCE …………………………..
6.11 OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS …………………………………..

CHAPTER SEVEN: HIV/AIDS AWARENESS AND PREVENTION
CHAPTER SEVEN: GIRL CHILD EDUCATION, CHILD RIGHT AND RESOURCE
CENTER
CHAPTER NINE: NATURAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER SEVEN: PUBLICATION (COMMUNITY NEWS LETTER)




                                                            4
                                    OVERVIEW

Background to KPCN

KPCN applied for the registration on 16 th July 2004 as an NGO and soon in the month
of October, KPCN shall have Certificate from NGOs BUREU. The focus of KPCN is to
work as a socio-economic development organization, working to address issues
(pertaining) primary importance for the Pastoralist communities in Kenya.

In its development programme KPCN is working to empower the local communities in
issues relating to health both for human and livestock, HIV/AIDS awareness (prevention
and care), poverty reduction (through empowering the locals, education, Human Wildlife
conflict, natural resource management etc.

The organization emerged from a concern amongst community members who feel that
they are discriminated against, abused, stigmatized and at times considered backward,
untouchable and inferior by more dominant communities. This makes them fear to
appear in public for lack of self-confidence, which in turn constraints their active
participation in the development activities. This systematic marginalization and
alienation of key resources particularly land have resulted in worsening threats to
pastoral livelihoods.

KPCN has a team of professional staff members with complimentary skills, some have
relevant training and experience in Community Development, human right promotion
and protection, land issues (resource utilization), education, health and sanitation
(HIV/AIDS) and Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC)

Through the Executive Director, the management team is accountable to the Board of
Directors, whose members consist of men and women with skills and expertise in law,
management, finance and Community Development.

Well-wishers in Nairobi house KPCN temporally.

KPCN Vision

KPCN envisages a pastoralist society whose members have ac cess to key resources
and social services necessary to meet basic human needs and that all people live long,
healthy, productive and dignified lives. KPCN envisages a world in which the poor and
                                                                                     5
the marginalized are recognized and respected as full human beings and have the
social, economic, political and spiritual rights enshrined in the constitution and other
legal instruments.

KPCN hopes for societies whose communities are self-sustainable in all keys of
development and have control over their own resources in its own hands (disposal).
KPCN aspires for a society that has a strong voice and choice over their own
development and destiny.

KPCN Mission

The mission of KPCN is to work as a change agent that facilitates, Capacity build,
advocate and coordinates pastoral community based initiatives designed to ensure a
secure base for its target communities and creating an enabling environment for target
communities to re-assert rights to ownership, use and management of own natural
resources.
Access basic soc ial services, water, girl/child-right-FGM education and agriculture,
health care and sanitation, HIV/AIDS prevention and care
Have adequate representation in decision making processes
Preserve own heritage; culture and spirituality
Ensure livelihood system of own choice
Conservation of natural resources and protected from Human Wildlife Conflict.

KPCN Preamble

KPCN target all Pastoralist district communities (Kajiado, Narok, Samburu, Turkana,
Pokot, Nandi, Somali and many more in Kenya. It works to promote the rights of the
pastoralist to sources of their livelihood, culture, identity, land and their right to
development and acts as an advocate of the rights of pastoralist communities to key
pastoralist. KPCN works to serve the rights of the resources. It works in a non-partisan
way across the communities building links and raises awareness of the pastoral rights
within a clear framework of national and international standards.

KPCN is dedicated to the cause of better life for the pastoralist’s communities and
encourages them to preserve their cultural heritage.

The rich pastoralist heritage lays the foundation for building sustainable pastoral
development and builds bridges for integration with the wider Kenyan society.

Target communities

The pastoralists are often among the poorest and most marginalized groups in Kenyan
society. They lack access to political power and frequently have development policies
imposed upon them. The seeds for subsequent tensions are often sown by this lack of
participation the potential for peaceful co-existence between different communities is
thwarted by the pastoral rights to resources that are essential for their livelihood.
                                                                                       6
KPCN work focuses on non-dominant ethnic, linguistic or religious communities, who
may not necessarily be a numerical minority, but still are marginalized.

The word ‘pastoral’ is interpreted differently in different societies. In some circles, it has
a pejorative implication indicating a lesser status than other nationalities and it means
‘loose foot herders’ who respect neither national borders nor territorial integrity. In some
African countries, pastoralism is seen as a form of resource utilization, which is
environmentally destructive.

KPCN strategic objectives

KPCN will work to ensure security of resources tenure for its target communities and
land, as the key resource in which all future Community Development programs based
will continue to be the rallying point for all of KPCN future work. The primary aim of
KPCN activities will be to bring about specific pivotal changes in the pastoral resource
tenure systems in order to enhance security of key resources for pastoral communities
in target areas.

KPCN is to build the capacity build and advocacy of pastoral communities in larger
areas so that they can enhance their capabilities and informing them of the need to
protect and promote their rights and suggest ways in which they can contribute to
achievements of these rights and improve their standard of living.

KPCN will seek ways to enable pas toral communities to voice their concerns and
advocate for their rights so that they can be heard and can influence formulation of
policies and decisions that affect their lives. This includes researching, informal policy
makers, consultation and advocacy.

KPCN will seek to increase the effectiveness of its activities aimed at poverty alleviation
and works towards addressing underlying causes of poverty in pastoral setting to
contribute to this KPCN will pilot programmes in restocking resources, poor households,
resources utilization and education, awareness, agricultural land utilization, water
harvesting programmes, health education sensitization; youth for high learning
institutions, girl child education (FGM), Child right and resource center and HWC.

KPCN will work towards attaining high and self-sustaining poverty reduction economic
growth.

KPCN will explore the need: usefulness and feasibility of supporting the pastoralists to
pursue legal cases under national and international complaint procedures on pastoral
rights to key resources.

KPCN will promote new thinking and new dialogue by key actors on issues of primary
concerns for pastoral people.

                                                                                            7
KPCN- Values & Philosophy

KPCN sees people’s involvement in their development as central to develop work, and
that the process of achieving change is as important as the changes that result. In its
philosophy, KPCN believes that people themselves should own both the process as well
as the product of development.

Often, positive developments produce negative results. If such initiatives are imposed
from the up-bottom-up-approaches stand better chance of producing sustainable results
and positive impacts.

KPCN will emphasize sustainable initiatives and seek to optimize the participation of the
community in projects and programmes that aim to improve their living standards.
KPCN will listen to and work with indigenous people to help legitimize its own
perspectives, to ensure that its work is soundly b   ased, to be responsive to good
information to ensure a relevant agenda to avoid perspective and patronizing
approaches to development.

KPCN will use its influence, contacts and skills to defend target communities, when they
are threatened by state or non-actors as a result of their work to further human rights
and rights to key pastoral resources. KPCN will concentrate on long-term development
activities and will only engage in short -term emergency operations when such urgent
situations arise.

KPCN will look at and work for all rights including civil, political, economic, social and
cultural rights of the target communities ’ areas.

KPCN advocacy activities will always strive to be based on high quality research and
analysis of the situation of all pastoral communities.

KPCN will closely work with partners and allies, inter-linking its work with international
advocacy and lobbying bodies in order to influence the programming and policies of
others. Partners and allies will include pastoral-based and indigenous organizations,
human rights and development agencies, the media and others: while support will also
be sought in governmental and inter-governmental organizations.

Strategic planning process & approach

KPCN strategic planning adopted a process approach in which planning was done in
different stages and involved stakeholders at different levels. At first KPCN will work
with target communities to identify and prioritize development needs at the grassroots
level.


 Different mini-evaluations will be organized to develop KPCN mission and vision, and
these exercises will sharpen the focus of KPCN.
                                                                                         8
 Strategic planning framework

The framework adopted in the planning is the logical framework. The planning
processes to start with detailed situations analysis and worked through a process of
reversing desired results and impact to specific objectives, planned activities, expected
outputs, and indicators of performance and means of verification.
In this plan, impact of different programme activities is what is called strategic
objectives. In this framework, planning is a process in which means are adopted and
employed at different levels in order to achieve desired outputs, therefore making the
plan and the process output oriented.

    KPCN through its evaluation and monitoring processes will assess the
    implementation and draw annual operation plans in order to ensure that annual
    plans are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Realistic and Time bound).

ACTIVITIES

Chapter I
Capacity building and community training
Coordination and institutional development
Water and resources utilization & development (land)
Livestock development
Health care education
Poverty reduction
HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention
Girl child education, child right and res ource center
Natural resource development
Publication (community news letter)




CHAPTER 0.1.

            CAPACITY BUILDING AND COMMUNITY TRAINING
                                                                                       9
1.1 Problem statement

MCDN target communities experience high levels of illiteracy and low levels of numeric
skills that in turn contribute to low level of awareness in matters related to people’s own
development. This lack of adequate capabilities dos -empowers target communities
leading to inability to critically look at own situation and address development issues.

1.2 Justification and need

Many members of the target community have not received formal education. This lack
of formal education resulted to low capacity to have critical analysis of issues as lack of
experience, inadequate comparison and exposure constrained people in addressing
their development issues.

To large extend target community has a negative attitude towards formal education.
This inevita bility resulted in high illiteracy levels and lack of skilled labour.

From the situational analysis, its evident that underlying causes of the main problem(s)
existing in the education sector may be attributed to cultural structural or economic and
they include:
Lack of educational facilities in and out of school
Conflict between the school culture (read education) and domestic roles
Poor performance in existing schools. It ’s said that a lot of community resources have
for a number of years been invested in schools yet there are no proportional returns in
terms of pupils joining secondary schools.
Probably low caliber personnel, members of the community beginning to doubt the
quality of teachers in their schools. This is because year in year out; candidates perform
poorly in National exams. This might be caused by low caliber manpower that cannot
perform. Its either they do not perform or they are not willing to perform.
 Poor or total lack of supervision, there’s an observed laxity in supervision in schools.
This may have led to drop in standards.
Cultural/traditional practices: the culture of the people doesn’t cohere with the present
education system. If one has to undertake some cultural rites, then it means total
detachment from schooling.
Production system: the production system of the target community is too demanding
that it continues into the night leaving little time fro other activities. This therefore
diminishes output in other areas like education when school children have little or no
time at all to do homework and any further reading once out of school.
Long distance to schools. Many fac ilities where formal education is offered are far away.
This implies young children of pre-school age cannot make to- from school on daily
basis. They have to wait until they are old enough to be able to endure long distance
walks. In the process, many outgrown school age especially girls while others become
old enough to take care of the livestock.
Absence of role models. The existing schools have not been able to produce role
models for the community. It ’s therefore falls the target community in non-productive
                                                                                        10
institutions. In the same way, it has failed to produce resource personnel who would be
assets in the community due to massive unemployment.
Gender imbalance. Its observed that the number of girls compared to that of the number
of boys continues to b    ecome less as they move from one class to the other. The
number is least in the highest class and most in lower class. This means the drop out
rate increases as they go up the classes.
Poverty; lack of required resources may have hindered the development of skills in
people within the community. It many have also limited their ability to access information
on education opportunities open to them.
Relative location. The distance of the target communities to tertiary education and
training may have impeded further education for many members of the community.


1.3.Programme strategic objectives:


In order to build the capacity of its target communities KPCN formulated the following
strategic objectives:
To enhance capacity of target communities for social development
Improve people’s ability to address injustice through collective actions.
 To enhance self-esteem and collective confidence
To increase people participation in own development and political processes
To improve peoples ability to lobby issues of direct interest for them.
 To improve access to basic services and demand access to decision making process
To enhance peoples capabilities fro self organizing




1.4. Programme strategy

The above causes of inadequate community capabilities have strong implications. In
order to reverse such trends of deprivation, the following objectives have been
formulated
To develop a comprehensive community training programme that encompasses all
matters that affect security of pastoral livelihoods
To train both members and their leaders
To enhance compulsory primary education for all children
To form organizations that are community based indifferent settlements within a
geographical concentration area.
 To enhance community ability to initiate plan, implement and manage development
projects.
The agency target group should be informed through the audio-visual aids

Its recommended that the following measures/ strategies may alleviate the problem if
put in place.

                                                                                       11
That all children be sent o school
  That pre-schools be initiated near settlements that are far away from established
primary schools
That the community look into ways of starting a bursary scheme for its members who
may be in dare need of support.
It’s a ratified as appropriate if adult illiteracy class be revisited. This would help build the
capacity of target community members
Encourage schools leavers to train as teachers; it would alleviate the shortage that is
recently being experiences. Those in the schools would be in- serviced in related areas.
Above all else, it’s very important that the country play an active role in all matters that
involve education to better performance. They should also wake up and demand results
commensurate with theirs input - and that other government.

1.5. Expected programme output

The community will be more enlightened on issues that directly or indirectly affect their
life.
  There would be an increasing number of people trained in skills areas that are relevant
to the needs of the target community
People would be able to create jobs where more people would be employed. This would
ultimately lower poverty levels.
The living standards of the people will be better than present
If skilled personnel are available then the community resources would be better
managed leading to better performance,
If schools finally perform better they would attract more children to high enrollment

1.6. Expected project output/benefit

It’s expected that when the capacity of community is built that particular target
community will:
Be motivated to anise and solve its own problems
Be composed of knowledgeable and skilled people who will form human resources for
that community and will utilize resources at their disposal for the good of the community.
Be motivated to educate its own children both the life and for living
Be more receptive to development agencies and work they do
Be able to fully and meaningfully participate in community activities
Easily identify through behavour change

1.7. Project inputs

The community must be willing to spend long hours undergoing training.
Training materials and facilities must be availed this entails production of training
modules. Modules preparations mean that recourses persons will also be sought
Skilled manpower is sought to train people, therefore a fee has to be paid for services
rendered by skilled persons

                                                                                             12
Resource rooms for the community would be important to establish, this requires both
land and investment by way of books and other important aids.


1.8. Programme inputs (resources required)

Funds
Time to train teachers and adults and participate in meetings that deliberate on
development
Cooperation among stakeholders,
 Resources labour,
Facilities where the social activities would take place and resources materials to use
during training and teaching sessions


1.9 Project Assumption/Risks

   It’s assumed that;
Skilled labor is both available and accessible.
Funds will be available to run capacity during program.
Development will be faster when people’s capacity to handle issues is developed and
the general community is enlighten
Culture doesn’t interfere with capacity program.
The government will not see Community Based activities are an organized incase and
interface with them.


It is also very risky for the program if;
Unforeseen climatic changes life drought are experiences.
Wars break out.
Epidemics, catastrophes in humans and livestock are experienced.

1.10 Project Assumptions and Risks

During the course of undertaking of education activities the following assumption and
risks may jeopardize but the process and the expected results incase they happen or
don’t happens.
Lack of funds that are sought from elsewhere may hides implementation of certain
activities.
Some cultural practices e.g.; moranism and initiation rituals may interfere with plans in
place that may not favor them.
It’s assumed that more trainees will be wiling to train as teachers and the government
will be in a position to employ a post them to their home schools.
It’s also assumed that the community will take the initiative to demand better results
from the school within KPCN target community.


                                                                                      13
0.11. Objectively verifiable indicators


To verify that capacity has been built in the people, one would look at:
The number of community members who have employable skills.
Records of outputs available in relevant government ministries.
Behaviors c  hange in people i.e. people i.e. increase in number of children going to
schools awareness level on topical issues/number of people buying and reading dailies
and also number of people buying and listening to radios and Television for information.
Number of reined stalled community projects.
Number of persons participating in development projects compared to number there
before.
Seriousness with which target groups handle gender issues.




Chapter 2

          COORDINATION AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT


Justification & Need


This section of KPCN programme addresses programme coordination and KPCN
institutional development requirements. Being a relatively young organization KPCN,
needs to enhance its capacity through improving its structures, policies and procedures
to support programme activities relating to natural resources management, capacity
building, water development, health education, livestock development, poverty
reduction, human wildlife conflict which KPCN set out to initiate implement and
coordinate. In order to improve such systems, resources are required.

The overall goal of KPCN is to raise the living standards of the pastoralists in its target
areas. This is done through improving the quality of pastoral development work.
Enhancing security of resources tenure and improving food security.


1.1 Programme Objectives
The aims of KPCN institutional strengthening and coordination include: -
                                                                                        14
To enhance KPCN managerial capacity necessary for the planning, monitoring and
evaluation of KPCN projects and programmes
To improve financial management
To diversify KPCN collection of information, analysis and reporting of KPCN activities.
To provide ongoing support to field-workers, villagers in priority setting and designing of
development initiatives
To coordinate research and documentation in order to inform policy and actors in
pastoral development
To provide institutional support to cobs and Egus operating in Pastoralistland.
Raise standards of living of pastoral communities in target areas through improvement
of quality of development work.


Planned Activities:
KPCN coordination unit plans to undertake the following: -
Coordination and support of ongoing land rights and legal aid work
To recruit and retain qualified staff
To hire additional staff for new programmes activities
To develop clear procedures and controls
To provide on-going training to management
To secure adequate funding and equipment
Organizing workshops on how to resolve conflict related to natural resource use.
Bringing together KPCN founding members and trustees for regular meetings and
consultations.
Facilitate meetings of KPCN board of governors
Improving personnel policies
Improve financial/diversification of source of funding
Reporting and networking


Expected Output/Results
To have a core staff of managers to provide guidance and manage the programs of
KPCN effectively.
Board of governors that meets four times a year
To have in place necessary management systems, policies and procedures
Decision making structures, control and accountability
Diversification of source of funding
Networking with organizations involve in conflict resolution and food security in the
region.



        Other expected results of KPCN institutional strengthening include its
ability: -
To advise, upon request, existing as well as now pastoral development organizations on
ways and means to achieve their goals and objectives

                                                                                        15
To provide training on a wide variety of issues directly linked to conflict prevention,
mitigation and response
To evaluate on-going development activities
To assess/appraise new initiatives on request.
To establish structural relationships with assesses and development organizations,
research and training institutions within the country/region to encourage exchange of
information and discussions concerning development process in the region.




Chapter 3


                   WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT




Problems statement.




Water is a score resource in area where KPCN works and this serious water shortage
has precipitated other problems such as poor hygiene.


                                                                                     16
Impossible or near impossibility of crop production. It is observed that in area where
there is enough piped water like – It has been possible to carry out small-scale
irrigation, which has produced tremendous result.
General strain in development, a lot of time is wasted trekking long distances ether to
water livestock or to fetch water for home consumption, it has been hard to carry out all
other activities related to water or the use of water. These include livestock production.
General devaluation of land while trying to value land, water is in the checklist of things
to be taken into consideration. Land without water source is of low value. This is so for
the land where KPCN geographical concentration.
If people can use the land they have to benefit out of it, then it’s very in fortunate. This
probably has contributed to general increase in poverty levels.


Justification And Need.


KPCN geographical concentration area (GCA) is particularly aid and experiences
adverse weathers la udations.
A high illiteracy rate as explained under causal factors in education has inevitably
therefore means that people have to look for alternatives. Visibly the commonest
alternative people have found in charcoal burning. The effect of this activity is going to
be felt late if not now but in disastrous measures. The high illiteracy levels have
magnetized the people in it. It has therefore driven them in the periphery where they are
not consulted when diseases affecting their livestock are being made.
Due to the high level of illiteracy, people lack knowledge and skills on water harvest and
management. Poor government policies on water compounded of little resource in the
same area both the government and agencies that operate in this geographical area
have lead to poor management of water resources. It has also been identified that lack
of self-initiative of the community in solving their own problems has lead to a
dependency syndrome where people either want for external or simple and
uneconomical had out
High poverty levels and unforthcoming external help means that funds may not be there
to facilitate water activities
Cultural practices and may have hindered the development of viable water projects.




3.2 Program strategic objectives:

In order to address strategic water needs for KPCN target communities the following
strategic objective have been adopted;
To improve access to safe potable water;
Increase coverage of basic satisfaction facilities;
To protect water resources;
To rehabilitate existing water supply system

                                                                                         17
Program strategies:


To educate people on proper use of scarce water resources.
Training session be organized to build the capacity or the people particularly on water
project KPCN will be facilitate
People should be satisfied on the invisibility of pooling resources for digging dams,
drilling boreholes and harvesting of rainwater.
Afforestation should be introduced, presently many people or skalds are cutting down
existing vegetation, particularly: Tress to produce charcoal, while a total ban on trees
cutting may not be done individually, or as a small-scale project in Particular projects.
Diversification of economic activities. This may induce people to feel the need to initiate
and develop water projects.
To undertake extensive research on water resources in target areas, & generate
information that will help identify places were viable water sources are all over. Factors
related to water harvesting & provision
Education, lobbying & publicity. Apart from educating the general population the
community should also educate its children to enable its access required skills in the
area of water technology. Alongside education it may be beneficial to lobby for
publicity. The media houses may be invited to document the immense problems people
are experiencing due to lack of water. This may attract sympathy from various quarters,
which may lead to funding of eater projects.
To provide on site training to young men in each village where water projects are
implemented to enable them to undert ake minor repairs and manager water projects.




Expected Programme Outputs


Critically it’s the duty of women in the KPCN area of operation, which is inhibited by
Pastoralist to fetch water. It ’s expected that with all improved water situation, the
workload for women would be reduced.
The pastoralist women transport water by carrying the containers on their backs and a
strap across their head. An impact water provision system translates to improve levels
of health for women.
If animals would be talking water at relatively shorter distances than is happening at
present, then the economic power of the people would be enhanced. This is because
animals would fetch more money sold due to improved health.


Programme Inputs (Required Resources)


                                                                                        18
To facilitate the development of an improved water system within KPCN area of
operation the following resources and approaches are suggested.


Funds to drill boreholes, to build, to pay transport and community services and to
facilitate capacity training are required.
Expertise in the field of water engineering is required
Development agencies, community and other stakeholder need to cooperate. This
would help reverse the top bottom approach.
Apart from cooperation, the beneficiary community has to show sustained commitment
to water development
Good management of water points.


Project Assumptions & Risks
The following are likely to interfere/jeopardize the development of a sustainable water
provision system.
Unavailability of funds to service machines
Change of government officials may hinder the smooth running/continuity of water
projects and services.
Unforeseen climates changes may set in and interfere with arrangements/organs
reacting to water harvesting e.g. Elmino and Lanina.
With the prevailing HIV/AIDS pandemic, its worrying because it may in one way or
another interfere with programmes related to water developments, it is also assumed
that,
Funds are available to enable the undertaking of all that is planned.
Political changes that may take place during the course of implementing the projects to
it adversely affect it.


Programme Indicators of Performance
       If all that is favorably implemented, then it is expected that:-
Improved community health status as a res ult of access to clean water
Reduced workload for women.
Improved sanitary conditions
Reduced water borne diseases
Improved level of cleanliness
Improved dietary and nutritional status
People would undertake to improve their livestock breeds and overall management.
Diversity of economic activities leading to diversified sources of income and lowered
poverty levels.




                                                                                    19
Chapter 4


                             LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT


Problem Statement
Livestock accounts for 10% of GDP & it contributes to 30% of agriculture contribution to
GDP. According to natural statistics, the livestock sector employs 50% of the
agriculture labour force.

The livestock sector is characterized by low output per unit of land; low intensity of land
use, low quality and productivity of availability. High mortality rate caused by tick-born
diseases constraints productivity. Shortage of water and pasture also to contribute to
insecurity of pastoral livelihoods. Supporting pastoralism is intrinsically supporting
forms of livestock keeping, which are labour, intensive and less grazing brewing and
salt resources in an ecologically sustainable way. Since livestock are critical resource
in KPCN target communities, enhancing the security of key resources among the
pastoralists inevitably calls for support to the livestock economy.

Justification and Need
Despite the relative availability of livestock drugs in and around major town out -lets
environments, pastoralists living in the outlying areas of KPCN operational areas
experience difficulties accessing veterinary services in livestock mortality rates are high.

Factors that contribute to underperformance of the livestock sector include: -
Inadequate water sources
Unfavorable terms of trade for pastoralists
Lack of an appropriate livestock policy
Lack of appropriate livestock interventions.


Lack of livestock extension and veterinary services has led to decreased numbers and
low productivity. There are no organized livestock marketing systems and no favourable
policies to support pastoralism as an economic system.

Recent introduction of acaricide for dipping as a form of disease control has reduced
livestock immunity and lack of constant supply cause high losses of livestock.

Most of the livestock infrastructure that dates back to the colonial days is in a state of
despair. May plunge-dips are out of order and a veterinary center does not exist. A
combination of all these factors increased poverty levels, with many households
become unable to reconstitute their herds. Food insecurity has become a recurrent
phenomenon. Other problems facing livestock keeping and livestock production
include: -

                                                                                         20
Human related factors: Due to a particularly strong attachment of the pastoralist to
their cows and goats, it has led to poor management systems that are both unviable
and uneconomical in the face of higher competitive market. It has also been observed
that pastoralist haven’t been to their maximum advantage.
Water & Lack of Permanent Water Source and few boreholes: may have a
contributing factor as an impediment to the development of agriculture.
Livestock: the consistent rearing of breeds that compete poorly in the market system
and diseases diminish livestock returns.
Aridity: Little rain or no rain at all when expected limited number of water points and
long distance to water points all conspire to make pastoralism as relatively expensive as
possible.
Policies: Its observed that there is no clear policy from government on livestock
management and marketing.


Programme Strategic Objective
To realize any improvement in the livestock sector, the following strategic objectives
have been adopted
To improve quality livestock
To improve marketing facilities for livestock and livestock products.
To provide sustainable range resources management
To influence policy and legislation on livestock in order to create an environment
conducive for improved livestock productivity.
To promote gender equity in ownership of livestock
To enhance livestock diseases control initiatives
To train para-vets who will support crucial health initiatives at grassroots.


Programme Strategy
The following strategies activities the planned by KPCN in order to implement
programme objectives and realize expected outputs.
To train member of the community in the areas of management, livestock health and
eater technology.
To initiate and establish livestock marketing points
To provide appropriate infrastructure to support livestock keepers, animal health to
rehabilitate existing cattle dips and build new ones.
To lobby for the re-opening of KMC (Kenya Meat Commission)
To introduce the keeping of improved livestock breeds
To encourage pastoralists to re-introduce reserves for dry season pastures.
To conserve water catchment areas for livestock use
To construct earth dams livestock use, to open a protect stock routes to water pasture.
To alleviate poverty and raise standards of living
To enhance household food security
To train para-vets who will work to improve animal health

                                                                                      21
Rehabilitation of veterinary centers and enhance supply of livestock drugs to these
veterinary centers
To provide extension services to livestock keepers.
To train women in processing and preservation of livestock products such as hides and
skins, milk, ghee, butter and biltong.
To train livestock keepers in lad nights, lad management, pasture management and
water management.
To sensitize government and non-pastoralists to recognize special needs of
pastoralism.
To initiate a programme, which vaccinates livestock once a year against F.M.D. anthrax,
black quarter, contagious bovine pheuropheumonia, haemorrage, septicemia, malignant
catarrh fevers a humpy skin disease.
To make essential drugs available to pastoralist at affordable prices required drugs are
for deworming, antibacterials, atitryps and tick-borne atipotozoans.
To maintain a routine dipping programme as a means for eradicating ticks of the acarina
class.
Visiting herders for extension purposes
Para-vets will be trained to work with KPCN livestock extension experts.
Provision of veterinary drugs and equipments.
Restocking destitute households
Introducing sahival & Boran bulls for breeding purposes.


Expected Programme Outputs
It’s expected that: -
The economically world be skilled and better enlightened
There would be unity of purpose in the community
General living standard would improve
The general health of the community world improved
Cultural practices like those of diet would change for the better because crop produce
would supplement animal product
Through diversification, the community would be better cautioned against disaster.
Distances of water points would be reduced
There would be earth dams in place and in use
Water catchment areas will be preserved through fencing and planting of trees
Crop demonstration farms would be in place and in use
There would be reduced spread of diseases
Manure would be re-cycled to crop plots
Cooperatives processing livestock products would be operational and would create
employment.


Project Inputs (Required Resources)
Funds would be required to facilitate the carrying out of all the mentioned activities.
There would needed to carry out the activities


                                                                                          22
Skills manpower to give extension services in crop and livestock production would be
needed.
Participation of community members is vital
Trainers would be required to build the capacity of the community
Improve livestock breeds would be introduced to improve quality of existing breeds.
Development agencies would be needed as stakeholders in the development process.
Seeds to be used for demonstration purposes and for distribution to those farmers who
will be carrying out crop farming will be required. Manure shall also be added to the
crop plots.


Project Assumptions and Risks
It’s assumed that: -
The community will fully support and participate in community projects.
Funds would be available to facilitate the carrying out of activities.
High poverty levels don’t hinder smooth implementation of proposed activities.
Livestock and crop farming experts, trainers will be available
There will not be adverse weather conditions and low rainfall levels.
Lack of funds and interference by domestic and wildlife animals will not be a risk to the
project s
People will no longer mismanage animals health drugs through poor/uniform distribution
of drugs


Project Indicators of Performance
Increased/reduced mortality rate
Increased/reduced livestock productivity
Number of marketing points opened and are operational
Number of re-stocked households
Number of rehabilitated dams dips and veterinary centers
Number of para-vets trained
Project records would be available
Available of good managers who have been
Number of livestock associations formed
That earth dams/boreholes operational
Increased household incomes.




                                                                                      23
   Chapter 5


                             PASTORAL LAND RIGHTS


 Problem Statement
The pastoralists communities in Kenya are faced with a problem of displacement from
their ancestral lands that are rightfully theirs and access of landless Pastoralist is slowly
but surely emerging. Consequently, with loss of land and loss of livestock, poverty
levels are increasing and people find it harder to cope with environmental vicissitude.


5.1 Justification and Need
The problem of land is the most pressing need for the target communities with which
KPCN works. Over the years, imposed adjudication regulations dispossessed
pastoralist their land and gave land titles to outsiders (sheep and goat multiplication
project). These outsiders are most influential elites who live and work in Nairobi. This
has created a class of landless pastoralist. Although most of the new land owners have
not settled in the area, titles have been used as collaterals to obtain loans from Banks,
money borrowed from banks are used to develop other areas, not Pastoralistland.

There is now fear in the community that if titles to land that outsiders secured are not
nullified, the banks will move in to sell land in the future in order to recover the money
loaned to fraudulent title holders.

Pastoralist pastoral communities in the area chose the security of land tenure as their
top priority (strategic objective) since any other development project initiated in the area

                                                                                          24
is a waste of resources unless investment is made in apiece of land, which is legally
theirs.

KPCN is therefore working with the communities to ensure legal and social security of
land tenure for the pastoral communities in all its target areas.

This presupposes advocacy and lobbying at different levels within a outside government
to change the legislation/revoke titles that were fraudulently obtained and returned land
to its rightful owners i.e. the pastoral Pastoralist communities.

5.2 Underlying causes and impact of land tenure insecurity as perceived by the
local communities
Pastoral land tenure insecurity is caused by a combination of factors and these include:
-
Low level of awareness in the community on matters related to land policy and tenure
Strong anti-pastoral bias, corruption among government land officials and unfair land
adjudication processes
Alien models of land tenure and land regulations that are not in harmony with Pastoralist
customary land tenure systems
Abuse and misuse of state organs to miniform locals people and to silence dissent.
The pastoralist community is unaware of land market forces and market valued
attached to land
Land officials and technicians are from outside the communities and often collude with
outsiders in fraudulent land allocations.
Land demarcation, registration and individual titling are undertaken without involving the
local pastoralist community
High illiteracy levels with the Pastoralist leadership.


  Programme Strategic Objective


       KPCN strategic objectives in relation to land include: -
To enhance security of resource tenure for the pastoralist communities in target areas.
To work towards assuring that indigenous land tenure arrangements are enshrined in
statutory land laws.
To create a conducive environment for the sustainable utilization and management of
natural resources.
To work towards reversing unfair adjudication process
To establish a framework for addressing land ownership and use conflicts


  Programme Strategy


From the experience and analysis of the pastoralist of their land problems, different
objectives are developed to address such a situation; these are: -
                                                                                   25
To train target communities and raise their level of awareness on matters related to
land.
Lobby and work for the review of existing land laws
To develop a comprehensive training to teach people about their rights to land and to
enable them see the importance of land
To work towards unity of the community to make it possible for them to reaffirm their
land rights.
To work with leadership to enhance leadership, illiterac y numeracy and legal skills.
To unite all those concerned to pressurize the 1999 adjudication (amendment) bill to go
through the 2nd, 3rd reading in order to become laws.
To make by-laws at community level that makes all communities and those concerned
parties accountable for their deed in issue pert aining to land
To sensitize members should participate in constitutional review process in order to chip
in their view on land and other issue affecting them.


Expected Programme Outputs
KPCN will employ human and non human resources in order to realize the objectives it
set out for itself. It is hoped that once such objectives are achieved the following
outputs will be produced and realized.
Enhanced legislative support for security of tenure for key pastoral resources
Enhanced legal protection of local communities in utilization and management of own
natural resources.
Increased community involvement in natural resource utilizations management.
Increased reduction in number of natural resource ownership disputes
Enhance sense of esteem of responsibility in the community.
Reduced levels of land tenure insecurity.
Increased awareness of importance of natural resources
Reduction in the above natural resources
Have insight and liberty to undertake development projects
People will have motivation to actively participate in development matters
There will be legal ownership of land
Poverty reduction and its eventual eradication
New land laws will be in place that favour the community sets their land back
The community will get to know the importance value of land
The concerned committees will be accountable to the people they represent.
Individuals will set almost equal shares of land.


Programme Inputs (Required Re sources)
In order to realize planned targets and produced expected results, both human and non
human resources are needed and they include: -
Human resources are needed to facilitate the benefit expected. These include
cooperation from the community among others.
Funds to enable all the implementation. This is for transport, employing expertise, for
communication a for holding public meeting and also for research.
                                                                                      26
Cooperation and solidarity of all stakeholders
Lobbying and publicity is required to get people attention and may be sympathizers that
will join in the struggle.
Research on land issues and generation of relevant information
Dissemination of information relevant on land matters.
Time and commitment is required and patience to wait for accomplishment as
implementation might take longer.
It’s vital that a resource center where people can meet, discuss relevant issues and
strategies.




Programme Assumptions & Risks
It’s assumed that: -
There will be unity among community members and cooperation that will help
pressurizing of the amendment bill of 1999 to go through
People will sympathize and support organism
There will be availability of funds
People will get equal shares of land
People will get their land back


                      There are risks that accompany the above struggle. These are: -
The government might see the whole struggle as a political threat
There might be tribal wars that lead to bloodshed
Land grabbers and collaborators will likely cause disunity among community members
Political situation/wave for example change of government might result to cancellation
of the whole process
Natural calamities such as drought and floods might cause problems that might result in
people not concentrating on the land issues but on short term survival requirements
There might not be enough funds for the whole project, hence hampering the struggle.


Programme Indicators of performance
To verify the achievements of the see objectives, the following indicators will be used to
access performance
There would be legal owners
Development projects will never be undertaken with full participation of community.
Individuals will have title deeds for their land
There will be notification on the Kenya Gazette
The by-laws documents will have become law
There will be presence of unity among stakeholders
                                                                                       27
People’s living standards will have been realized will have permanent homes.
There will be people employed in relevant professionals who are committed and
responsible in their works jobs
Community members will have known the value of lands fully understood their rights on
human beings.
There will be new land laws that favour not only grabbers but also can defend the
community.




Chapter 6

                                     HEALTH CARE


     Problem Statement
Kenya declared ware against disease, ignorance and poverty since its independence
from Britain in 1963. The target communities of KPCN experience patterns of air, water
and vector borne diseases that are the main cause of morbidity in the area.

Good health is a basic human right, but provision of health care is constrained by lack of
health facilities, lack of health personnel and lack of essential drugs.

Underlying Causes Justification and Need
According to local people in KPCN target areas, poor health is attributed to the following
factors: -
Lack of health education. The ministry of health does not provide such a service to the
community while it should be doing. Simple health problems could be avoided through
health education and awareness.
Poor nutrition. It was identified that majority of Pastoralist still live solely on diets that
are not balanced. This has helped to perpetuate simple ailments that should not have
been there.
Lack of water. Provision of water would have ensured that general cleanliness
standards go up. Together with cleanliness, people would have used this water, though
probably on a small scale, to carry out crop farming which would allow balanced diets.
Lack of health facilities. It was observed that existing health facilities are few and far in
between homes to the health centers. People at times have to be carried on back for
an infinite number of kilometers due to inaccessibility of road.
                                                                                            28
Poverty. Due to poverty, many people cannot access adequate medication beyond the
health center.
Cultural practices. Some practices like female genital mutilation (FGM) have been
overtaken by time and may lead to HIV/AIDS.
Land Aridity. This may not have allowed crop farming thereby limiting nut rition to one
kind of food.


Programme Strategic Objectives


Promoting good health
Protecting people from risks of air, water and vector borne diseases
To reduce infant mortality rate to the same level as the national figure which is 60 per
1,000
To initiate health education and create awareness on HIV/AIDS
To promote immunization of under-fives against six leading diseases;
To train para-medics and TBAs in order to improve community health


Programme Strategy


In order to realize health strategic objectives, the following strategies have been
proposed: -
Recruitment and retention of skilled personnel
Infrastructure. People should do all that is possible by use of resources at their disposal
to construct feeder roads.
Water: The number of water sources should be increased, and make as many T’s as
possible in existing water pipelines.
Community health training. The general community should be educated on general
hygiene
Construction of more health centers particularly where there is non.
Create awareness on STDs and HIV/AIDS. Existing organizations that deal with AIDS
issues together with health centers personnel should tackle this problem.


Expected Programme Outputs


Improved and better living standards.
Improved levels of cleanliness and hygiene
Reduced illnesses (skin, eye infections, intestinal infections; etc, etc):
Reduced infant mortality rate;
Reduced post natal infections;
Improved production due to a healthy population;
Improved nutritional levels;
                                                                                        29
Trained para medics available at community level; that are liable to administer simple
drugs for simple ailments like headache, hence become a community resource.


Programme Inputs (Required Resources)


In order to realize the set objectives and produce expected results, the following inputs
will be required: -

Funds will be required for training Para-medics, constructing health centers for
demonstrating preparation of simple meals from crops grown i.e. cookery lessons.
Land. This will be cultivated for crop farming
Skilled personnel. Nurses will be required in health centers that are situated away from
main roads, electricity and water supply. People carry out demonstrations in cookery
lessons will also be required.
Education: It will be necessary to train the community on general hygiene practices
Resource from development agencies. Apart from funds, other resources like logistics
support are required.
Community participation
Time and commitment by all stakeholders
Expertise. It will be very important that the government provide skilled personnel in the
area of health to give direction in all matters that appertain to health.
Health Facilities. Construction of health centers and other related structures should be
undertaken if what is planned is to be carried out.
Para-medic trainees will be required.


Project Assumptions and Risks


It is assumed that: -
Funds to carry out the aforesaid activities will be available.
The target community is economically stable to contribute financially.
Existing health centers are properly equipped with relevant facilities.
Natural calamities do not occur to interfere with smooth running of planned programme.
Political changes do not adversely affect planned programmes.


Project Indicators of Performance


Equipped health facilities in terms of personnel equipment and drugs
A health community
Good infrastructure


                                                                                      30
CHAPTER SEVEN



                             POVERTY REDUCTION


7.0. Poverty Reduction




Poverty is a multi-dimensional society reality, which is characterized by inadequacy of
income, unemployment and a deprivation of basic needs and rights. KPCN will
organize workshop and severe issues like de-stocking and restocking of livestock,
inability to provide basic needs, lack of development and lack of land, water and
persistent social insecurity characterized by inadequate consumption, inadequate skills,
illness, crime and violence.


                                                                                     31
Justification & need

Poverty has got many determinants and its causes are complex and multidimensional.
According to community perceptions, poverty is caused by different factors and include:
Aridity: available land is semi-arid with limited economic opportunities.
Environmental insecurity: natural calamities like drought and diseases lead to loss of
property thus increasing levels of poverty.
Lack of diversification: People dependent mostly on livestock especially shoats and
cattle.
Lack of skill water employment and for management of available resources.
Lack of ready market for livestock produce.
Lack of water; which hinder cultivation and livestock rearing
Poor leadership – elected leaders don’t represent interests of their electorate and often
they aren’t necessarily from the pastoral community thus they don’t understand the
need of the people they lead and represent.
Vulnerability and chronic food insecurity; acute starvation associated with nutritional
deprivation and an increase in mortality.
Structural marginalization.
Fragile economic systems and livelihoods insecurity
Unfavorable extreme weather conditions
High illiteracy levels.




Strategic objectives

To improve livelihoods security for all KPCN target communities, households and
individuals.
To sustain households income at all levels needed to provision all members of such
households; reducing income poverty and
Improve access to basic social services (education, health care, clean water and credit
facilities) for target communities, increasing people’s earning potential.
To protect and promote entitlements of the resource poor households especially female
headed households, hence containing extreme vulnerability among the poor,
To ensure that pastoralist individuals, households and communities have livelihoods of
their own choices.
Improving human capabilities, survival and social well-being of target communities.

      Programme strategies

      In order to realize strategic objectives and reduce programme expected outputs,
      KPCN will have adopted the following strategies.
                                                                                      32
Improve access to primary education, water and sanitation
Improve access to health care and reduce levels of diseases and poverty
To train the community on management of available resources to reduce poverty, Other
than livestock keeping va lue, community members should identify market for other
products like beadwork (Internet marketing).
Raising the community members to be above poverty line
Empower women economically to reduce dependency on men
Diversification of economic activities to generate income
Train community members to be able to take risks for ex commercializing pastoralism to
avoid death of livestock as a result of drought.
To restore resource poor households
People should have control of market prices of livestock and its product
Capacity holding
Reduce the level of alcohol consumption – this will help community members to save
money to meet other important basic needs.
Make maximum use of available resources.

      Expected programme outputs

Increase in number of people who will be above poverty line
Increase in number of people with formal education and marketable skills
Increase in number of people with access to clean potable water
Increase in number of people with access to healthcare
High number of people will be self-reliant (higher)
Enhanced political awareness with community members will be able to elect leaders
from the community not from outside
More resources retained and circulated within community for their own development.
Created marketing facilities for produce from target areas and enhanced income for
individuals and households.
Reduced dependency ratio as more people engage in productive activities.
Increase control power in marketing of livestock and livestock products.

      Programme inputs (required resources)

Trainers on capacity building and setting up
Land for livestock and crop farming
Funds to facilitate the activities
Time to carry out activities
Co-operation and responsibility by all stakeholders
Development agencies as partners of the community
Quality livestock for cross breeding, de-stocking/restocking pest & disease control to
improve quality of local breeds
Seeds may be planted for diversification i.e. introduction of agriculture alongside
livestock keeping.
Restocking may be done for families that were hard hit economically during the drought.

                                                                                    33
        Project assumptions and risks
        It’s assumed that:
More people will live above poverty line
People will co-operate for the betterment of the whole community
Resource personnel to train community members on crop production, crop subsistence
and irrigation will be available
There will be enough funds
Mechanism targeting most vulnerable people in society will be in place.

Risks

 Wild animals might destroy farms
Increase in human wildlife conflict (HWC)
Lack of funds to carry out planned activities
Diseases like HIV/AIDS that kill people. Treatment of these deadly diseases is very
expensive thus plunging people back into poverty.
Resistance to change – people may not be willing to embrace crop production for it’s a
field they know little about.
Natural calamities may strike and perpetuate poverty.

        Programme indicators of performance

Health will improve in the community as people can afford balanced diets and also have
funds for treatment
Documentation of activities carried out in the records of development agencies,
participating government departments and in communities ’ records.
Reliable leaders are elected
Infrastructure well improved
People will be able to take risks that might reduce poverty
Diversified production systems
Programme community, ministries will have records of what is already done
Gender balance and interaction will improve
Empowered women whose participation in development issues has been increased.



KPCN BUDGET FOR 2004-2008




                                                                                   34

								
To top