Tanzania - CIITIES WITHOUT SLUM by pengtt


									                  -CITIES WITHOUT SLUMS
                  Tanzania -- Information Brief

1.      Background

Tanzania, although one of the least urbanized countries, is experiencing like other developing countries,
especially in Africa, a very rapid rate of urbanization. In Year 2000, 32.9 % of the total population of some
33.5 million were living in the urban areas. The urban population is projected to grow at 4.5 % annually to be
46.1 % in the next 15 years. This rapid urbanization has increased pressure on the already overstrained urban
infrastructure and services, much of which has not been maintained or expanded to cope with rapid urban
growth. The inadequacy of shelter delivery systems to cater for the urban population has led to an extensive
development of squatter and unplanned settlements in all urban areas. Studies conducted in 1995 indicate
that nationally about 70 percent of urban population live in squatter/unplanned settlements and that about 60
percent of urban housing stock are to be found in these settlements: in Dar es Salaam, Arusha and Mbeya
about 70 percent and in Mwanza, 40 percent.

Physical infrastructure and services in these settlements are either missing or very inadequate and in very
poor conditions. Common features in these settlements are overcrowding, inadequate water supply, no
provision or allowance for circulation, poor environmental conditions characterized by lack of proper
sanitation, poor drainage, uncollected solid waste, and importantly, insecure tenure.

2.      Development Trends to Address the Situation of Squatter Settlements - Slum Upgrading.

Tanzania has benefited from several interventions to address the situation in squatter settlements. The
Government, with World Bank assistance started in 1972 to implement a National Sites and Services and
Squatter Upgrading Programme. The Government through this programme recognized squatter settlements
as part and parcel of urban fabric, legalized landholding by titling, provided minimum level of services,
planned land and assisted through loans, house construction and improvements. The programme had positive
impact on housing delivery and urban improvements in the towns where it was implemented. The
programme, however, did not considerably change the situation in the squatter settlements. It was beset by
numerous problems as with similar programmes in other countries which include:- poor targeting and
insufficient participation of beneficiaries, top-down delivery process, over-dependency on external funding
support, lack of sustainability, and little or no scaling-up to match the problem.

3. Potentialities for Scaling Up Slum Upgrading and Urban Poverty Reduction

With the Sites and Services and Squatter Upgrading Programme, Tanzania has put in place and undertaken
several initiatives which can serve as building blocks for scaling-up slum upgrading. The National Human
Settlements Development Policy (NHSDP) of January 2000 summarizes the situation of human settlements
in the country and outlines implementation strategies of key issues. It recognizes the importance of the New
National Land Policy approved in 1995, the National Environmental Policy of 1997, the National Population
Policy of 1992, and the National Strategies on Poverty Alleviation of 1998 in the development of human
settlements and specifically in addressing poverty. The current Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper recognizes
the importance of shelter as one of its development priorities. The on-going Sustainable Cities Programme in
11 municipalities and 2 cities is focusing on strengthening the capacity of the councils to better plan,
coordinate and manage growth and development through participation and in partnerships with all

The Cities Without Slums Sub-Regional Programme could capitalize the experience in Tanzania of people
working together to improve their living conditions and specifically in the urban areas. The effort to do this
needs to be developed taking into account the above mentioned cases as building blocks and current realities.

4.      Prospects for Programme Intervention and Funding Support

As stated in the background, all urban centres in Tanzania need urgent attention to address the issue of slums
or squatter/unplanned settlements. It is therefore prudent to start somewhere and to build-up homegrown
experience of going to scale at city/municipal level and national level. Already considerable work has been
carried out in the City of Dar es Salaam through the Sustainable Dar es Salaam Programme including the
production of the Strategic Urban Development Plan for the City. A proposal has also been submitted to the
Cities Alliance for Dar es Salaam. It is therefore advisable to start the initiative in the next level in the
hierarchy of urban centres.

The Municipality of Arusha is the headquarters of Arusha Region located in the North-east of Tanzania, at
the slopes of Mt Meru and 50 kms west of Mt Kilimanjaro (the highest peak in Africa), on the great Northern
Road; half way between Cape Town and Cairo. Arusha is the commercial capital of North Eastern Tanzania
and boasts a number of small and medium sized industries. Arusha is also the Headquarters of the East
African Community. The Municipality has an estimated population of 282,712, (2002 census) although an
extra 60,000 are estimated to come into the town every day for business and other activities making an
estimated population of about 345,000 during the day. The population is growing rapidly, at an estimated
rate of 6% against the national rate of 2.8% per annum. Like all other urban centres in Tanzania, Arusha
Municipality faces socio-economical problems arising from rapid growth of rural-urban migration. The rapid
growth has resulted in growth of unplanned settlements.

The Cities Without Slums Sub-Regional Programme will support and complement the ongoing activities in
Arusha with specific attention on the unplanned settlements. Programme support will be used to increase the
capacity of the Municipal Council of Arusha and their partners to improve living and working conditions of
the people of the region. Emphasis will be placed on scaling-up upgrading of infrastructure and services and
increasing opportunities for economic development and growth.

5. Other Projects in Arusha:

Danida: Danida are funding the Sustainable Arusha Programme to the tune of $1,000,000. Through this
project, the communities in the settlements have been organized and mobilized and a very participatory
approach to solving problems introduced. The communities are grouped in specific themes and participation
is 50-50 between men and women. The key player in community mobilization in Arusha is an NGO known
as ‘Friends of Arusha”.

World Bank: The Municipality has through a loan from the World Bank acquired two new cesspit-emptying
trucks, two-bucket loaders and 30 skip buckets for collection and disposal of solid waste.

6. Other UN-HABITAT Programmes in Tanzania:

Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP). (Dar). This is a joint UNEP and UN-HABITAT programme, funded
by the governments of France, Japan, and Netherlands. The objective of the programme is to promote
environmental sustainable development and thereby realize the important contributions that cities can make
to overall social and economic development. This Programme provides municipal authorities and their
partners with an improved environmental planning and management capacity and promotes broad-based and
cross-sectoral decision-making. This strengthens their ability to define critical environmental issues, identify

instruments available to address these issues and promote cooperation. This is a global programme which is
designed to promote the sharing of expertise and experience among cities worldwide.

Safer Cities Programme (Dar) Urbanization is often synonymous with increased violence and crime,
tearing at the social fabric of cities and threatening the quality of life of the inhabitants. This Programme,
sponsored by the governments of France, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, is
implemented by UN-HABITAT in line with recommendations of the Habitat Agenda, recognizing that all
levels of government, including local authorities have a responsibility to ensure safety. The programme
believes that local authorities play a pivotal role in coordinating activities aimed at reducing crime and are in
a unique position to identify specific problems and solutions in the local community. The programme seeks
to provide a safe environment for all inhabitants by strengthening the capacity of local authorities to address
issues of urban safety and reduce delinquency and insecurity.

Promoting Environmentally Sustainable Development in Tanzania: The Sustainable Cities National
Programme in Tanzania operates under the programme Promoting Environmental Sustainable Urban
Development in Tanzania. This is presently coordinated by the programme established Urban Authorities
Support Unit (UASU) under the President’s office: Regional Administration and Local Government. The
programme originated in the National Programme Framework for Human Settlements, which focuses on
capacity building in public sector institutions, urban land management and urban shelter. The new
programme was signed in July 1997 and follows on from the Sustainable Dar es Salaam Project and its
follow phase, Managing the Sustainable Growth and Development of Urban Centres. UN-HABITAT
continues to provide technical support to Dar es Salaam and nine other urban centres throughout the country.
The programme focuses on two objectives: consolidation of the environmental planning and management
process in the Greater Dar es Salaam City Council and use of the methodology and experience gained from
implementation of the SDP. The programme is a sub-programme of the national environment programme.

Zanzibar Sustainable Programme: The programme’s objectives are to develop the capacity of the
Zanzibar Municipal Council to work with its partners in the public and private sectors to set up an
environmental planning and management (EPM) process for the sustainable development of the city. The
main issues the municipality faces are haphazard construction, developed areas characterized by a lack of
basic infrastructure services, solid waste management, water and sanitation, flooding during heavy rains,
institutional conflicts and municipal financing. An environmental profile of the city has been prepared and
discussed with all parties.

Water for African Cities: The main objective of the Programme is to tackle the urban water crises in
African cities through efficient and effective water demand management. It is also to build capacity to
mitigate the environmental impact of urbanization on freshwater resources and boost awareness, education
and information exchange on water management and conservation, within the framework of the
implementation of the Habitat Agenda. The goal of this project is to promote a demand-side perspective of
water management, including water pollution control methods, gender mainstreaming and improvement of
water access to the urban poor and peri-urban settlements. Concrete programmatic issues addressed include:
efficient distribution and operation, accounting for all water and efficient use and control of demand;
capacity building and training of three levels of water utilities managers; promotion of protection of
freshwater quality from urban pollution through integrated rapid assessment, mitigation of the impact of
urban pollutants on freshwater and development of citywide stakeholder consultations; and public awareness
campaigns to sensitize domestic, commercial and industrial users and community and schools water
education, based on human values.

By enhancing institutional and human resources capacity, the programme has created a favourable
environment for new investments in water and sanitation by enabling more efficient and equitable water

Local Democracy and Decentralization on Eastern and Southern Africa: In Eastern and Southern
Africa, as elsewhere in the developing world, the growing problem of slums and squatter settlements,
characterized by appalling living conditions and often accommodating more than 50% of the urban
population, is a physical manifestation of the increasing incidence of urban poverty. Among the reasons
accounting for the failure of many urban local authorities, in developing countries to cope with demands of
their increasing populations are: firstly, limitations of their political authority; secondly, the inadequacies of
their financing systems; and thirdly, the inefficiencies of their management systems. The Rockefeller
Foundation has commissioned these studies as a contribution to the development of normative goals of good
urban governance from the African perspective by focusing on local democracy and decentralization.

Innovations in Local Governance and Decentralization in East Africa: Africa is faced with formidable
challenges of rapid urban growth, poverty, marginalization and increasing global competition, all of which
compound the crises of municipal administration. However, the civil sector in Africa has demonstrated an
impressive degree of resilience and capacity to flourish in crisis situations, as importance of good
governance as a means of eradicating urban poverty becomes more evident. The large number of emerging
local governance initiatives related to decentralization in East Africa, indicate the significant role of the civil
constituency in improving local governance. The Ford Foundation provided this grant support to UN-
HABITAT to identify innovations in local governance in East Africa and recommend how they could be
built upon to promote public-private partnership in development. The innovations will also be strengthened,
and replicated through an award programme – The Mashariki Local Governance Innovations Awards

Establishment of an Effective Housing Finance Mechanism in Tanzania: The project is a follow-up to
the national action plan for Habitat II. The objective of the programme is to improve the access to shelter
finance of the Tanzanian population, particularly the poor and low-income segments.

7. Budget

Information, data collection and analysis
by local team for Arusha:                                                    US$ 45,000
Consensus building process
 (Constituency consultations and City-wide consultations)                    US$ 30,000
Reporting and documentation:                                                 US$ 10,000

Total                                                                        US$ 85,000


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