Understanding Europe- A Cultural Mosaic Northern Europe Regions • Two regions make up Northern Europe 1. The British Isles – a group of islands located across the English Channel. 2. Scandinavia – islands/peninsulas in far northern Europe. Climate • The mild climate is due to the North Atlantic Drift. • The British Isles, Denmark, and western Norway has mild summers and frequent rains. • Central Norway, Swede, and southern Finland has cold snowy winters and mild summers. • Northern Scandinavia is a subarctic region. This area has long cold winters and short summers. Physical Features • Hills and mountains cover much of Northern Europe. • Fertile farmland and flat plains stretch across the British Isles and Scandinavia. • Glaciers cover Norway's coastlines. Natural Resources • Energy • Forests and soils • Seas and oceans The British Isles • Two Independent Countries make up the British Isles. 1. The Republic of Ireland 2. United Kingdom • The United Kingdom has 4 small countries 1. England 2. Scotland 3. Wales 4. Northern Ireland Government • constituional monarchy – a democracy where a king or queen services as heard of state, but legislature makes the laws. • Today, a primary minister leads the British government. • The Republic of Ireland has a president who has limited power. The president appoints a prime minister. People • Sports like soccer and rugby are very popular. • In Scotland it no unusual to see people wearing kilts and playing bagpipes on special occasions. The Economy • The capital of the United Kingdom is London. • London is the center for world trade and industry. • The capital of Ireland is Dublin. • Dublin produces computer equipment and software. • Both the United Kingdom and The Republic of Ireland rely on banking and tourism. London’s Famous Double-decker Busses Buckingham Palace London street scene Big Ben and the London Eye Scandinavia • Large wealthy cities, strong economies, and well educated workers. • High standard of living • Excellent social programs and services such as free heath care. • 6 countries are included in this region. 1. Sweden 2. Denmark 3. Greenland 4. Norway 5. Finland 6. Iceland Sweden • Largest and most populous country. • Sweden’s capital and largest city is Stockholm • A neutral country – chooses not to take sides in international conflict. • Are involved in the United Nations and European Union. Denmark • Smallest in Scandinavia • Most densely populated • 50 % of the and used is for farming. • Also has modern industries including iron, steel, textiles, and electronics. Greenland • 80 % is covered by a thick sheet of ice. • Much is the land is uninhabitable • Most people live on the southwest coast where the climate is warmers. • Relies on imports and economic aid from Denmark. Norway • One of the largest coastlines in the world. • Fjords shelter Norway’s many harbors. • Fishing and shipping fleets. • The capital of Norway is Oslo. • Highest GDP in Scandinavia due to oil and natural gas. • Norway has refused to join the European Union. Finland • Lies between Sweden and Russia • The capital is Helsinki • Trade is important to Finland. • Paper and forest products are major exports. • Shipbuilding and electronic are also important. Iceland • Greener than its name implies • Fertile farmland produces potatoes and vegetables and supports cattle and sheep • Other natural resources include fish that account for 70% of its exports • Geysers produce geothermal energy • Thousand of tourists flock to see Iceland’s geyser, volcanoes, and glaciers.