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					                    THE OPEN UNIVERISTY OF TANZANIA
                            FACULTY OF LAW

             OLW 102:         CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE

                    COURSE OUTLINE AND READING LIST
                       (PART 1: THE GENERAL PART)


                                                                ADVANCED COPY
                                                                   BY KIHWELO


TOPIC 1:    CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE

1.   Definition:    Although it is difficult to attempt an accurate definition of a
     crime, or criminal law, is necessary to attempt a general definition so that
     students do not proceed with their own preconceived notions in the matter.

     (a)    KENNY – Outlines of Criminal Law> 17th Ed. P. 5 – points out 3
            major characteristics of a crime:

            (i)     that it is harm brought about by human conduct which the
                    sovereign power in the state desires to prevent;

            (ii)    that among the measures of prevention is the treat of
                    punishment.

            (iii)   That legal proceedings of a special kind are employed to
                    determine the guilt of an accused before being punished.

     (b)    HARRIS – Criminal Law – 21st Ed p. 3 defines criminal law as @
            that branch of public law which relates to offences that may be the
            subject of criminal proceedings institute for the punishment to the
            offender.

     (c)    CHAMBLISS – The Political Economy of crime
                      Vol. 2 (1975) 149 – 70 – attempted to develop a
                      Marxist.


                                         1
           Theory of Crime and criminal law; defining criminal law as “a set of
           rules, laid down by the state in the interest of ruling class and
           resulting from the conflicts that inhere in class structured societies”
           Accordingly, “Criminal behaviour is, then, the inevitable expression
           of class conflict resulting from the inherently exploitative nature of
           the economic relations”.

     (d) Crime and morality.
     (e) SHAID, L. P. “Penal Policy in Tanzania”, (handouts).


2.   Sources of Criminal Law:
     (a)   The Penal Code and other statutes, like the Prevention of
           Corruption Act and the Read Traffic act, etc.

     (b)   Subsidiary legislations
     (c)   The common law of England (section 3(1) and 18, Penal Code,
           Cap. 16).
           Note: Customary Criminal Law has abolished in 1963 (Magistrates
           Courts act, Cap. 537 Section 66(1)

3.   The Differences between Criminal and Civil wrongs: Punishment v.
     Compensation.

4.   The Nature and Function of Criminal Law under different modes of
     production:
     (a)   Primitive Communal
     (b)   Slavery
     (c)   Capitalist
     (d)   Socialist

     Is Criminal Law an instrument of social control. For whose interest?


5.   The historical development of Tanzania’s Criminal Law

     (a)   The Pre-colonial period


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     (b)    The German period
     (c)    The British period – beginning with the evolution of the English
            Criminal Law.
     (d)    Post Independence period to the present time.

     Readings:
     1.     KENNY, Outlines of Criminal Law, 17th Ed. Chapter 1.
     2.     SMITH & HODGAN, Criminal law, Chapter 2.
     3.     HARRIS Criminal Law, 21st Ed. Chapter 1.
     4.     SEIDMAN, A Sourcebook of the Criminal Law of Africa; Chapters 3
            & 8.
     5.     COLLINGWOOD; Criminal Law of East and Central Africa,
            chapters 1.
     6.     Penal Code. Cap. 16 ss.. 2, 3, 4, 6 & 18.
     7.     Magistrate’s Courts Act, cap. 537 Suit. 66
     8.     CHAMBLISS: W.J. Criminal Law in Action, Part 2 (especially
            Chapter 5)
     9.     D.P.P v. Shaw (1962) A.C. 200 (Common Law Crimes)
     10.    Hasham Hamir v. R. (1934) 1 T.L.R. (R) 195. (Common Law
            Crimes)
     11.    Knuller v. DPP (1973) AC 435.




TOPIC 2:    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

     Criminal Law principles of general application not specifically provided for
     in the penal code; and have their origin in the common law.

1.   ACTUS REUS: - an act or omission constituting all the elements in the
     definition of a particular crime, except those which relate to the accused‟s
     state of mind, Section 5 Tanzania Penal Code:- defines an “offence” as
     an act, attempt or omission punishable by law.




                                       3
2.   MENS REA:- generally a blameworthy state of mind, expressed in three
     difference degrees: intention, recklessness and negligence.

     (a)   men‟s rea and voluntariness (Section 10, Penal Code)
     (b)   mens rea and motive (Section 10, Penal Code)
     (c)   vicarious liability
     (d)   corporate liability
     (e)   Strict Liability.


3.   PROOF:- The burden and standard of proof in criminal cases:


     Readings:

     1.    Smith & Hogan; Criminal Law; Ch. 5. 5 & 6.
     2.    Kenny; outlines of criminal law; Ch. 2
     3.    Harris; Criminal Law: Ch. 2
     4.    Collingwood: Criminal Law of East & Central Africa;
     5.    Williams: Criminal Law: Ch. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6.
     6.    Seleman: Sourcebook – Criminal Law of Africa

     Cases:

     1.    Bratty v. A. G. for N. Ireland (1963) AC 386 or (1961) 3 ALL ER 523
           (vountariness).

           2.      R. v. Charlson (1955) 1 W;R 317 or (1955) 1 ALL ER 859
                   (voluntariness)
     3.    Anthony Mhikwa v. R. (1968) HCD n. 460 (intention)
     4.    Bazila v. R. (1968) HCD n. 309 (intention)
     5.    Gordon v. R. (1972) HCD. no. 36 (intention)
     6.    D. M. Patel v. R. (1969) H.C.D. n. 60 (intention)
     7.    R. V. Chepo Kalangali (1973) LRT n. 77 – (negligence)
     8.    Sherras v. De Rutzen (1895) 1 QB 918 (mens rea)
     9.    Lim Chim Aik v. R. (1963) A.C. 160 – (mens rea)



                                      4
     10.    Brend v. Wood (1946) 62 T.L.R. 462 (mens rea)
     11.    Selau Dean v. R. (1946) E.A. 272 (motive)
     12.    Mandla v. R. (1966) E.A. 315 (motive)
     13.    R.v. Windle (1952) 2 KB 826 (motive)
     14.    Queen v. Senior (1999) 1 QB 283 (motive)
     15.    The Manager, Burhani Saw mills Ltd. v. R. (1968) HCD 395
            (vicarious Liability)
     16.    Hamad Abdallah v. R. (1964) E.A. 270 (vicarious liability)
     17.    Ally Mzee v. R. (1970) E. A. 404 (vicarious liability)
     18.    Joseph Hawksworth v. R. (1970) n. 271 (strict liability)
     19.    Cund v. le Cog (1884) 13 QBD 207. (strict liability)
     20.    Hobbs v. Winchester Corporation (1910) 2 K. B. 471 (Strict liability)
     21.    Maulid v. R. (1970) H.C.D. n. 346 (strict liability).
     22.    Copperfields Cold Storage Co. Ltd. v. R. (1953) 5 N.R.L.R. 248 &
            264 (strict liability).
     23.    Mumir v. R. (1967) E.A. 4309 (strict liability)
     24.    Smithfield Butchery Ltd., v. R. (1949) 23 92) K.L.R. 81 (corporate
            liability)
     25.    Lennards Carrying Co., Ltd. v. Asiatic Petroleum Co., (Corporate
            Liability)
     26.    Noore v. I Bresler Ltd. (1944) 3 K.B. 515 (Corporate Liability)
     27.    D.P.P.v. Smith (1961) A. C. 290.


TOPIC 3:    GENERAL RULES OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

     Statutory rules of criminal responsibility as found in chapter IV of the penal
     Code – (T). (Sections 8 – 21). Like the general principles discussed in the
     preceding chapter, most of these rules operate as defences of a general
     nature in various criminal offences. Students should note that the defence
     of necessity is not found in the code, and has its basis in case law; being a
     development from common law.

     1.     Ignorance of law – (ignorantia jurisnon excusal) (s. 8 Penal Code
            (T)


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2.    Bona fide claim of right – s. 9 Penal Code (T)
3.    Mistake of fact (ignorantial fact excusal) – S. 11 Penal Code (T).
4.    Insanity – M’naghten rules – (Section 13 Penal Code (T)
5.    Intoxication – (s. 14 Penal Code (T).
6.    Immaturity – (s. 15 Penal Code (T)
7.    Judicial privilege – (s. 16 Penal Code (T)
8.    Compulsion and coercion – (s. 17 Penal Code (T).
9.    Defence of person or property – (to be “determined according to
      the principles of English law” – Section 18 T.P.C).
10.   Necessity.


Readings:

1.    Kenny – Criminal Law – Chapter 3.
2.    Seidman – Sourcebook – Chapters 9 and 17.
3     Harris – Criminal Law – Chapters 2, 6 and 7.
4.    Smith & Hogan – Criminal Law – Chapter 8
5.    Collingwood; - Criminal Law – Chapter 9
6.    Williams: - Criminal Law – Chapters 10, 11, 17 and 18
7.    Sections 8-12 Tanzania Penal Code.


Cases:

1.    Maulidi v. R. (1970) H.C.D. n. 346 (Ignorance of Law)
2.    Mohamed Hassan v. R. (1969) H.C.D. n. (Claim of Right).
3.    Lenderito Laidosoli v. R. (1973) H.C.D. n. 169 (claim of right)
4.    Salum Ibrahim v. R. (1971) H.C.D. n. 481 (claim of right)
5.    Chabijana v. R. ----------------- (Mistake of fact)
6.    Dollar (1952) 36 Cr. App. Rep. 184--------------- (Mistake of fact)
7.    R.v. Sultan Maginga (1969) H.C.D n. 250               (Mistake of fact)
8.    R. v. Selemani Hassani (1969) H.C.D. n. 370 (Mistake of fact)
9.    Mchelengwa Njingi Masala v. r. (1968) N.C.D. n. 370(Mistake of
      fact)


                                   6
10.   R. v. Tomson Msumali (1969) H.C.D. n. 26 (N.C.D. n. 370 Mistake
      of fact)
11.   R. v. Nyingo Suwatu (1959) E.A. 974 (Insanity)
12.   R.v. Saidi Mwamwindi (1972) H.C.D. n. 212 (Insanity)
13.   R.v. Windle (1952) 2 AB 826 (Insanity
14.   R.v. Kemp (1957) 1. QB. 399 (Insanity)
15.   Muswi Musele v. R.E.A. C.A 622 (Insanity)
16.   R.v. Magata Kachohakana (1957) E. A.. 330
17.   R. v. Kibiegen Arap Bargutwa 6 E.A.C.A. 142 (Insanity)
18.   A.G. for N. ireland v. Gallagher (1961) 3 ALL ER 299 (Intoxication)
19.   D.P.P. v. Beard) (1920) A.C. 479 or (192) A.C. AlL ER 21
      (Intoxication)
20.   R. V. Rotief 8 E.A.C.,A. 71, (A.C. ALL ER 21 (Intoxication)
21.   Kinuthia Kamau v. R. 17 E.A.C.A. 137 (A.C. ALL ER 21
      (Intoxlation).
22.   R. v. Nyode Wapera 15 E.A.C.A. 145 ALL ER 21.
23.   R. v. Stanislaus Saroni Maresi (1969) N.C.D. n. 32 (Intoxication).
24.   Mahokoya Buzora v. R.(1976) L.R.T. n. 16 ALL ER 21 (Intoxication)
25.   R. v. F.C. 2 N.R.L.R. 185 (Immaturity)
26.   R.v. Thomas Mfaume (1967) H.C.D. n. 18 (Intoxication)
27.   R.v. Ngado Mwakalinga (1976) H.C.D. n. 300 (Intoxication)
28.   R. v. Ally Mohamed (1968) H.C.D. n. 146 (Intoxication)
29.   Mzee Solbamani v. R (1968) H.,C.D. n. 364 (Judicial Privilege)
30.   Odde Fungareza Moots v. R. (1969) N.C.D. n. 252 (Judicial
      Privilege)
31.   Said Bakari Kionywake v. R. (1967) H.C.D. n. 443 (Judicial
      Privilege)
32.   Joshua Senko v. R. (1972) H.C.D n. 60 (compulsion)
33.   A. Jesia v. R. (1972) E.A. 157 (T).
34.   Selemani Ussi v. R. (1963) E.A. 443 (defence of person)
35.   Saidi Abdalah v. R. (1967) H.C.D. 266 (defence of person)



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     36.   R.v. Nyakaho (1970) N.C.D. n. 344 (defence of person)
     37.   Mongi v. R. (1964) E.A. 289 (defence of person)
     38.   Ilapala Ibrahim v. R. 20 E.A.C.A. 300 (defence of person)
     39.   Mohamedi Ally v. R. (1969) H.C.D.N. 54 defence of property
     40.   R.v. Mohamed Ndowe (1970) H.C.D. n. 211 defence of property
     41.   R. v. Dudley & Stephems (1884) 14 Q.B.D. 273 (necessity)
     42.   R.v. Bourne (1938) ALL ER 615 (necessity)
     43.   R.v. Abbasi Mohamedi Comorian (1969) N.C.D. n. 113 (necessity)
     44.   Uganda v. Muherwa (1972) E.A. 466 (U) (defence of property)
     45.   Marwa Robi v. R. (1959) E.A. 660 (defence of property).
     46.   R. V. Michael Chibingizti [1983] TLR 441 (Intoxication & Mistake of
           Ed.)


TOPIC 4:   PARTIES TO OFFENCES:

     The extent of liability for every offender where an offence is committed by
     more than one offender or where several offenders perform different roles
     in execution of a common deed. This is one of the few areas in our law
     where there is a departure from the common law.


     1.     Parties to offences under the Common Law:
           (a)    Accessory before the fact.
           (b)    Principal offender in the first degree
           (c)    Principal offender in the second degree
           (d)    Accessory after the fact.

     2.     Parties to offences in East Africa: (Section 22 Penal Code – (T)
           (a)    Principal offender
           (b)    Accessory after the fact (s. 387, Penal Code – (T)

     3.    Common Intention by Joint offenders – Section 23, Penal Code
           (T)

     4.    Counselling – Section 24, Penal Code (T)




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     Readings:
     1.    Kenny – Criminal Law – Chapter 5
     2.    Smith & Hogan: Criminal Law – Chapter 7
     3.    Harris – Criminal Law - Chapter 4
     4.    Colligwood – Criminal Lawa, Chapter 4
     5.    Soidman – Criminal Law – Chapter 19.


     Cases:
     1.    Msengi Mkumbo v. R. (1955) E.A.C.A. 5000
     2.    Shene Kimboka, v. R. (1968) H.C.D n. 52.
     3.    Salehe Selemani v. R. (1972) H.C.D 23.
     4.    Wanjiro Wamoire v. R. (1955) E.A.C.A. 521
     5.    R. v. Tabulayonka kirya 10 E.A.C.A. 51
     6.    R. v. Otieno Okech 14 E.A.C.A. 68
     7.    R. v. Mughuria Bnaya 10 E.A.C.A. 105.
     8.    Twelve V. R. (1957) R. & H 265.
     9.    R. v. Lwemera 14 E.a.C.A 115
     10.   R./ v. Saidi Nsubuga 8 E.A.C.A. 81
     11.   Uganda v. kalokole (12972) E.A. 313.
     12.   R. v. Gathiku Kiondu (1956) E.A.C.A. 526
     13.   Andrea Nikodemo v. R. (1969) H.C.D. n. 25
     14.   Mkabanemoheto Masakura v. R. (1959) E.A. 598.




TOPIC 5:   ATTEMPTS AND CONSPIRACIES:
     Attempts and conspiracies are known as „inchoate‟ crimes.          This is
     because the „full actus reus of the principal offence has not been reached.
     However, as far as an attempt is concerned, the „full‟ actus reus of the
     „attempt‟ must be there. The problem with those crime rests primarily on
     the question of atus reus and not mens rea,
     Readings:


                                      9
1.    Kenny: Criminal Law – Chapter 4
2.    Smith & Hogan – Criminal Law Chapter 9.
3.    Harris – Criminal Law – Chapter 3.
4.    Collingwood - Criminal Law – Chapter 5.
5.    Seidman - Criminal Law – Chapter 22.
6.    Williams: Criminal Law – Chapter 13, 14 & 15.
      Cases: (a) Attempts:
1.    Saidi v. R. (1962) E.A. 454
2.    R. Robinson (1915) 2 K.B. 342.
3.    Ambokile Mwamalengo R (1967) H.C.D. n. 275.
4.    R. v. Christopher Ngambile (1967) H.C.D. n. 388.
5.    R. v. Rukonde Kamaro (1968) H.C.D. n. 48.
6.    R. v. Mley Kinyamali (1967) H.C.D. n. 342
7.    R. v. Mlatende (1971) H.C.D. n. 371.
8.    Mulira v. R. 20 E.A.C.A. 223.
9.    R. v. Haruna Ibrahim (1976) H.C.D n. 76.
10.   Gamaiyo Melau v. R. (1968) H.C.D. n. 228.
11.   Omari v. R. (1971) H.C.D. n. 362.
12.   R. v. Andrew Avarity (1973) L.R.T. n. 92.
13.   R.v. Dosai (1967) H.C.D. N. 30.
14.   R. v. Marko Matota (1967) H.C.D. n. 270.
15.   R. v. Mussa Thomas (1968) H.C.D. n. 1979
16.   Msengi Kiula v. R. (1968) H.C.D. n. 179.


(b)   Conspiracies:
1. Muloahy v The Queen (1868) 3 H. l. 306
2. R. v. Mattaka and others (1971) (mimeo) (S.R.)
3. R. v. Karia 16 E.A.C.A.M 116.
4. Masinga v. R. 18 E.A.C.A. 211.
5. Maruta v. R. (1973) E.A. 89 (K)
6. Ongodia and Erima v. Uganda (1976) E.A. 137.



                                10
                        CRIMANAL LAW AND PROCEDURE

                                  COURSE OUTLINE

                                      PART TWO



1.          PROPERTY OFFENCES

      Readings:
      1.   Tanzania Penal Code, Chapter XXVI
      2.   Relevant Chapters on recommended books

      Cases:

      (a) On things capable of being stolen

            1.    R.V. Daniel Kambengwa, (1968) HCD no. 333.
            2.    R. V. Ndesario (1969) E.A. 267 or (1968) H.C.D. no. 245.

      (b)         Being the property of any person (which has value)

            1.    Hibbert v., McKiernan (1948) 2 KB 142.
            2.    Rose v. Matt (1951) 1 KB 810.
            3.    Kyewawula v. Uganda (1974) E.A. 293.

      (c)         Taking (asportation)

            1.    Lerunyani v. R. (1968) E.A. 107.
            2.    Mazango Magala v. R. (1969) H. C. D. n. 156.

(d)         Fraudulent taking (negating bona fide claim of right)

            1.    Alli Iddi v. R. (1969) H.C.D. n.263.
            2.    Yusuf Salim Mkaly v. R. (1969) H.C.D. n. 264.
            3.    R. v. Cockburn (1968) 1 All ER 466.
            4.    R. V. Williams (1953) 2 WLR 937 or (1953) 1 All ER 1068.
            5.    D. P. P. v. Henry Rwaashamira (1973) L.R.T. n.15.
            6.    Francisko Sewava v. R. (1966) E.A.
            7.    Geofrey Buyombe v. R. (1968) H.C. 373.

(e)         Conversion not amounting to theft:

1. R. v. Burns (1958 E. A. 142.
2. Laurence Maliki v. R. (1973 L.R.T. no. 12.



                                           11
(f)   Stealing by public servants (s.270)

      1.      Rajabu Mbaruku v. R. (1962) E. A. 669.
      2.      Yesaya Gweseko v. R. (1970) H.C.D. n. 160.
      3.      Donald William Ibrahim v. R. (1972) H.C.D. n. 59.
      4.      Mikidadi Abdullah v. R. (1970) H.C.D. n. 225.

(g)   Stealing by agent (s.273)

      1.      Lavi Nyoro v. R. (H.C.D. n. 73).


(h)   Doctrine of recent possession.

      1.      R. V. Macharia Kichuhi 22 KLR 50.
      2.      Lucas Mbada v. R. (1972) H.C.D. n. 214.
      3.      DPP v. Joachim Kamba [1984] TLR No. 213.
      4.      George Mingwe V.R. [1989] TLR. N. 10 (its applicatbility)
      5.      Mamazo Mandundu at al v. R. [1990] TLR n. 92.



(a)   Theft

      1.      R. V. Naesario [1960] EA 267
      2.      Kyewawula V. Uganda [1974] EA 293.
      3.      RV Kambengwa [1968[ HCD 333.
      4.      Yusufu Mkali v. R. [1969] HCD 264.
      5.      Geofrey Buyombe v. R. [1966] HCD 375
      6.      Alli Idd v. R. [1969] HCDE 263
      7.      D.P.P. v Henry Rwegashamira [1973] TLR 15.
      8.      RVs Burns [1958] EA 142.
      9.      Lorunyani v. R. [1966] EA 107.
      10.     Mazengo Nagela V. R. [1969] HCD 71.
      11.     Mohammed Hassan v. R. [1969] HCD 156.
      12.     Salim Ibrahim v. R. [1971] HCD 461.
      13.     Marcel Mpembee v. R. [1969] EA 222
      14.     Rajab Mbaruku v. R. [1962] EA 669



                                        12
      15.   Ibrahim v. R. [1972] HCD 59
      16.   Yasaya g. Weseko v. R. [1970] EA 667.
      17.   Rashid V.R. [1972] EA 438.
      18.   Abialah V. R. [1970] HCD 225
      19.   Michael Mhuto v. r. [1975] LRT 18
      20.   Seif Alli v. R. [1976] LRT 55.
      21.   Naftali Ngawa v. R. [1976] LRT 45.
      22.   Odunlu v. R. [1970] H.C.D n. 52.
      23.   Saidi Mhuyu v. R. [1972] HCD n. 4
      24.   James Malawi v. R. [1969] HCD 172.
      25.   Ibrahim Ramadhan V. R. [1969] HCD.
      26.   William v. R. [1972] HCD 124.
      27.   Iddi Waziri C.V.R. [1961] EA 146.
      28.   Said Kigozi v. R. 195….] EA. 1
      29.   Rashid Sijaemba v. R. [1971] HCDE 441.
      30.   Christian Mbunda v. R [1983] T.L.R. n. 34 (Theft Ingredients).



(b)   Robbery

      1.    Wilson Katanda v. R. (1969) H.C.D. n. 313 – (definition)
      2.    Funo v. Uganda (1967) 632 (U) – (necessary elements).
      3.    Rashidi Sijaremba v. R. (1971( H.C.D. no. 441 (Use of force
            immediately before)
      4.    Njuguna v. R. (1970) EA 583(use of force immediately after)
      5.    Jumanne v. r. (1970) H.C.D. n. 36 (use of force immediately after)
      6.    Issau v. r. (`97`) HCD no. 53 (degree of force used)
      7.    Salum Ibrahim v. R (1971) HCD n. 481 (force must be for purposes
            of stealing).
      8.    Omar Masunguru v. R. (1970) HCD n. 213 (force must be for
            purposes of stealing.




                                       13
      9.    Mkwe Lakimoja v. R. (1967) HCD n. 372 (use of force immediately
            after).
      10.   Venance Nkama v. R.(1970) HCD n. 34 (force must be for
            purposes of stealing).
      11.   Joseph Lelo v. R. (1969) HCD n. 158 (degree of force)
      12.   Juma Mkurasi v. R. (1969) HCD n. 72 (aggravating circumstances).
      13.   Juma Muhumpa v. R. (1968) HCD n. 15 (aggravating factors).
      14.   Nuru Ayubu v. R. (1968) HCD n. 279 or (1969) E.A. 85 (T)
            (demanding Property with menaces).
      15.   Vaz v. R. (1961) E.A. 320 (extortion).
      16.   Patal v. R. (1946) EACA 179 (extortion).
      17.   John Opio v. R. (1969) HCD n. 59 (alternative verdicts).
      18.   R. V. Milambo (1971) HCD n. 361 (alternative verdicts).
      19.   Simon Gadeu v. R. (1968) HCD n. 465 (alternative verdicts).
      20.   Opoya v. Uganda (1967) E.A. 752 Capital punishment in Uganda).
      21.   Venance Mkama v. R. (1970) HCD 34.
      22.   Njuguna v. R. (1965) 583.
      23.   Juma Mkurasi v. R. (`969) HCD 72.
      24.   Joseph Lelo v. R. (1969) HCD 195.
      25.   Nuru Ayubu v. R. (1968) HCD 279.
      26.   Jumanne Haran Kalumbha (1970) HCD n. 36.



(c)   House Breaking, Burglary and Related Offences

      Readings:

      1.    Penal Code (T) Chapter XXIX.
      2.    Section 5, Penal code (T) – Definition of “dwelling house” and
            “night-time”.
      3.    KENNYA – Outlines – Chapter XII.
      4.    SMITH & HOGAN Chapter 10.




                                        14
Cases:
1.   Ambari Zangu v. R. (1969) HCD n. 175 – (definition of dwelling
      house).
2.    Joakim Shio v. r. (1975) LRT n. 29 (breaking).
3.    Lenderito Laidosoli v. R. (1972) HCD n. 169 (breaking).
4.    Joseph Sebastian v. R. (1971) HCD n. 381 (breaking).
5.    Saidi Ali v. R. (1973) LRT n. 66 (entering).
6.    Ernest Joseph v. R. (1969) HCD n. 147 (entering).
7.    Paul v. R. (1971) HCD n. 135 (entering).
8.    R. V. Ntibilanti (1972) HCD n. 106 (intention to commit an
      offences).
9.    Kasian v. R. (1971) HCD n. 147 (intention to commit a an offences).
10.   R. v. Wilson (1971) HCD n. 434 (intention to commit a an offence).
11.   (Mathias Pirmin v. R. (1969) HCD n. 240 (breaking out).
12.   Paschal Nzalamiko v. R. (1967) HCD n. 366 (time offence
      committed, material in burglary).
13.   Paschal Nzalamiko v. R. (1967) HCD n. 366 (time offence
      committed, material in burglary).
14.   Mohamed Issa v. R. (1962) E.A. 392 (T) (constructive breaking).
15.   Petro Samson v. R. (1970) HCD n. 35 (constructive breaking).
16.   Ramadhani Bakari v. R. (1970) HCD n. 90 (constructive breaking).
17.   Peter Mussa v.R. (1973) LRT n. 68 (constructive breaking).
18.   Anthorny v. R. (1971) HCD n. 146 (constructive breaking).
19.   Ambali Sanga v. R. (1969) HCD 173.
20.   Joachim Shio v. R. (1975) LRT.
21.   Chambo Ramadhani v. R. [1985] T.L.R. 178 (Ingredients of house
      breaking).




                                 15
(d)    Obtaining by False Pretence

       Readings:
       1.      Relevant Chapters in Text Books (especially KENYA‟s outlines of
               Criminal Law and Collingwood‟s Criminal Law of East and Central
               Africa.
       2.      Penal Code Ch. XXX.


  Cases:
      On the subject matter of a false pretence:-
       Things capable of being stolen (already covered in THEFT). Abdulrahman
       Hussein Esmail v. R. (1965) E.A. 1
      The Right obtained – i.e. transfer of ownership –
       This is an important element, which distinguishes a false pretence from
       theft, since in theft it is only possession, which passes.


  1.        Kagwa v. Uganda (1967) E.A. 468.
  2.        Lyasenga v. R. (1969) E.A. 272.
  3.        Juma Masudi v. R. (1968) HCD n. 109.
  4.        Yusuf Omari and Another v. R. (1964) E.A. 162.
  5.        Mtonya and Another v. R. (1972) HCD n. 94.
  6.        Chamba v. R. (1970) E.A. 280.
  7.        Mtonya and Another v. R. (1972) HCD n. 94.


           The pretence:- words, writing or conduct; capable pretence must be
            shown in the charge.


       1.      Kagwa v. Uganda (op.cit.).
       2.      Shantilala Meneklal Ruwal v. R. (1957) E.A. 570.
       3.      Bundama v. R. (1967) HCD n. 220.
       4.      Blassius v. R. (1973) E.A. 510 or (1973) LRT n. 85.



                                          16
      5.      Emanuel and Another v. R. (1971) HCD n. 127.


      A fraudulent intent in the pretence.
      1.      R v. Jamal 22 EACA 504.
      2.      Edwin Maro v. R. (1970) HCD n. 73.
      3.      Okech v. R. (1972) HCD n. 223.


          Past or present fact: future representation excluded
      1.      Abdallah v. R. (1970) E.A. 657.
      2.      Jadav v. R. (1971) HCD n. 393.


          Effect of the pretence: - the handing over of the property must have
           actually been caused by the pretence.
      1.      Abdallah v. R. (op.cit.)
      2.      Mawanda v. R. (1962) E.A. 119.


          Difference between obtaining by false pretences (s.302) and
           cheating (s.304).
      1.      John Joseph v. R. (1969) HCD n. 174.
      2.      Mohamed Selemani Mzaramo v. R. (1969) HCD n. 127.
      3.      Blasius v. R. (Op.cit.)
      4.      Bushiri and others v. R. (1971) E.A. 111.
      5.      Yusuf Omari and Six others v. R. (1964) E.A. 162.
      6.      Esmail V. R. (1965) E.a. 1.
      7.      Juma Masudi v. R. (1968) HCD 109.
      8.      Kagwa v. Uganda
      9.      Jamal v. R. 22 EACA 50 (1957) E.A. 570.


(e)   Cheating

      1.      Mohamed Salum Mzaromo v. R. [1969] HCD 127



                                         17
           2.      John Joseph v. r. [1969] DCD 172
           3.      Blasius v. R. [1973] EA 510.


(f)        Forgery


      Readings:
      2. Relevant Chapters in the Text Books.
      3. Chapters XXXIV of the Penal Code.


      Articles:
      1.        RN Gooderson, “When is a document False in the Law of Forgery?”
                15 Modern Law Review p. 11.
      2.        Anthony Beck, “the End of Automendacity” Criminal Law Review
                (1971) p. 565.


      Cases:
      Making a false document – the falsity in the document must be of purport,
      not contents. In other words, it must tell a lie about itself, - this is termed
      “Automendacity”.
      1.        Baigumamu v. Uganda (1973) E.A. 26.
      2.        Deofratious v. R. (1971) HCD n. 155.
      3.        George Walter and 3 others v. R. (1977) LRT n. 5.
      4.        Katengile v. R. (1969) E.A. 603.
      5.        Naurange Singh v. R. (1957) E.A. 433.
      6.        Issa Ntoka v. R. HCD n. 374.


      Intent to defraud or deceive must be proved
      1.        D.P.P. v. Welham (1961) AC 103.
      2.        Re London and Globe Finance Corporation Ltd. (1903) 1 Ch. 728.




                                               18
      Uttering false documents
      1.         Alley Alli and another v. R. (1973) LRT n. 43.
      2.         Omar Bin Saleh v. R. 17 EACA 150.


(g)        Corruption
           1.       Prevention of Corruption Act No. 16 of 1971.
           2.       O.E.C. Chirwa “The Prevention of Corruption by Legislation. The
                    Tanzanian Act of 1971, 5 E.A.L.R. (1972).
           3.       L.P. Shaidi “The Problem of Corruption in Tanzania”, LL.M
                    Dissertation, 1975. (East African, University of Dar Es Salaam
                    Library).


           Readings:
           1.       R. v. Jetha 14 EACA 122 (1947).
           2.       R. v. Smith (1960) 2 Q.B. 423.
           3.       Selan Dean v. R. (1966) E.A. 272.
           4.       Mandla v. R. (1966) E.A. 315.
           5.       Ally Kassam v. R. (1972) E.A. 551.
           6.       Habib Kara Vesta v. R. 1EACA 191.
           7.       Isango v. R. (1968) E.A. 140.
           8.       D.P.P. v. Mustafa Peter (1980) T.L.E. 193.
           9.       Adelaide Kumalija v. R. (1982) T.L.R. 115.
           10.      Mohamed Ramadhan v. R. (1970) HCD n. 50.
           11.      Ramadhan Masoud v. R. (1974) E.A. 81.
           12.      Haining v. R. (1970) E.A. 620.
           13.      Edom Godfrey Mlinga v. R. !981) T.L.R.
           14.      D. P. P. v. Jaffari Mfaume Kawawa (1981).
           15.      Tibilikirwa v. R. (1973) E.A. 440.
           16.      Gaidon Nelson Mapunda v. R. (1982) T.L.R.




                                               19
4. OFFENCES AGAINST PERSONS


(h)   Assaults
      1.    Smith & Hogan – Criminal Law: Ch. 11.
      2.    Kenny: Outline 17th Ed. Chapter 8.
      3.    Tanzania Penal code, Cap. 16, Chapter XXIV & XXII.


      Cases: (a) Assault and battery:-
      1.    Gaturo Njau v. r. (1948) 23 KLR (1) 60.
      2.    R. v. Rev. Father John Rwechungura (1972).
      3.    R. v. Msungwe (1968) E.A. 203.
      4.    Azaria Mbuya v. R. (1968) HCD n. 33.
      5.    Gabriel Anthony v. R. (1974) LRT n. 20.
      6.    Hassan v. R. (1971) HCD n. 274.
      7.    Mayanga v. R. (1970) HCD n. 284.
      8.    Saidi Abdallah v. R. (1967) HCD n. 266.
      9.    Wuthrich v. R. (1970) n. 144.
      10.   Leo Pigangoma v. r. (1967) HCD n. 131.
      11.   Nzige Juma v. R. (1964) E. A. 107.
      12.   Waera Madoya v. R. (1962) E.a. 783.


      Causing grievous harm:-
      1.    Gitau v. R. (1967) E. A. 449.
      2.    Gabriel Anthony v. R. (1974) LRT n. 20.
      3.    R. v. Msungwe (1968) E.A. 203.
      4.    R. v. Maulidi Yusuf (1967) HCD n. 70..
      5.    Sebastian Mpaka v. R. (1972) LRT n. 28.
      6.    Juma Lebenga v. R. (1972) HCD n. 225.
      7.    R. v. Mipaa Mananjimia (1968) HCD m. 265.
      8.    Bhyya Mohamed v. r. (1972) HCD n. 175.
      9.    Elias Manyasi v. R. (1973) LRT n. 73.



                                      20
10.   R. v. Ramson Mbogo (1972) HCD n. 35.
11.   Sebastian Gilbert v. R. (1970) CD n. 281.
12.   John v. R. (1971) HCD n. 192.




HOMICIDE OFFENCES
Essential areas:
      (a)    Definition of homicide
      (b)    Causation in homicide
      (c)    Murder
      (d)    Manslaughter
      (e)    Infanticide


Readings:-
1.    KENNY – Outlines – (17th Ed.) Chapter VII.
2.    SMITH & HOGAN – Chapter 10 (1965) – (Ed.)
3.    HARRIS – Chapter 30 (21st Ed.).
4.    SEIDMAN – Sourcebook Chapters 4 and 5.
5.    COLLINGWOOD – Chapter 9.


Articles:
1.    Read, J. S.:         Some Aspects of Murder in East Africa – Vol. 1
                           No. 4, EALJ (Dec. 1965) p.37.
2.    Read; J.S.,          J-Some Aspects of Manslaughter in East
                           Africa: Vol. 1 No. 4 EALJ (Dec. 1965 p. 260.


3.    Seidman; R.B.        Witch Murder and Mens Rea, (1965) 28 M.L.R.
                           45.
4.    Seidman, R.B.        Mens Rea and the Reasonable African.
                           The Pre-Scientific worldview and Mistake of
                           fact 151.C.L.Q. (1966) p. 1135.



                                 21
      5.    LL Kato             Functional Psychosis and Witchcraft fears:
                                Excuse to Criminal Responsibility in East
                                Africa: Catalyst, Fall 1972; p.29.


(i)   Murder
      1.    R. v. Mohamed Nite (1974) LRT n. 36.
      2.    Solomon Ulaya v. R. (1072) HCD b. 233.
      3.    R. v. Simon (1972) HCD n.
      4.    R. v. Gwegere Sinyangwire (1935) 2 EACA 133.
      5.    Mugao v. R. (1972) E.A. 543.
      6.    R. v. Tirugurwa 10 EACA 44.
      7.    Olenja v.R. (1973
      8.    R. v. Lukanfubila Kahema (1970) HCD n. 175.
      9.    Bukenya v. Uganda (1972) E.A. 549.
      10.   R. v. Mgomboi Bwanyigeta (1973) LRT n. 90 (and cases cited).
      11.   R. v. Amani Zephania Kimweri (1968) HCD n. 50.
      12.   Dastan A. Luambano V.R. [1990] T.L.R. n. 4 (where defence of
            insanity can be marked).
      13.   Wilson Nyamhanga V. R. [1984] T.L.R. 340 (Malice a forethought).
      14.   Manazo Mandundu et al V.R. [1990] T.L.R. n. 92 (Malice –
            aforethought).


(A)   Murder and Manslaughter – Causation


            Cases:
      (a)   On causation:
            1.    R. V. Stephano Alois (1972) HCD n. 199.
            2.    R. v. Atupelye Lweidiko (1967) HCD n. 389.
            3.    R. v. Mwagambo Gishodi 8 EACA 28.
            4.    R. v. Njarura Ndugo II EACA 59.
            5.    R. v. Holland – Collingwood p. 183.



                                       22
6.    R. v. Mubila (Seidman p. 108).
7.    R. v. Pitts (Collingwood p.183).
8.    R. v. Agumagu Mwaoke 5 EACA 120.
9.    R. v. Anyaju Oguruto 12 EACA 42.
10.   R. v. Okute Kaliebi 8 EACA 78.
11.   R. v. Katunzi 13 EACA 154.
12.   R. v. Mpukuta 5 NRLR 377.
13.   R. v. Ojambo Nambio 11 EACA 97.
14.   Thabo Melli v. The Queen (1954) 1 WLR 228.
15.   Mutono Luigo v. R. (1936) 3 EACA 114.
16.   Mwita Nyamhanga V. R. [1992] T.L.R. n. 118


Manslaughter / Provocation / Witchcraft:
1.    Sing v. R. (1962) EA 13.
2.    R. v. Saidi Mwamwindi (1972) HCD n. 212.
3.    Bedder v. R. (1954) All ER 801.
4.    R. v. Laurence Mkabayi (1969) HCD n. 34.
5.    Yona v. Uganda (1970) EA 405.
6.    R. v. Amuambilile (1970) HCD n.285.
7.    Yusuf v. r. (1952) EACA 249.
8.    R. v. Mohamed Kibwana (1968) HCD n. 186.
9.    R. v. Mohamed Nite (174) LRT n. 36.
10.   R. v. Joseph Byarushengo (1946) EACA 187.
11.   Benjamini Muensi V. R. [1992] TLR n. 85 (Provocation –
      caused by works)
12.   D. F. Kiula & Charles V. R. [1992] T.L.R. n. 16 (Provocation
      – conditions for its invocation).
13.   John N. Radowiki V. R. [1991] T.L.R. 102 )Provocation /
      witchcraft).
14.   R. V. Chela Anthony [1985] T.L.R. n. 75 (Deceased killed in
      the course of sight.



                             23
15.   Gabriel v. R. (1971) HCD n. 299.
16.   Temange Sambi v. r. (1972) HCD n. 179 (and the cases
      cited therein).
17.   R. v. Juma Legeza (1969) HCD n. 244 (and the case cited
      therein.
18.   R v. Shilinde Mathew (1969) HCD n. 244 (and the case cited
      therein).
19.   Sukusamanido Mwamakosi v. R. (1958) E.A. 775.
20.   R v. Kabamba Chintukwe 5 NRLR 339.
21.   R. v. Egaru (1950) 6 ULR 247.
22.   R. v. Johali Ismail (1974) HCD n. 23.
23.   Lamek Kiteka v. R. (1972) HCD n. 207.
24.   Kajuma Mbake v. r. (1945) EACA 96.
25.   Fabiano Kinane v. R. 8 EACA 96.
26.   Eria Galikuwa v. R, (1951) EACA 175.
27.   R. v. Lumwaka wa Mulumbi 14 KLR 137
28.   R. Magata Kachehakana (1957) EA 330.
29.   R. v. Philimon Vahaye (1973) LRT n. 78.
30.   R. v. Kulambalimbali (1974) LRT n. 41.
31.   R. v. Lukas Timba (1975) LRT n. 8.
32.   Singh v. R. (1962) EA 13.
33.   R. v. Stephen Alois (1972) HCD 199.
34.   R. v. Ndugo EACA 59.
35.   R. v. Mwagambo Gishodi & CACA 28.
36.   R. v. Atupele Lwidiko (1967) HCD 389.
37.   R. v. Mjarura Ndugo 11 EACA 59.
38.   R. v. Holland (Collingwood p. 185).
39.   R. v. Mubila (Seidmann, page 108).
40.   R. v. Pitts (Collingwood p. 183).
41.   R. v. Agumagu Mwaoke 5 FACA 120.
42.   R. v. Enyagu Eguruto 12 EACA 42.



                          24
          43.   R. v. Okute Kaliebi 9 EACA 78.
          44.   R. v. Katunzi 13 EACA 154.
          45.   R. v. Mpukuta KRLR 377.
          46.   R. v. Chikokonya (1938) S.R. 122.
          47.   Valerian Sail V. R. [1990] T.L.R. 86 (Provocation).




B   Concurrence of Mens rea and Actus – Reus.
    1.    R. v. Ojambo Nambio 11 EACA 97.
    2.    Theo Melli v. R. (1954) I WLR 228.
    3.    Mtono Luigo v. R. (1936) EACA 114.
    4.    Solmon Ulaya v. R. (1970) HCD 233.
    5.    R. v. Mohamed Nite (1974) LRT 36.
    6.    R. v. Tirugurwa 10 EACA 44.
    7.    Olenja Mugao v. r. (1973) EA 546.
    8.    Sentali Lemendwa v. R. (1950) 20 EACA 230.
    9.    R. v. Zephania Kimwali (1970) HCD 50.
    10.   R. v. Said Mwamwindi.
    11.   R. v. Lawrence Mkabayi (1969) HCD 34.
    12.   Yovan v. Uganda (1970) EA 405.
    13.   R. v. Mohamed Nite (1974) LRT 36.


C   Provocation and Manslaughter
    1.    Sukumanindo Mwamakosi v. r. (1958) EA 776.
    2.    Bedder v. r. (1954) All ER 801.
    3.    R. v. Lawrence Mkabayi (1969) HCD 34.
    4.    R. v. Karume Watuin (1954) 21 EACA 211.
    5.    R. v. Juma Legeza (1969) HCD 244.
    6.    R. v. Mohamed Nite.
    7.    Yovan v. Uganda.
    8.    Said Hemed v R. [1987] LRT 23.



                                    25
D       Last Straw Doctrine
        1.      Johari Ismail v. R. (1974) LRT 23.
        2.      Lameck v. R. (1972) HCD 207.
        3.      Mohamed Kibwana v. R. (1968) HCD 186.


(J) Infanticide
        1.      R. v. Esta Ikumboka (1967) HCD n. 447.
        2.      R. v. Evelyn Mathias (1969) HCD n. 445.
        3.      Yowanina Namayoja v. R. 20 EACA 204.


      OFFENCE AGAINST MORALITY / WOMEN


(K)     Sexual Offences
        (Rape, Defilement, Indecent Assaults, Incest, Abduction, Prostitution,
        Abortion, Unnatural offences and Indecent Practices).


        Readings:
        1.      Sections. 130 – 144 and 156 – 121 Penal Code.
        2.      Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act, 1998 (Act Number 4 of
                1998).
        3.      Smith & Hogan: Criminal Law Cases and Material (1986 Ed.) pp.
                392 – 394 (and other relevant texts).


        Cases
        1.      Ngobi v. R. 20 EACA 154.
        2.      Njuguna Wangurimu v. R. 20 EACA 196.
        3.      Mtunduchile and Others v. R. (1970) HCD n. 304.
        4.      R. v. Williams (1923) 1 KB 340.
        5.      R. v. Hassani Masipu (1973) LRT n. 70.
        6.      Madege v. R. (1972) HCD n. 98.
        7.      R. v. Salim Abdallah (1970) HCD n. 38.



                                           26
      8.     Nazir & Zulfiker v. R. (1970) HCD n. 277.
      9.     Amri Ahmed v. r. (1968) HCD n. 329.
      10.    Mwanahamisi Abdallah & Hamis v. R. [1983] T.L.R. n. 265
             (unnatural offence – ingredients).
      11.    Ally Ahthumani V. R. [1991] T.L.R. 59 ( ingredient)
      12.    R. v. Steel (1976) 65 Cr. App. Rep. 22.
      13.    R. v. Kileni Zebadayo (1981) TLR.
      14.    R. v. Amiri Ali (1969) HCD n. 41.
      15.    R. v. Allen Mwamengo (1972) HCD n. 226.
      16.    R. v. Juma Mohamed (1970) HCD n. 154.
      17.    Gabriel v. R. (1972) HCD n. 90.
      18.    R. v. Milango Misoji (1967) HCD n. 96.
      19.    John Okello v. R. (1972) HCD n. 235.
      20.    Chole v. R. (1971) HCD n. 301.
      21.    Joel Hoja v. R. (1970) HCD n. 78
      22.    R. v. Shabani (1971) HCD n. 233.
      23.    R. v. Mgema (1971) HCD n. 470.
      24.    R. v. Mrisho Sefu (1968) HCD n. 140.
      25.    Isidori Gasper v. R. (1968) HCD n. 257.
      26.    R. v. Modest Bishungwe (1968) HCD n. 360.
      27.    R. v. Abdu (1971) HCD n. 223.
      28.    Ally Mohamed v. R. (1969) HCD n. 241.
      29.    R. v. Bourne (1938) ALL ER 615.
      30.    R. v. Revocatus Nsolo (1967) HCD n. 315.
      31.    R. v. Rashid Mohamed (1968) HCD n. 369.


(a)   Rape
      1.     Chapman (1959) QB 100.
      2.     Obvien (1974) All ER 663.
      3.     Russsen (1777).
      4.     Rundi Omar v. R. (1970) HCD 98.



                                       27
      5.    R. v. Salim Abdala (1970) HCD 38.
      6.    Mtundu Chile and others v. R. (1970) HCD 340.
      7.    Wellard (1978) 3 All ER 161.
      8.    Fletcher (1859).
      9.    Dee (1884) 15 Cox CC 579.
      10.   Kabulungu Juma V. R. [1991] T.L.R. 154 (consent)
      11.   Ally Athumani V. R. [1991] T.L.R. n. 59 (ingredients)
      12.   R. v. Williams (1923) 1KB 340.
      13.   Flattery (1977) 2 QB 410.


(b)   Rape and Corroboration
      1.    Hussein v. R. (1971) HCD 231.
      2.    Abbas Ramadhani v. R. (1969) HCD 226.
      3.    Andrea Mugasa Magoiga v. R. (1979) LRT 29.
      4.    Shaban Hamis v. R. (1973) LRT 1.
      5.    R. v. R. (1992) Crim LR 207.


(c)   The Pants Down Rule
      1.    Adam Mulira v. R. (1953) 20 EACA
      2.    R. v. Haruna Ibrahim (1967) HCD 76.
      3.    Gamaiyo Malawi v. r. (1968) HCD 228.
      4.    Omari v. R. (1971) HCD 362.
      5.    R. v. Andrea Avarity (1973) LRT 92.




                                        28
                PART III:      CRIMINAL PROCEDURE


                            COURSE OUTLINE


A   INTRODUCTION


    1.   The difference between procedure and subtractive law.
    2.   The difference between criminal procedure and civil procedure.
    3.   The socio-economic basis of criminal procedure.
    4.   Types of procedures.
    5.   Sources of criminal procedure.


B   THE COURT SYSTEM
    1.   Primary Courts
    2.   District Courts
    3.   Resident Magistrate Courts (original and Rajabu Mbepo v. R. App.
         56/90 (HC) MT.
    4.   High Court.
    5.   Court of Appeal.


    Readings:   i)     Magistrates Courts Act 1984.
                ii)    Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania 19 as
                       Amended.
                iii)   Criminal Procedure Act, 1985 (CPA).


C   JURISDICTION
    1.   Meaning of jurisdiction.
    2.   Categories of jurisdiction.
         (i)    Original.
                (a)    Territorial.
                (b)    Categorisation of offence



                                       29
             (c)       Sentences.


             (ii)      Appellate


3.   Searches
     (i)     Method of searching s.26 & s. 40 Criminal Procedure Act, 1985.
     (ii)    Search with or without warrant.
                   Person s 41 (CPA.
                   Premises 38 CPA
     (iii)   Illegal search – (effect of )
     (iv)    Evidence discovered in the course of search i.e. Discovery.
     (v)     What may be seized under search s.25, s.27, s.41 & s.44 CPA.


     Readings:         Sections 5 – 45 CPA
                       Sections. 100 – 127 CPA


     Cases:            (I)     Simba (1971) HCD n. 120.
                       (ii)    Karumo (1954) 21 EACA 242.
                       (iii)   All Mohamed (1970) HCD n. 200.
                       (iv)    Charles Mumba (1967) HCD n. 221.
             (v)       D.P.P. v. Julius Balekwa Cr. App. No. 48/90 H.C. MZ
                       (unreported.


4.   Charges
     (i)     Distinction between charges and indictments.
     (ii)    Function and content of charge sheets.
     (iii)   –forms prescribed by other statutes stanslaus Muhwahuzi (1975)
             LRT n. 25.




                                             30
(iv)   Drafting of charges.
          Alternative counts & Cumulative counts.
          Chereve Sukuli (1955) 22 EACA 478.
          Yusuf Swalehe (1970) HCD n. 68.
          Joinder of counts s. 133 CPA


(v)    Defective Charges.
          Misquotation of section numbers
          (1967) HCD n. 345.
          (1975) LRT n. 21.
           Charges on a repealed section.
           Peter Zakaria (1969) HCD 236.
          Setting out the necessary elements of the offence.
           Omari Juma Mkinda (1968) HCD n. 481.
           Dastan & Others (1980) TLR 23.
           Guli Tsaune (1967) HCD n. 440.
           Balu tunika Mbozi (1968) HCD n. 392.
           Antony (1970) HCD n. 339.


          Variance between charges and evidence
          S.234 (3) CPA.
          Joseph Shoggi (1976) LRT n. 22.
          Misjoinder of cants
          Joseph (1954) 21 EACA 311.


          Duplicity
           Hussein R. (1975) LRT 45.
           Stanlaus Mujwahuzi (1975) LRT n. 25.
           Norjarco (1971) HCD n. 440.
           Mongella (1934) 1 EACA 152.
           Kapirama (1939) 6 EACA 118.



                                 31
    Kauto Ally V. R. [1985] T.L.R. n. 183
    Cherere Gukuli (1955) 22 EACA 478.
    Pope (1960) E.a. 132.
    Kasmiri Josph Aridai (1980) TLR 210.


   Joinder and misjoinder of accused s. 134 CPA.
    Yusuf Swalehe (1970) HCD 68.
    Itha Sewangwa & Another (1969) HCD n. 253.
    Solomoni Mungai & Other (1970) HCD n. 74.
    Kidevu Msese (1967) HCD n. 303.


   Whether defects fatal s. 388 CPA.
    Daudi Hamisi (1967) HCD n. 21.
    Andrea (1967) HCD n 22.
    Ludovick (1967) E.A. 673.
    Rajabu (1967) HCD n. 416.


   Amendment of charges –
    s. 234 (1) CPA
    Daudi Odhiambo (1970) HCD n. 221.
    Maulidi Chango (1964) E.A. 122.
    Edwin Matai (1973) LRT n. 73.
    Kamunya (1954) 21 EACA.
    Yusufu Maumba (1966) E.A. 167.




   Formalities when the charge is altered s. 243 (2) CPA
    (1976) HCD n. 201.
    (1968) HCD n. 225.
    (1968) HCD n.312.




                            32
E.   CONSENT CASES
     (I)       Abuse of office sections 96-98 Penal Code.
                    Incest, sections 158 and 160 Penal Code.
                    All offences under the Witchcraft Ordinance.
                    All offences under the National Security Act, 1970.
                    S.38 (4) CPA.
     (II)      Effect of failure to obtain consent.
               Asha Abdalla Cr. App. 134/89 (HC) Dar es Salaam.


F.BAILS


1.   Introduction – bail defined
                           Purposes of bail


2.   (i)       Bail by police officers
                    S. 32, s.18, s. 151 CPA.
                    Sections 64 – 69 CPA


     (ii)      Bail by court:
                    S. 148 CPA
3.   Who should apply for bail.
           S. 148
           Kapandia (1969) HCD n. 104.
4.   Formalities (in subordinate courts):
           Categories of cases.
            S. 148 (1), (2), (5) & (6) CPA
            Refusal to grant bail
            S. 148 (4) & (5) and s. 150 CPA
     NB:       Criterion ordinarily used is whether the granting of bail will be
     detrimental to the interests of justice and good order.



                                             33
        Adallah Nassor (1945) 1 TLR 293.
        Kasam (1971) HCD n. 315.
        Mwita (1971) HCD n. 122.
        Asoka (1971) HCD n. 192.
        Mswani (1970) HCD n. 59.
        See also other cases in (1971) HCD


     But see Daudi Peter Misc. Cr. Cause No. 80/89 (HC) MZ see also C, A
     decision Cr. App. No. 28/90 arguing in line with the Constitutional rights
     freedoms of individuals.


5.   Unlimited powers of the High Court..
        S. 148 (3) CPA.
        Murder cases exceptional circumstances
         (i) Isack Swai Cr. Case No. 8/77 HC ars.
         (ii)   Lemanda Obei (1970) HCD n. 85.


6.   Non bailable offences created by other statutes
        The National Security Act, 1970.
        Economic and Organised Crimes Act, 1984.


7.   Conditions of bail:-
        Fergusson (1967) HCD n. 245.
        Powers to vary bail conditions s. 149 CPA


8.   Pleas of autrefois acquit and autrefois convict.
     ss. 137 – 141 CPA
        Gokaldas (1969) HCD n. 101.
        Mathias (1969) HCD n. 102.
        Joseph Regenah (1970) HCD n. 76.
        Seleman (1969) HCD n. 262.



                                       34
          Christopher Kikubwa fanor (1980) TLR 162.
9.    Change or withdrawal of pleas
          Yusuf Maumba (1966) EA 1967.
          Susana (1971) HCD n. 209.
          Hassan Mohamed (1968) HCD 429.
          Kamundi (1973) EA 540.
          Simon Joseph (1968) HCD n. 466.


10.   Answer given in answer to the charge.
          Madirisha Kitikiti (1969) HCD n. 233.
          Hemed Juma !970) HCD n. 30.


G     CONDUCT OF TRIAL
      1.      Powers of courts
              (i)     Rejection of complaint or formal charge
                      s.129 CPA
              (ii)    Choice of venue within court jurisdiction
                         S. 191 CPA
                         See also the MCA
              (iii)   In case of none appearance of:-
              (iv)    Powers to refuse or grant adjournments s. 222, s. 225 CPA.
              (v)     Powers to award cost and compensation ss.345 – 350 CPA.


      2.      Public prosecution
              (i)     Appointment, powers and duties of public prosecutors – ss
              89 – 90 CPA and GN 35, s. 90 CPA


      3.      Control of prosecution by the state – powers of the DPP s. 90 CPA
              (i)     Continuation of proceedings – s. 90(1) (b) & (c) CPA.
              (ii)    Appeal against acquittal, sentence or orders s. 90(40), 378
                      CPA.



                                          35
      (iii)      How powers exercised s. 90 (3) CPA.
4.    Summoning witnesses
      s. 195, ss. 142 – 147 CPA.
      (i)        Disobedience and consequence thereon – s. 111, 147 CPA.
      (ii)       Presence of accused – s. 146 CPA


5.    Trial
      (i)        Explaining the charge to the accused s. 228 CPA.
      (ii)       Taking the plea (withdraw of plea) s. 228(2) CPA
      (iii)      Case for the prosecutor s. 229 CPA.
      (iv)       Accused right to cross – examine prosecution witnesses s.
                 229(2) – (3), CPA.
      (v)        Nolle prosequi.


6.    Bail and the constitution
             Daudi Pete‟s case.
             Ibrahim Maud & ors. Cr. Rev. No. 3/90 (HC) DSM
             Peregrin Mrope Misc. Cr. Cause No. 43/89(HC) (DSM).
             Rashid Omari Chilala anor. Cr. Rev. No. 8/90 (HC) DSM).


7.    Procedures for persons detained under the Preventative Detention
      Act:-
             Ismail Rashid (1968) HCD n. 139.
             Israel Ngobi (1976) LRT n. 36.
8.    Who may act as sureties
             Bakar Abdul (1970) HCD n. 44.


9.    Discharge of sureties – s. 155 CPA


10.   Bail pending appeal.
             S. 363



                                      36
            Dhirani (1970) HCD n. 287.
            Signh (1970) 149.
            Walji (1968) HCD n. 174.
            Dasilh (1971) HCD n. 396.


11.   Bail pending formation of sentence –s.172 CPA
12.   Consequences of default.
      (i)       Forfeiture of recognisance s. 160 CPA.
      (ii)      Review of forfeiture orders s. 161 CPA.
13.   Whether partial payment applicable
            Gurhrl (1976) LRT v. 4.
            Not provided for under CPA.
14.   Failure to take into consideration defence witnesses Tajiri – 1970
      HCD 289.
15.   Partly heard cases – Failure by the Magistrate to inform the
      accused his Rights.
            Abdullah Hassan 1970 HCD 279.
16.   Proceedings in wrong place – s.387 CPA
17.   Distress not illegal – s.389 CPA.


SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
1.    Preliminary Inquiries.
2.    Extradition proceedings
3.    Trial procedure in insanity – ss.216 – 221 CPA
4.    Inquests – The Inquest Act 1980.
5.    Juvenile Proceedings.


            Children and Young Person Ordinance, Cap. 13.
            Deus Kamugisha & Anor. V.R. Cri. App. No. 93/89 (HC) DSM –
             R. v. Musuba Nyeisae & Anor Misc. Cr. Cause No. 6/90 (HC)
             MZ.



                                   37
      INFORMATION ARBITRATION

      1.     Powers and limits of non judicial organs
             1.    s. 163 CPA.
             2.    See sections. 99 of the Penal Code.
             3.    Ngwengwe and others vs. R. (unreported).

      2.     Powers and limits of traditional Armies e.g. Sungusungu
             Read: Peoples Militia Laws –

             1.     Peoples Militia (Compensation for Death or Injuries) Act, 1972
                    Act No. 27/1973 [Compensation).
             2.     Peoples Militia (Powers of Arrest) Act, 1975 Act No. 25/1975
                    [Powers of Arrest].
             3.     Peoples Militia (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act, 1989, No.
                    9/1989.

Contempt of court

             Ramadhani Abdallah 1973 LRT n. 49.

Corners

      (a)    Inquests Act, 1980 [Act Number 17 of 1980].
      (b)    1976 LRT n. 32.


NOTE: this outline will always remain tentative. Texts and cases included in this
outline form a small fraction of what is expected from an average law student.
Independent effect should make to unearth more relevant cases and texts.
Students should specifically familiarise themselves with existing (1983 – 1992
Reports) and future editions of Tanzania Law Reports published on behalf of the
Government of Tanzania by Juta & Company Limited.




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