WaterAid in Tanzania – Speakers Notes Slide 1 WaterAid Logo WaterAid has been operational in Tanzania since 1983. Over the last 19 years this hard work and effort has led to over 840,000 people having a brighter and more hopeful future thanks to the intervention of one small ingredient – water. Although this progress is undeniable, WaterAid is still faced by some of the same problems encountered nearly 20 years ago. Slide 2 Map of Tanzania Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa with an estimated population of 33.5 million; this figure is expected to increase to 56 million by 2030. Recent statistics show that the average life expectancy is a mere 51 years, with deaths around the world from water and sanitation diseases accounting for the lives of one child every 15 seconds. Diarrhoea is a common cause of infant mortality, a fact that is very unfamiliar in the west with access to the most basic of medicines. In fact, Bilharzia and Malaria, both water-related diseases, are the two major, indiscriminate killers in Tanzania. Slide 3 TZ29 – 18 Such a fact is unsurprising when you consider that until recently water was being collected from this open dam, some five kilometres walk from the village. The dam was absolutely filthy. People were walking out to collect drinking water from this source which is also used by animals. Within a week of this photo being taken the dam had halved in size, until finally it dried up completely, forcing people to walk to a river bed some eight kilometres away. It is a sad fact that at the beginning of the 21st Century people are still forced to collect and drink water from such potentially dangerous sources. A lot of companies and governments responsible for the management and allocation of water are prone, whether consciously or unconsciously, to bias towards the richer elements of their society. Coupled with a lack of infrastructure this often means that the poor rural and urban communities are left without adequate provision. Slide 4 TZ23 – 90 At the present time, over 1.1 billion people worldwide are without access to safe water, and 2.4 billion people are still without adequate sanitation. The UN predicts that two out of every three people will be living with water shortages by 2025. This image from Mbabala District in Dodoma shows a traditional well with a branch used to climb down to the water source – unfortunately this is an all too normal way of life for many within the rural population of Tanzania. We hear terrible stories of wells such as this collapsing, accidents which can prove fatal to those collecting water. Slide 5 TZ31 – 35 In this image, two women from Kibaya Town in Kiteto district are scooping dirty surface water from the puddles in the riverbed believing that the water below will be cleaner. These puddles are also used by cattle and donkeys; women cover the animal excrement over with earth. It is the dry season and they have no-where else to collect their water from. Slide 6 TZ31 - 90 Here women study the dried up earth dam between the villages of Ndaleta and Njora, again in the Kiteto District. The dam was used by both people and animals – it is hard to believe that there was ever water here. The earth is hard and bone dry, yet the women pull up the earth blocks to see if there is any water underneath. WaterAid started working in the Kiteto District in 1996 in partnership with a local Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) called KINNAPA. The villages served by this dam are currently benefiting from a WaterAid project which is working towards the provision of boreholes from which safe, clean water can be obtained with a minimum of effort. Slide 7 TZ22 - 50 These women are returning home with water for their families. They collect their supply at a traditional source used by many villages, meaning that every day their round trip takes them across 12 kilometres and eight hours. Slide 8 TZ22 – 70 These two boys find it easier to carry their jerry cans home on a bicycle. The water can weigh as much as 20kgs, the average UK luggage allowance on commercial aircraft – so you can imagine the weight! Carrying such weights can be detrimental to health; women suffer many back problems from carrying the water vessels on their heads. Children who are encouraged to transport water at an early age can find their growth affected. Slide 9 TZ31 - 20 The lack of water impacts very greatly on the lives of children. They are denied the right to things most western children would consider part of a typical childhood, such as spending time with their parents, playing games with their friends and attending school. Children as young as four years old are included in the family’s constant search for fresh water. Here, Amina, aged four from Kiteto District, carries five litres of water. For her small size the container is very heavy and she has to put it down to rest every few steps. Fortunately her house is not far away to walk. The inclusion of young girls in such activities is seen as their passage into adulthood; Anna is learning to be a woman. As yet Anna has been unable to attend school. Slide 10 TZ22 - 87 WaterAid is working to reduce the scale of the problems faced by the rural communities in Tanzania, and with the support and enthusiasm of RIBI a great deal can be achieved in a relatively short space of time. WaterAid involves the whole community in its project work. Initially a community mapping exercise will take place. All members of the community are brought together to discuss their current situation, including where their existing water source is and what the most common diseases are affecting their community, heir impending community managed water supply system and siting their ideal locations for new handpumps and latrines. All members of the community are canvassed, especially the women and children as they tend to be the major collectors of water. The community will be firmly behind the project, all contribute as much as they are able towards its implementation. In many areas WaterAid encourages the community to set up their own committees to look after community water and sanitation. Such committees allow a real sense of project ownership, they continue to manage the facilities long after WaterAid and its partners have left. Empowerment of communities is one of WaterAid’s core beliefs and is one of the reasons why our projects are so sustainable. Here the local women are involved in surveying for shallow wells. Women and children also collect sand for cement, and even break rocks down for use as aggregate. Slide 11 TZ29 - 04 At the end of the day, the community is left with a local source of clean, safe drinking water. Here nine year old Martha uses one of four new tubewells in her village in the Dodoma region. Now that she no longer has to walk several kilometres every day Martha is able to attend the local school. The children of the village realise the importance of their new handpumps and treat them with great care and respect. Providing communities with a source of clean water is a quick fix solution, but on its own won’t achieve any lasting change. It is with this in mind that WaterAid projects combine the provision of water with the supply of adequate sanitation facilities and a programme of hygiene education. By providing this tri-partite system we can ensure that the communities are able to keep their water clean and their villages become safer places to live. Slide 12 TZ31 - 327 WaterAid encourages the construction of village latrines in an attempt to curb the spread of infectious diseases and encourage a healthier environment. Here Ramandhan Shaban Kaombwe is making bricks to build his latrine. He uses one bowl of water to make a single brick; it will take 150 bricks to complete. When finished this latrine will give privacy to his family, with facilities that can be hygienically maintained. Slide 13 TZ22 - 08 All WaterAid projects include an element of hygiene education, which can be as simple as building pot stands to keep cooking utensils off the ground. A main feature is the care of water once it has been collected, hand-washing after defecation and washing children. Here in Mzula village, Miriam Miku addresses a health education class. You can see a wide range of villagers in attendance, from women and children to young men. Slide 14 TZ31 - 420 Throughout WaterAid’s time working in Tanzania a great deal has been achieved. RIBI have already been very influential in helping us make such a difference. In a recent ‘Looking Back’ report, which reflected on the work undertaken so far, villages now have sufficient quantity and quality of clean water at local dispensaries and households for use in the delivery of babies and syringe sterilisation, reducing the workload of dispensary staff. There has been an increase in clothes washing, especially school uniforms, and personal hygiene including hand-washing – as can be seen here is becoming more integrated into society. Latrines have become socially acceptable and are used in the majority of cases, coupled to this hand-washing hygiene has become a common activity. In short, the communities are becoming healthier and more efficient, the natural resources are being allowed to recover, allowing indigenous flora and fauna to re-colonise their habitat. Slide 15 TZ22 - 95 WaterAid has a vision. A vision of a world in which everyone has access to that most necessary of human rights – water. RIBI have supported this vision for many years with enthusiasm and dedication, I do hope that over this coming year RIBI members will continue to support our life changing work.