The United Nations

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					The United Nations
                                               UN History
►   In 1945, representatives of 50 countries
    met in San Francisco at the United
    Nations Conference on International
    Organization to draw up the United
    Nations Charter. Those delegates
    deliberated on the basis of proposals
    worked out by the representatives of
    China, the Soviet Union, the United
    Kingdom and the United States . The
    Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by
    the representatives of the 50 countries.
    Poland, which was not represented at
    the Conference, signed it later and
    became one of the original 51 member
    states.
    The United Nations officially came into     First Session of the United
    existence on 24 October 1945, when the
    Charter had been ratified by China,         Nations Security Council A general
    France, the Soviet Union, the United        view of the First session of the United
    Kingdom, the United States and a            Nations Security Council held on 17
    majority of other signatories. United
    Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October     January 1946 at Church House,
    each year.                                  London.
                   Member Nations
►   There are 192 member nations in the UN.
►   http://www.un.org/members/list.shtml

►   But who is not in the UN????
     Kosovo
     Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008
      but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to
      become a member of the United Nations.
     Taiwan
     In 1971 the People's Republic of China (mainland China) replaced
      Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China) in the United
      Nations. China claims Taiwan as a territory, the UN does not
      dispute this, therefore Taiwan is not able to join independently.
     Vatican City / The Holy See
     The independent papal state of 771 people (including the Pope)
      was created in 1929. They have not chosen to become part of the
      international organization.
             The General Assembly
►   All UN Member States are represented in the General Assembly — a
    "parliament of nations" which meets regularly and in special sessions
    to consider the world's most pressing problems.
►    Each Member State has one vote. Decisions on such key issues as
    international peace and security, admitting new members and the UN
    budget are decided by two-thirds majority. Other matters are decided
    by simple majority.
►   The Assembly holds its annual regular session from September to
    December. When necessary, it may resume its session or hold a special
    or emergency session on subjects of particular concern.
                  The Security Council
►   The UN Charter gives the Security
    Council primary responsibility for
    maintaining international peace and
    security. The Council may convene at
    any time, whenever peace is threatened.
    Under the Charter, all Member States
    are obligated to carry out the Council's
    decisions.

►   There are 15 Council members. Five of
    these — China, France, the Russian
    Federation, the United Kingdom and the
    United States — are permanent
    members. The other 10 are elected by
    the General Assembly for two-year
    terms. Member States continue to
    discuss changes in Council membership
    and working methods to reflect today's
    political and economic realities.

►   Decisions of the Council require nine yes
    votes. Except in votes on procedural
    questions, a decision cannot be taken if
    there is a no vote, or veto, by a
    permanent member.
      The Security Council Today…
►   Membership in 2008
   The Council is composed of five permanent members — China, France, Russian
   Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States —
 Ten non-permanent members (with year of term's end):
► Belgium (2008)*
► Indonesia (2008) *
► South Africa (2008)*
► Burkina Faso (2009)
► Italy (2008)*
► Viet Nam (2009)
► Costa Rica (2009)
► Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (2009)
► Croatia (2009)
► Panama (2008) *
► The General Assembly elected Austria, Japan, Mexico, Turkey and Uganda to
   serve as non-permanent members of the Security Council for two-year terms
   starting on 1 January 2009. The newly elected countries will replace Belgium,
   Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa.
                         Military Action
►   When the Council considers a threat
    to international peace, it first
    explores ways to settle the dispute
    peacefully. It may suggest
    principles for a settlement or
    undertake mediation. In the event
    of fighting, the Council tries to
    secure a ceasefire. It may send a
    peacekeeping mission to help the
    parties maintain the truce and to
    keep opposing forces apart.

►   The Council can take measures to
    enforce its decisions. It can impose
    economic sanctions or order an
    arms embargo. On rare occasions,
    the Council has authorized Member
    States to use "all necessary means,"
    including collective military action,
    to see that its decisions are carried
    out.
           What is the purpose???
►   The United Nations is central to global efforts to solve
    problems that challenge humanity. Cooperating in this
    effort are more than 30 affiliated organizations, known
    together as the UN system. Day in and day out, the UN
    and its family of organizations work to promote respect for
    human rights, protect the environment, fight disease and
    reduce poverty. UN agencies define the standards for safe
    and efficient air travel and help improve
    telecommunications and enhance consumer protection.
    The United Nations leads the international campaigns
    against drug trafficking and terrorism. Throughout the
    world, the UN and its agencies assist refugees, set up
    programs to clear landmines, help expand food production
    and lead the fight against AIDS.
Ending Poverty
       ►   Rural Development
           Programme
           Beneficiaries: Workers
           on a farm financed with a
           loan from the Grameen
           Bank project for poverty
           eradication. They can now
           buy more materials they
           need and more technology
           for their farming.
       ►   Location: Bogra,
           Bangladesh
                         Health
                        Education
►   MINUSTAH Personnel
    Teach Children Proper
    Dental Care:
►    Members of the Brazilian
    battalion of the United
    Nations Stabilization
    Mission in Haiti
    (MIMUSTAH) teach a
    group of local children
    proper dental care, as part
    of the sixty-third United
    Nations Day, to help the
    Haitian population, mostly
    children with medical care,
    food and school supplies.
Education for All
         ►   School Children in Class
             Children of this fishing
             village attend school able
             to study because of the
             food rations from the
             World Food Programme,
             providing them with the
             daily meals composed of
             rice and beans.
         ►   Location: Suai Loro, Timor-
             Leste
    WHAT THE UN DOES FOR HUMANITARIAN
    ASSISTANCE:
    Humanitarian disasters can occur anywhere, at any time. Whether the cause be flood,
    drought, earthquake or conflict, a humanitarian disaster means lost lives, displaced
    populations, communities incapable of sustaining themselves and great suffering.




►   MINUSTAH Peacekeepers Assist
    Storm Victims Members of the                   Floods Ravage Southeastern
    Argentinean battalion of the United
    Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti         Haiti Some of the survivors of
    (MINUSTAH) carry a wounded boy for             the floods that have ravaged
    medical treatment following the
    devastation caused by floods of the            southeastern Haiti, carrying the
    tropical storm "Hanna".                        food aid being distributed by the
►   Location: Gonaives, Haiti
►   Date: 03 September 2008                        World Food Programme (WFP).
               Clearing Landmines
►   Croatia: United Nations
    Transitional Authority
    In Eastern Slavonia,
    Baranja and Western
    Sirmium (UNTAES)
    Croatian and Serbian
    demining teams work
    together to clear
    thousands of landmines in
    the civilian areas where
    the reconstruction will first
    begin.
    A demining team looking
    for mines in Lipovac.
Helping Refugees
        ►   UNHCR Helps Refugees
            Return Home:
        ►    Young refugee are returning
            from Ntabila camp in the United
            Republic of Tanzania. The UN
            Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and
            its partners are trying to
            encourage more Burundians to
            return home from camps in
            north-west Tanzania by offering
            cash grants and bigger food
            packages. UNHCR plans to help
            up to 60,000 of the 150,000
            Burundian refugees currently
            living in the camps in the United
            Republic of Tanzania to go back.
           Alternatives to Drugs
► United Nations Drug
 Control Programme
 (UNDCP):
► A member of the
 Hmong hilltribe in
 northern Thailand,
 where UNDCP projects
 are encouraging
 farmers to voluntarily
 give up the cultivation
 of the opium poppy.
    Medicine around the world
► Smallpox  Epidemic
 in Leopoldville
 (Congo) Outside
 Kintambo Hospital, a
 medical assistant is
 vaccinating one of the
 many young girls and
 mothers who lined-up
 for immunization
 against the disease.
Food for the hungry
          ►   Sudanese IDPs Carry
              away Food Ration
              Internally Displaced
              Persons (IDPs) carry away
              food and non-food rations
              supplied by the World
              Food Program (WFP) and
              the United Nations
              Children's Fund (UNICEF),
              following the recent rebel
              attacks on their villages.
Disarmament
      ►   Halting the spread of arms and
          reducing and eventually
          eliminating all weapons of mass
          destruction are major goals of
          the United Nations.
      ►   The UN has been an ongoing
          forum for disarmament
          negotiations, making
          recommendations and initiating
          studies. It supports multilateral
          negotiations in the Conference
          on Disarmament and in other
          international bodies. These
          negotiations have produced
          such agreements as the Nuclear
          Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968),
          the Comprehensive Nuclear-
          Test-Ban Treaty (1996) and
          treaties establishing nuclear-free
          zones.
                 Resources:
► http://www.un.org/


► All information and Photos came from the official
  site of the United Nations.

				
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