The United Nations UN History ► In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States . The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 member states. The United Nations officially came into First Session of the United existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, Nations Security Council A general France, the Soviet Union, the United view of the First session of the United Kingdom, the United States and a Nations Security Council held on 17 majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October January 1946 at Church House, each year. London. Member Nations ► There are 192 member nations in the UN. ► http://www.un.org/members/list.shtml ► But who is not in the UN???? Kosovo Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008 but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to become a member of the United Nations. Taiwan In 1971 the People's Republic of China (mainland China) replaced Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China) in the United Nations. China claims Taiwan as a territory, the UN does not dispute this, therefore Taiwan is not able to join independently. Vatican City / The Holy See The independent papal state of 771 people (including the Pope) was created in 1929. They have not chosen to become part of the international organization. The General Assembly ► All UN Member States are represented in the General Assembly — a "parliament of nations" which meets regularly and in special sessions to consider the world's most pressing problems. ► Each Member State has one vote. Decisions on such key issues as international peace and security, admitting new members and the UN budget are decided by two-thirds majority. Other matters are decided by simple majority. ► The Assembly holds its annual regular session from September to December. When necessary, it may resume its session or hold a special or emergency session on subjects of particular concern. The Security Council ► The UN Charter gives the Security Council primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. The Council may convene at any time, whenever peace is threatened. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to carry out the Council's decisions. ► There are 15 Council members. Five of these — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States — are permanent members. The other 10 are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Member States continue to discuss changes in Council membership and working methods to reflect today's political and economic realities. ► Decisions of the Council require nine yes votes. Except in votes on procedural questions, a decision cannot be taken if there is a no vote, or veto, by a permanent member. The Security Council Today… ► Membership in 2008 The Council is composed of five permanent members — China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States — Ten non-permanent members (with year of term's end): ► Belgium (2008)* ► Indonesia (2008) * ► South Africa (2008)* ► Burkina Faso (2009) ► Italy (2008)* ► Viet Nam (2009) ► Costa Rica (2009) ► Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (2009) ► Croatia (2009) ► Panama (2008) * ► The General Assembly elected Austria, Japan, Mexico, Turkey and Uganda to serve as non-permanent members of the Security Council for two-year terms starting on 1 January 2009. The newly elected countries will replace Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa. Military Action ► When the Council considers a threat to international peace, it first explores ways to settle the dispute peacefully. It may suggest principles for a settlement or undertake mediation. In the event of fighting, the Council tries to secure a ceasefire. It may send a peacekeeping mission to help the parties maintain the truce and to keep opposing forces apart. ► The Council can take measures to enforce its decisions. It can impose economic sanctions or order an arms embargo. On rare occasions, the Council has authorized Member States to use "all necessary means," including collective military action, to see that its decisions are carried out. What is the purpose??? ► The United Nations is central to global efforts to solve problems that challenge humanity. Cooperating in this effort are more than 30 affiliated organizations, known together as the UN system. Day in and day out, the UN and its family of organizations work to promote respect for human rights, protect the environment, fight disease and reduce poverty. UN agencies define the standards for safe and efficient air travel and help improve telecommunications and enhance consumer protection. The United Nations leads the international campaigns against drug trafficking and terrorism. Throughout the world, the UN and its agencies assist refugees, set up programs to clear landmines, help expand food production and lead the fight against AIDS. Ending Poverty ► Rural Development Programme Beneficiaries: Workers on a farm financed with a loan from the Grameen Bank project for poverty eradication. They can now buy more materials they need and more technology for their farming. ► Location: Bogra, Bangladesh Health Education ► MINUSTAH Personnel Teach Children Proper Dental Care: ► Members of the Brazilian battalion of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MIMUSTAH) teach a group of local children proper dental care, as part of the sixty-third United Nations Day, to help the Haitian population, mostly children with medical care, food and school supplies. Education for All ► School Children in Class Children of this fishing village attend school able to study because of the food rations from the World Food Programme, providing them with the daily meals composed of rice and beans. ► Location: Suai Loro, Timor- Leste WHAT THE UN DOES FOR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE: Humanitarian disasters can occur anywhere, at any time. Whether the cause be flood, drought, earthquake or conflict, a humanitarian disaster means lost lives, displaced populations, communities incapable of sustaining themselves and great suffering. ► MINUSTAH Peacekeepers Assist Storm Victims Members of the Floods Ravage Southeastern Argentinean battalion of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti Haiti Some of the survivors of (MINUSTAH) carry a wounded boy for the floods that have ravaged medical treatment following the devastation caused by floods of the southeastern Haiti, carrying the tropical storm "Hanna". food aid being distributed by the ► Location: Gonaives, Haiti ► Date: 03 September 2008 World Food Programme (WFP). Clearing Landmines ► Croatia: United Nations Transitional Authority In Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) Croatian and Serbian demining teams work together to clear thousands of landmines in the civilian areas where the reconstruction will first begin. A demining team looking for mines in Lipovac. Helping Refugees ► UNHCR Helps Refugees Return Home: ► Young refugee are returning from Ntabila camp in the United Republic of Tanzania. The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and its partners are trying to encourage more Burundians to return home from camps in north-west Tanzania by offering cash grants and bigger food packages. UNHCR plans to help up to 60,000 of the 150,000 Burundian refugees currently living in the camps in the United Republic of Tanzania to go back. Alternatives to Drugs ► United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP): ► A member of the Hmong hilltribe in northern Thailand, where UNDCP projects are encouraging farmers to voluntarily give up the cultivation of the opium poppy. Medicine around the world ► Smallpox Epidemic in Leopoldville (Congo) Outside Kintambo Hospital, a medical assistant is vaccinating one of the many young girls and mothers who lined-up for immunization against the disease. Food for the hungry ► Sudanese IDPs Carry away Food Ration Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) carry away food and non-food rations supplied by the World Food Program (WFP) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), following the recent rebel attacks on their villages. Disarmament ► Halting the spread of arms and reducing and eventually eliminating all weapons of mass destruction are major goals of the United Nations. ► The UN has been an ongoing forum for disarmament negotiations, making recommendations and initiating studies. It supports multilateral negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament and in other international bodies. These negotiations have produced such agreements as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968), the Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty (1996) and treaties establishing nuclear-free zones. Resources: ► http://www.un.org/ ► All information and Photos came from the official site of the United Nations.