ALASKA MISSILE DEFENSE WEEKLY Forty-Seventh Edition Compiled by: Ms. Hillary Pesanti, Community Relations Specialist Command Representative for Missile Defense 907.552.1038 To subscribe, email: email@example.com Note: Click on any storyline for more information. Archived editions can be viewed at: http://www.akrepublicans.org/22ndleg/jointarms.shtml#links JANUARY 20, 2003-JANUARY 24, 2003 ALASKA SPECIFIC NEWS BREAKS • Military can have Fort Greely school: $6 million: Campus to reopen near missile base unless Feds buy it, The Associated Press • Rail bills on track, Fairbanks Daily News-Miner (Alaska) • Orbital interceptor boost vehicles off to a great start, ANSER MONDAY, JANUARY 20, 2003 • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day TUESDAY, JANUARY 21, 2003 • Joint patriot drill with U.S. begins, Jerusalem Post • U.S. troops in Israel keeping low profile, Baltimore Sun (Maryland) • Defense appropriators offer PAC-3 missile amendment in Omnibus, Inside the Army • U.S. Navy, missile agency to swap cruiser for cash, Defense News • Russia blasts British go-ahead for U.S. missile defense plan, Agence France Presse • U.S., marshals sign 83-year deal for Kwajalein missile site, Agence France Presse • Raytheon’s Patriots face new threat, Boston Globe WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2003 • Testing could be a major issue for Bush missile defense plan, Inside Missile Defense • Amman seeks missile defense, Financial Times (London) • Israel deploys defense missiles in nine places in preparation for war, Associated Press • India, U.S. wrap up missile defense talks, Aerospace Daily • India conducts third missile test in 11 days, Pakistan protests, Agence France Presse • Former Air Force acquisition official joins boieng, ANSER • MDA plans satellite launches for boost-phase tests, ANSER THURSDAY, JANUARY 23, 2003 • Testing issues may delay missile defense deployment, CDI • U.S. troops help Israel with Patriot exercise, Baltimore Sun • Ivanov announces intent to build new missile defense systems, Washington Times • Hoon’s “preliminary conclusion” is to cooperate on missile defense, The Guardian (U.K.) • Kadish puts X-band on hold in favor of new rapid development radar, Inside Missile Defense • GAO upholds pick of Bechtel-Lockheed Martin team for Kwajalein missile range, Defense Daily • Kwajalein leaders say missile range deal is not enough, Agence France Presse • Star Wars deal to go ahead: Government set to pay for rockets after Flyingdales update, The Guardian (London) • Russian parliament on target to consider Nuclear Arms Reduction Treaty this spring, foreign ministry says, Associated Press • Iraq and the use of chemical weapons, American Forces Press Service (Washington) FRIDAY, JANUARY 24, 2003 • No U.S. X-Band Radar in U.K., Hoon tells Parliament, Defense News • Senate may tap X-Band Radar to boost PAC-3 production, Aerospace Daily • Upgrade work on Britain’s Flyingdales radar site could be months away, Defense Daily • Putin ready to cooperate with U.S. on missile defense, Agence France-Presse • Missile defense, now more than ever, Casa Grande Valley Newspapers (Arizona) ALASKA SPECIFIC NEWS BREAKS #47 JANUARY 20, 2003-JANUARY24, 2003 MILITARY CAN HAVE FORT GREELY SCHOOL: $6 MILLION: CAMPUS TO REOPEN NEAR MISSILE BASE UNLESS FEDS BUY IT, The Associated Press, January 17, 2003. Fairbanks -- Delta Junction city and school officials say they would be willing to part with a school building just a mile from the new missile defense site, if the price is right. Facing crowded conditions at other schools, the district has decided to reopen Fort Greely School but would prefer to sell it to the military for about $6 million. City and school representatives met with defense officials Wednesday. Brig. Gen. John W. Holly, program director for the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Joint Program Office, could not be reached for comment later by the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. Delta Junction officials want to combine proceeds from the sale of the school with $3.5 million in federal funding in hand and an additional $5.4 million anticipated in the next two years to pay for a new elementary school with a cafeteria, gym and media center for K-12 use. School officials say they need the added school space to meet an expected influx of students. The decision to offer the school to the military was reached at a joint City Council and School Board meeting Tuesday. The board had voted to reopen Fort Greely School for the coming school year. Mayor Roy Gilbertson said he believes the Department of Defense does not want Fort Greely School reopened -- ever. "Since they chose to go to deployment, the school is just too close," he said. For $6 million, the military could have the 54,000-square-foot school, civic leaders said. "They are going to have to be the ones to come up with the money to do it right, and doing it right is bringing (students) downtown," Councilman Lou Heinbockel said. If Fort Greely School is removed from the district's inventory, district Superintendent Dan Beck said, a Delta school has a better chance of state capital improvement funding. The empty school counted against Delta in the last round of evaluations. Beck said he looks at use of Fort Greely as a temporary solution until new classroom space is constructed in Delta Junction. Some parents do not want their children near the installation, Beck said, but most accept its use as necessary to ensure good education. One option the district may consider is a separate road into the school from the Richardson Highway and a fence that separates the school from the military installation. RAIL BILLS ON TRACK, Fairbanks Daily News-Miner (Alaska), January 23, 2003. The push for an extension to the Alaska Railroad to Fort Greely and beyond gained a little steam in the state Legislature on Tuesday. Senate Bill 31, introduced by Sen. John Cowdery, R-Anchorage, and co-sponsored by Sen. Gary Wilken, R-Fairbanks, allows the Alaska Railroad Corporation to plot a railroad corridor stretching from the existing railroad terminus down to the Canadian border and to acquire land and rights of way along that route. Also having a first reading Tuesday was House Concurrent Resolution 2, which comes out in support of an extension of the Alaska Railroad down to Fort Greely near Delta Junction to serve as a supply line for the construction and operation of the missile defense facility currently being built there. The railroad currently terminates at Eielson Air Force Base, 70 miles away from Greely. SB 31 is a carbon copy of a bill introduced in 2001 by ex-Rep. Jeannette James of North Pole. That bill passed the House but eventually died in the Senate… The resurrected bill would authorize the corporation to acquire rights of way through eminent domain and through working with the federal government to acquire federal rights of way, and it also compels the Department of Natural Resources to convey state land in a railroad corridor to the corporation. There are already guidelines set in Alaska statute for mapping out such a corridor, but the existing law does not allow for the actual transfer of land to the Railroad Corp. ORBITAL INTERCEPTOR BOOST VEHICLES OFF TO A GREAT START, ANSER, January 22, 2003. Orbital Sciences Corporation has received approximately $50 million in incremental modifications to its contract from Boeing to develop, test and produce interceptor boost vehicles for the U.S. Department of Defense/Missile Defense Agency's Ground-based Midcourse Defense System. The company said its firm contract value has risen to over $450 million since the original contract was awarded in early 2002. The term of the firm contract extends through 2007. In addition to the firm portion of the contract, Orbital has optional orders for production of approximately 50 interceptor boosters estimated at about $535 million. As currently planned, the term of the optional portion of the contract would begin in 2004 and run through the end of 2009. With the additional firm contract value, the total potential value of Orbital's contract now stands at approximately $1 billion. The additional $50 million scope of work supports a series of nine demonstration and test flights of Orbital's GMD boost vehicle beginning in early 2003. The test flights include participation in seven GMD Integrated Flight Test exercises into 2006. The IFT development test program demonstrates the ability of GMD System elements to work together as an integrated system. As designed, MDA's RDT&E testbed complex in Fort Greely, Alaska will expand to enhance overall test infrastructure and system maturation. "We are pleased with how the GMD boost vehicle program is progressing, which is on a very 'fast track' schedule leading to the first demonstration launch in early 2003," said Ronald J. Grabe, Orbital's Executive Vice President and General Manager of its Launch Systems Group. "Many key electrical components have completed qualification and acceptance testing, assembly of major subsystems is underway and solid rocket motors have been delivered to our missile assembly facility at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California." The award announcement was closely followed by the successfull Jan. 14 test firing of the rocket motor that will serve as the first stage of the interceptor booster the company is developing for the GMD system. The Orion solid-fuel rocket motor, which was supplied by ATK's Thiokol Propulsion division, was test-fired for 70 seconds demonstrating its performance characteristics. The test also included a demonstration of the motor's thrust vector capability using a hydraulically-driven actuation system provided by Honeywell Engine Systems Division. The static firing is one of the final developmental steps for the rocket motor prior to launch. Orbital is currently planning to conduct the first launch of its GMD booster in early 2003. GLOBAL NEWS BREAKS #47 MONDAY, JANUARY 20, 2003 Martin Luther King, Jr. Day TUESDAY, JANUARY 21, 2003 JOINT PATRIOT DRILL WITH U.S. BEGINS, Jerusalem Post, January 20, 2003. The U.S. and Israel began a bilateral air defense drill on Sunday, with Patriot missile batteries belonging to both countries being deployed in different sites in the country. The IDF stressed that the exercise had been planned two years ago and is part of a routine training cycle to examine the joint operation of both countries’ air defense systems. Two hundred U.S. soldiers are said to be participating in the exercise. A convoy of U.S. soldiers, accompanied by police, drove from the Negev to the center of the country as part of the drill. Police secured the route and stopped traffic at intersections to allow the convoy of jeeps, ambulances, and trucks to pass. Parts of the center of the country were declared a closed military zone, while IDF troops set up Patriot batteries to check how long it takes to ready them for operational use in times of emergency. According to reports, the joint maneuvers are expected to continue until February 2 and will include the firing of live Patriot missiles. There was no official confirmation of whether U.S. troops would remain here until the expected war against Iraq is over, once the exercise is completed. U.S. TROOPS IN ISRAEL KEEPING LOW PROFILE, Baltimore Sun (Maryland), January 21, 2003. Anyone reading Israeli newspapers knows that about 600 American troops arrived here in recent days and are helping Israel test a missile defense system. Escorted by Israeli police cars, the soldiers have been traveling in hard-to-miss convoys near Tel Aviv. Officials from both countries, however, are doing their utmost to keep the American troops otherwise out of sight and out of mind, and to keep secret the details of what is billed officially as a training exercise. Israeli and American officials have declined to comment publicly beyond a brief statement saying that the operation is part of a routine training drill conducted every two years to upgrade Israel’s air defense systems. But the large scope of the exercise and its timing with the U.S. troop buildup near Iraq give it added significance… What is officially billed as a joint exercise is scheduled to end Feb. 2 with the test firing of at least a dozen Patriot defensive missiles over the Negev desert. A Navy cruiser equipped with advanced radar and communications gear is participating. After Feb. 2, the soldiers are to depart for Europe… Officials said three Patriot batteries were deployed around Tel Aviv, another in the northern city of Haifa. Two more are to arrive from Germany. They would be operated by Israeli and U.S. soldiers in the event of a conflict. American forces would provide Israel with the estimated trajectories of incoming rockets and help aim the defensive missiles. Israeli specialists would do the firing. DEFENSE APPROPRIATORS OFFER PAC-3 MISSILE AMENDMENT IN OMNIBUS, Inside the Army, January 20, 2003. Following two months of intense political wrangling over how to pay for the extra Patriot Advanced Capability-3 missiles the Pentagon wants to buy, congressional appropriators have decided to offer an amendment for additional funds in the fiscal year 2003 omnibus appropriations bill, sources said last week. The bill, which was on the Senate floor at press time (Jan. 17), includes funds to pay for 12 extra PAC-3 missiles approved for FY-03 by the Pentagon last fall. The amendment has not yet been introduced for debate… As the stalemate continues, tension is mounting at the committee and at the Pentagon, sources said, with officials fearing the worst -- that further delay in securing funding could have a detrimental impact on readiness in the event of a near-term war with Iraq. Everyone is aware that taking more time to find the necessary funds risks impairing the smooth production line for the missiles and creates a production gap between FY-03 and FY- 04…Feeling the pressure last week, appropriators were hoping to secure money through the omnibus appropriations bill. U.S. NAVY, MISSILE AGENCY TO SWAP CRUISER FOR CASH, Defense News, January 20, 2003. The U.S. Navy will swap an Aegis warship for cash from the U.S. Missile Defense Agency, a deal one senior Navy official labeled “pretty radical.” “This plan is going to put medium-range theater ballistic missile capability at sea to some degree by 2004 and significantly more by 2006 — years faster than any previous program of record,” John Young, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development and acquisition, said Jan. 16 to an audience of Navy and industry people, at a conference sponsored by the Surface Navy Association, Arlington, Va. Under the deal, the Navy will give the USS Lake Erie, a guided missile cruiser that is being used to test sea-based ballistic missile defenses, to the Missile Defense Agency, the Pentagon’s central shop for developing and buying anti-missile systems. In exchange, the agency will pay for and improve the first lot — up to 90 — of Standard Missile-3 weapons the Navy had planned to buy. The agency also will assume responsibility for software and hardware patches for the Lake Erie and up to 20 Baseline 5 Aegis warships. The agency had earmarked money to test and convert aging Baseline 1 Aegis ships, but some of it now will go to the Navy “to offset the loss of the Lake Erie and some of the other impacts on the Navy,” said Young. RUSSIA BLASTS BRITISH GO-AHEAD FOR U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE PLAN, Agence France Presse, January 18, 2003. Russia criticized late Friday Britain’s decision to agree to a U.S. request to upgrade a key radar station in northern England for President George W. Bush’s controversial missile defence project, the RIA Novosti news agency reported Saturday. “This move by the British military is unlikely to reinforce international security and will for sure complicate the multilateral process of arms control and reduction, including regarding nuclear weapons,” a foreign ministry spokesman told RIA Novosti. U.S., MARSHALLS SIGN 83-YEAR DEAL FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE SITE, Agence France Presse, January 19, 2003. U.S. and Marshall Islands negotiators have signed an agreement that could extend American use of the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll for more than 80 years. After meetings in Honolulu Friday Hawaii time, U.S. negotiator Albert Short and Marshalls Foreign Minister Gerald Zackios initialed a deal worth at least 1.1 billion dollars in land rentals, community development aid and environmental protection. The deal -- which must be approved by both governments and, the landowners at Kwajalein Atoll -- ends nearly a year of bargaining by U.S. and Marshall Islands negotiators on new terms for extending American use of Kwajalein, the U.S. military’s most important missile test site. The agreement provides for U.S. use of Kwajalein until 2066, with an American option to extend for an additional 20 years. The question is whether landowners -- who have complained the current annual lease payments of 11.3 million are paltry -- will agree to a rise in rent to 15 million dollars starting October 1, and a further increase to 18 million dollars annually beginning in 2014. RAYTHEON’S PATRIOTS FACE NEW THREAT, Boston Globe, January 19, 2003. The Army began deploying its most advanced Patriot missile-defense system to Kuwait earlier this month, aiming for another chance to prove the hardware’s effectiveness as the United States and its allies prepare for a possible military campaign against Iraq. Designers say better launchers, guidance systems, and missiles have upgraded the Patriot, which was one of the most important, if controversial, weapons systems of the Gulf War. At the time, televised images appeared to show Patriot batteries in Israel and Saudi Arabia knocking down incoming Iraqi Scuds. But the Army had to back off its initial claims for the Patriot after its record came under withering criticism. Over the past 12 years, the Army and the Pentagon’s missile-defense agency have refined the missile system, which is largely made by Lexington-based defense contractor Raytheon Co. at its Andover plant. Since the Gulf War, the Patriot has become one of the most important US arms exports, with customers from Japan and Taiwan to Germany and Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is relying on the missiles to defend against the 20 or so Scuds that Iraq may possess. Even Israel, whose doubts about the Patriot after the Gulf War prompted it to develop its own missile-defense system, the Arrow, has recently requested additional Patriot batteries from Germany. In all, about 9,000 Patriot missiles, worth about $13 billion, have been bought worldwide since the Gulf War, industry executives say. Some critics question whether the latest Patriot has been tested sufficiently, and its record during the Gulf War remains a touchy subject. But the Pentagon and its contractors say they are confident in the system’s technical advances. “Regardless of what you think of the Gulf War record, the improvements since then are substantial,” said Tim Carey, Patriot program manager at Raytheon’s Andover facility, where the flags of customer nations hang over an assembly room filled with brown fiberglass missile-fuselage sections, each packed with electronics. Last summer, Carey began around-the-clock shifts to boost production for the latest version of the missile, the Patriot Guidance Enhanced Missile Plus, known as the GEM-Plus. This missile carries a warhead loaded with about 200 pounds of metal fragments and is designed to destroy or disable Scuds by blowing up just yards away. A Lockheed Martin Corp. plant in Arkansas makes a smaller, newer unit known as the Patriot Advanced Capability Missile, or PAC-3, designed to be deadlier by ramming its targets, a “hit-to-kill” technique that could be more effective at destroying chemical or biological warheads. Last week, an Army spokeswoman at Fort Bliss, in Texas, confirmed that units have begun deploying to Kuwait with PAC-3 launch trailers, which carry 16 missiles rather than the four on older launchers. Some missile-defense specialists question whether Iraq will be able to fire any of the aging Scuds it might still possess, though they point to estimates that Iraq has 150 or so shorter-range “Scud Junior” missiles that could be used to attack approaching allied troops and could reach as far south as Kuwait City. Even if they see little or no action, the presence of Patriot batteries in the Gulf calls attention to the growing US emphasis on missile-defense technology and the accompanying growth of the missile-defense industry, say defense analysts. The PAC- 3’s hit-to-kill approach is the same one used by the Bush administration’s controversial national missile defense, the first phase of which is planned for Alaska by 2004. Last month, the president said he would seek additional funds to install PAC-3 as part of that defense. Industry analysts expect any use of Patriots in a forthcoming conflict in Iraq to become part of the broader missile-defense debate, even though the technical challenge of national missile defense is much more difficult than theater missile defense. If the Patriots are successful in a conflict with Iraq, advocates of national missile defense “will say ‘ah-ah, it works!”’ said Steven Zaloga, analyst at the Teal Group Corp., a defense- industry consulting firm in Fairfax, Va. “And likewise, if PAC-3 screws up in a future combat operation, then activist types will scream, ‘The whole thing is fundamentally flawed.”’ No one is claiming that the Patriots - regardless of version - are a sure-bet defense. In tests at the White Sands facility in New Mexico last year, the system posted mixed results, including three failed launches and an incorrect target location feed that caused its missile to miss. Also, few tests have been conducted against Scud-type missiles, which are prone to disintegrate and corkscrew down before they can be intercepted, presenting a more difficult target for a defensive missile. “We know why they missed, and we will fix those,” said Lieutenant General Ronald Kadish, director of the Pentagon’s missile-defense agency, at a briefing last month. “So test, fix; test, fix; test, fix is what we’re doing,” Kadish said. Citing these results, some within the Army’s Test and Evaluation Command wanted to slow production of the PAC-3, but were overruled, according to Phil Coyle, the Pentagon’s top testing official during the Clinton administration. Coyle described the philosophy as “buy it now, fix it later if you can,” the same approach he said Kadish and others take toward the broader national missile- defense program. Coyle is worried that even the latest Patriots might be oversold. “You certainly don’t want to go to war with Iraq believing that they work if they don’t,” he said. On the other hand, Coyle said he understands the decision to field the PAC-3s. “I don’t think there’s anything wrong with that,” he said. “The US can afford it.” He wants more testing, however, “so people aren’t misled or confused about what it can do.” The first Patriots were designed to defend against aircraft. Raytheon and military engineers quickly reengineered the missiles in late 1990 to defend against the Scuds that Iraq had derived from old Soviet weapons. Deploying Patriots also showed a US commitment to defending allies. Television at the time showed thrilling images of airborne explosions that officials described as Patriots destroying incoming Scuds. Skeptics, notably physicist Theodore A. Postol of MIT, later argued that many of these blasts were probably just the image of the Patriot missiles themselves exploding, and that many Scud warheads may have fallen to earth intact. The biggest US casualties of the Gulf War were 28 soldiers killed when a Scud destroyed a barracks near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, which was theoretically protected by a Patriot battery that failed to fire. The Army later said that Patriots destroyed about 70 percent of Scuds launched at Saudi Arabia and about 40 percent of those fired at Israel. Zaloga and other missile analysts, however, say the Army hasn’t released enough details to judge the claims. Rick Lehner, a spokesman for the missile-defense agency that oversees the Patriot, wouldn’t discuss the official level of confidence in the updated missiles, but said the Patriot system “was designed to be effective against ballistic missiles, and we’re confident it will be highly successful against ballistic missiles.” Designers say one of the most important upgrades to the Patriot has been the creation of radio links between Patriot launch trailers and the battery’s command truck, which previously were connected by cables. This increases the area that one Patriot battery can cover, since the trailers can be positioned up to 18 miles away from their command centers. Although the system’s exact range is classified, each 85-man Patriot battery, including 68 Patriot GEM-Plus and PAC-3 missiles, are believed to be able to cover a full metropolitan area. Other upgrades include better radars that can discriminate between fragments of a tumbling, airborne Scud rocket and its warhead, and electronic countermeasures to prevent enemies from jamming the system’s radars. In Andover, Patriot work has been an important cushion for Raytheon workers as Raytheon has moved production of its Tomahawk cruise missile and other weapons to a division based in Arizona. The Andover plant once employed nearly 10,000; today it has about 2,000 people. Many of those still at Andover worked there during the Gulf War. Others, including Raytheon’s current Patriot business-development manager, Dave Hartman, were in uniform at the time. Hartman, who was an Army officer overseeing an air-defense unit, said he’s been a Patriot enthusiast since he saw an attacking Scud destroyed by a Patriot interceptor. “I’m a believer in this system, because I was boots on the ground during a Scud attack on Tel Aviv,” he said. WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2003 TESTING COULD BE A MAJOR ISSUE FOR BUSH MISSILE DEFENSE PLAN, Inside Missile Defense, January 22, 2003…Bush’s Dec. 17 announcement that the limited ground-based system under development by the Missile Defense Agency will be put into operational status by Oct. 1, 2004, leaves the agency just 21 months to solve technical challenges, execute a new acquisition approach and overcome expected resistance from Democrats in Congress. That resistance could center on the Pentagon’s testing plans. While the goal is an operational system in less than two years, the ground- based test bed…is still considered a research and development effort and will not be designated a procurement program “at least for the near term,” an MDA spokesman told Inside Missile Defense. This has ramifications for how the system must be tested. MDA Director Lt. Gen. Ronald Kadish told reporters last month that instead of waiting to decide if the ground-based test bed would be used operationally, the Pentagon “will attempt to make it operational from the beginning, starting now.”… A congressional source said Democrats who have been critical of the administration’s missile defense plan could look at the question of operational testing… Once the test bed is declared operational, MDA expects the Army to assume control, the spokesman said. “MDA is an R&D agency and thus has no operational control of any systems it develops,” he said. “The systems are turned over to [the] military services for operational use.” The spokesman said MDA also expects contractor personnel to be used at the test bed as they are with other DOD systems such as submarines and aircraft carriers. However, he added, they will not “have a role in actually serving as operators for any operational missile defense system other than for tests.” AMMAN SEEKS MISSILE DEFENCE, Financial Times (London), January 21, 2003. Fearful of being caught in the crossfire in a missile exchange between Iraq and Israel, Jordan is belatedly seeking a European supplier for an air defence anti-missile system. Jordanian officials said yesterday that regional tensions lay behind their decision to look to Europe, rather than the U.S., after the collapse of an earlier deal to acquire a Russian surface-to-air defence system. Officials in Amman said Moscow had failed to meet a February deadline for an S-300 missile system, seeking a delay until the year end…Jordan’s King Abdullah II was quoted last week as saying that, with war all but inevitable, Jordan was urgently seeking an alternative supplier for three anti-missile batteries to defend its airspace…Jordan fears that unless a supplier comes forward within days it will be forced to rely on anti-missile cover from Israel and American warships deployed in the eastern Mediterranean. “We are talking about a couple of batteries and even those could not withstand a major missile attack from either Iraq or Israel.” ISRAEL DEPLOYS DEFENSE MISSILES IN NINE PLACES IN PREPARATION FOR WAR, Associated Press, January 21, 2003. Israel has deployed nine anti-missile batteries across the country in recent weeks as part of preparations for Iraqi retaliation for a possible U.S. military offensive against Baghdad, Israeli media reported Tuesday. A map of the country showing the deployment of seven Patriot and two Arrow batteries was published Tuesday in the Yediot Ahronot newspaper under a headline reading “Protected Skies.” The graphic showed three batteries of the U.S.- made Patriots in the greater Tel Aviv area, which was the target of most of the 39 Iraqi Scud missiles fired at Israel during the 1991 Gulf War…Another picture showed Patriots near Haifa University in the center of the coastal city. A battery of Arrow missiles, a system developed jointly by the United States and Israel, were deployed south of Tel Aviv and another near the northern town of Hadera. In addition, a missile command center has been set up in the Jerusalem mountains, overlooking Tel Aviv, the map showed. American and Israeli troops have begun a joint exercise in Israel to test the air defense system, which includes a U.S. radar boat that arrived in the eastern Mediterranean Sea this week, a Western diplomat said on condition of anonymity. Israeli army spokeswoman Capt. Sharon Feingold confirmed the exercise is underway but would not say how many missile batteries had been deployed or where in the country. Three Patriot batteries that will remain in the country at least until the exercise is over in the second week of February, depending on how probable a war is, the diplomat said. INDIA, U.S. WRAP UP MISSILE DEFENSE TALKS, Aerospace Daily, January 21, 2003. Defense policy officials from the U.S. and India have wrapped up two days of talk about U.S. missile defense plans and about the possibility of Israel selling its Arrow anti-missile system to India. Defense ministry official here said India faces missile a nuclear threats from Pakistan and China and requires a missile defense system. The U.S. has not yet decided whether to allow Israel to export the Arrow system to India…The Jan. 15-16 talks were headed by Sheel Kant Sharma, the joint secretary for disarmament in the Indian Ministry of External Affairs, and David Trachtenberg, the principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for international security policy. India wants six to eight anti-missile systems, although defense officials here privately say the country will be hard pressed to pay $3 billion to $5 billion for the systems. Indian scientists are seeking other missile defense systems, even vintage ones, to try to re-engineer them to bolster the country’s efforts to develop an indigenous missile defense system. INDIA CONDUCTS THIRD MISSILE TEST IN 11 DAYS, PAKISTAN PROTESTS, Agence France Presse, January 20, 2003. India Monday carried out its third missile test in 11 days, leading its nuclear rival Pakistan to accuse it of trying to provoke a missile race. India fired its surface-to-air Akash missile from a mobile launcher in the eastern state of Orissa at 12.25 pm (0655 GMT), said a senior official from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)…The official described the launch from the Chandipur-at-Sea site as “one of the final tests” before the missile is cleared for mass production and deployed with the air force. “We are quite satisfied with the various tasks assigned to the system,” he said of Akash (Sky), which India touts as the local version of the Raytheon-built Patriot anti-aircraft missile used by the United States during the Gulf War…Pakistani Information Minister Sheikh Rashid Ahmed condemned the test. “India wants to provoke us in this missile race, and we will not be provoked,” Rashid told AFP in Islamabad. FORMER AIR FORCE ACQUISITION OFFICIAL JOINS BOEING, ANSER, January 22, 2003. A former top U.S. Air Force acquisition official has joined Boeing to help lead the company's missile defense business headquartered in Washington, D.C. Darleen Druyun, who recently served as the principal deputy assistant secretary for Air Force acquisition and management, will report directly to James Evatt, senior vice president and general manager of Boeing Missile Defense Systems, one of nine business units within Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. In her new role, Druyun will assist Evatt in the operations and execution of the company's missile defense programs. Those programs include Boeing's role as the prime contractor for the Ground-based Midcourse Defense Segment and the industry lead for the Missile Defense National Team Systems Engineering and Integration effort, as well as the company's work on the Patriot antimissile system, Sea-based Midcourse system and the Airborne Laser program where Boeing is also the prime contractor. "Darleen Druyun helped drive acquisition reform within the Air Force. Her 'Lightning Bolt' initiatives, which jump-started the reform process, have saved the U.S. Air Force and taxpayers more than $20 billion to date," Evatt said. "Her personal passion and drive are well known within the defense industry, and we expect her to be a key player in our future success." Prior to serving with the U.S. Air Force, Druyun was chief of staff for NASA and had also served as the agency's associate administrator for procurement. Druyun earned her bachelor of science degree from the University of Chaminade and is a graduate of the Harvard Executive Security Management Program. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Gen. Bernard A. Schriever Award from the Air Force Association and the Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award. MDA PLANS SATELLITE LAUNCHES FOR BOOST-PHASE TESTS, ANSER, January 22, 2003. The Missile Defense Agency plans to launch several satellites near the end of the decade to develop a space-based interceptor test bed that could shoot down missiles in their boost phase, according to MDA. A competition for a concept design will take place in fiscal 2004, following a briefing for industry in December 2003, an MDA official said Jan. 21. MDA hopes to launch three to five satellites in FY '08-09 to begin on-orbit tests. After that, it envisions launching more capable satellites in "small quantities" every two to three years, the official said. The agency's intentions represent the Defense Department's latest attempt to jump start an idea that has been studied for decades but encountered political, technological and financial obstacles along the way. MDA's current plans do not call for moving beyond the test bed capability, but they are subject to change. In December, the Bush Administration announced it will deploy ground-based and sea-based midcourse anti-missile systems, which it previously had committed only to test (DAILY, Dec. 17, 2002). In another boost-phase interceptor effort, MDA on Jan. 17 released a draft request for proposals confirming its plans to develop a ground-based test bed. The agency intends to award three contracts in April to produce concept designs (DAILY, Jan. 2). The contracts are to last about eight months and will be followed by the selection, in the first quarter of FY '04, of a single prime contractor to develop a prototype. MDA wants to demonstrate a mobile ground-based capability by the end of 2009. Companies hoping to compete for the ground-based work had until the close of business Jan. 21 to notify MDA of their intentions. The contractor selected to develop the ground-based capability will be precluded from developing the space-based test bed. MDA views the space- based capability as a potential "alternative to the terrestrial-based and vice versa." After the ground-based demonstration, MDA plans to adapt that capability to a sea-based test bed. In addition, the contractor that develops the ground-based test bed will have the opportunity to use that capability to improve midcourse and terminal systems. MDA said Jan. 15 it will launch an experimental satellite next year in an effort to improve the systems' ability to distinguish the body of a boosting missile from its exhaust plume THURSDAY, JANUARY 23, 2003 TESTING ISSUES MAY DELAY MISSILE DEFENSE DEPLOYMENT, CDI, Testing concerns may challenge President George W. Bush's goal of getting a limited missile defense system operational by Oct. 1, 2004, says Inside Missile Defense (Jan. 22, 2003). The ground-based test bed facilities that are at the heart of the deployment decision are still considered to be research and development efforts, which may affect how the system is tested and what milestones it must pass before it can legally be considered operational. By U.S. law, major defense acquisition programs must successfully undergo operational testing before they can move into full rate production. Officially, a program receives the "major defense acquisition" designation in two ways: by being named so by the secretary of defense; or if it has a Research Development Evaluation and Training program that is estimated to cost over $15 million in constant 1990 dollars. The ground-based missile defense system and test bed upgrades are estimated to cost over $3 billion in the FY 03 and FY 04 budgets. But in the case of the layered missile defense system, which includes the ground-based test bed facilities, it was the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) that gave the designation. Nevertheless, the MDA claims it is only expanding ground-based test bed facilities' capabilities over the next two years, not moving the program into production, and therefore it does not need to seek a waiver for operational testing of the ground-based system. It remains unclear at what point, if ever, the MDA will be legally bound to carry out operational testing. U.S. TROOPS HELP ISRAEL WITH PATRIOT EXERCISE, Baltimore Sun, January 21, 2003. 600 U.S. troops are presently in Israel as part of a training drill held every two years to test Israel's air defense network. The exercise is scheduled to finish on Feb. 2 with a live-fire Patriot test that is thought to simulate a response to an attack by Iraq. U.S. forces are to help determine the Patriot batteries' set-up times and calculate rocket trajectories, while Israeli specialists will do the actual firing of the missiles. Patriot batteries are already deployed around Tel Aviv and Haifa, with two more batteries en route from Germany. These Patriot missiles use blast-fragmentation warheads to intercept enemy missiles. U.S. officials are striving to keep a low profile in an attempt to preclude a further ratcheting up of tension in the region. After the joint exercise is over, the U.S. troops are scheduled to leave for Europe. IVANOV ANNOUNCES INTENT TO BUILD NEW MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS, Washington Times, January 16, 2003. Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov announced on Jan. 15 that Russia "will definitely develop theater missile defense systems, as well as space defenses." He asserted that plans for doing so had been put in motion over a year ago. Ivanov pointed out that Russia was free of any restrictions that arms control agreements - like the now-defunct Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty - would have provided, but he did admit that Russia's missile defense program would be limited by "common sense, technical possibilities, and the state of [its] economy." U.S. officials played down Ivanov's remarks, noting that the United States has made offers to cooperate with Russia on missile defense. HOON’S “PRELIMINARY CONCLUSION” IS TO COOPERATE ON MISISLE DEFENSE, The Guardian (U.K.), January 16, 2003. British Defense Minister Geoff Hoon told members of the U.K. Parliament on Jan. 15 that his "preliminary conclusion" was that they should cooperate with the United States on missile defense. Specifically, he believes that his government should accede to the U.S. request to incorporate the early warning radar at Fylingdales into the U.S. missile defense system. This was one of two requests to foreign governments made when the Bush administration announced its goal of an initial deployment of a missile defense system by 2004 (in the other case, Denmark has yet to officially respond to the U.S. request to allow the radar in Thule to become a part of the missile defense system). Hoon stated that his government's cooperation would provide "an invaluable extra insurance against the development of a still uncertain but potentially catastrophic threat." He has been reviled by British politicians, both for his "slavish devotion" to the United States and for his "astonishing" lack of consultation with Parliament before making this decision. KADISH PUTS X-BAND ON HOLD IN FAVOR OF NEW RAPID DEVELOPMENT RADAR, Inside Missile Defense, January 22, 2003. The Missile Defense Agency has shelved a Navy effort to develop a shipboard X-band radar based on the Army’s Theater High Altitude Area Defense radar and has directed the service to rapidly develop a new sea-based surveillance system, sister publication Inside the Navy has learned. The new radar is needed to provide discrimination while tracking ballistic missile targets…After undertaking an extensive radar survey, MDA Director Lt. Gen. Ronald Kadish placed the X-band solid-state radar program on hold indefinitely, Capt. Mac Grant, program manager for Aegis ballistic missile defense, told ITN last week. According to Grant, the MDA director determined a forward-based radar with greater capabilities than the HPD X-band radar was needed in the near future. In turn, Kadish tasked Rear Adm. Kate Paige, the Navy’s director of theater air and missile engineering, to “take a look at the rapid development of a forward-based, sea-based radar,” Grant said. MDA spokesman Chris Taylor clarified that the new sea-based radar is “very much just in the talking stage,” adding that MDA is not even sure whether it would have an X-band or S-band frequency. Contractor Raytheon was officially notified in early October that the X-band program had been put on hold, according to Rod Smith, the company’s manager of special mission systems. Raytheon has not been told how long the program will remain on hold. Grant told ITN “I’ll know better over the coming year” how long the program will be halted. GAO UPHOLDS PICK OF BECHTEL-LOCKHEED MARTIN TEAM FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE, Defense Daily, January 23, 2003. The General Accounting Office on Friday ruled in favor of the Army Space and Missile Defense Command’s (SMDC) selection of a Bechtel-Lockheed Martin team to provide range support at the Army’s Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific, rejecting protests filed by the competing teams…Soon after the SMDC contract award [in September], Northrop Grumman and a Raytheon-Teledyne Brown Engineering team both filed separate protests with GAO requesting examination of SMDC’s selection of the Bechtel-Lockheed Martin team. The contractors heading the protest complained of problems with the SMDC selection process…As the GAO reviewed the protests, SMDC obtained approval to override a stop work order that would have halted work at Kwajalein until the protest was resolved…”We are disappointed in the General Accounting Office’s decision,” said Raytheon spokeswoman Kristen Giddens…Noting that the Raytheon Technical Services Company (RTSC) team has supported the operation and maintenance of the Kwajalein missile range for the past nine years, Giddens said the team will continue to do so until the phase-out period of our contract is completed, some time in February or March 2003…Under this cost-plus award fee contract, the KRS team will provide technical services for the missile testing and space surveillance missions as well as complete logistics and infrastructure solutions to support the Kwajalein test site community. KWAJALEIN LEADERS SAY MISSILE RANGE DEAL IS NOT ENOUGH, Agence France Presse, January 23, 2003. Landowners on Kwajalein Atoll, which hosts the key Reagan Test Site in the Marshall Islands, have complained a newly signed two billion-dollar lease to the United States is not adequate. The landowners Wednesday objected to a deal signed by the government last week in Honolulu without their consent, and say the new agreement is not enforceable because of that. The newly- formed Kwajalein Negotiation Commission aims to give greater control over the boomerang-shaped necklace of coral islands to local residents of the central Pacific atoll, which have seen a hefty increase in tests since U.S. President George W. Bush took office. The lease signed last Friday, giving the United States use of Kwajalein through 2066 with an option to extend for an additional 20 years, underlines the critical importance of Kwajalein to the Bush administrations missile defense strategy. Although the Marshall Islands government was negotiating with the United States to extend the lease of Kwajalein, the landowners control usage of the 93-island atoll…Current annual rent for use of the atoll is set at 11.3 million dollars and the new arrangement would increase payments to 15 million October 1 then to 18 million dollars a year in 2014, based on inflationary costs. The landowners, however, are demanding 19.1 million dollars from 2003 in rent payments. The lease also includes up to 500 million U.S. dollars in community development funds over the 83-year life of the pact…Loeak said landowners were reviewing the terms of the agreement signed last week. But as presently drafted, they say the deal “fails to support the long-term needs of the people of Kwajalein, providing insufficient support for the landowners trust fund and providing insufficient compensation for use of the land.” Loeak said landowners remain committed to securing a long-term agreement with the United States to provide access to Kwajalein for 50 years or more. STAR WARS DEAL TO GO AHEAD: GOVERNMENT SET TO PAY FOR ROCKETS AFTER FYLINGDALES UPDATE, The Guardian (London), January 23, 2003. The Government has agreed to the U.S. request to use Fylingdales radar station for its missile defence system. The Defence Secretary, Geoff Hoon, said last week that it was the first step towards a deeper British involvement in the controversial “son of Star Wars” scheme. This would involve basing interceptor rockets to protect Britain from incoming missiles fired by “rogue” states, he admitted. And while the U.S. would pay to upgrade Fylingdales on the North York moors, Britain would have to pay the cost of the interceptors, he said… Mr. Hoon made the admissions in evidence to the Commons defence committee after making a statement to MPs in the Commons. In his statement he said that agreeing to the request would not prejudice Britain’s interests but represented “an invaluable extra insurance against the development of a still uncertain but potentially catastrophic threat to the citizens of this country.” The Labour chairman of the defence committee, Bruce George, made clear his irritation that the Government had agreed to the U.S. request before the committee’s MPs had completed their inquiry into the project. The Defence Secretary refused to give an assurance that the Government would not formally accede to the request before the committee completed its report in a month’s time. Mr. Hoon also made it plain that the Fylingdales request was just the start of Britain’s involvement in missile defence. “Further decisions would be needed to locate interceptors to protect the UK,” he said. RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT ON TARGET TO CONSIDER NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION TREATY THIS SPRING, FOREIGN MINISTRY SAYS, Associated Press, January 21, 2003. The Russian Foreign Ministry said Tuesday that a nuclear arms reduction treaty signed by the U.S. and Russian leaders at a Moscow summit last year was on target to be ratified this spring…The treaty calls for the United States and Russia to cut their strategic nuclear arsenals to 1,700 to 2,200, down from 6,000 or more for the United States and about 5,500 for Russia…Russian lawmakers are eager to synchronize Russian ratification with approval by the U.S. Congress…Last week, Konstantin Kosachev, the deputy chairman of the Duma’s international affairs committee, said a working group on ratification was considering three variants: the Kremlin’s proposal that the treaty be ratified and the date it enters force be decided; a Duma proposal consisting of nine articles, including exit clauses; and a compromise worked out by the ministries responsible for enforcing the treaty on the Russian side. Kosachev said that the Duma version would base Russia’s withdrawal options on the U.S. deployment of a national missile defense system that created a danger to Russian strategic forces or if other counties critically increase their nuclear potential to a level threatening Russia’s security. Lawmakers have said that the Duma could put the treaty up for ratification in March or April. IRAQ AND THE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS, American Forces Press Service, (Washington) January 23, 2003. Iraq's chemical weapons arsenal is not some hypothetical problem, but a danger and a weapon Saddam Hussein has used in the past. Hussein had been in power only a year when he declared war on neighboring Iran in 1980. He flexed his muscles against the Persian Gulf region's largest military power, but one weakened by post-shah disarray. Iraq had a more modern military and banked on a fast, easy victory. Iranian leaders, with a population of 55 million at their disposal, had no compunctions about launching low-tech "human wave" attacks against the Iraqis. Hussein's blitzkrieg devolved into a trench war of attrition, but one he couldn't afford with a population of only about 20 million. The war was clearly going against Iraq by 1983, when Hussein ordered the use of chemical weapons against Iran. The first of 10 documented chemical attacks in the war was in August 1983 and caused hundreds of casualties, according to CIA sources. The largest documented attack was a February 1986 strike against al-Faw, where mustard gas and tabun may have affected up to 10,000 Iranians. To this day, no one really knows how many other Iraqi chemical attacks went undocumented or how many Iranians died in them. Iranians call the survivors of the attacks "living martyrs," and the government in Tehran estimates that more than 60,000 soldiers were exposed to mustard gas and the nerve agents sarin and tabun. One survivor described a rolling cloud of gas enveloping his position in 1985. When the cloud of death rolled away, he was one of 3,000 casualties of the Iraqi attack. Iran and Iraq ended the war in 1988 with their boundaries about where they'd been when the war started. But Hussein was not through: If the weapons worked against the Iranians, they would also work against internal enemies of his regime. In August 1988, Hussein launched chemical attacks against defenseless men, women and children in Kurdish villages in northern Iraq. International groups ascertained he used mustard gas and sarin. Again, no one knows how many Kurds died as a result of these attacks. Some estimates place the dead at 8,000 while others say up to 24,000. The key, CIA officials said, is to remember the attacks weren't against military foes, but used specifically to kill and to terrorize noncombatants. The Kurdish civilians had not had even the basic and inadequate protections carried by some Iranian soldiers. During the Persian Gulf War, Hussein threatened to use his chemical arsenal against the coalition arrayed against him. The United States said if he did he should expect an instant, overwhelming allied response. Hussein apparently backed down -- while some people may suspect he loosed chemicals on coalition forces, no proof has been found. Following the war, U.N. inspectors went into Iraq and found stockpiles of chemical weapons. The Iraqis had large caches of mustard gas, which causes casualties by blistering or burning exposed skin, eyes, lungs and mucus membranes within hours of exposure. It is a persistent agent that can remain a hazard for days. Iraq also had large amounts of sarin and tabun. When absorbed through the skin or inhaled, these nerve agents cause convulsions and unconsciousness. Tabun is a persistent agent and can remain potent for days. While not persistent, sarin is more dangerous inhaled. The inspectors also found large amounts of VX nerve agent, which is more toxic and persistent than sarin or tabun. The Iraqis had the chemical agents in aerial bombs, 122 mm rockets, artillery shells and Scud ballistic missiles. The Iraqi chemical attacks of the Iran-Iraq War were the largest since World War I. During the 1914-18 war, both sides packed artillery shells with gases or rolled generators up to the front lines. Thousands on both sides died or were injured in the attacks. The world was so revolted by the carnage that countries outlawed chemical warfare in the Geneva Protocols of 1925. During World War II, even the Nazis -- not known for respecting treaties or humanity -- observed the chemical taboo. Many countries in the world have chemical weapon stockpiles. While the situation is a concern, U.S. leaders don't consider these countries dangerous. They say Hussein's possession of these weapons is dangerous, though, because he has repeatedly and remorselessly demonstrated the willingness to use them for war, terror and genocide. FRIDAY, JANUARY 24, 2003 NO U.S. X-BAND RADAR IN U.K., HOON TELLS PARLIAMENT, Defense News, January 23, 2003. The United States has not asked to station an X-band radar or interceptor missiles in Britain as part of its missile defense plans, the Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon told members of Parliament (MPs) during a debate [there] Jan 22. Hoon was defending the Labour government’s intention to approve a U.S. request to upgrade the Royal Air Force base at Fylingdales for missile defense purposes, despite criticism from a number of MPs opposed to the move…Upgrade to make the existing radar at Fylingdales capable of detecting ballistic missiles fired from the Middle East could be undertaken “in time to meet the U.S. deadline so that a basic system is in place for 2004-05,” said Hoon. “Interceptors would be required for missile defense coverage of Europe, but there is no need to co-locate them with the radars,” Hoon told Parliament. “Whether the U.K. should acquire missile defense is a separate decision for the future. The immediate question is whether we should preserve the possibility of such defenses ever protecting the people of the U.K.” SENATE MAY TAP X-BAND RADAR TO BOOST PAC-3 PRODUCTION, Aerospace Daily, January 23, 2003. The Senate is considering language that supports the Defense Department’s request to transfer $104 million to the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile, but the measure would take some of the money from different sources than DoD had proposed. The language, included in a fiscal 2003 non- defense appropriations package, rejects the Pentagon’s proposal to take $64 million in previously approved funds from unspecified midcourse missile defense systems, a congressional source told the DAILY late Jan. 21. Instead, the measure takes $13.9 million from the X-band radar that MDA plans to build to support the Ground-Based midcourse Defense (GMD) system. The legislation also deviates from DoD’s request by tapping a classified program that had funds it could not spend, the source said. UPGRADE WORK ON BRITAIN’S FYLINGDALES RADAR SITE COULD BE MONTHS AWAY, Defense Daily, January 24, 2003. Despite British Secretary of State for Defence Geoff Hoon’s recent endorsement of the proposed upgrade of the Fylingdales radar site for integration into the U.S. ballistic missile defense system, an official agreement and green light for work at the site from the British government is at least six months away, Pentagon and industry sources said. While British officials like Hoon have supported the inclusion of Fylingdales, Missile Defense Agency (MDA) officials have been informed that the inclusion of Fylingdales is not a done deal, sources said. This week a team from MDA, led by Army Maj. Gen. Peter Franklin, deputy director of MDA, met with British government counterparts to further negotiate any potential British participation, sources said… Sources said the goal of the meeting was to do preliminary work on drafting a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the United Kingdom that could be completed in about six months. However, that MoU will not contain any specifics on Fylingdales, which would have to come at a later time, they said. The MoU is expected to simply outline a framework for some level of cooperation without programmatic or specific system details. Further, the MDA team has presented other options for future participation, including the basing of interceptors in the United Kingdom But, sources said any formal agreement on interceptor basing in Europe is very far in the future. PUTIN READY TO COOPERATE WITH U.S. ON MISSILE DEFENSE, Agence France-Presse, January 23, 2003. President Vladimir Putin is willing to cooperate with the United States in the joint construction of a missile defense shield, a top scientist who met the Russian leader Thursday told news agencies. Roald Sagdeyev, a senior member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said Putin told him in the Kremlin that he did not rule out “the possibility of the joint development of a missile defense system” with the United States…However the Russian scientist said Putin had qualified his remarks by saying that Russia “has its own views of how this (joint) work should go ahead.” “All the work has to be centralized and conducted from a single center, so that we will not lose (rights) to our technology,” Sagdeyev quoted Putin as saying. OPINION/LETTERS MISSILE DEFENSE, NOW MORE THAN EVER, Casa Grande Valley Newspapers (Arizona), January 23, 2003. …As the world has become more dangerous, the need for missile defense has become abundantly clear. The question that should be asked now is not why do we need missile defense, but why did we wait so long to get to work on it? …Israel - a perennial target of terrorist attack and hated by the dictatorships that surround it - did not have the luxury of long debates over how to defend its territory…So they went to work on a missile defense system - and with astonishing success. In less than 12 years, Israel has developed a battery of antiballistic Arrow missiles to shoot down Scud-type missiles. This is the last deterrent possible against a potential Iraqi attack… The international community is loath to challenge North Korea’s belligerence, due to the simple fact that, with its nuclear capability and history of bizarre behavior, no one can be sure what Pyongyang might do next. And, let us also be forewarned, the failure to deal with Iraq today will allow it to become another North Korea a few years from now - another hostile regime with a nuclear capability that threatens the stability of the world. Imagine how much stronger the West’s bargaining position would be with such dictatorships if we had the demonstrated capability to destroy their nuclear arsenals in the air. We would subsequently eliminate their ability to blackmail us with a nuclear threat. President Bush is wisely pursuing that course of action, announcing plans to start implementation of a limited missile defense system by 2004. His foresight today may help prevent another nuclear confrontation in the years to come. By Sen. Jon Kyl.
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