INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR TALUKA LATIFABAD, HYDERABAD by sck19707

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									INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR
   TALUKA LATIFABAD, HYDERABAD, SINDH




                      July, 2006
                     Prepared by:



              Program Support Unit
       Sindh Devolved Social Services Program

              3rd floor, State Life Building # 3
           Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Road, Karachi
          Tel: 021-9201005- 8 Fax: 021-9201004
                      www.sdssp.gov.pk




                                                   1
                                Executive Summary
  Sindh Devolved Social Service Program gives technical assistance to Taluka, s/Towns
  of Sindh to develop their master plans for Drinking water and Sanitation (Solid Waste
  Management & Wastewater disposal). SDSSP has been initiates to assist the Taluka,
  s/Towns in implementing cost effective, technically viable and locally available
  environmental technologies in the field of Drinking water and Sanitation.

  Under the project, surveys of the selected Taluka, s/Towns are carried out to review
  the existing situation and conditions of Drinking water supply, Solid Waste
  Management (SWM) and Wastewater generation. Taluka Latifabad was visited by the
  consultant on Environment & Solid Waste Management to visit the existing practices
  in SWM only, and their requirements to improve the system and to guide Taluka to
  develop their master plans for 2026.

  The summary of key findings and recommendations of the survey and interviews are
  presented in table A.

                      Table-A: Summary of Survey and Interviews

General Information
Taluka Latifabad
                              Estimated Population by 2006 = 714156
                              Estimated Population by 2016 = 959765
                              Estimated Population by 2026 = 1289844

Generation of Solid Waste
                              Estimated Generation of Solid by 2006 = 625 tones
                              Estimated Generation of Solid by 2016 = 979 tones
                              Estimated Generation of Solid by 2026 = 1524 tones


Primary Collection System     No door to door collection system
(House to the Communal bin)


Number and Types of Bins                                                             Total in
                                                     Category          Size (feet)
                                                                                     Numbers
                              Cement Concrete      Immoveable
                                                                        10X6X4                25
                              small bins           (small)
                              Cement Concrete      Immoveable
                                                                        19X9X4                35
                              small bins           (large)
                              Iron bins            Moveable
                                                                            -
                                                   (small)
                                                                                              17
                              Iron bins            Moveable
                                                                       5.25X9X4
                                                   (large)




                                                                                          2
Number and Type of Waste
                                                   Total in
Hauling Vehicles                    Type                         Lifting or filling     Condition
                                                   Numbers
                                                                   mechanism
                                                                 Lifts waste
                             Loader                          1                        Unsatisfactory

                                                                 Filled manually
                             Dumper                          3                        Unsatisfactory
                                                                 or by loader
                                                                 With hydraulic
                             Skip loader                     4                        Unsatisfactory
                                                                 lifting system
                             Tractor-trolley
                                                             6   Manual               Satisfactory

                                                                 Shall be filled
                             Mazda truck                     1                        Unsatisfactory
                                                                 manually
                             Tractor with blade
                                                                 Only to lift waste
                             (self installed                 1                        Satisfactory
                                                                 to other lorry
                             blade)
                                                                 With hydraulic
                             M-Truck                         1                        Unsatisfactory
                                                                 lifting system
                                                                 Open drain
                             Excavator                       1                        Satisfactory
                                                                 desilting



Dumping System and          There is no sanitary landfill site for waste disposal. The waste is dumped
Dumping sites               in the dumping site mostly in the center of city. Total generation of
                            waste is 625 tones per day, only 240 tones of waste dumping is done left
                            solid waste is unattended or burnt in situ.


Weaknesses of Solid Waste       There is no door to door collection system of refuse in Latifabad
Management System of            Communal waste collection bins fall short of the total requirement.
Taluka                          People doesn’t drop their waste into the bin, usually throw waste on
                                streets and infront of communal bins.
                                Scavengers put fire on waste in the communal bins to extract metals
                                and other recycleable material from waste.
                                Almost 50% of waste lifted from the entire Taluka while the rest
                                either left unattended or is being burnt in-situ.
                                TMA falls short in vehicles to remove waste from communal bins.
                                The vehicles are very old and spare parts are rarely available.
                                The vehicles are already short in numbers; however the vehicles are
                                also used in other operations of the Taluka whenever needed.
                                Manual lifting of waste by sanitary workers to the hauling vehicles.
                                Plastic bags is major source to chock drains, it is widely used in
                                Latifabad.
                                There is no proper sanitary landfill site for the Taluka.
                                Open dumping is common in Taluka; mostly dumping is carried out
                                in the center of city.
                                Open burning of waste at the dumping site is very common.


Environmental Concerns      Open burning there are emissions of Nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide
                            and Carbon monoxide which impacts badly on human health (specially
                            on sanitary workers)




                                                                                                 3
                                   Disposal of waste through open dumping is being carried out which is
                                   impacting negatively on the environment. In rainy season, the situation
                                   becomes worse. Water leachating into and out of the waste becomes
                                   toxic in nature and if it in contact with ground water cause
                                   contamination. The water table is high in Taluka Latifabad; the water is
                                   not safe for drinking.


Improvement Model for              Collection System
Integrated Solid Waste                      Start of door to door collection by the public-private
Management, Latifabad                       partnership. Hire contractor on UC level for the collection of
                                            waste.
                                            Increase the number of collection bins

                                   Hauling system

                                            Total 38 vehicles are required to lift waste, at present Latifabad
                                            has only 15 vehicles

                                   Disposal System

                                            Development of a sanitary landfill site at Tando Muhammad
                                            Khan for disposal of waste
                                            Installation of an incineration plant for the disposal of health
                                            care waste and hazardous waste at Tando Muhammad Khan
                                            landfill site


         Minimum Requirement to improve Solid Waste Management System of Latifabad
 Total                 Current Situation   Needs                  Cost (Rs)               Cost Estimation
 Requirement                                                                              (Rs)
                          50 Cement
  Collection Bins                             Atleast 150
                           Concrete                                    Rs 50,000               7500000
       227                                   moveable bins
                       17 Moveable bins
                        4 Skip Loader
 Number of lorries        6 Tractors
                                             23 Skip Loader                                 Not Estimated
      38                  3 Dumpers                                  Not available
                            2 Truck
                                               1 Sanitary
                                             landfilling site
      Dumping           Dumping in the
                                                                     Not Estimated          Not Estimated
  Site/Landfill site     center of city
                                              1 Incineration
                                                  Plant




                                                                                                          4
TABLE OF CONTENT:

Abbreviations and Symbols ...........................................................................................6
1. Introduction:...............................................................................................................7
   1.1 Objective of Integrated Solid Waste Management for Latifabad ........................8
2. General Description of Taluka Latifabad ..................................................................9
   2.1 Location of Latifabad...........................................................................................9
   2.2 Population Characteristics ...................................................................................9
   2.3 Household Characteristics ...................................................................................9
   2.4 Solid Waste Generation .....................................................................................10
3. Function analyses of existing collection, hauling and disposal system of solid
waste Latifabad ............................................................................................................11
   3.1 Collection system of solid waste in Latifabad ...................................................12
      3.1.1 Cement Concrete refuse collection bins .....................................................12
      3.1.2 Iron bins (Moveable bins)...........................................................................12
      3.1.3 Collection Spots ..........................................................................................13
   3.2 Lorries collection and hauling system ...............................................................15
      3.2.1 Dumper .......................................................................................................17
      3.2.2 Skip Loader.................................................................................................17
      3.2.3 Tractor-trolley .............................................................................................18
      3.2.4 Mazda Truck & M-Truck............................................................................18
      3.2.4 Excavator ....................................................................................................18
   3.3 Dumping system of solid waste in Latifabad.....................................................20
      3.3.1 Dumping site plot number 61 & 62 at Auto Bhan road..............................20
      3.3.2 Dumping site along and opposite of Sindh Regimental Center..................20
      3.3.3 Dumping site along the railway tracks........................................................20
   3.4 Weaknesses of the Solid Waste Management system of Taluka Latifabad.......22
4. Environmental & health concerns of collection, hauling and disposal of waste in
Latifabad ......................................................................................................................23
   4.1 Environmental & Health concerns during collection & hauling of waste .........23
   4.2 Environmental & Health concerns of waste dumping .......................................24
   4.3 Solid Waste Management and infectious disease ..............................................24
5. 5. Improvement Model for Solid Waste Management, Latifabad .......................27
   5.1 Improvement possibilities in the collection system ...........................................28
      5.1.1 Door to door collection system ...................................................................28
      5.1.2 Communal Solid waste bins collection system...........................................28
   5.2 Improvement possibilities in hauling system.....................................................29
      5.2.1 Taluka Latifabad Workshop .......................................................................30
   5.3 Improvement possibilities for disposal system ..................................................31
      5.3.1 Sanitary Landfill Site ..................................................................................31
      5.3.2 Incineration Plant ........................................................................................31
      5.4 Awareness program for Solid Waste Management in Latifabad ...................32
      5.5 Sanitation Billing System ..............................................................................33
   5.6 Minimum Requirement of Integrated Solid Waste Management Program for
   Latifabad ..................................................................................................................34
6. Conclusion: ..............................................................................................................35
7. References................................................................................................................36




                                                                                                                                5
Abbreviations and Symbols


SDSSP     Sindh Devolved Social Services Programme

SWM       Solid Waste Management

MSW       Municipal Solid Waste

TMA       Town/Taluka Municipal Administration

Kg        Kilogram

Rs        Pakistani Rupees

PPE, s    Personnel Protection Equipments




                                                     6
1. Introduction:
        Sindh Devolved Social Service Program gives technical assistance to Taluka,
s/Towns of Sindh to develop their master plans for Drinking water and Sanitation
(Solid Waste Management & Wastewater disposal). The consultant of Sindh
Devolved Social Services Program on Environment and Solid Waste Management
(SWM) visited Taluka Latifabad on July 13, 2006 to analyze the current practices and
situation of SWM.

        Taluka Latifabad was of population of 5637611 in the year 1998 and it is
estimated that the population of 2006 is 714156. Taluka is located in the Taluka
District Hyderabad of Sindh at a distance of about 200 km East of Karachi. The total
generation of waste is estimated to be 625 tones (0.875 Kg/person/day) which
suppose to be on higher side.

       Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), industrial waste and medical waste are lifted
and dispose off together. There is no door to door waste collection facility for houses,
the communal bins (dustbins) which are provided in the Taluka falls short of the total
requirement. The people attitude towards hygiene conditions are worse, people
usually throws waste on streets. There are only 15 hauling vehicles to lift waste from
communal bins. The condition of most of the vehicles is unsatisfactory. The number
of vehicles falls short of the total requirement, that’s the reason only 240 tones of
solid waste out of 625 tones, lifted and disposed off.

         There is no proper sanitary landfill or dumping site available to the Taluka
Latifabad. Open dumping in the center of Latifabad is very common. TMA Latifabad
collects and dumps waste where they get open spaces, ground openings and along the
railway tracks etc. Some of the dumping site are located at plot number 61 & 62 at
Auto Bhan road near subway unit number 7, along and opposite of Sindh Regimental
Center, Mehar Ali housing society (Near Amina Shah graveyard), along the railway
track which all situated in the center of city. Some of the above mentioned dumping
site is still functional while some are closed due to unavailability of room.

As a result, the uncollected waste, which is often also mixed with human and animal
excreta, is dumped indiscriminately in the streets and in drains, so contributing to
flooding, breeding of insect and rodent vectors and the spread of diseases (UNEP-
IETC, 1996). Due to open dumping of waste creates serious environmental problems
that affect health of humans and animals and cause serious economic and other
welfare losses. The environmental degradation caused by inadequate disposal of
waste can be expressed by the contamination of surface and ground water through
leachate, soil contamination through direct waste contact or leachate, air pollution by
burning of wastes, spreading of diseases by different vectors like birds, insects and
rodents.

       Sanitary workers do not know the use personnel protection equipments during
handling and collection of waste. Manual lifting of waste to the lorry is common. The
vehicles which are automatic and have hydraulic loading system such as skip loader
does not need manual loading which dumpers and trucks are filled manually. Sharp

1
    District Census Report 1998, Page No/47 population growth rate 2.56%


                                                                                      7
metal and glass pieces hidden in the waste can cause injuries to those working in
heaps of refuse.

        Open burning of waste in Latifabad is very common; scavengers for their own
interest extract metals from waste heaps either at the collection spot or at the dumping
site. Scavengers put fire to the waste heaps and when the waste converted into ash,
they start looking and extracting for metals. The waste is burnt, which gives off
obnoxious gases and have severe impacts on the human health. This report contains
information of the existing system of SWM of Latifabad and suggests improvement
possibilities.


1.1 Objective of Integrated Solid Waste Management for Latifabad

   •   To maintain cleanliness of the TMA areas on all seven days a week.
   •   To reduce mortality and morbidity rates of solid waste borne diseases.
   •   Ensure community health through effective solid waste management.
   •   Introduction of a Integrated Solid Waste Management System for TMA
       Latifabad.




                                                                                      8
2. General Description of Taluka Latifabad
2.1 Location of Latifabad
    Latifabad was of population of 5637611 in the year 1998 is located in the Taluka
Latifabad and District Hyderabad in Sindh at a distance of about 200 km East of
Karachi. Important Taluka, s in the vicinity of Taluka Latifabad included Hyderabad
City and Qasimabad. Hyderabad city and Qasimabad Taluka, s shares their
boundaries.

2.2 Population Characteristics
    The average population growth rate of Latifabad experienced an
increase/decrease/stagnation during the 1951 – 1998 periods. It is expected that over
the next 20 years the population growth in Latifabad will tend to approach the
expected average growth rate of about 2.56% to 3% per year. According to this
assumption, the population of Latifabad has increased from 563761 in 1998 to
7136680 in 2006 and will increase to 8273368 in 2011, 9591101 in 2016 and 2026 as
shown in table I.

                 Table I: Expected population by year 2026 (Growth rate 3%)


          Year                  Population                   Year          Population

          1998                           563761              2013                 878321
          1999                           580674              2014                 904671
          2000                           598094              2015                 931811
          2001                           616037              2016                 959765
          2002                           634518              2017                 988558
          2003                           653554              2018                1018215
          2004                           673160              2019                1048762
          2005                           693355              2020                1080224
          2006                           714156              2021                1112631
          2007                           735580              2022                1146010
          2008                           757648              2023                1180390
          2009                           780377              2024                1215802
          2010                           803788              2025                1252276
          2011                           827902              2026                1289844
          2012                           852739

2.3 Household Characteristics
    According to the 1998 District Census Report of Latifabad the average household
size in Latifabad was 7 persons. In order to provide forecasts for the 20-year plan
period, a decreasing household size is assumed, reflecting the expected structural
changes in the society advocated by the official human resource development policies.
On this basis it is assumed that the average household size in TMA will gradually fall
to 5 persons during 20-year plan period.

1
    District Census Report 1998, Page No/47 population growth rate 2.56%


                                                                                        9
2.4 Solid Waste Generation
        According to the data provided by TMA Latifabad, the total generation of
solid waste from Latifabad Taluka is 625 tones2 per day and the generation rate per
person per day is 0.875 Kg which is quiet high as shown in table VIII. Taluka
Latifabad has 400 sanitary workers. In order to provide forecasts for the 20-year plan
period, it is observed that Latifabad has a potential to develop and the living standards
will also be improved by 2026. The generation of solid waste predicted for 2026 is
almost double than the current generation (2006).

       The generation of waste by 2011 is estimated to be 800 tones, 980 tones in
2016 and 1524 tones in 2026 as shown in table II. The calculations are done by
considering population growth rate and the increase of waste generation rate due to
increase in life standards of people. The generation rate per year is assumed to be
increased by 2% per person per year.

    The estimation of waste steers further planning of solid waste management
(SWM) program for Latifabad. It’s better to conduct survey of waste generation on
Union Council level before implementing any collection, hauling and disposal system.
Solid waste Survey will also be conducted at every five years interval of time to
follow the actual rate of generation of waste per person per day for the improvement
of master plan.

        Table II: Expected Solid Waste Generation by year 2026 (Growth rate 3%)

                                         Solid                                     Solid
      Year          Population          Waste             Year       Population   Waste
                                        (tones)                                   (tones)
      2006                714156              625         2017           988558        1025
      2007                735580              657         2018          1018215        1038
      2008                757648              690         2019          1048762        1105
      2009                780377              724         2020          1080224        1156
      2010                803788              760         2021          1112631        1210
      2011                827902              797         2022          1146010        1266
      2012                852739              811         2023          1180390        1314
      2013                878321              851         2024          1215802        1364
      2014                904671              892         2025          1252276        1415
      2015                931811              934         2026          1289844        1524
      2016                959765              979
       Note: Population growth rate (3%)
             Increase of waste generation per person per year (2%)




2
    Javaid Iqbal (Deputy Taluka Officer Infrastructure)


                                                                                        10
3. Function analyses of existing collection, hauling and disposal
     system of solid waste Latifabad

    Latifabad, Hyderabad alone produces 625 tones of solid waste daily and the
generation rate per day per person is estimated to be 0.875 Kg, the figure of 625 tones
per day of solid waste generation is given by the TMA Latifabad which seems to be
very high. Therefore it is suggested to estimate the waste generation properly prior to
any There is no classification of waste, municipal solid waste (household waste,
shopping and commercial centers, offices and waste from other public sources),
hazardous waste and industrial waste are collected and disposed off together by TMA
Hyderabad. Due to lack of resources, they cannot segregate waste at source and
cannot lift entire waste from Taluka.

    Almost 40 to 50% of solid waste is lifted from Latifabad, while the rest (50 to
60%) is either left unattended or is being burnt in-situ. There are some informal
sectors; scavengers (Kabaris) which are also involved in the solid waste business.
Scavengers collect door to door recycleable items include paper, glass, metal pieces
and other useful scrap, so small fraction of solid waste is being managed in this
manner.

   The use of plastic bags is in widely used in Latifabad, once anyone enters in the
Taluka one can see plastic bags scattering around the streets. These plastic bags are
non-biodegradable and will remain in the environment for long time. Plastic bags are
major reasons behind block sewers.

     There is no door to door waste collection system provided to the households by
TMA. There are some community bins for the collection of solid waste, the bins are
of two types immoveable (cement-concrete) and moveable bins (iron containers with
rollers). The bins fall short for the collection of solid waste; the people who got bins
in their vicinity perhaps drop their waste in bins. TMA collects waste from communal
bins and hauled the waste to the dumping site by using different heavy vehicles. The
vehicles also fall short for the collection; the vehicles are mainly of two type’s
hydraulic (skip loader) and non hydraulic (tractor-trolley, dumpers, M-Truck, Mazda
and Donkey Carts). Hydraulic vehicles carry moveable bins, while sanitary workers
fill non hydraulic vehicles manually. During manual operation there is a threat to
workers sharp metal and glass pieces hidden in the waste can cause injuries. There is
no provision of personnel protection equipments (gloves, boots, jackets, first aid and
other necessary PPE, s) to the sanitary workers.

    Open burning of waste in Latifabad is very common; scavengers for their own
interest extract metals from waste heaps either at the collection spot or at the dumping
site. Scavengers put fire to the waste heaps and when the waste converted into ash,
they start looking and extracting for metals. The waste is burnt, which gives off
obnoxious gases such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxides. The
effects of gases on human health are given in chapter 4.




                                                                                     11
3.1 Collection system of solid waste in Latifabad
    There is no door to door collection system of refuse in Latifabad. Householders
generally drop their refuse in bins provided by TMA Latifabad. It was observed
during the field visit on 13 July, 2006 that due to insufficient number of waste bins,
householders throw their refuse at streets, open spaces and in open drains.

       TMA Latifabad provides immoveable (cement-concrete) and moveable bins
(iron containers with rollers) to the residential and commercial area of Latifabad as
shown in table III. Taluka Latifabad has 400 sanitary workers which are adequate for
operation.

        Table III: Number and type of waste collection bins used in Latifabad2

                                                                          Total in
         Type                     Category              Size (feet)
                                                                          Numbers
Cement Concrete
                           Immoveable (small)           10X6X4                       25
small bins
Cement Concrete
                           Immoveable (large)           19X9X4                       35
small bins
Iron bins
                           Moveable (small)                  -
                                                                                     17
Iron bins
                           Moveable (large)             5.25X9X4

    3.1.1 Cement Concrete refuse collection bins
    As shown in table III that 25 small and 35 large cement concrete bins for waste
collection are constructed at the different locations of residential and commercial area
of Latifabad. This system of collection is not appreciated by citizens, they lost their
trust on TMA Latifabad that the Lorries will come and collects waste from these
immoveable bins. Therefore they throw waste on and infront of bin inspite of
dropping waste inside the bin.

    As TMA Latifabad fall short of vehicles therefore they usually collects moveable
bins first for their ease and to ensure timely disposal of waste to the dumping site.
Moveable bins take less time to lift comparatively to cement concrete bins.

     3.1.2 Iron bins (Moveable bins)
     As shown in figure 1 that iron bins is used for the collection of refuse from
Latifabad. Moveable bins are supposed to be efficient collection bins comparatively to
cement concrete bins. People usually drop their waste in moveable bins if they have
access, because they feel security for the removal of refuse with in one working day
by TMA. The bins are of two sizes, small and large. Skip trucks as shown in figure II
lifts two small or one big bin at a time and haul it to the disposal site.

        The provision of these bins in large quantities to TMA Latifabad would make
the collection system efficient. Sometimes skip trucks doesn’t have empty container


21
  Javaid Iqbal (Deputy Taluka Officer Infrastructure)


                                                                                     12
to replace the filled bins at the collection spot. Therefore the truck has to travel twice
to collect and drop the bin; as a result the fuel loss is witnessed.

       Scavengers usually burn filled bin to extract metal, if the fire is not bring to an
end on the spot in a certain time, the bin lost its life. The burnt bin lost its shape as
shown in figure III and cannot be revamped. This is a major draw back of using iron
moveable bin; the cost of one bin is almost Rs 50,000.




Figure I: A view of iron (moveable bin) placed along the wall of hospital in Latifabad (July
13, 2006)


    3.1.3 Collection Spots
    There are some corners and spot in Taluka Latifabad where people throw their
waste. These spots become permanent spots for the collection of waste, therefore the
drivers of lorry routinely collects waste from the informal spots. Therefore it is
suggested to provide moveable bins on those spots first, which already becomes
dumping spots.




                                                                                               13
     Figure II: Skip truck parked at the TMA Latifabad property (July 13, 2006)




Figure III: A un-operational bin which was being burnt by scavengers (July 13, 2006)




                                                                                       14
3.2 Lorries collection and hauling system
     There are different types of waste collection vehicles used for the collection of
waste in Latifabad Taluka. TMA Latifabad falls short of vehicles to lift entire
generated waste. Total generation of waste is estimated to be 625 tones per day3, out
of which only 240 tones of waste lifted to the dumping site while rest left unattended.
In April 2006 a very good exercise was conducted by the TMA Latifabad to calculate
the quantity of waste lifted from the entire vicinity. The exercise was simple, all
vehicles were weighed (empty and filled with waste) at Sindh Awami
COMPUTERIZED WEIGHBRIDGE as shown in appendix I. Total capacity of
vehicles are determined by weight which is multiplied by the total number of trips to
estimate the total quantity lifted as shown in table V & VI. The vehicles which are
given in table IV is also used for other purposes for instance for demolition works,
road works etc. During the engagement of vehicles in other works the quantity of
lifting waste shall go below 240 tones per day. During hauling none of the vehicle is
covered, therefore foul smell in the vicinity is witnessed by their movement. There are
20 donkey carts for the collection of waste, but no data is available for lifting and
dumping of waste through donkey carts. Therefore no facts and figures of donkey
carts are included in the report.

        Table IV: Vehicles (by type) used for hauling of waste in Latifabad Taluka3


          Type              Total in Numbers         Lifting or filling       Condition
                                                        mechanism
                                                    Lifts waste
Loader                                          1                         Unsatisfactory
                                                  Filled manually or
Dumper                                          3                         Unsatisfactory
                                                  by loader
                                                  With hydraulic
Skip loader                                     4                         Unsatisfactory
                                                  lifting system
Tractor-trolley
                                                6 Manual                  Satisfactory
                                                    Shall be filled
Mazda truck                                     1                         Unsatisfactory
                                                    manually
Tractor with blade
                                                    Only to lift waste
(self installed                                 1                         Satisfactory
                                                    to other lorry
blade)
                                                  With hydraulic
M-Truck                                         1                         Unsatisfactory
                                                  lifting system
                                                  Open drain
Excavator                                       1                         Satisfactory
                                                  desilting




3
    Mr. Aqeel (Assistant Director) TMA, Latifabad


                                                                                           15
             Table V: 1st Shift of vehicles waste hauling trips per day
                        (Data collected on April 25, 2006)

                                 Capacity                               Total Waste
S.NO   Vehicle/Number                               Trips per day
                                  (Kg)                                     (Kg)
 1     Dumper No: 31                     3670                      6            22020
 2     Dumper No: 34                     3670                      6            22020
 3     Dumper No: 37                     3670                      6            22020
 4     Skip loader No:6                  2780                      4            11120
 5     Skip loader No:17                 2780                     8             22240
 6     Skip loader No:23                 2780                      3             5560
 7     Tractor No: 1                     1500                     5              7500
 8     Tractor No: 2                     1500                     4              6000
 9     Tractor No: 3                     1500                     4              6000
 10    Tractor No: 4                     1500                     5              7500
 11    Tractor No: 5                     1500                     4              6000
 12    Tractor No: 6                     1500                     4              6000
 13    M-Truck                           1500                     4              6000
 14    Mazda No: 5                       1500                      4             6000
                                                               Total           155980
                                                     Total in Tones               156

             Table VI: 1st Shift of vehicles waste hauling trips per day
                        (Data collected on April 25, 2006)

       Vehicle/Numbe           Capacity                                 Total Waste
S.NO                                               Trips per day
               r                (Kg)                                       (Kg)
 1     Dumper No: 31                      3670                      6           22020
 2     Dumper No: 34                      3670                      6           22020
 3     Dumper No: 37                      3670                      6           22020
 4     Tractor No: 1                      1500                      3            4500
 5     Tractor No: 4                      1500                      3            4500
 6     Tractor No: 5                      1500                      3            4500
                                                         Total                  79560
                                                      Total in Tones                80
                           Total waste lifted in shift I & II (Tones)              236




                                                                                16
     3.2.1 Dumper
         There are total three dumpers to lift waste. Dumpers are dependent on loader;
loader is used to fill waste, dumper can also be filled manually. The sanitary workers
lift waste to dumper from immoveable bins through baskets and shovels. In manual
operation sanitary workers are fully exposed to a number of infectious diseases, such
as cholera, typhoid, malaria and hepatitis. The total capacity of dumper is almost 3.5
tones and each dumper makes 12 trips per day. Number of trips is quiet higher
because dumping site is located with in the area of Taluka, if the dumping site is away
from the Taluka number of trips shall also be curtailed.

    3.2.2 Skip Loader
        There are total three skip loaders as shown in figure IV. The condition of skip
loader is not satisfactory. The spare parts are not easily available because the vehicles
are very old and outdated. However these are the most efficient hauling vehicles. Skip
loader can lift two small or one large moveable bin at a time. The system is user
friendly, no manual collection is required therefore it is safe option to lift waste bins.
The total capacity of skip loader is almost 2.75 tones. Each skip loader makes 5 trips
per day, which can be increased by increasing the number of moveable bins. Due to
the insufficient number of moveable bins, skip loader has to travel twice to lift and to
drop the bin which ensure loss of fuel and time.




          Figure IV: A view of skip loader carries a moveable bin (July 13, 2006)




                                                                                       17
     3.2.3 Tractor-trolley
     There are total six tractor-trolleys to lift waste, their condition is satisfactory.
Tractor-trolleys can only be filled manually by sanitary workers. The sanitary workers
lift waste to tractor-trolleys from immoveable bins through baskets and shovels. The
total capacity of dumper is almost 1.5 tones per trip and each tractor makes 4 trips per
day.




                    Figure IV: A view of tractor-trolley (July 13, 2006)


   3.2.4 Mazda Truck & M-Truck
   TMA Latifabad has two trucks for the hauling of waste. The trucks are filled
manually by sanitary workers. The condition of the trucks is not satisfactory. The
capacity of truck is 1.5 tones per trip.

    3.2.4 Excavator
    There is only one excavator in Taluka Latifabad; the excavator is used to clean the
waste scattering around the bins. Excavators are falling short in number, the excavator
as shown in figure V is very old. The spare parts (especially tyre) of excavator are not
available.




                                                                                      18
Figure V: A view of tractor-trolley (July 13, 2006)




                                                      19
3.3 Dumping system of solid waste in Latifabad
    Basically there is no proper dumping system in Latifabad Taluka since its
inception. TMA Latifabad collects waste and dumps waste where they get open
spaces, ground openings and along the railway tracks etc. Dumping site are at plot
number 61 & 62 at Auto Bhan road near subway unit number 7, along and opposite of
Sindh Regimental Center, Mehar Ali housing society (Near Amina Shah graveyard),
along the railway track which all situated in the center of city. Due to the
unavailability of sanitary landfill fundamentally TMA is transferring waste from one
place to other creating environmental pollution. The water table in Taluka Latifabad is
very high, due to the un-safe dumping practices the ground water of Latifabad is fully
contaminated and water is no more suitable for drinking purposes.

    As stated earlier that the entire dumping site located in the center of Latifabad, the
situation became worse when scavengers burnt waste heaps for the extraction of
metals. There are lot of complains about the fouling smells and other environmental
nuisance to the TMA by the community lives just behind the dumping site. TMA
officer doesn’t know about the safe disposal method and recycling methods of waste.
Dumping of waste is a biggest issue for Taluka Latifabad; they showed a great
concern for the urgent need of a sanitary landfill site. TMA Latifabad also showed a
great concern about training on safe disposal of waste.


    3.3.1 Dumping site plot number 61 & 62 at Auto Bhan road
    As shown in figure VI that dumping site situated at plot number 61 & 62 is closed
because it ran out of its capacity. The total dumping area was of two acres, TMA
Latifabad dump waste at this site for almost 4 years. The dumping site is just along
the Auto Bhan road; Auto Bhan road is one of the most important roads of Taluka
Latifabad.
The concept behind choosing this dumping site is to cover seepage water logged area
with waste. As water table is too high in Latifabad therefore due to capillary action
water rises and logged at plot number 61 & 62. Latifabad Taluka dumps waste for 4
years at this site, after the completion of operation they cover the whole area with clay
and silt.

   3.3.2 Dumping site along and opposite of Sindh Regimental Center
   As shown in figure VII dumping site is situated just opposite to Sindh Regimental
Center. The total area opposite to the Sindh Regimental Center is not being estimated.
The dumping area is just between the road shoulder and agricultural land. Open
burning of waste is observed during the visit on July 13, 2006.

    3.3.3 Dumping site along the railway tracks
        Dumping along the railway tracks was done in past. Therefore the waste in
piles along the railway lines exits. There are similarly many cases and many places in
the city where the authorities dump waste, its difficult to address all the sites therefore
only three sites are described in the report.




                                                                                        20
Figure VII: Dumping site plot number 61 & 62 at Auto Bhan road near subway unit number 7




              Figure VIII: Dumping site opposite to Sindh Regimental Center




                                                                                     21
3.4 Weaknesses of the Solid Waste Management system of Taluka Latifabad
    The following are some of the weaknesses of the SWM of Latifabad. The flaw of
system is assessed by interviewing TMA Officer, Assistant director, and
Infrastructure officer, data collection by the staff and survey of Latifabad on the July
13, 2006.

   •   There is no door to door collection system of refuse in Latifabad
   •   Communal waste collection bins fall short of the total requirement.
   •   People doesn’t drop their waste into the bin, usually throw waste on streets
       and infront of communal bins.
   •   Scavengers put fire on waste in the communal bins to extract metals and other
       recycleable material from waste.
   •   Almost 50% of waste lifted from the entire Taluka while the rest either left
       unattended or is being burnt in-situ.
   •   TMA falls short in vehicles to remove waste from communal bins.
   •   The vehicles are very old and spare parts are rarely available.
   •   The vehicles are already short in numbers; however the vehicles are also used
       in other operations of the Taluka whenever needed.
   •   Manual lifting of waste by sanitary workers to the hauling vehicles.
   •   Plastic bags is major source to chock drains, it is widely used in Latifabad.
   •   There is no proper sanitary landfill site available to the Taluka.
   •   Open dumping is common in Taluka; mostly dumping is carried out in the
       center of city.
   •   Lack of funds for the establishment of sanitary landfill site.




                                                                                      22
4. Environmental & health concerns of collection, hauling and
     disposal of waste in Latifabad
4.1 Environmental & Health concerns during collection & hauling of waste
        Community bins are not properly and regularly emptied they become a source
of environmental pollution. These bins have a free access to scavengers who pick up
recycleable items. It is they who are exposed to a number of infectious diseases, such
as cholera, typhoid, malaria and hepatitis.

       Scavengers put fire on waste, the emissions from waste are Nitrogen oxides,
Carbon monoxide and sulphur oxides. The affects of these pollutants on human health
and environment is shown in table VII. The waste which is unattended is rotten and a
foul smell observed from the heap. This smell is due to the emission of methane and
hydrogen sulphide by the anaerobic conditions due to the presence of organic waste.
Due to these gases, sanitary workers working in waste dumps face suffocation.
Fermenting waste is a breeding ground for flies, insects and vermin, which are disease
vectors and can trigger epidemics.

        Sanitary workers lift waste manually through baskets and shovels, workers are
known to be carriers of the diseases and may cause epidemics in their respective
communities. Sharp metal and glass pieces hidden in the waste can cause injuries to
those working in heaps of refuse. Such wounds pose considerable risk of tetanus and
other viral infection.

                  Table VII: Health and Environmental Issues during

                                     Health and Environmental Issues
     Pollutants
                         Health Issues
                         • Reduction in oxygen carrying capacity of blood
                         • Impairment of olfactory sense and night vision
                         • Dryness and roughness of the throat

                          Environmental Impacts
   Nitrogen oxides
                         • Formation of photochemical oxidants
                         • Damage to materials and property, by acid rains, resulting
                           from oxidation of oxides of nitrogen to nitric acid, after
                           reacting with water vapors.
                         • Retardation of growth in plants




                                                                                    23
     Pollutants                        Health and Environmental Issues
                          Health Concerns
                          • Heart attack, by reducing the oxygen carrying capacity of
                            blood
                          • Birth defects including mental retardation and impairment
                            of fetus growth
  Carbon monoxide
                          • Dizziness, head ache and nausea
                            Increase in reaction time of the drivers, a threat to the road
                            safety


                         Health Concerns
                         • Serious lung damage, particularly in sulfate form
                         • Respiratory diseases like Chronic bronchitis

  Sulphur dioxides       Environmental Impacts
                         • Damage to materials and property, by acid rains, resulting
                           from oxidation of sulfur dioxide to tri-oxide to sulfuric
                           acid, after reacting with water vapors.



4.2 Environmental & Health concerns of waste dumping
        Disposal of waste through open dumping is being carried out which is
impacting negatively on the environment. In rainy season, the situation becomes
worse. Water leachating into and out of the waste becomes toxic in nature and if it in
contact with ground water cause contamination. The water table is high in Taluka
Latifabad. The people living in Town Latifabad do not use ground water as the water
is contaminated by illegal dumping and not safe for drinking.


4.3 Solid Waste Management and infectious disease

In Latifabad scavengers and sanitary workers usually work on the heaps of solid
waste, solid waste is often contaminated with human or animal excreta. Extracting
recycleable from the dumping site by scavengers and manual loading of waste from
primary collection point to the hauling vehicle is in common practice. Therefore who
lives or work where the waste dumps, will therefore often be at risk from excreta-
related infections.

Solid waste generated from households, restaurants and markets generally comprised
of organic waste which usually attracts rats, cockroaches and other vectors. Organic
waste in waste heaps serves as food and a place to rest and hide for domestic flies and
mosquitoes. Rats which are potential hosts for many infections (e.g. Leptospirosis),
cockroaches, which can transmit faecal-oral infections and mosquitoes and flies
which are the vectors to spread malaria, diarrhea, cholera and other parasitic diseases.




                                                                                       24
The population of birds and dogs at the dumping site are definately higher
comparatively to the neighbor areas. Birds create problem if the airport is in the
nearby vicinity, they might stuck in the propeller of aircrafts and cause damage to
aircraft etc. While dogs at the dumping site might bit people due to the unavailability
of food they are searching for.

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by
bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Leptospira organisms have been found in cattle,
pigs, horses, dogs, rodents, and wild animals. Leptospira organisms have been found
in cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, rodents, and wild animals.


                                                                     Preventive
  Diseases            Pathway                   Signs
                                                                     measures

                   Skin contact of          Fever               Use personnel
                   waste                    Sever Headache      protection equipments
                                            Vomiting            (gloves, hats, boots,
                   Through                  Jaundice            masks and dangry etc)
                   Contaminated             Red eyes            to avoid direct contact
Leptospirosis      food & water             Abdominal pain      with waste
                                            Diarrhea
                                            Rash                Safe & proper
                                            Kidney damage       collection,
                                            Liver failure and   transportation and
                                            Respiratory         disposal of solid waste
                                            distress etc
                                                                Visit doctors if any
                                                                signs appears

Malaria         Water borne diseases        Fever               Waste collection bins
                                                                shall not be placed near
                                                                to the markets,
                                                                madarrasas, schools,
                                                                colleges, hotels and
                                                                other public
                                                                community centers.

                                                                Waste shall be
                                                                removed from the
                                                                designated collection
                                                                areas within a day

                                                                Waste shall be covered
                                                                during hauling




                                                                                       25
                                          Secure and proper
                                          disposal of solid waste

                                          Visit doctor in case of
                                          suffering from malaria


Typhoid     Flies        Continuous fever As mentioned for
            Mosquitoes                    Malaria


Dog bites   Dogs                          Use covered bins

                                          Fence the disposal site
                                          in such a way that their
                                          shall be no access to
                                          dogs and other vectors.




                                                               26
   5. 5. Improvement Model for Solid Waste Management, Latifabad

             Integrated Solid Waste Management Model for Taluka Latifabad


                                    Generation of Solid Waste from Latifabad




                    Houses                               Flats                           Hospital
                                                                                          waste


                             •   Door to door collection of waste by contractor at UC
                                 level/special vehicle for the collection of medical waste

Collection of                •   Drop waste in communal bins/ Workers shall use
   Waste                         personnel protection equipments during operation

                             •   Rs 25 to 50 per house door to door collection charges


                             •   Hauling of waste by skip loader or packer trucks
  Hauling
                             •   Cover waste by tarpaulin sheets


                             •   Hauling of waste to sanitary landfill site at the suggested
  Disposal                       site Tando Muhammad Khan

                             •   Incineration plant at the landfill site



                             •   Awareness program in Schools, lady health workers
 Awareness
                             •   Sanitation broachers, information with bills


                             •   Billing on sanitation Rs 10/= per house

Billing System               •   Collection of sanitation charges with other utility bills


  Figure IX: Integrated Solid Waste Management Model for Latifabad



                                                                                             27
5.1 Improvement possibilities in the collection system

     5.1.1 Door to door collection system
         Door to door waste collection system shall be designed. Public private
partnership will play an important role at UC level. Contractors shall be hired at
Union Council (UC) level for the collection of waste. Primary collection (door to door
collection) will be done by contractors, contractor shall drop waste to the secondary
collection point (communal bins) from where the responsibility of TMA starts for the
lifting and disposal of waste. Contractor can charge money between Rs 25/= to Rs
50/= from each house to cover its operational expenditures. Contractor shall ensure
that the workers working under his contract shall wear personnel protection
equipments (gloves, goggles, masks and boots).4.

    5.1.2 Communal Solid waste bins collection system
        As discussed in section 3.1 that moveable bins are more efficient then
immoveable bins. Therefore provision of moveable bins will improve the collection
system. At present there are only 17 moveable bins available to Taluka Latifabad, the
requirement of bins for the operation of suggested system is given in table VIII.

           Table VIII: Requirement of moveable bins in Latifabad Taluka

                                    Solid       Capacity Generation Required
    S.NO    Year    Population      Waste         of bin    Rate      Bins in
                                  Generation     (tones) (Kg/person) Numbers
      1      2006       714156           625          2.75     0.875       227
      2      2007       735580           657          2.75     0.893       239
      3      2008       757648           690          2.75     0.910       251
      4      2009       780377           724          2.75     0.928       263
      5      2010       803788           760          2.75     0.945       276
      6      2011       827902           797          2.75     0.963       290
      7      2012       852739           811          2.75     0.952       304
      8      2013       878321           851          2.75     0.969       309
      9      2014       904671           892          2.75     0.986       324
     10      2015       931811           934          2.75     1.003       340
     11      2016       959765           979          2.75     1.020       356
     12      2017       988558          1025          2.75     1.037       373
     13      2018      1018215          1038          2.75     1.020       378
     14      2019      1048762          1105          2.75     1.054       402
     15      2020      1080224          1156          2.75     1.071       421
     16      2021      1112631          1210          2.75     1.088       440
     17      2022      1146010          1266          2.75     1.105       460
     18      2023      1180390          1314          2.75     1.113       478
     19      2024      1215802          1364          2.75     1.122       496
     20      2025      1252276          1415          2.75     1.130       515
     21      2026      1289844          1524          2.75     1.182       554


4
  MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE SANITATION STANDARD (All waste generated to be conveyed to
transfer points either by generator or door to door collectors)


                                                                                   28
        As shown in table VIII that 227 moveable bins are required for year 2006 for
the collection of entire waste of Taluka Latifabad. The number of bins will be
increased or decreased by using bins of smaller or larger sizes; it shall also be
considered that every one has access to drop their waste into the bin. Therefore
placement of bins at appropriate locations is very important, which shall be exercised
by Taluka Latifabad. The above suggested system meets the following points set in
the draft copy of NATIONAL SANITARY POLICY

   •     Daily removal of all waste from primary-secondary transfer points, and
         cleaning where necessary.
   •     Where possible, zero direct human contact with waste from primary collection
         to disposal, and covering of waste during transportation.

5.2 Improvement possibilities in hauling system
        As described in section 3.2 that Taluka Latifabad falls short of vehicles to lift
waste. There are different types of garbage lifting vehicles used all over the world.
Skip trucks, container truck and packer trucks are generally used to lift waste from
bins. Packer trucks and container trucks are covered while tarpaulin sheets shall be
used over bins hauled by skip loader. Complete lifting system by using only skip
loader is estimated in table IX. If packer trucks or any other vehicles are also included
in the system than the requirement of skip loader will be decreased. One container
truck is also required to collect medical waste from hospitals.

       Table IX: Requirement of garbage lifting vehicles for Taluka Latifabad

                                           Solid Waste      Required       Requirement of
 S.NO          Year        Population      Generation        Bins in         Skip Loader
                                             (tones)        Numbers        (6 trips per day)
    1          2006             714156             625             227                    38
    2          2007             735580             657             239                  38+2
    3          2008             757648             690             251                  40+2
    4          2009             780377             724             263                  42+2
    5          2010             803788             760             276                  44+2
    6          2011             827902             797             290                  46+2
    7          2012             852739             811             304                  48+2
    8          2013             878321             851             309                  50+1
    9          2014             904671             892             324                  51+3
   10          2015             931811             934             340                  54+3
   11          2016             959765             979             356                  57+2
   12          2017             988558            1025             373                  59+3
   13          2018            1018215            1038             378                  62+1
   14          2019            1048762            1105             402                  63+4
   15          2020            1080224            1156             421                  67+2
   16          2021            1112631            1210             440                  69+3
   17          2022            1146010            1266             460                  72+3
   18          2023            1180390            1314             478                  75+3
   19          2024            1215802            1364             496                  78+3
   20          2025            1252276            1415             515                  81+3
   21          2026            1289844            1524             554                  84+5


                                                                                      29
        Table IX is developed to access the base line requirement of vehicles for
Latifabad. Complete survey is still required to estimate the exact number of vehicles
required for the collection of waste. For instance number of trips per vehicle is
considered to be 6 which are on higher side. Number of vehicles is dependent on the
generation of waste, type of communal bins, distance to disposal site and others. As
shown in table IX, atleast 38 vehicles are required for the lifting of entire waste,
Taluka Latifabad has only 15 vehicles (skip loader, tractor-trolley, dumper etc see
table IV), So Taluka Latifabad needs atleast 23 skip loaders to lift entire waste. The
above suggested system meets the following points set in the draft of NATIONAL
SANITARY POLICY.

   •   Daily removal of all waste from primary-secondary transfer points, and
       cleaning where necessary.
   •   Where possible, zero direct human contact with waste from primary collection
       to disposal, and covering of waste during transportation.
   •   Separate collection of health care and other hazardous waste.


   5.2.1 Taluka Latifabad Workshop
       The existing condition of workshop is not satisfactory; therefore it is
suggested to buy all the required equipments and recruit technical staff to maintain
vehicles and other machinery owned by Taluka.




                                                                                       30
5.3 Improvement possibilities for disposal system

    5.3.1 Sanitary Landfill Site
        There is an urgent need of proper sanitary landfill site for Taluka Latifabad.
Open dumping in the vicinity is very common. There is a site area of 42-3 acres at
Tando Muhammad Khan already identified and studied for landfill5. Due to some
political reasons the development work of site was not continued. Therefore it is
suggested to develop the landfill site by the coordination of some foreign experts and
foreign companies. The development of landfilling site shall be outsourced to foreign
company on Built Operate & Transfer (BOT) basis.
        The identified landfill site is just 15-17 Km from the Taluka, the city
Hyderabad is divided into three Taluka which are Taluka City Hyderabad, Taluka
Latifabad and Taluka Qasimabad. The identified landfill site will manage the disposal
of solid waste from all the three Taluka, s.


    5.3.2 Incineration Plant
        The medical waste which will be collected by the container truck as mentioned
in section 5.2 shall be incinerated. Atleast one incinerator shall be installed at the
designated landfill site. The capacity of the incinerator shall not be mentioned at this
stage. Survey of generation of medical waste from the hospitals located in Latifabad is
required to estimate and quantity of medical waste to be incinerated. The ash from the
medical waste shall be disposed off in the sanitary landfill site.

      The above suggested system meets the following points set in the draft of
      NATIONAL SANITATION POLICY
         • Final disposal of waste at least 500m from housing to a continued area
            chosen and designed according to geological conditions, water table, wind
            etc.
         • Zero open-burning of waste.
         • Separate treatment and disposal of health care and other hazardous waste.




5
    Abdul Majeed Rajput Taluka Municipal Officer


                                                                                     31
5.4 Awareness program for Solid Waste Management in Latifabad


                                  Awareness program for
                                       Sanitation




          Brochures                       Home Page                       Information with
                                                                          Letters and Bills




 Seminars/Lectures/        Media/Newspaper              School              Lady Health
 Presentations                                        Information           Workers

Figure X: Model for awareness about solid waste management in Latifabad

The above mentioned awareness program is step by step process.

   •   Lady Health Worker shall also inform female to dispose their waste properly
       and appreciate door to door collection system
   •   Seminars/Lectures and presentation first given to the sanitary workers so that
       they can use personnel protection equipments to reduce the probability of
       direct human contact with waste.
   •   Slogans like ‘drop your waste in bins’ shall be advertised with utilities bills
       and other letters.
   •   Media & newspaper shall play an important role to create awareness about the
       hazards to health created by insanitation conditions.
   •   Through NGO, s and TMA collaboration, lectures shall be given to school
       students about the safe disposal of waste and also on why toilets are required
       and how they should be used and maintained.
   •   Brochures shall be developed by TMA Latifabad contains information about
       their Sanitation program
   •   Home page for the sanitation program shall also be developed but on Sindh
       Province level.

By taking all these majors, Awareness and Education programmes as stated in the
SANITARY POLICY FOR SINDH will be covered.




                                                                                      32
      5.5 Sanitation Billing System
              There is a need to develop the project including operation and maintenance
      cost of the machinery and other ancillary which will be used during operation. The
      integrated solid waste management program which is envisaged in this report requires
      high operation and maintenance cost. The cradle to grave activity of solid waste from
      door to door collection to final disposal entertained by a number of machinery need to
      be maintained every month. According to the NATIONAL SANITATION POLICY,
      Government spent only 0.10% of the total GDP on sanitation. This amount is not
      enough to cover operation and maintenance of sanitation equipments, therefore it is
      suggested that households shall pay a little amount to the service provider (TMA).
      Charging Rs 10/= for sanitation services with any utility bills (telephone bills,
      electricity bills and gas bills) from each household shall produce enough money to run
      the whole system as shown in table XI. The recovery rate will be increased by
      upgrading the efficiency of sanitation services.

                       Table XI: Sanitation billing system from houses

                                                      Charges
                                                                    30%         50%          60%
              Expected Person Expected Nm                per
S.NO Year                                                         Recovery    Recovery     Recovery
             Population /House of Houses               house
                                                                  Rate (Rs)   Rate (Rs)    Rate (Rs)
                                                        (Rs)
  1   2006       714156       7             102022       10        306067       510111      612133
  2   2007       735580       7             105083       10        315249       525414      630497
  3   2008       757648       7             108235       10        324706       541177      649412
  4   2009       780377       7             111482       10        334447       557412      668895
  5   2010       803788       7             114827       10        344481       574135      688961
  6   2011       827902       7             118272       12        425778       709630      851556
  7   2012       852739       6             142123       12        511643       852739     1023287
  8   2013       878321       6             146387       12        526993       878321     1053986
  9   2014       904671       6             150778       15        678503      1130839     1357006
 10   2015       931811       6             155302       15        698858      1164764     1397717
 11   2016       959765       6             159961       18        863789      1439648     1727578
 12   2017       988558       6             164760       18        889702      1482837     1779405
 13   2018      1018215       6             169703       18        916394      1527323     1832787
 14   2019      1048762       6             174794       20       1048762      1747936     2097523
 15   2020      1080224       5             216045       20       1296269      2160449     2592538
 16   2021      1112631       5             222526       20       1335157      2225262     2670315
 17   2022      1146010       5             229202       20       1375212      2292020     2750424
 18   2023      1180390       5             236078       20       1416468      2360781     2832937
 19   2024      1215802       5             243160       20       1458962      2431604     2917925
 20   2025      1252276       5             250455       20       1502731      2504552     3005463
 21   2026      1289844       5             257969       20       1547813      2579689     3095627




                                                                                          33
5.6 Minimum Requirement of Integrated Solid Waste Management Program for
Latifabad

     Table XII: Minimum requirement to start an Integrated Solid Waste
                    Management Program for Latifabad

Total                Current           Needs              Cost (Rs)   Cost
Requirement          Situation                                        Estimation
                                                                      (Rs)
                       50 Cement
 Collection Bins        Concrete        Atleast 150
                                                          Rs 50,000      7500000
      227            17 Moveable       moveable bins
                           bins
                     4 Skip Loader
Number of lorries      6 Tractors         23 Skip
                                                            Not       Not Estimated
     38                3 Dumpers          Loader
                                                          available
                         2 Truck
                                         1 Sanitary
                                       landfilling site
    Dumping          Dumping in the                          Not
                                                                      Not Estimated
Site/Landfill site    center of city                      Estimated
                                       1 Incineration
                                           Plant




                                                                                   34
6. Conclusion:
       TMA Latifabad was selected for the survey of Solid Waste Management
because TMA Hala includes both (developed and underdeveloped) areas. Hence it
was envisaged to analyze the situation of Solid Waste Management of both the areas
to develop guidelines for the improvement of Solid Waste Management system in
Sindh as some of the TMAs of Sindh.

        A questionnaire was developed for TMA Hala to analyze the existing situation
of Solid Waste in TMA and the capacity of TMA officials for handling their SW. A
field visit was arranged by TMA Hala, all old and new dumping grounds of TMA
Hala were visited. The collection and transportation system of waste from developed
and underdeveloped areas and the condition of transportation fleet used for Solid
Waste was assessed.

After conducting the survey of Solid Waste Management system of TMA Latifabad, it
was found that TMA Latifabad had a very poor Solid Waste Collection to disposal
system.

   •   TMA technical staff working in SWM lacks in capacity to identify, develop
       and operate a proper landfill site, the rate of generation and composition of
       solid waste was not known to them.
   •   There was no proper placement of garbage collection bins; some of the bins
       were located near the hospitals, clinics, Mosques and food shops.
   •   There were short of waste collection bins
   •   TMA Latifabad lacks in number of vehicles to lift 100% waste daily produced
   •   TMA Latifabad did not have a designated dumping site, TMA dumps waste in
       open spaces and near water bodies etc
   •   There was no public awareness campaign being launched to control the health
       hazard arising out of indiscriminate dumping of solid waste
   •   Almost 50% of waste lifted from the entire Taluka while the rest either left
       unattended or is being burnt in-situ.
   •   Scavengers put fire on waste in the communal bins to extract metals and other
       recycleable material from waste.
   •   TMA falls short in vehicles to remove waste from communal bins.
   •   Open burning of waste at the dumping site is very common.


The guidelines were developed keeping in view the existing situation of SWM in
Latifabad, and the information obtained through interviews of TMA Latifabad
officials. There guidelines were then circulated amongst all the TMAs for
implementation with the view to improve SWM system in Sindh.




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7. References

  1) District Census Report 1998, Page No/47 population growth rate 2.56%

  2) Javaid Iqbal (Deputy Taluka Officer Infrastructure)

  3) Mr. Aqeel (Assistant Director) TMA, Latifabad

  4) MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE SANITATION STANDARD (All waste
     generated to be conveyed to transfer points either by generator or door to door
     collectors)

  5) Abdul Majeed Rajput Taluka Municipal Officer




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