Mapping soil salinity by sck19707

VIEWS: 74 PAGES: 8

									               C A L I F O R N I A A G R I C U LT U R A L T E C H N O L O G Y I N S T I T U T E

 SPRING 2002                                                                                    In this issue...
                                                                                                Biosolids on apricots ............2
                                                                                                Labor force still elusive........3
                                                                                                Juice nitrogen measured ......5
                                                                                                CIMIS has a new plan ..........6
                                    California State University, Fresno




Mapping soil salinity
Field salinity distribution map will be created,
used for precision farm management
             recision cotton farming           salinity problems,” Cassel said

 P           featuring the use of soil
             salinity mapping is planned
             for an area in western Fresno
County this spring, with support from the
                                               in outlining the reasons for
                                               the project. “Our objective is
                                               to map and monitor the soil
                                               salinity of two cotton fields.
Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT).        With this mechanized system,
     The project is being conducted            we can measure for soil salinity
through a partnership between CIT and          over a large area.”
Cotton Inc., a nationwide cotton-farming            By locating specific areas
corporation based in North Carolina.           of the field where soil salinity
     The work features a mapping pro-          is high, farm managers can take
cess used for the first time in California’s   corrective measures in those
San Joaquin Valley, reported research          areas – such as planting more
                                                                                  CIT education specialist Tim Jacobsen controls custom-
scientist Florence Cassel Sharmasarkar,        seed and adding gypsum to the      built hoist to lower sledge with EM-38 unit used for
who is overseeing the CIT portion of the       soil – to enhance plant growth     measuring field soil salinity.
project. The process employs a measur-         and production, Cassel noted.
ing device attached to a tractor, enabling          Equipment used for the mapping            and uses electric current to induce a
the soil salinity distribution of an entire    project includes a dual-dipole EM-38           magnetic field in the soil. The strength
field to be measured within a few hours.       instrument manufactured by Geonics of          of the induced field is dependent upon
     “The West Side is known for its soil      Canada. The unit is about three feet long several factors, including soil moisture,
                                                                                              soil texture, and soil salinity.
                                                                                                                    See Mapping, Page 4
 Lending institute targets finance professionals

  T
            he Center for Agricultural         professionals who grant and manage
            Business (CAB) has joined          agricultural loans, reported James
            with a local agribusiness entity   Casey, professor in Fresno State’s
  to offer a new program of specialized        Department of Agricultural Economics
  education and training to business and       and one of the event organizers.
  finance professionals.                            “The goal of CALI is to provide
       It is called the California Agricul-    quality education preparing the partici-
  tural Lending Institute (CALI). It will      pants to be informed and effective
  be held in Fresno, California the week       leaders in agricultural lending, to
  of June 17-21.                               promote the success of their financial
       The institute is designed to            institutions, and to promote the growth
  provide in-depth training for lending                             See Institute, Page 3
2                                                        SPRING 2002                                                          UPDATE



Study shows fruit
matures later in orchard
treated with biosolids
             gricultural use of wastewater treatment plant sludge (also called

    A        biosolids) in fertilizer applications provides environmental and
             economic benefits through the reuse of nutrients and organic
             matter. However, depending on the source and content of the
biosolids, their application also can cause excessive accumulation of
inorganic elements in the soil. As a means of determining specific effects
of fertilization with biosolids on apricots, plant/soil scientist Gary
Banuelos, with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Water Management
Research Laboratory, directed a study of trace element accumulation in
an apricot orchard treated with biosolids. The research was supported by
the USDA and the California State University Agricultural Research
Initiative (ARI). Key results from the study are outlined in the following
excerpts taken from the project final report, entitled “The Effect of
Composted Biosolids on Fruit Quality
and Trace Element Accumulation in
Field-grown Apricots.”

     “Class A biosolids, the highest
                                                                                                         Research scientist
quality of treated sewage sludge, have                                                                   Gary Banuelos (far
been approved for application to agricul-                                                                left) and graduate
tural farmland without site restrictions.                                                                student Sajeemas
In our study, composted biosolids were                                                                   Pasakdee evaluate
applied to apricots at four rates based                                                                  foliage samples
                                                                                                         from trees treated
upon total nitrogen: (control), 57, 170,
                                                                                                         with biosolids.
and 340 kilograms of nitrogen per
hectare. After seven years of biosolids
application, levels of heavy metals in        reached maturity later than did control       ment or market constraints.
soil, plant, or fruit tissue were not         fruits. More early-ripened fruits were             “After seven years of the study,
significantly detected.                       collected from the 0 and 57 kg N ha-1         biosolids-amended soil contained
     “Biosolids provided sufficient           biosolids treatments. By the end of the       significantly higher organic matter,
nitrogen (N) to apricot trees without any     season fruits from all treatments ripened     which enhances soil quality and soil
additional applications of N fertilizer.      similarly. Excessive N applied by             fertility. Although soil salinity in-
The significantly higher N concentra-         biosolids may have contributed to the         creased, no negative effect on fruit
tions of leaf tissue observed for the trees   delay in fruit maturity of apricots.          quality and production was observed at
from the biosolids treatments suggested            “Although a delay in fruit maturation    this time. Salinity levels may increase at
luxurious N consumption by the tree.          did not affect overall fruit yields, it can   deeper depth over time and eventually
Over time excessive N uptake may result       impact a grower economically because          affect tree growth and development
in more vegetative growth, increased          early season fruit generally brings in a      without salt management strategies.”
canopy cover, and may lead to excessive       higher price. However, an extended                 The complete final report for this
shading of the fruit. This occurrence may     growing season with the use of biosolids      project is available through the
delay fruit ripening.                         might be advantageous for bringing in a       California Agricultural Technology
     “Most significantly, our results show    higher price at the end of the season         Institute (CATI) and may be viewed
that composted biosolids significantly        when less fruits are available. Moreover,     on the ARI website at ari.calstate.edu.
delay apricot fruit maturation of the         a staggered ripening of fruits could          For more information, Banuelos may
Patterson variety. Fruits from the 170        benefit small growers, who need to            be contacted at 559-596-2881.
and 340 kg N ha-1 biosolids treatments        spread out their harvests due to equip-
UPDATE                                                         SPRING 2002                                                               3

                                         Center for Agricultural Business

Farm labor force remains difficult to define
             mmigrant farm laborers in             farms, fields and labor camps to                  Other factors hindering agencies


   I         California continue to com-
             prise one of the most impor-
             tant yet undefined segments
of the state’s work force, according
                                                   personally interview workers.
                                                        The survey teams found that,
                                                   despite increased interdiction along
                                                   the U.S.-Mexican border by the U.S.
                                                                                                seeking information include the “fluidity
                                                                                                of the work force”; that is, workers often
                                                                                                shift from one farm site to another
                                                                                                within a week or even daily, performing
to a report recently completed by                  Immigration and Naturalization Service,      different tasks in different crops for
researchers for the Center for                     thousands of immi-                           different farm owners. In addition, the
Agricultural Business (CAB).                       grants enter the                             majority of              farm workers
     Farm workers play a critical role             country illegally                            interviewed               indicated they
in the state’s economy by supplying                each year in search of employment,           work for farm             labor contractors
hand labor for virtually all of the state’s        paying a usual fee of $2,000 per person      who often move workers from job to job.
agriculture production. However, the               to “coyotes” to smuggle them across the           The closest estimate the EDD can
population and other details of this               border. The survey teams also found          make of the farm labor population is
powerful labor force remain cloudy                 that, despite federal laws requiring legal   between 100,000 and 200,000, with
because of several factors – a key one             resident status, workers continue to gain    the figure rising to slightly more than
being many workers’ undocumented                   employment without the proper docu-          200,000 in peak summer harvest months
status, notes research director Andrew             mentation.                                   and falling to about 100,000 during the
Alvarado, professor at Fresno State and                 “A major factor leading to inaccu-      winter months, Alvarado noted.
senior research associate of the Center            rate enumeration of the work force is             The survey teams learned that most
for Agricultural Business.                         the undocumented status of the majority      who come to work are planing to stay in
     Alvarado’s survey of some 300 farm            of those employed in the region,” notes      the United States permanently. Only 15
workers last year was conducted as part            Alvarado in his report titled “The           percent said they intend to return to their
of an effort to obtain information for use         Central San Joaquin Valley Farm Labor        country of origin.
by state agencies such as the Employ-              Work Force – 2001.”                                                  See Labor, Page 8
ment Development Department (EDD)
and others who offer services and
support to workers.
     Since the farm labor force has
                                                   Institute:Two-year program envisioned
                                                   from Page 1                                  emphasis on problem loans. Each of the
always been one of the most difficult
                                                   of agriculture in California and the         two resident sections will be competency-
groups to learn about through employer
                                                   nation,” Casey said of the program.          based, with the participants assigned
records, Alvarado sent survey teams to
                                                        Joining CAB and the Agricultural        problems and exercises to be completed
                                                   Economics Department to sponsor the          and submitted to the faculty as a portfolio
       Upcoming events                             institute is the San Joaquin Valley Ag       at the end of the session, Casey said.
                                                   Lenders Society, a professional organi-           Successful program participants will
  April 26 – The Third Annual Central Coast
                                                   zation that supports professionals in        be awarded a certificate of completion
  Winegrape Labor and Employment Law
  Symposium at the Paso Robles Golf Club           agricultural lending and finance.            from California State University, Fresno
  in Paso Robles, California. For details, call         CALI is designed to be a two-year       and a certificate of accreditation from the
  (559) 278-4405.                                  program, Casey explained. The first-year     San Joaquin Valley Ag Lenders.
  April 29 – Agricultural Safety Resource          sessions will focus on the loan process           “The institute has arranged for a
  Alliance Napa Breakfast Meeting, in              and those agencies and institutions that     distinguished faculty with expertise in
  Calistoga, California. For details, call (707)   provide cooperative services to lending      all areas of the lending process,” Casey
  942-5111.                                        institutions. The instructional segment      said. Faculty include senior professional
  May 9 – Fifth Annual Agricultural Labor and      is to begin Monday, June 17; on the          lenders, university faculty in agricultural
  Employment Summit, at Harris Ranch in            evening of June 16 a welcome dinner          finance, and ag lending professionals.
  Coalinga, California. For more information,                                                        Cost to attend the first-year program
                                                   will be held at the residence of Fresno
  call (559) 278-4405.                                                                          is $1,500. For registration details or a
                                                   State President John Welty.
  June 12 – AgSafety Breakfast Meeting,                 The second-year sessions, set for       flier, call (559) 278-4405 or visit the CAB
  Fresno, California. For more info, call (559)                                                 website at cati.csufresno.edu/cab. Seating
                                                   next summer, will focus on maintaining
  278-4405.                                                                                     is limited; registration deadline is June 1.
                                                   and servicing loans, with a special
4                                                       SPRING 2002                                                     UPDATE

                                 Center for Irrigation Technology

Mapping: Process requires                                                                 Irrigation topics
calibration for each field site                                                           to be addressed in
from Page 1                                      Soil samples are then taken from 12      summer sessions
     Once the unit is calibrated with       field locations to calibrate the data


                                                                                          W
                                                                                                     orkshops addressing
actual field soil data determined by        recorded by the EM unit. The data are
                                                                                                     irrigation, chemigation
laboratory analysis, it can provide         combined to create a salinity distribution
                                                                                                     and pump design will
salinity measurements through readings      map the farm manager can use for soil         be offered to farm and irrigation
taken from above the soil surface.          and/or crop treatments in specific areas.     system managers this spring and
     A CIT design team led by consult-           “The goal is to see uniform yield, in    summer at the Edison AgTAC in
ing engineer Ed Norum constructed a         spite of soil salinity,” Cassel said.         Tulare, California.
hoist and sledge for dragging the EM             Additional soil salinity mapping is           The seminars are hosted by the
unit behind a tractor.                      planned for other areas of the West Side      Center for Irrigation Technology
     To map soil salinity distribution,     through a grant from the CalFed pro-          (CIT), include a continental break-
the EM-38 unit is dragged back and          gram, a partnership between California        fast and are offered free of charge.
forth across the field. As the unit         and federal water agencies aimed at           For more information call Tim
moves along the ground, it takes            solving water and drainage problems.          Jacobsen at (559) 278-5752. To
conductivity readings which are entered          The mapping project will measure         preregister, call AgTAC at 800-772-
into an on-board computer every few         soil salinity in different areas following    4822. Workshops are as follows:
seconds. Database software                              crop irrigation treatments with
                                                        various combinations of fresh     May 14 – Introduction to Drip-
and geographical positioning
                                                        canal and drainage water.         Micro Irrigation System Design,
instruments on the tractor
                                                                                          from 8 to 10:30 a.m. Workshop
interact in recording
                                                                                          presenter Perry Continente of Toro
the data.
                                                                                          Irrigation will discuss head works
                                                                                          component design and selection,
                                                                                          infield component design and
                                                                                          selection, understanding manufac-
                                                                                          turers’ technical literature, optimiz-
                                                                                          ing factors affecting system design,
  (Above) CIT's Florence
     Cassel Sharmasarkar
                                                                                          and chemical injection.
shows on-board computer                                                                   June 11 – Complying with Chemi-
   used in tractor for soil
                                                                                          gation Legal Requirements, from
 salinity mapping. (Right)
     Sledge being dragged
                                                                                          8 a.m. to noon. Presenters Tim
           behind tractor.                                                                Jacobsen and Ed Norum of CIT
                                                                                          will discuss chemigation practices,
                                                                                          wellhead protection, label language,
Task force to address chemigation issues                                                  mandatory rules and regulations,
                                                                                          hardware specifications, and

I
     ndustry leaders overseeing the         (DPR), which is charged with protecting
     manufacture of irrigation equipment                                                  enforcement. Includes lunch.
                                            the state’s water supply from pesticide
     and agricultural chemicals have        contamination. The DPR has commis-            July 9 – Introduction to Well and
been invited to join farm managers and      sioned a task force to help develop           Deep Well Turbine Pump Design,
representatives of state government and     policies and standards regulating the use     from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. Presenters
educational institutes on a task force to   of chemigation equipment and pesticides.      from several companies will address
help develop policies and standards for          “The overall program is aimed at         well specifications, construction
chemigation in California agriculture.      protecting the environment from chemi-        techniques, development and
    This task force is being coordinated    cal degradation in a manner that is           rehabilitation, sand control, and
by the Center for Irrigation Technology     sensitive to other agricultural issues,”      rebate programs for efficiency
(CIT) in cooperation with California’s      stated Ed Norum, consulting engineer for      improvement. Includes lunch.
Department of Pesticide Regulation                           See Task Force, Page 7
UPDATE                                                  SPRING 2002                                                                    5

                           Viticulture and Enology Research Center

Methods tested for measuring juice nitrogen
Researchers compare
Formol, other methods
in effort to provide more
options to winemakers
            ncreased international


  I         production and marketing
            of wine and grape products
            have raised the quality level
required for California wine producers
                                                                                                                    Enology student
                                                                                                                    Karina Nuffer
                                                                                                                    conducts a titration
                                                                                                                    procedure with
                                                                                                                    assistance from
to successfully market their products.                                                                              graduate student
     In an effort to help state winemakers                                                                          Jeremy Weintraub
avoid getting “stuck” with lower-quality                                                                            (center) and
wines, Fresno State chemistry professor                                                                             chemistry professor
                                                                                                                    Barry Gump.
Barry Gump is leading a research effort
to provide more accurate methods for
                                             for the yeast to consume, and the           indicated that the Formol and spectropho-
measuring nitrogen content of grape
                                             fermentation process halts before all the   tometric methods are the most consistent
juice.
                                             sugars are properly converted to alcohol.   and reliable for measuring nitrogen
     Nitrogen is a key element necessary
                                                  In collaboration with researchers      nutrition. Gump and his colleagues have
for successful fermentation, and it is
                                             from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and          presented preliminary results at several
present in grape juice in many types
                                             Virginia Tech University, Gump is           conferences and will continue the work
of molecules, Gump noted. However,
                                             analyzing four methods to determine         during the coming year. For more infor-
                                             which are most consistent and accurate      mation on the project, Gump may be
    “It is important for                     for measuring nitrogen “nutrition” of       contacted through Fresno State’s Depart-
                                             grape juice. The four methods include       ment of Chemistry at (559) 278-2103.
    these winemakers to                      Formol titration, two spectrophotometric         Project funding was provided by the
    have valid analytical                    methods, and a high-performance liquid      CSU Agricultural Research Initiative, the
    procedures...”                           chromatography method.                      Virginia Wineries Association and the
                                                  The Formol method already is used      American Vineyard Foundation.
                                             extensively but is being analyzed to
only certain molecules readily release
nitrogen in a way it can be consumed by
                                             determine correlation with other meth-            Upcoming events
                                             ods, Gump said. Each method requires
the yeast during winemaking; therefore,
                                             its own specialized equipment and            April 26 – Sulfur Best Management Practices
a key to successful winemaking is
                                             training. Development of additional          and Reduced-Risk Weed Management
accurately determining the amount of                                                      Workshop, at California State University,
                                             methods besides Formol would provide
assimilable nitrogen in the juice prior to                                                Fresno. For more info: (559) 278-2089.
                                             winemakers with more options.
fermentation.
                                                  “There are labs where the range of      May 6-8 – Barrel and Barrel Alternatives
     “It is important for these wine-                                                     Symposium at California State University,
                                             equipment varies. We want to find
makers to have valid analytical proce-                                                    Fresno. For more info: (559) 278-2089.
                                             multiple ways of doing analysis so that
dures, as well as knowledge of how and                                                    June 2 – 20th Annual Celebration of Wine:
                                             winemakers can function in whatever
when to apply these procedures to better                                                  In Honor of the California Grape, at the
                                             lab they find themselves,” Gump said.
monitor the production of their wines,"                                                   Coombs’ Riverbend Ranch in Madera,
                                                  Another phase of the project is
Gump said. “Stuck or sluggish fermenta-                                                   California. For tickets: (559) 244-5741.
                                             analyzing management practices of the
tion can produce substantially inferior                                                   June 26-28 – American Society for Enology
                                             vineyards from which the grape samples
wines, in addtion to compromising                                                         and Viticulture Annual Meeting, and Fresno
                                             were harvested. That will help research-
processing efficiency.”                                                                   State Viticulture and Enology Alumni and
                                             ers to determine correlations between        Friends Reunion, in Portland, Oregon. For
     A “stuck” fermentation occurs when
                                             vineyard management and juice nitrogen.      reunion details, call (559)-278-2089.
there is not enough assimilable nitrogen
                                                  Laboratory studies so far have
6                                                           SPRING 2002                                                                                    UPDATE

    APRIL 1999
    OCTOBER2002
                                                                                                                                                 California
                                                                                                                                                 Irrigation
                                                                                                                                                 Management
                                                                                                                                                 Information
                                                                                                                                                 System

"Non-ideal" weather station site studies planned
     CIMIS is in preparation to conduct                                                                            also likely to result in errors because of
                                                    Visit the CIMIS home page at the
several “non-ideal” site studies during                     following address:                                     differences in surface conditions.
the year 2002/2003. “Non-ideal” sites                    www.cimis.water.ca.gov                                         CIMIS is planning to conduct a
are weather station sites that do not                                                                              statewide study to investigate the
conform to the basic definitions and               transition area between different                               possibility of installing stations in “non-
requirements of reference evapotranspi-            climates.                                                       ideal” environments and converting the
ration (ETo). ETo is the amount of water         • Avoid topographic depressions and                               collected data into an equivalent “ideal”
that is lost to the atmosphere by the              high points.                                                    condition. This would be achieved by
combined processes of evaporation from           • Avoid wind obstructions within 100                              setting up paired “ideal” and “non-
the soil and plant surfaces and transpira-         yards, abrupt crop/vegetation changes                           ideal” stations in a given study area and
tion from standardized vegetation                  within 50 yards, roads within 50 yards,                         correlating the data.
surfaces (grass or alfalfa). The standard-         small rivers within 100 yards, larger                                A preliminary technical advisory
ized vegetation surface for CIMIS                  rivers within 200 yards, and lakes
                                                                                                                   committee representing different
                                                   within 1,000 yards of the site.
stations is grass.                                                                                                 regions of the state has been formed.
     Standardization of surfaces on             Unfortunately, many areas of the state,                            The committee met twice in March and
which weather stations sit requires,            especially urban areas, do not have such                           will continue meeting regularly during
among other things, that the surfaces be        “ideal” sites. It has been common                                  the study period. The advisory commit-
fully covered with well watered, actively       practice for such areas to use data either                         tee will be dynamic in that its member-
growing vegetation. CIMIS has adopted           from the closest CIMIS station or from                             ship will change as investigation
these standards and developed the               “non-ideal” sites within the area. Using                           proceeds. CIMIS welcomes any one
following major criteria in selecting sites     data from the closest CIMIS station is                             interested in participating in this study
for its stations:                               likely to result in errors because of                              and encourages those interested to
 • A station should be sited within the
                                                differences in microclimates. On the                               contact Kent Frame at (916) 651-7030
   region it is meant to represent.             other hand, using data from “non-ideal”                            or Bekele Temesgen at (916) 651-9679.
 • A station should not be located in a         sites within the same microclimate is

                                                                                               Weekly ETo Comparisons for Fresno
For more CIMIS information...
                  ormation...
               inform                                                                                      Fresno: 12/01/01– 02/28/02
    CIMIS information is published quarterly in the CATI                                 0.6
Update newsletter. Articles are provided by the California                                                              Normal Year   Current Year

Department of Water Resources, CIMIS program staff.                                      0.5
                                                                                                        Station #80
                                                                                                 CIMIS CIMIS Station#80 Fresno State
    For more information about CIMIS or its programs,                                                    Fresno State
                                                                                                 Note: The first column is a 1-day
contact any of the following representatives at these offices:                           0.4     total, the last column is a 5-day total,
                                                                                                 and the rest are 7-day totals.
                                                                          ETo (Inches)




       Northern District                  San Joaquin District
       Jamie Dubay                        Steve Ewert                                    0.3
       (530) 529-7367                     (559) 230-3334
       pixley@water.ca.gov                sewert@water.ca.gov                            0.2
       Central District                   Southern District
       Mark Rivera                        Sergio Fierro                                  0.1
       (916) 651-7029                     (818) 543-4652
       mrivera@water.ca.gov               sergiof@water.ca.gov                           0.0
                                                                                                          Dec                         Jan            Feb
    lf you are unable to reach a CIMIS representative near
you, call the CIMIS Helpline at 1-800-922-4647.                       Chart shows ETo variation from normal over last three months.
UPDATE                                                   SPRING 2002                                                                             7



 Task force: Report                        Researchers complete reports
 to go to state DPR                        on eutypa and 2,4-D projects
 for consideration
                                           T
                                                      wo new CATI reports outlining          Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevines.”
 from Page 4                                          methods of controlling fungal               Printed summary reports also are
                                                      disease on plants and pesticide        available from CATI. For more informa-
 CIT and cochair of the task force
 along with CIT Director David             impacts on soil are now available for             tion on this study, Gu may be contacted
 Zoldoske. The task force will             ordering, viewing or downloading                  through VERC at (559) 278-2089.
 produce a document for the DPR            through the California Agricultural                    In another project, Fresno State
 that proposes specific actions that       Technology Institute (CATI).                      biology professor Alice Wright has com-
 will help form the basis for the               The reports provide the latest               pleted the first phase of a study on the
 DPR’s future program and activi-          information gained through research               response of soil microorganisms to years
 ties, Norum said.                         supported by the California State                 of applications of the pesticide 2,4-D.
       Chemigation, the injection of       University Agricultural Research                       Many microorganisms are able to
 agricultural chemicals into water         Initiative (ARI).                                 metabolize 2,4-D. However, widespread
 as it is being delivered to fields or          The Eutypa study was directed by             use of the chemical over many years has
 crops, is an approved method of           research scientist Sanliang Gu, who               resulted in its buildup in soils in some
 pesticide application for nearly one-     holds the Ricchiuti Chair of Viticulture          areas, threatening to contaminate
 third of all registered active ingredi-   Research at Fresno State’s Viticulture            groundwater.
 ents in California, Norum said. The       and Enology Research Center (VERC).                    Wright is using cloning techniques
 potential risk of chemical injection      Eutypa dieback is a fungal disease that           to replicate sections of genes in the
 is backflow of contaminated water         attacks grapevines in growing regions all         bacteria Ralstonia eutropha and is
 into wells.                               over the world. It has recently been              observing the response to different
       When a pumping system shuts         diagnosed in vineyards in California’s            stimuli. Her goal is to prompt the
 off, vacuum pressure can pull             San Joaquin Valley.                               bacteria to respond to smaller amounts
 treated water back into the ground             Gu has determined from his study             of 2,4-D more quickly, and to consume
 or other water source. DPR regula-        that Eutypa appears to be preventable             more than they normally do.
 tions require a backflow prevention       through the use of modified pruning                    Wright’s first-year report is avail-
 device on all chemigation systems.        methods. The full report on this study,           able for viewing and/or downloading
 However, since chemigation is a           including details of treatments and               from the ARI website. A printed sum-
 relatively new technology, many           results, is available on the ARI website          mary report also is available through
 farm managers, as well as regulatory      at ari.calstate.edu. It is titled “Influence      CATI. The project report is titled, “Cross
 officials, are unfamiliar with the        of Training Systems, Pruning Practices,           Regulation of 2,4-D Pathways in Soil
 different types of equipment.             and Soil Types on Eutypa Dieback                  Microorganisms.” For more information
       CIT already has provided            Incidence and Severity, Viticultural              Wright may be contacted through the
 training to regulatory officials on       Performance, and Wine Quality in                  Biology Department at (559) 278-2001.
 the use of required safety devices
 and acceptable alternatives for                                                                                                     Update:

 chemigation systems, Norum noted.
       “We are now turning our efforts
                                                         Publications available                                                    Spring 2002




 to raise the regulated community’s               (These publications may be viewed in their entirety on CATI's World Wide Web pages,
                                                   located at cati.csufresno.edu. Single copies are also available by mail at no charge.)
 awareness of the instructions on
 pesticide labels regarding backflow           r The Central San Joaquin Valley Farm Labor Work Force – 2001,
 prevention,” he said.                           by Andrew Alvarado. Pub. #020302.
       Norum said the goal of the task        Ordering Information:
 force is to have its report to the           Check the publication(s) desired              Name
 DPR by the end of summer.                    and mail or fax form to:
       For more information on task                CATI                                     Company
 force activities, contact Norum at                California State University, Fresno
                                                   2910 E. Barstow Ave. M/S OF115           Mailing Address
 CIT at (559) 278-2066, or at                      Fresno, CA 93740-8009
 edward_norum@csufresno.edu.                       Fax: (559) 278-4849
                                                                                            City                 State          Zip
8                                                               SPRING 2002                                                                  UPDATE



Labor:Trend indicates fewer workers may come
from Page 3                                        farm sheds or motels.                               visited a doctor in the United States.
                                                        When the primarily young, male                      According to Alvarado, interviews
      Of those who do stay in the United
                                                   immigrants come to the United States to             with farm labor contractors indicated that
States to work, the rate of income
                                                   seek work, it is usually through contacts           the size of the labor force decreased in
advancement is slow because of several
                                                             with friends or relatives already         2001. Increased patrol by border agents
factors – a key one being language.
                                                              here. After they find a job,             and high “coyote” fees may have made
      More than 90 percent of surveyed
                                                               nearly two-thirds depend on             the border crossing more prohibiting.
workers were born in Mexico, and 87
                                                               someone else for transporta-                 If this is the start of a trend, it is
percent have a very limited under-
                                                              tion to and from the work                probable that the farm labor force
standing of English, Alvarado re-
                                                            site. They pay an average of               will diminish within a decade or less,
ported. And without command of
                                                        $5 per day for a ride in a vehicle             Alvarado said. Apparently that has not
the English language, it is difficult
                                                   that carries an average of seven workers.           concerned growers, at least not yet, he
to move into jobs outside farm work.
                                                   Nearly all riders indicated they “always”           noted. Data from California's Department
      However, there are skill levels
                                                   or “almost always” use seat belts.                  of Food and Agriculture show continued
within the farm labor arena through
which workers move, Alvarado added.
For example, many younger immigrants                         Increased patrol by border agents and high
first find jobs picking stone fruits such as
peaches or nectarines, for which they are                    “coyote” fees have likely made the border
paid hourly.                                                 crossing more prohibiting.
      Those with more experience often
move into commodities such as citrus or
                                                        Primary health care for farm                   increases in plantings of the most labor
the table grape harvest, where their skill
                                                   workers is virtually nonexistent, for               intensive crops, including citrus, table
enables them to earn more through piece-
                                                   two reasons, Alvarado noted: the nearly             and wine grapes, and peaches.
rate compensation.
                                                   complete absence of employer-provided                    Copies of Alvarado’s report are
      The majority of farm workers (63
                                                   health insurance, and the undocumented              available from the California Agricultural
percent) reported living in single-family
                                                   status of the majority of the workers that          Technology Institute. See the publica-
homes, mostly rented, and often with
                                                   makes them ineligible for government                tions order form on Page 7 to request a
other families in the same house.
                                                   supported health care.                              copy, or visit the CAB research publica-
Another 25 percent reported living in
                                                        Nevertheless, nearly half the                  tions directory on the CAB website,
apartments, and nine percent in trailer
                                                   workers surveyed indicated they had                 located at cati.csufresno.edu/cab.
homes. Only two percent reported living
in government-subsidized housing, and               In the event of incorrect address information or extra copies to your workplace, please return this
fewer than one percent said they lived in            address label by mail or fax with your requested changes. CATI fax number is (559) 278-4849.




       Update is published quarterly by the
    California Agricultural Technology Institute
              College of Agricultural
             Sciences and Technology                                                                   Address Service Requested
        California State University, Fresno
                   Spring 2002                                                                          Fresno, California 93740-8009
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           CATI Publication #020401                   Permit No. 262
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