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how did the great slave lake get its name

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									1. Location

     Canada is the second-largest country in world after Russia,
area is 9,984,670 sq km. Location is Northern North America,
bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean
on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north. Canada is the
northernmost country in North America, bordered by the United States
in the south (the world's longest undefended border) and northwest
(Alaska). Canada is also bordered by Greenland, in the
northeast, which is a territory of Denmark and French islands of
Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Canada a has the world's longest
The name Canada derives from the Huron-Iroquois word
Kanata, which means village or settlement. The term was used
to describe Stadacona (the current site of Quebec city) by two
Amerindians who accompanied Jacques Cartier on his 1535
return voyage from France.
2. Flag and Coat of arms
The National Flag of Canada was replaced by the red and white
maple leaf flag on February 15, 1965.

     Well before the coming of the first European settlers,
Canada's aboriginal peoples had discovered the food properties
of maple sap, which they gathered every spring. According to
many historians, the maple leaf began to serve as a Canadian
symbol as early as 1700. Red and white were approved as
Canada's official colours in the proclamation of the royal arms
of Canada in 1921 by King George V.

     The present design The Coat of arms of Canada was
approved in 1994 and shows a ribbon behind the shield with the
motto of the Order of Canada. The motto is „A Mari Usque Ad
Mare“, meaning "from sea to sea." It is taken from Psalm.
                              Beneath the motto is a wreath of
roses, thistles, shamrocks, and fleurs-de-lis, the floral emblems of
England, Scotland, Ireland, and France.( the English rose, the
Scottish thistle, the French fleur-de-lis and the Irish shamrock.)

The crest is a                crowned gold lion holding a maple
leaf. This is used by the Governor-General of Canada . ,
representing the Queen of Canada. At the top is St. Edward's
Crown, the style of royal crown preferred by Her Majesty.

     The                            figures that stand on either side
of the shield are known in heraldry as "supporters" and are
often depicted in a ferocious manner. The King of England
chose two lions while Scotland chose two unicorns. Scottish
unicorn The English lion and hold spears from which fly the Union
Jack and the three fleurs-de-lis of royal France.

    The gold                         helmet facing forward represents
royal sovereignty; the mantling is in Canada's national colours, red
and white.

     The shield contains five coats: the three gold English "leopards"
or lions passant, the Scottish lion and royal tressure, the Irish harp of
Tara, the gold fleurs de lis of royal France, and a sprig with three red
maple leaves representative of Canadians of all origins.

    On top of the "achievement of the arms of Canada" is the
imperial crown which is indicative of the presence of a monarch
as Canada's Head of State.

3. Population
  The population is 32,207,113 (July 2003 est.)persons. The vast
north of the country is mainly arctic lowlands with a polar climate,
and is therefore extremely sparsely populated; for example, fewer than
30,000 people live in the territory of Nunavut, which is the size of
Western Europe. Most of the major cities are located in the more
temperate south, with largest concentration in the east.Nearly 90% of
the population is concentrated within 160 km of the Canada-US
        About 40% of the Canadian population are of British descent,
while 27% are of French origin. Another 20% are of other European
background, about 10% are of E or SE Asian origin, and some 3% are
of aboriginal or Métis (mixed aboriginal and European) background.
In the late 1990s, Canada had the highest immigration rate of any
country in the world, with more than half the total coming from Asia.
 Over 75% of the total population live in cities.
      Canada has complete religious liberty. About 45% of the people
are Roman Catholics, while some 40% are Protestant (the largest
groups being the United Church of Canada, Anglicans, and
     English and French are the official languages, and federal
documents are published in both languages. In 1991, about 61% of
Canadians cited English as their mother tongue, while 24% cited

4. Government
Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 (National holiday:
Canada Day, 1 July) while retaining ties to the British crown.
    Canada is a constitutional monarchy, the head of state being a
monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952). The
monarch's representative in Canada is the Governor-General Adrienne
Clarkson (since 7 October 1999), who fills the role of approving bills,
and other state functions. The Governor-General appoints the Prime
Minister Paul Martin (since 12 December 2003) generally the leader
of the political party that holds the most seats in the House of
Commons. The Prime Minister in turn appoints the Cabinet. The
legislative branch of government consists of the Parliament, including
the elected House of Commons (next elections to be held by
2005) and the appointed Senate.
     Legal system based on English common law, except in Quebec,
where civil law system based on French law prevails . It should be
noted that the province of Quebec has refused to ratify the
Constitution Act, 1982, which contained procedures for amending the

5. History
      Archaeology tells us that aboriginal people have lived in the
Maritimes provinces of Canada for at least 11 000 years, in Labrador
for over 9000 years and on the island of Newfoundland for at least
6000 to 7000 years and probably longer. The first inhabitants of
Canada were native Indian peoples, primarily the Inuit (Eskimo).
Canada was first visited by Europeans around 1000, when the Vikings
briefly settled at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
The history of the white man in the country actually began in 1497,
when John Cabot, an Italian in the service of Henry VII of England,
reached Newfoundland or Nova Scotia.
       More permanent European visits came in the 16th and 17th
century, as the French settled here. Canada was taken for France in
1534 by Jacques Cartier. The actual settlement of New France, as it
was then called, began in 1604 at Port Royal in what is now Nova
Scotia; in 1608, Quebec was founded.
     In 1763, at the end of the Seven Years' War, France decided to
keep its Caribbean Islands and leave its North American colony, New
France, to Britain. Thousands of British colonists emigrated to Canada
from the British Isles and from the American colonies. In 1849, the
right of Canada to self-government was recognized. Canada became a
self-governing dominion on July 1, 1867. By the Statute of
Westminster in 1931 the British dominions, including Canada, were
formally declared to be partner nations with Britain, ―equal in status,
in no way subordinate to each other,‖ and bound together only by
allegiance to a common Crown.
    1949, Canada also includes two territories—the Yukon Territory,
the Northwest Territories. On July 7, 1969 French was made equal to
English throughout the Canadian national government. Full control
over its affairs came in 1982 with the patriation of Canada's
   In the second half of the 20th century, some citizens of the French-
speaking province of Quebec have sought independence in two
referendums held in 1980 and 1995. In both cases, the referendums
were defeated with 60% and 50.6% opposed to independence,
     In 1992 voters in the Northwest Territories authorized the division
of their region in two, creating a homeland for Canadian Eskimos, the
Inuits, who make up 85% of the area's population, which in April
1999 became the territory of Nunavut.
    Canada-U.S. relations were strained in 2003 when Canada refused
to join Washington's coalition supporting the war in Iraq. Despite
Canada's opposition to the war in Iraq, it had contributed $240 million
to reconstruction efforts in Iraq and sent 2,000 soldiers to Afghanistan.
Relations with the United States improved in Jan. 2004 after President
Bush reversed the policy.

6. Provinces and territories.
    Canada is a federation of ten provinces and three territories.The
provinces have a reasonably large amount of autonomy from the
federal government, while the territories have somewhat less.
The provinces are:
    Alberta (the capital is Edmonton)

     British Columbia (Victoria)
     Manitoba (Winnipeg)
     New Brunswick (Fredericton)
     Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's)
     Nova Scotia (Halifax)
     Ontario (Toronto)
     Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown)
     Quebec (Québec)
     Saskatchewan (Regina)
And the territories:
     Northwest Territories (Yellowknife)
     Nunavut (Iqaluit)
     Yukon (Whitehorse)
7. Geography
    Canada - a land of vast distances and rich natural resources.
   Eastern Canada is divided between boreal forest and the barren
   Canadian Shield in the north and the highly fertile Saint Lawrence
   River Valley in the south, where most of the country's population is
   concentrated. Ontario, and Quebec is located on the vast rocky
   Canadian Shield which cannot support agriculture but does have
   large mineral reserves.Large parts of south central Canada are
   covered by plains and prairies.
    The west of Canada mostly consists of rolling terrain on either
side of the Rocky Mountains. The Hudson Bay sea arm cuts deep into
the country. The Pacific border of the coast range is ragged with fjords
and channels.
     The highest point in Canada is Mount Logan (19,850 ft; 6,050 m),
which is in the Yukon.
      The two principal river systems are the Mackenzie and the St.
Lawrence. The Mackenzie River is Canada's longest river and the 3rd
largest in the world, behind the Amazon and the Missouri-Mississippi.
Canada's longest river flows patiently, steadily, solemnly north. , the
Mackenzie river system totals almost 4,200 kilometres.
The St. Lawrence (3 058 kilometres long) is Canada's most important
river, providing a seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the
Atlantic Ocean.
      There are some two million lakes in Canada. The largest lake
situated entirely in Canada is Great Bear Lake (31 328 km2) in the
Northwest Territories. Great Bear Lake is the largest lake in Canada
and the fourth largest in the Americas. Great Bear Lake contains many
fish . The lake probably got its name because of its size and because
of the bears that lived on its shores.
The deepest lake is Great Slave Lake, 614 metres. Great Slave Lake
covers 11,030 square miles (28,568 square kilometers) in Canada's
Northwest Territories. Yellowknife, the capital and largest city of the
Northwest Territories, and several small settlements lie on or near the
lake's shores. Yellowknife is a gold-mining center. Great Slave Lake
is famous for severe and unpredictable storms. Ice covers Great Slave
Lake eight months a year. The lake was named for the Slavey Indians,
who lived in the area.
The Great Lakes - Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario - are
the largest group of freshwater lakes in the world.
The world's largest lake inside a lake, Manitou Lake, is located on the
world's largest lake island, Manitoulin Island, which is located on
Lake Huron. Manitoulin Island, in Lake Huron, is the largest
freshwater island in the world.

8. Economy
     As a high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles
the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production,
and high living standards.
   Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead,
molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal,
petroleum, natural gas, hydropower. Canada is known for its the
world's second largest oil reserve.
   Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and
unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish
products, petroleum and natural gas.
   Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables;
dairy products; forest products; fish.
   Major trading partners are US, Japan, China.
Exports - partners: US 84.6%, Japan 2.2%, UK 1.6%, other EU 2.2%
Exports – commodities motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery,
aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics,
fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas,
electricity, aluminum
Imports - partners: US 72.7%, UK 3.4%, other EU 3.2%, Japan 3.0%
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and
parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods.

Currency: Canadian dollar (CAD)

9. Cities and sights
Canada's capital is Ottawa and its largest city is Toronto . Other
important cities include Montreal , Vancouver , Edmonton , Calgary ,
Winnipeg , Hamilton , and Quebec .

Capital: OTTAWA
Ottawa proper was founded in 1827 by Col. John By. In 1858, Ottawa
was chosen by Queen Victoria to be the capital of the United
Provinces of Canada, and in 1867 it became capital of the Dominion
of Canada.
The Parliament Hill grounds cover an area of 88,480 m2 (290,289
ft2).They are the settings for a wide range of political demonstrations,
public ceremonies and celebrations.

    Few symbols are as evocative of Canada as the Parliament
Buildings. Flanked by the East and West blocks, the Centre Block of
Parliament — with its distinctive Peace Tower and Library — is
familiar to Canadians and people around the world.

The Chamber in 1935 in the Centre Block. Senate Chamber          .

The current Centre Block was built between 1916 and 1927 to replace
the original building destroyed in a spectacular fire in 1916. The
Centre Block is only one of the magnificent Gothic Revival buildings
gracing Parliament Hill, but it is probably the one most quickly
recognized by Canadians coast to coast. Home to the Senate, the
House of Commons and the Library of Parliament, the Centre Block is
an integral part of our heritage and a symbol of Canada's highly
regarded parliamentary system.
The Peace Tower, so named to honour the thousands of Canadian men
and women who sacrificed their lives for their country in World War
I, stands at the front of the Centre Block.
At the end of the Hall of Honour is the Library of Parliament - the
only portion of the original Centre Block to survive a disastrous fire in
1916 - will undergo work to restore its original glory inside and out. A
white marble statue of the young Queen Victoria dominates the
circular dome topped reading room.
The West Block houses offices of ministers and Members of

The West Block, like the other Parliament Buildings, is an impressive
heritage building. Officially opened in 1866,
   The East Block contains many senators' offices, as well as some
rooms re-created in the style of the early years of Confederation.

TORONTO, city (1998 est pop. 2,400,000), provincial capital on Lake
The Mohawk descriptive phrase tkaronto Literally translated as
"where there are trees standing in the water", the name was noted by
Champlain in 1615. In 1834 the city was incorporated as Toronto.
Skyline from Gardiner Expressway              Downtown Toronto

  Toronto is the largest city in Canada and since the 1970s has been
one of the fastest-changing cities in North America. In 1998, the cities
of Metropolitan Toronto (Toronto, York, East York, North York,
Etobicoke, and Scarborough) were merged as Toronto, instantly
becoming the continent's fifth largest city.
Toronto has many parks and historic buildings. Exhibition Park is the
site of the annual Canadian National Exhibition. The Toronto city hall
is a modernistic structure completed in 1965.
 City Hall

MONTREAL, Fr. Montréal , city (1991 pop. 1,017,666), on Montreal
island. The city lies at the foot of Mt. Royal, which is the source of its
name and around which extends a large wooded park in the center of
the city.The city of Montreal takes up approximately 60 square miles
of the island. . Montreal is the second largest metropolitan area in
Canada, after Toronto, and is a cultural, commercial, financial, and
industrial center. It is one of the largest French-speaking cities in the
world, though most of its inhabitants also speak English.

To the south fronting the river is the area of Old Montreal, which
draws visitors to the boardwalk on the site of the Old Port and to Place
Jacques-Cartier, St. Sulpice Seminary (1685), the Château de
Ramezay (1705), and the Gothic Church of Notre Dame (c.1820).

Montreal City Hall       The Catedral    Biodome at Montreal Olympic Park

VANCOUVER, city (1991 pop. 471,844), SW British Columbia.
Aerial View of Vancouver
Vancouver was settled before 1875 and originally called Granville. It
was incorporated in 1886, after a rail link was built, and named in
honor of Capt. George Vancouver. It is the largest city on Canada's
Pacific coast, the center of the third largest metropolitan area in
Canada, and the nation's chief Pacific port, with an excellent year-
round harbor. Vancouver is surrounded by water on three sides.
Vancouver is a major port and probably leads the world in
grain exports. As the main western terminus of Canada's
transcontinental highway and rail routes, it is the primary city
of western Canada, as well as one of the nation's largest
industrial centers.

Stanley Park-Fall                         Totems in Stanley Park
   Stanley Park (900 acres/364 hectares), the largest of the city's more
than 170 parks, has a zoo, a marine science center, and famous
gardens with outstanding specimens of native trees.
Vancouver and its unique skyline

                              City Hall                     Downtown
                       The city will host the 2010 Winter Olympics.


                      (ĕd´menten) , city (1991 pop. 616,741),
provincial capital, central Alberta, on the North Saskatchewan River.
Name taken from Fort Edmonton, built in 1795. Edmonton, known as
the ―Gateway to the North,‖ is located in the center of the province
between the fertile valleys of the south and the rich resources of the
north. It is a major market center for farm and petrochemical products,
and has an economy based on the production of oil, coal, and natural

 Edmonton and the North Saskatchewan River City hall and the CN tower

       Edmonton's National Hockey League team, the Oilers, was the
dominant team in the 1980s, winning five championships (1984-85,
1987-88, 1990) under the leadership of Wayne Gretzky .
   From June through September this city pulses with non-stop festival
fever beginning with June's annual Jazz Festival and ending with one
of North America's top Folk Festivals, which occurs in August
    Edmonton is well-known for West Edmonton Mall the largest mall
in the world.

The lake inside the massive West Edmonton Mall
CALGARY, (kăl´gerē) , city (1991 pop. 710,677) at the confluence of
the Bow and Elbow rivers. The largest city in Alberta and the fastest-
growing major city in Canada. The city began (1875) as the second
post of the Northwest Mounted Police and expanded with the arrival
(1883) of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
 Calgary is a transportation and financial center for Canada's oil and
natural gas industries.
Calgary is the site of the University of Calgary, the Glenbow
Museum, and the second largest zoo in Canada.

The Jurassic Park style dinosaur w The Jurassic Park style dinosaur-
world recreated at Calgary Zoo.

Canadian Pacific railroad engine   East towards the zoo and Bow River

WINNIPEG(wĬn´Ĭpĕg) , city (1991 pop. 616,790). Capital city of
Manitoba. This name is from the Cree Winnipi and may be freely
translated as "dirty water" or "murky water". It is the province's largest
city and one of the world's largest wheat markets. A railroad,
commercial, industrial, and distribution center.

The Forks

Don't miss The Forks where the Red River and Assiniboine River
meet, or test your luck at the marvelous Crystal Casino, set on the
seventh floor of the Hotel Fort Garry, one of Winnipeg's grandest
historical landmarks.

Fort Garry Hotel

HAMILTON, city (1991 pop. 318,499), at the western end of Lake

It is situated on a narrow plain between its harbor (connected by canal
with the lake) and the Niagara escarpment. Hamilton is an important
port, transportation center, and manufacturing city. It is Canada's
leading producer of iron and steel.
One of Hamilton's most-recognized landmarks is Dundurn Castle .
Dundurn Castle was constructed over a three-year period, and
completed by 1835.

QUEBEC, Fr. Québec, city (1991 pop. 167,517), provincial capital at
the confluence of the St. Lawrence and St. Charles rivers. Quebec City
is the oldest extant European settlement in Canada. It was founded by
Samuel de Champlain in 1608 on the site of a First Nations settlement
called Stadacona. Quebec City was capital of Canada from 1859 to
1865, the last before Ottawa.

View of Quebec City with the Château Frontenac at upper left

Quebec's Old Town , the only fortified city in North America whose
walls still exist, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in
1985. Quebec City is a taste of old France in the new world.
   The population is largely French speaking, and the town is at the
ideological core of French Canada. Quebec is an important port (on the
Saint Lawrence) and is an industrial, cultural, service, and tourist
center. The chief industries are shipbuilding and tourism.

View of the fortifications of the Citadelle with the National Assembly behind

  Part of the city is built on the waterfront and is called Lower Town.
Upper Town is on Cape Diamond, a bluff rising c.300 ft (91 m) above
the St. Lawrence.
Quebec City's skyline is dominated by the massive Château Frontenac
hotel, perched on top of Cap Diamant. Near the Château Frontenac is
Notre-Dame de Quebec Cathedral. It is the first cathedral and first
basilica to have been built in the New World, and is the primate
church of Canada.

Chateau Frontenac        Notre-Dame de Quebec Cathedral
   . The Upper Town is linked by stairways and a funicular to the
Lower Town, which includes such sites as the ancient Notre Dame de
la Victoire church, the historical Petit Champlain district, the port, and
the Musée de la Civilisation.

Rue du Petit Champlain            Notre Dame de la Victoire church
    The world's largest winter carnival in Quebec City - Carnaval de

The race begins                Canada's entry in the snow sculpture contest

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