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the real story of the ancient olympic games

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					Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                  Teacher’s Guide   Page 1




Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (Teacher’s Guide)
Integrated Humanities Learning and Teaching Resources (S1-3)


 Issue:                Why do the Olympic Games matter?
 Objectives :          Students are expected to

                        1.   be aware of the implication of the Olympic Games on themselves

                        2.   understand the aims and development of the Olympic Games

                        3.   explain China’s increasing participation in the Olympic Games

                        4.   analyze the elements of sport commercialisation in the Olympic Games

                        5.   analyze the benefits and problems of hosting and co-hosting the Olympic Games for Beijing and HK

                        6.   evaluate the Olympic Games




                                                                                    Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                     Teacher’s Guide   Page 2




 Unit &                 Learning &Teaching Objectives                         No. of
                                                                                     Remarks
 Topic                  & Activities                                          Lesson
 Unit 1 - The           Objectives: Students should be able                     2
                        1. to understand
 history of the
                         the Ancient Olympic Games, and
 Olympic Games           the Modern Olympic Games
                        2. to identify the difference between the modern
                           and ancient Games
                        Activity:                                                    Powerpoint file
                        1. Teacher may ask the following questions as an
                           introduction:                                             Pictures and photos about the ancient Olympic can be
                         How long is the history of the Olympic Games?              obtained in the following websites:
                         Who held the first Olympic Games?
                         Can you name some differences between the                  The Olympic Games in Antiquity, International Olympic
                           ancient Olympic Games and modern Olympic                  Committee:
                           Games?                                                    http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_658.pdf
                        2. Teacher shows students the PPT file. Students
                           attempt the Quiz to test how much they know               Penn Museum: The real story of the ancient Olympic
                           about the Olympic Games                                   Games :
                        3. Students read Sections 1.1 and the sources given          http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/olympics/olym
                           in Section 1.2. Contrast the ancient and the              picathletes.shtml
                           modern Olympic Games. Put the answers in the
                           table in Section 1.2.                                     Archaeological sites of Olympia:
                                                                                     http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/eh3530.jsp?obj_id=2358




                                                                                       Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                                Teacher’s Guide   Page 3




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                        No. of
                                                                                                         Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                         Lesson
                                                                                                            Extended activity: Discussion : If you were
                                                                                                            Roman Emperor Theodosius I, would you
                                                                                                            ban the ancient Olympic Games? Give
                                                                                                            reasons both for and against this proposal.
 Unit 2 - The                Objectives: Students should be able to                                 2

 development of
                             1. identify some changes between the early and late editions
 the modern                     of the Games and
 Olympic Games               2. identify and explain three of the major changes between
                                the early and late editions of the Games: (i) increasing
                                popularity, (ii) changing location of the host cities and (iii)
                                women’s increasing participation.

                             Activity:                                                                      Photos of the past Games can be found in the
                                                                                                            following web sites:
                             1. Teacher may ask students whether tug-of-war and golf are
                                Olympic events. Teacher then tells students that they were                  http://en.beijing2008.cn/spirit/pastgames/s
                                once Olympic events and ask them to identify more                           ummerolympics/
                                changes between the early (say, 1896 and 1900) and the
                                late (2000 and 2004) editions of the Games from photos.                     http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/index_
                                                                                                            uk.asp




                                                                                                  Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                           Teacher’s Guide   Page 4




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                   No. of
                                                                                                    Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                    Lesson
                             2. Students read the photos and suggest some changes.                     Teacher should give examples of evidence
                                                                                                       and cause before asking students to attempt
                             3. Teacher demonstrates how to identify the changes in the                the task.
                                popularity of and women’s participation in the Olympic
                                Games in the last one hundred years.                                   The sentences highlighted by students may
                                                                                                       be different from those by the teacher. It is
                             4. Students find the above changes and the causes of them in              OK as long as their choices are reasonable.
                                Section 2.1 and 2.2.

                             5. Students refer to Section 2.3. Each of them finds the
                                latitude and longitude of a few host cities.

                             6.    Teacher checks students’ answers and lists them on the
                                  board.

                             7. With the help of the latitudes and longitudes, students                Extended activity: Summarize Sections 2.1 -
                                locate the host cities in the base map on p.7. Discuss the             2.3 by completing the mind map on Section
                                changing location of the host cities in last one hundred               2.4. The mind map can be extended by
                                years.                                                                 attaching another A4 paper to its right.




                                                                                             Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                            Teacher’s Guide   Page 5




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                    No. of
                                                                                                     Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                     Lesson
 Unit 3 - China and          Objective: Students should be able to                              2
 the Olympic
                             1. understand the history of China’s participation in the
 Games                          Olympic Games,
                             2. identify some important events in the history of China’s
                                participation, and
                             3. understand the slogan and concepts of the Beijing 2008
                                Olympic Games and identify their expressions.

                             Activity:                                                                  Teacher may also introduce the topic by
                                                                                                        showing students the videos about China’s
                             1. Teacher introduces briefly to students about the history of             participation in the Olympic Games :
                                China’s participation in the Olympic Games by asking
                                them the following questions:                                           Team China (1)
                              When was the first time China sent athlete to compete in                 http://en.beijing2008.cn/video/historyv/tea
                                the Olympic Games?                                                      mchina1/index.shtml
                              Who was the first Chinese to compete in the Olympic
                                Games?                                                                  Team China (2)
                              Who was the first Chinese to win a gold medal in the                     http://en.beijing2008.cn/video/historyv/tea
                                Olympic Games?                                                          mchina2/index.shtml (Putonghua version
                              How many times did China bid to host the Olympic                         only)
                                Games?




                                                                                              Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                             Teacher’s Guide   Page 6


 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives& Activities                         No. of
                                                                                                      Remarks
 Topic                                                                                         Lesson
                             2. Students discuss and choose five important years about
                                China’s participation in the Olympic Games. They also
                                discuss which year is the most important among the five
                                and explain their answers.

                             3. Teacher summarizes students’ answers on the board.                       Teacher may write students’ reasons on the
                                Students give reasons to classmates to explain why these                 board and ask students to induct the
                                five years are more important than other years.                          similarity among them. This helps develop
                                                                                                         students’ induction skill.
                             4. Teacher explains the slogan of the Beijing Olympic Games                 “One World One Dream”:
                                (Section 3.3) to students.                                               http://en.beijing2008.cn/video/promotional
                                                                                                         /one/index.shtml
                             5. Students watch promotional video “One World One
                                Dream” and cite evidence from the video to tell how the
                                Olympic Games are a chance to show the spirit of “One
                                World One Dream”.

                             6. Students classify the examples in Section 3.3 into the three             Extended activity: Write a proposal on
                                concepts and complete the Venn diagram.                                  making your school a “Green”, “Hi-tech” and
                                                                                                         “People’s” school.




                                                                                               Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                            Teacher’s Guide   Page 7




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                    No. of
                                                                                                     Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                     Lesson
 Unit 4 - Elements           Objective: Students should be able to                              1
                             1. understand the meaning of “culture”,
 of Chinese culture
                             2. identify the elements of certain culture in day-to-day life
 in the Beijing 2008            and in the Olympic Games, and
 Olympic Games               3. understand the elements of Chinese culture in the slogan
                                and images (emblem, medals, torch, pictographs and
                                mascots) of the Beijing Olympic Games.

                             Activity:                                                                  When writing students’ findings on the
                                                                                                        board, teacher is advised to classify similar
                             1. Students brainstorm the term “Chinese culture”. Teacher                 findings, for example into groups like
                                writes students’ findings on the board.                                 “wear”, “eat”, “play”, “educate”, “dwell”
                                                                                                        and “travel”. It helps students to aware that
                             2. Teacher explains the meaning of culture (Section 4.1) and               “culture” is expressed in day-to-day life.
                                emphasizes that culture is expressed in day-to-day life.

                             3. Teacher tells students that big sporting events like the                Teachers may (i) show students pictures of
                                Olympic Games are always a good chance for a country to                 ancient Greek Olympics before the students
                                promote its culture, and shows students photos of the 2004              attempt the activity, or (ii) explain the
                                Olympic Games. Students identify the elements of Greek                  elements of Greek culture shown in the
                                culture from the photos (Section 4.2).                                  photos by themselves.

                             4. Teacher shows the pictures of the Beijing Olympic slogan                Related images can be found in this web site :
                                and images (emblem, torch, pictogram and mascot) and                    http://en.beijing2008.cn/spirit/beijing2008/
                                tells students that they carry elements of Chinese culture.




                                                                                              Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                            Teacher’s Guide   Page 8


 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                    No. of
                                                                                                     Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                     Lesson
                             5. Teacher briefly explains the elements of Chinese culture
                                listed in p.4. Students match these elements with the
                                Olympic slogan and images.

 Unit 5 - Hosting            Objective: The students should be able                             4
 the Olympic
                             1. to understand Beijing’s and Hong Kong’s preparations for
 Games                          hosting the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games,
                             2. to understand the possible benefits and problems
                                associated with hosting the Games, and
                             3. to suggest possible ways to relieve the problems

                             Activity:                                                                  We won(2) :
                                                                                                        http://en.beijing2008.cn/video/historyv/in
                             1. Teacher shows students the video “We Won(2)” as an                      dex.shtml
                                introduction to the mini-project (Section 5.3). Teacher may
                                follow up by asking students these questions:
                              Who were excited?
                              Who might be the most excited?
                              If you were a Beijing citizen, would you be so excited too?
                                Why/Why not?

                               Teacher concludes by telling students that the past Games
                               brought both benefits and problems to host cities, and
                               inform students their task.




                                                                                              Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                             Teacher’s Guide   Page 9




                             2. Teacher guides students to complete the information
                                collection exercise in Section 5.1. Students collect more
                                information (articles, web pages etc) at home for the use
                                next lesson.

                             3. Prioritize - Students name five problems associated with
                                hosting the Olympic Games. Guided by the teacher, they
                                select an urgent and important one to solve(Section 5.2.1).

                             4. Choosing solution - Students follow the steps in Section                 Extended activity: Modifying the solution -
                                5.2.2 to select an appropriate way to solve the problem.                 Students brainstorm the weaknesses of the
                                Teacher summarizes students’ choice and highlights the                   solution and suggest ways to make it better
                                criteria behind the choice (effectiveness, cost and                      (to make possible improvement in
                                reasonability)                                                           practicability and effectiveness, to reduce the
                                                                                                         adverse side effects).

 Unit 6 - What do            Objectives: students should be able to:
 the Olympic
                             1. understand the aspirations and strengths of oneself in
 Games mean to us?              self-excellence,
                             2. understand how one’s self-concept is affected by external
                                factors ,
                             3. consider themselves as active participants in local / global
                                events, and
                             4. know the social norms and virtues of a local and global
                                citizen.




                                                                                               Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                              Teacher’s Guide   Page 10




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                      No. of
                                                                                                       Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                       Lesson
                             Activity:                                                                    Alternative resources
                                                                                                          There are other available information such as
                             1. Refer to the video, identify the significant events in the                video / audio clips, on other local athletes
                                athlete’s interview and tell how the events affect one’s
                                confidence by plotting the chart.                                         Hong Kong Athletes on media
                                                                                                          http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/program_archive.cgi
                             2. Using the summary done in 6.1, list at least 4 factors to                 ?progdir=radio1/OlympicVirtues&event_name=
                                create the athlete’s success in career. Analyze how these                 %E7%9A%87+%E8%80%85+%E9%A2%A8+
                                factors contributing to the qualities of an athlete. Tell the             %E7%AF%84+%0A
                                possible outcomes if any of these qualities is missing.
                                                                                                          Glamour of Sports – Programme highlights
                             3. By referring to Olympism, students suggest an activity to                 http://www.rthk.org.hk/special/sports2006/chapte
                                promote Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                        r1.htm (Chinese version only)

                             4. Reflecting students’ own life experience and referring to                 Hong Kong Sport Stars Interviews by Sports
                                that of Lau Kwok Kin, students find out how individual                    Federation & Olympic committee of Hong
                                can live up to the Olympism.                                              Kong, China
                                                                                                          http://www.hkolympic.org/article/sport_star_inte
                             5. Students carry out interview with various parties and find                rviews
                                out how different people response to the Beijing 2008
                                Olympic Games.                                                            Video “Interview with an local athlete – Lau
                                                                                                          Kwok Kin”




                                                                                                Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                          Teacher’s Guide   Page 11




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                  No. of
                                                                                                   Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                   Lesson
 Unit 7 - Are the            Objective: The students should be able to                        2
 Olympic Games an
                    1. understand the features, factors and elements of sport
 example of sport      commercialization, and
 commercialisation? 2. identify the commercial and non-commercial elements of
                       the Olympic Games.

                             Activity:                                                                Students or teacher may find useful
                             1. Students discuss the four introductory questions on p.1               information about two sporting events that
                                and report their opinions to classmates.                              are widely considered as commercialised
                             2. When the students report, teacher highlights on the board             from these websites:
                                the elements and factors of sport commercialisation they
                                mentioned. After the students’ report, teacher highlights             The Premier League :
                                the causal relationship among some of the elements and                http://www.premierleague.com/page/Hist
                                factors on the board.                                                 ory/0,,12306,00.html
                             3. Students complete the flow chart in Section 7.1 .
                             4. Teacher briefly explains the definition and features of               National Basketball Association:
                                sport commercialisation (Section 7.2 and 7.3).                        http://www.nba.com/
                             5. Case study : Students name an example of commercialised
                                sporting event and identify the commercial elements of
                                this event.




                                                                                            Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                           Teacher’s Guide   Page 12




 Unit &                      Learning &Teaching Objectives                                   No. of
                                                                                                    Remarks
 Topic                       & Activities                                                    Lesson
                             6. Teacher asks if any student takes the Olympic Games as an
                                example of commercialised sporting event. If yes, ask
                                them to list some commercial elements of the Olympic
                                Games.
                             7. Students identify the commercial and non-commercial                    Extended activity: Teacher may divide the
                                elements of the Games.                                                 students into two sides, one look for
                                                                                                       commercial elements and the other look for
                                                                                                       non-commercial elements. The evidence they
                                                                                                       find will facilitate a debate between the two
                                                                                                       sides, titled “Today’s Olympic Games are
                                                                                                       commercialised”.

 Unit 8 -                    Objective: students should be able to:                            2
 Olympism : Is it
                             1. understand the Olympism and the Olympic symbols,
 fulfilled?                  2. assess the fulfillment of Olympism in recent decades, with
                                reference to some controversial issues in Olympic history.




                                                                                             Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games                                                                                                           Teacher’s Guide   Page 13




                             Learning &Teaching Objectives
 Unit &                                                                                      No. of
                             & Activities                                                           Remarks
 Topic                                                                                       Lesson

                             Activity:

                             1. Teacher shows students some photos of the Olympic
                                symbols (the rings, motto and torch relay),
                             2. Students suggest the values or ideals these symbols may
                                convey and check their answers from the sources given by
                                teacher, and
                             3. Teacher briefly explains the Olympism to students.
                             4. Students, divided into groups, discuss any one of the four             Extended activity: Identify one social or
                                incidents and report to classmates.                                    political issue that may affect the Beijing 2008
                                                                                                       Olympic Games. Study its background,
                                                                                                       nature and possible impact on the Games.
                                                                                                       Comment on the issue from the perspective
                                                                                                       of Olympism.




                                                                                             Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section,Education Bureau