Carbon Sequestration Carbon Capture and Storage

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					            Cambridge Energy Forum
          Sustainable Energy Conference
                1st December 2006
              Cavendish Laboratory
                    Cambridge


        Carbon Sequestration
      Carbon Capture and Storage

          Jon Gibbins & Hannah Chalmers
Energy Technology for Sustainable Development Group
        Mechanical Engineering Department
              Imperial College London

     UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium
                www.ukccsc.co.uk
WHY?
 CRITICAL ROLE FOR CARBON CAPTURE & STORAGE?
                                                                http://www.ipcc.ch/




          CARBON                                 CARBON THAT CAN BE
             IN                                 EMITTED TO ATMOSPHERE
           FOSSIL
           FUELS




‘Unconventional oil’ includes oil sands and oil shales but not CTL. ‘Unconventional gas’
includes coal bed methane, deep geopressured gas etc. but not gas from coal and a
possible 12,000 GtC from gas hydrates.          (www.ipcc.ch/pub/un/syreng/q1to9.pdf)
Ocean Acidification




                      Caldeira et al, Nature 425, Sep. 2003
                                                    World Energy Reserves 2004
                                                              (Mtoe)


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Australia/New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Zealand
                                                                                                          Coal                                                                  Oil                               Gas                                                                       Uranium*
Sources: BP Statistical Review 2005; WEC Survey of Energy Resources 2001; Reasonably Assured Sources plus
inferred resources to US$80/kg U 1/1/03 from OECD NEA & IAEA Uranium 2003; Resources, Production & Demand
updated 2005; *energy equivalence of uranium assumed to be ~20,000 times that of coal
                                                    Brendan Beck, World Coal Institute, Coal, 3M Sustainable Energy Engineering, Imperial College, 12 October 2006
HOW?
Carbon Storage Options




                         IPCC (2005)
www.ipcc.ch




              185 GtC   245 GtC
               <4 GtC     55 GtC
              270 GtC
                        2700 GtC
          Sleipner, aquifer storage for 1Mt/yr CO2




www.statoil.com, 2002
www.statoil.com, 2002
www.statoil.com, 2002


Time lapse (4D) seismic tracking
        of injected CO2
                                                                             N2, O2, H2O

        Coal                                       Flue                   CO2
                         Power & Heat                      CO2 separation
                                                   gas
        Air                                          POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE

                            CO2
                                                H2                                                CO2 dehydration,
Coal           Gasification + shift +
                 CO2 separation                          Power & Heat                              compression
                                                                                                   transport and
                             O2
Air                                                                      N2, O2, H2O                  storage
                   Air separation
                                                 Air
                                                        PRE-COMBUSTION CAPTURE

Coal                                       CO2 (with H2O)
                Power & Heat

                             O2               Recycle                       OXYFUEL (O2/CO2 RECYCLE
Air                                        N2                                 COMBUSTION) CAPTURE
                  Air separation

After Jordal, K. et. al. (2004) Oxyfuel combustion for coal-fired power generation with CO2 capture – opportunities and
 challenges Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, www.ghgt7.ca
Statoil/Shell 860 MW gas fired power
   plant, Tjeldbergodden, Norway
    Up to 2.5 million tonnes CO2
          injected annually
GE, SLURRY FEED,
REFRACTORY-LINED
GASIFIER WITH
QUENCH COOLING     DTI TSR008
SHELL, DRY FEED,
MEMBRANE WALL
GASIFIER WITH DRY
SYNGAS COOLING

Shell gasifier literature
Pre-combustion capture    (IEA GHG www.ieagreen.co.uk)




        Extra steam
     (or water quench)




                         Jon Gibbins, Imperial College London, New Europe, New Energy. Oxford, 27 Sep 2006
Oxyfuel Capture Concept




                          Source: IEA GHG
                                     ALSO POSSIBLE FROM COAL-TO-LIQUIDS
                                      AND OTHER UNCONVENTIONAL FUELS
                                     BUT NOT ALL CCS HAS EQUAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT
% of coal C emitted to atmosphere




                                    100                              Estimated percentage of coal C going into the
                                                                     atmosphere for various coal utilization options
                                    80


                                    60


                                    40


                                    20


                                     0
                                          No CCS   Electricity +   DME only     Electricity +   Electricity +      Coal to        Coal to
                                                     Fischer-    (recycle) with DME with         DME with        electricity   electricity+
                                                   Tropsch with      CCS         one-stage       two-stage       with NGCC       full CCS
                                                       CCS                         CCS             CCS          performance
                                                                                                                  standard
       Power plant efficiencies
       Efficiency, % (LHV)
      60
                600/620 SC                           9FA gas turbines (i.e. not H class)
      50
                       Pulverised coal plant
      40

      30

      20

      10

       0
             Coal no       Coal         Coal      Gas no       Gas     Gas
             capture      capture     Capture     capture    capture capture
             (Fluor)      (Fluor)      (MHI)       (fluor)   (Fluor)  (MHI)
                                                       IGCC from IEA GHG PH4/19
            International Network for CO2 Capture
J M Topper, Introduction to 7th Workshop, Vancouver, Sep 2004
                                             Costs include compression to 110 bar but not storage and transport costs.
Costs of Capture                                     These are very site-specific, but indicative aquifer storage costs of
                                              $10/tonne CO2 would increase electricity costs for natural gas plants by
                                                              about 0.4 c/kWh and for coal plants by about 0.8 c/kWh.




                   Natural gas plants                                            Coal/solid fuel plants

  IEA GHG (2006), CO2 capture as a factor in power station investment decisions, Report No. 2006/8, May 2006
 CCS Uncertainty - Fuel and Carbon Prices Matter
                               50                                      • Discount rate of 10%
                                            GAS                 COAL   • Investment lifetime of
                                             +                    +      25 years
                               40           CCS                 CCS
  Carbon Price (£/tonne CO2)




                                                                       • 8000 hours operation
                                                                         per year
                               30                    4                 • Coal price, £1.4/GJ
                                                                         (net)
                                                      p/
                                                        kW
                                                                       • CO2 delivery pressure
                                                         h
                               20
                                           3




                                                                         of 110 bar (and
                                           p/
                                             kW




                                                                         pipeline quality)
                                               h




                               10                                      • Indicative cost of
                                                                COAL     transport to offshore
                                     GAS
                                                                         aquifer storage, £5.50
                                0                                        per tonne CO2 stored
                                 2             3         4       5
                                               Gas price £/GJ
From Gibbins, J. et al. (2006) Interim Results from the UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium Project
Proc. 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Trondheim, Norway, 19th-23rd
June 2006. www.ghgt8.no. Also quoted in Stern Review
WHEN?
POSSIBLE CCS TIMING IN KYOTO PHASES

2008-2012         Kyoto Phase 1
• Some early deployment projects

2013-2017?        Kyoto Phase 2
• Greater emphasis on technology
• More widespread CCS development & deployment
• CCS standard on some plants (e.g. coal to liquids)?

2018? - 2022?     Kyoto Phase 3
• CCS becomes standard in Annex 1 countries?

2023? -?          Kyoto Phase 4
• CCS becomes standard in all countries?
      New build? Retrofit?
    IEA World Energy Outlook 2006
        Reference case: ~ BAU
      Alternative Policy Scenario:
       Reduced climate impact,
more efficiency, nuclear and renewables.

 Beyond Alternative Policy Scenario:
   Achieve 2004 emissions in 2030,
 some new policies and technologies.
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006 Beyond Alternative Policy Scenario (BAPS)

The goal adopted in this Case … is to ensure that global
energy-related CO2 emissions in 2030 are no higher than
the 2004 level of 26.1 Gt CO2.

The BAPS Case is not constrained by the criterion that only
policies already under consideration by governments are
adopted. Accordingly, this case assumes even faster and
more widespread deployment of the most efficient and
cleanest technologies, thanks to more aggressive policies
and measures and the adoption of new technologies,
beyond those which have already been applied
commercially today.
CCS in the Beyond Alternative Policy Scenario (BAPS)
Introduction of CO2 capture and storage in power
generation:
The introduction of CCS in the power sector would reduce
emissions by 2 Gt CO2 in 2030. Approximately 3100 TWh of
electricity would then be generated from coal and natural gas
plants equipped with CCS. Some 70% of new coal-fired capacity
and 35% of new gas-fired plants would be equipped with CCS
over the projection period. CCS in coal plants would account for
more than 80% of the captured emissions. Such a solution would
be particularly productive in China and India. Potential policies to
implement this strategy are diverse: funding for research and
development, incentives for large-scale demonstration plants,
loan guarantees for new plants, performance standards for
emissions from new plants, international cooperation to facilitate
the building of new plants in the developing world and the wider
introduction of financial penalties on carbon emissions (taxes or
cap-and- trade arrangements).
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
WEO 2006
     LONGER TERM POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS WITH CCS?



Tyndall Centre
'Decarbonising the UK’
http://www.tyndall.ac.uk




 Tyndall UK aviation emissions projections for 2050                ~ 30 MtC
 RCEP estimates for max UK biomass production by 2050              ~ 60 Mt
 Carbon content of biomass available for conversion                ~ 24 MtC
 Carbon captured using biomass with CCS                            ~ 90%
 Energy recovered compared to use without CCS                      ~ 75%
 Oil price equivalent of $50/tonne CO2                             $22/barrel
 Transport             Atmosphere carries CO2 from plane to plant for free!
                       But need to supply biomass to CCS plants
    ACTUAL
IMPLEMENTATION
     PLANS
CCS Implementation Proposals – UK
•   Proposed full-scale (~300 MWe and above) CCS projects
•   Based on media reports, press releases and personal communication
    so indicative only!
Company/ Project Name        Fuel          Plant          Capture technology                    Start
                                           output/cost
Progressive                  Coal          800 MW (+ H2   IGCC + shift + precombustion          2009
Energy/Centrica, Teeside,    (petcoke)     to grid)
UK                                         ($1.5bn)
BP/SSE DF1,                  Natural gas   475 MW,        Autothermal reformer +                2010
Peterhead/Miller, Scotland                 (>$600M)       precombustion
Powerfuel/                   Coal          ~900 MW        IGCC + shift + precombustion          2010
Kuzbassrazrezugol
Hatfield Colliery, UK
Conoco-Phillips,             Coal          450 MW (or     IGCC+CCS addition to planned          2010
Immingham, UK                (+petcoke?)   more, with     NGCC CHP plant                        (for
                                           retrofit)                                            CHP)
E.ON, Killingholme,          Coal          450 MW         IGCC + shift + precombustion?         2011
Lincolnshire coast, UK       (+petcoke?)   (£1bn)         (may be capture ready)
RWE, Tilbury, UK             Coal          ~500 MW        PC (supercritical retrofit) + post-   2016
                                           (£800m)        combustion (may be capture
                                                          ready)

•   Plus capture-ready plants at Ferrybridge (SSE) and Kingsnorth (E.On)
CCS Implementation Proposals – World (not UK)
•   Proposed full-scale (~300 MWe and above) CCS projects
•   Based on media reports, press releases and personal communication
    so indicative only!
Company/ Project Name     Fuel             Plant         Capture technology                  Start
                                           output/cost
Statoil/Dong, Mongstad,   Natural gas      280 MW        NGCC+ Post-combustion amine         2010
Norway                                                   100,000 tCO2/yr from 2010,
                                                         1.3Mt CO2 from 2014, CO2 for
                                                         EOR (Gullfaks and others)
BP DF2, Carson,           Petcoke          500 MW,       IGCC + shift + precombustion,       2011
USA                                        ($1bn)        CO2 for EOR
Statoil/Shell,            Natural gas      860 MW        NGCC+ Post-combustion amine,        2011
Tjeldbergodden, Norway                                   CO2 for EOR (Draugen)
SaskPower,                Lignite coal     300 MW        PC oxyfuel                          2011
Saskatchewan,
Canada
Stanwell, Queensland,     Coal             275 MW        IGCC + shift + precombustion        2012
Australia
Futuregen, USA            Coal             275 MW        IGCC + shift + precombustion        2012
Xcel Colorado, USA.       Coal (sub.bit)   300-350MW     IGCC, may be partial capture only   2013
RWE, Germany              Coal             450 MW        IGCC + shift + precombustion        2014
Germany                                    (Є1bn)
http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/061106/nym208.html?
                                                      See Imperial BCURA Project B70
                                                      & new IEA GHG report coming soon
TXU Corp. Outlines Vision to Displace Older Power Generation with Advanced Technologies
Monday November 6, 8:30 am ET
Progress on Texas Projects; Expansion of Plans Outside of Texas; Update of Financial Outlook; Board
Declaration of Increased Dividend, Authorization of Share Repurchases
- TXU's power generation strategy has progressed substantially, and now includes line of sight on the
development of 16 to 23 gigawatts (GW) of new capacity, including new opportunities outside of Texas.
-TXU has engineered its reference plant design to be the most advanced supercritical coal technology of
any plant under construction in the U.S. today and to meet carbon capture and storage ready criteria.
Barriers for Commercial Deployment

• Need to establish whole CCS value chain and
  appropriate criteria for comparing options
• No long term framework to establish an
  appropriate value for CO2 reductions
• Some technical issues, but mostly scale-up and
  integration of known technology for first plants
• Uncertainty over costs and risks – should be
  reduced if series of large scale demos occurs
  BUT these need to be funded
• Investors want to avoid making the wrong
  choice, also need to be robust to policy change
Legal and Regulatory Issues
• HMG has a regulatory task
  force which is reviewing
  current regulations, gaps
  and required changes
   – Offshore Licensing
   – Decommissioning and
     long term liability
   – Licensing onshore installations
   – Licensing onshore storage
• Making progress with
  international conventions
  on the marine environment
  (London/OSPAR)
• CCS within EUETS and CDM?

                                       Figure from IPCC (2005)
   POLICY
BACKGROUND
              THE GLENEAGLES COMMUNIQUÉ
14. We will work to accelerate the development and commercialization of
Carbon Capture and Storage technology by:
(a) endorsing the objectives and activities of the Carbon Sequestration
Leadership Forum (CSLF), and encouraging the Forum to work with
broader civil society and to address the barriers to the public acceptability
of CCS technology;
(b) inviting the IEA to work with the CSLF to hold a workshop on short-term
opportunities for CCS in the fossil fuel sector, including from Enhanced Oil
Recovery and CO2 removal from natural gas production;
(c) inviting the lEA to work with the CSLF to study definitions, costs,
and scope for ‘capture ready’ plant and consider economic
incentives;              (E.ON, Mitsui Babcock, Imperial IEA GHG project)
(d) collaborating with key developing countries to research options for
geological CO2 storage; and
(e) working with industry and with national and international research
programmes and partnerships to explore the potential of CCS technologies,
including with developing countries.
CCS in Stern Review – Role of CCS
• “There is still time to avoid the worst impacts of
  climate change, if we take strong action now.”
• “Carbon capture and storage is essential to
  maintain the role of coal in providing secure
  and reliable energy for many economies.”
• “[CCS] is a technology expected to deliver a
  significant portion of the emission reductions.
  The forecast growth in emissions from coal,
  especially in China and India, means CCS
  technology has particular importance.”
CCS in Stern Review – What Next?
• “There is a strong case for greater international
  co-ordination of programmes to demonstrate
  carbon capture and storage technologies, and
  for international agreement on deployment.”
• “Building on these announcements, the
  enhanced co-ordination of national efforts could
  allow governments to allocate support to the
  demonstration of a range of different
  projects…”
• “One element that enhanced co-ordination
  could focus on is understanding the best way to
  make new plants “capture-ready”…”
CONCLUSIONS
• CCS offers unique solution for fossil carbon
• Geological storage capacity probably comparable
  to fossil C (but need to assess this resource)
• Political support growing
• Industry ready to go
• But need to get funding and regulation
  established – lagging behind
• Make any new plants capture-ready
  (urgent - UK & US will help with India and China)
• Build some full-scale plants with capture for
  learning by doing
• Train some young people – key university role
Acknowledgements
• The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from
  the Research Councils’ TSEC programme for the UK
  Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium, to which they
  both belong, and to the DTI, BCURA, and IEA GHG for
  support for projects that have contributed to the
  background to this work. Discussions and advice from
  many colleagues on these projects is also much
  appreciated.
• The opinions and interpretations expressed in this paper
  are, however, entirely the responsibility of the authors.

Further Information
• www.ukccsc.co.uk
• j.gibbins@imperial.ac.uk