June-September 2008 Journal of the Ministry of Agricultur by eqi10659

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June–September 2008
Journal of the
Ministry of Agriculture and
Rural Development, Hungary

              53rd Plant Protection Scientific Days
       20–21 February, 2007, Budapest, Hungary

Plant protection is a well-recognized discipline of   Plant Health, MARD), titled ”Changing in the
Hungarian agriculture the world over. Plant           plant protection administration department”.
protection activities in Hungary are extremely            Besides these the following presentations
good as compared to other EU countries; no            were delivered in the plenary session:
similar training in plant protection area are             Genetical evaluation of the transgenic plants
available in most countries.                          (L. Heszky); Environmental scientific results
    The main activities of Plant and Soil             about DK-440 BTY genetical modified (MON
Protection Services are the plant health control,     810) maize (B. Darvas, É. Lauber and A. L.
examinations on permission and use of                 Polgár); Transgenic plant and ecological farming
pesticides, observation of soil and ground water      (P. Roszik).
and to guarantee food safety.                             After the plenary session, some awards of the
    There are 16–17 thousand tons of pesticides       Plant Protection Society of Hungarian
used in Hungary in a year, which is equal to 8–10     Agricultural Association were given, the most
thousand tons active ingredient. The income of        prominent from these was the golden degree of
pesticide trade is consistently around 50–55          Life Tree delivered to Prof. Tibor Jermy,
billion HUF per year, depending on                    ordinary member of the Hungarian Academy of
meteorological factors, and suggests the market       Sciences, by the minister of the Minisry of
stability of this area.                               Agriculture and Rural Development.
    The first plenary presentation of the Plant           After the plenary session, the presentations
Protection Scientific Days was delivered by Prof.     were continued in the different sections
J. Horváth, ordinary member of the Hungarian          (Agrozoology, Plant pathology and Herbology).
Academy of Sciences, the president of the Plant       Altogether 60 oral presentations were delivered
Protection Society of Hungarian Agricultural          about the prominent scientific results of the
Association, titled with ”Quo Vadis Agrarian          sections. Oral presentations were completed with
Science”.                                             30 posters.
    This was followed by the welcome ceremony
of J. Gráf, the minister of the Minisry of
Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD).                                             Prof. J. Horváth
An oral presentation was delivered by G. Gólya             President of the Plant Protection Society of
(Department of Food Chain Safety, Animal- and                     Hungarian Agricultural Association
                                                                                                  Vol. 17, No. 2–3.
                                                                                             June–September 2008
                                                                                                    Journal of the
                                                                                       Ministry of Agriculture and
                                                                                      Rural Development, Hungary


                                                    4     National Peach Varieties and Growing Traditions
                                                          Dezsô Surányi

                                                   12     Microwave treatment of food
                                                          Péter Sembery, Gábor Géczi

                                                   17     The future of GM crops
Page 5                                                    József Popp

                                                   21     Application of food quality methods in case bakery products
                                                          Katalin Szováti, Péter Biacs, Attila Kiss

                                                   24     Chromosome mediated gene transfer via classical hybridization
                                                          techniques into wheat and detection of the alien chromosomes
                                                          using up-to-date molecular cytogenetic and genetic methods
                                                          Márta Molnár–Láng, Éva Szakács, Gabriella Linc, István
Page 23                                                   Molnár

                                                   28     Grassland utilization by draft horse
                                                          József Stefler, Sándor Makray

                                                   31     Grapevine Rootstock Use: Physiological and Cultivation
                                                          Erik Tarczal, Zoltán Varga, László Kocsis

                                                   37     Development of Traceability in Hungarian fresh vegetable and
                                                          fruit sector
                                                          Csaba B. Illés, Nándor Komáromi, Zsuzsanna Lehota
Page 28

Editor-in-Chief                                                    Published by AGROINFORM Publishing
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Mária Pécsi, Aladár Porpáczy, Péter Sembery, Ferenc Vetési         HU ISSN 1216-4526
Dezsô Surányi1

National Peach Varieties and Growing Traditions

The Natural History of PLINY
mentions an enigmatic tree
species referred to as ’Tuberes’.
This tree was introduced into Italy
from Syria in the times of the
Emperor AUGUSTUS. It is
interesting to note that the tree
’Tuberes’ already existed in the
times of NERO which meant
nectarine: As a garden plant it was
first encountered by PLINY. The
scientific species name Persica
vulgaris      (Prunus       persica)
suggests that the region of origin
of the peach would be Persia but
in fact the latter is only the
secondary gene centre of the
peach. Perhaps, the Roman
legionaries were the first in                      Picture 1: Parasztbarack (Csongrád, 2006)
Europe to taste its fruit. Thus, the
first written mention of malum                     the plant. The most pertinent                   Roman Gaul prior to the campaign
persicum, also as Persian apple                    attribute to describe the peach                 of Julius Caesar. It is possible that
(e.g. THEOPHRASTUS), occurs                        appears in the book of PLINY:                   the peach arrived to the Gallic
in the roman age, though the                       duracinus, indicating firm fruit                people by the first route but the
exclusive roman mediation is not                   flesh and clingstone type, the                  second route is an indication that
sure. The real gene centre is China                word from which the Arabian                     also the Gallic sent various types
where three species groups                         durakim is derived and also which               from Southern France into the
developed. The original homeland                   is related to the name of the Illyric           countries of the Roman Empire. In
of the types that in our country are               (Albanese) city Durrësi. An almost              fact, peach was grown in Gaul
considered as very old may be the                  perplexing variety: Chinese,                    already in the 1st century and in
valley of the Yangtze where white                  Persian, Illyric, Roman and even                the 5th century the Benedictine
fleshed cold and drought resistant                 Gallic. Which is the correct? It is             monks learned the tricks from the
peaches came from.                                 known that one single fruit was                 Celtic inhabitants and produced
                                                   sold at a price even as high as 30              several local varieties. The
Roman peaches in the                               sertertia in Imperial Rome, since it            varieties known as ’Paraszt-
                                                   was a novelty.                                  barack’ (Picture 1) should be
Carpathian Basin
                                                       At the same time, PLINY and                 regarded as memorials less to the
    It is a fact that in his Georgics              COLUMELLA             also     make             peach returned to the wild state
also VIRGIL deals with the honey                   mention of the Gallic peach which               but rather to the Roman-Celtic
sweet peach, but COLUMELLA                         is a proof that the peach might                 inheritance, similarly, in certain
likewise pays attention to praise                  have already been present in                    areas of the country, to nectarine

1Fruitculture   Institute Cegléd Non-Profit Company, H-2700 Cegléd, Szolnoki út 52. Phone: (36) 53/505-388; E-mail: cefrucht@axelero.hu

4                                                                                                Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
also called as rubber-peach (in the
neighbourhood of the town
Cegléd) or to ‘fügebarack’ (fig)
peaches (Picture 2). On the other
hand, it is possible that in the
Carpathian Basin free-stone
peaches are gifts only of the 18th
and 19th centuries.
    Having seen the historical
background, it seems advisable to
consider, one by one, the finds of
fruit stones and the national
written sources as it is not possible
to rule out with certainty that the
peach was introduced into
Pannonia either by Celtics from
the West or brought into the               Picture 2: Fügebarack, alias Peento (Csemô, 1997)
country by the Romans from the
South via the Balkan.                      were recovered from the fill of a      the provinces of Pannonia.
    Four peach stones from the             well at 40 Úri Street in the 1st       Besides the stones found, the
Roman period are known from the            district of Budapest. A peach          written sources can be considered
national archaeological finds.             stone was also found in the 5th        as clear evidence. The glossary of
Three stones were recovered from           layer (16th century) of the court of   Beszterce (around 1390–1410)
a 1st–2nd century cremation grave          the castle in Kôszeg. Of particular    contains two forms of occurrence:
in Gyôr-Homokgödör and one                 interest are the 39 peach stones in    psicus, barasc fa =persicum,
was excavated in the Roman                 the coffins in the crypt of the        baraczk and psicum, barassch =
period layer found at the corner of        church of Gyöngyöspata. It would       persicum, baraczk and in the
the streets Kiscelli and Pacsirta in       be worthwhile to find out for what     glossary of the Abbey of Schlägl
the 3rd district of Budapest. Much         reasons they had been placed there     (around 1400–1410) peach is
later, a charred peach stone was           in the same manner as into the         denoted as persicum or barazc
unearthed from a Romanesque                Romanesque infant’s grave (hope        while in the Latin-Hungarian
grave (next to an infant) at               of eternal life?).                     glossary as bar(a)zcfa. In charters
Esztergom-Kovácsi.           Several           We had earlier mentioned that      some data also refers to peach and
stones were found at the                   peach may have been introduced         a document dating to 1528
Romanesque housing site at                 and brought under cultivation by       mentions dried peach (azw
Fonyód-Bétatelep. A number of              the Celtics but the cultural effect    barazk). In the glossary of
12th–14th century peach stones             of the Romans is beyond doubt in       Murmelius the meaning is persica
                                                                                  pomus, i.e. barazk fa (peach tree)
                                                                                  just like barazk fa (persica)in the
                                                                                  Latin-Hungarian Glossary of
                                                                                  Calepius, then the Glossary of
                                                                                  Balázs Szikszai Fabriczius (1590)
                                                                                  describes perhaps the typical trait
                                                                                  of the earliest Hungarian peach
                                                                                  variety (i.e. duranczai)

                                                                                  When the peach was born...
                                                                                     Based on a broad analysis of
                                                                                  the national sources we can see
                                                                                  that peach was started to be grown
                                                                                  in Hungary without doubt as early
                                                                                  as the 16th century (Picture 3).
                                                                                  The attribute ‘ôszi’ (autumnal)
Picture 3: Peach tree in bloom (Szatymaz, 2002)                                   began to be used only from the

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                           5
18th century in order to distinguish
peach (‘ôszibarack’) from apricot
(‘sárga/nyári barack’). KELE-
MEN MIKES was the first to call
peach, Persica vulgaris as
‘ôszibarack’ in his work entitled
Letters from Turkey (181st Letter).
‘There are no pears, apples and
plums, but a lot of peaches
    It is worthwhile to have a look
at the Europe of the 15th–16th
centuries even if peach production
can already be encountered in the
8th–9th centuries. Accordingly,
historical sources make mention
of peaches in England, Holland
and in areas north of Paris,
situated, in particular, in sheltered
gardens and along south-facing
walls of houses. Later (e.g. in
England) frost tolerant varieties       Picture 4: Cézanne: Fruit bowl with peaches
were produced (till then the
Belgian and Dutch gardeners had         ’Magyar barack’ as the synonym             The rapid increase in the
grown peaches mainly in glass           of ’Vérbarack’ and later ’Vér-         number of the varieties is not only
houses), but due to the high costs      barack’ and ’Péche Hongroise’ its      an indication of the development
they did not manage to become           equivalent name appear in a work       of the French peach production
popular (Picture 4). It is known        of LEROY (1879), too. The              but also of the level of the national
from the Chronicles of ROGER of         variety ’Wossel sárga duráncija’       growing. In an archival document
WENDOVER that in England                survived under the name of ’Pavie      dated 1762 BOGDÁN – GEDAY
peaches were already being              alberge jaune’. According to           (1971) discovered the variety list
planted around 1216 (the climate        LEROY the latter is identical to       of the orchard of the Peklin estate.
was warmer than today), then            the peach referred to as ’Duracina’    According to it 7 different peaches
WOLF, Royal Gardener to Henry           by PLINY.                              were grown, namely the varieties
VIII started experiments with
peach growing again, almost from
the beginning. Over the following
centuries, it was again the French
that excelled with peaches.
SERRES (1604) described already
as many as 12 peach varieties
while LECTIER (1628) 27 ones
and 38 varieties were presented by
MERLET (1667) in his book.
    In the 16th century, according
to GESNER, two peach varieties
of Hungarian origin were growing
in the garden of WOYSSEL in
Wroclaw: ’Vérbarack’ (Picture 5)
and ’Woyssel sárga duráncija’.
These were also described and
classified by BAUHIN in his
botanical work (Pinax theatri
botanici). In his Fructologia
KNOOP uses the denomination of          Picture 5: Vérbarack (Cegléd, 1995)

6                                                                             Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
’Korai mandulabarack’, ’Nagy
duránci’, ’Nagy kemény húsú
tivoli’, ’Nagy kopasz barack’,
’Nagy sárga mandulabarack’,
’Vérbarack’ and ’Vörös és Sárga
tivoli’ (the name ‘mandulabarack’
used then is identical to the
current botanical name ‘barack-
   LEIBITZER (1798) described
13 peach varieties and already 50
in a later edition (1836) of his
book and COLIN (1802)
presented 22 peach varieties. The
Kalauz of JÓZSEF KOVÁCS                    Picture 6: Jakab Bogdány: Still Life (detail) around 1700
(1861) described 32 free stone and
only 3 cling stone varieties.              (Galande). The variety was so         the village Gyón and ’Zwikly
FERENC ENTZ (1858), the                    common that, according to ENTZ        barackja’ selected by ANDRÁS
founder       of   the    national         ‘we had the opportunity to            ZWICKLY on Gellért Hill.
horticultural higher education,            observe and admire it in the
presented 4 French and 2                   neighbourhood of Szeged, Eger         Hungarian local varieties and
Hungarian varieties in the series          and Lake Balaton, i.e. in our
                                                                                 growing regions
of booklets entitled Kertészeti            homeland’. After the Austro-
füzetek.                                   Hungarian Compromise of 1867             Gallic     (French)       peaches
   French peaches included                 also free stone English varieties     (Picture 7) are mostly white or
usually light fleshed and free             arrived in the country. The variety   greenish white fleshed and free
stone varieties. At that time the          ’Rivers korai’ (nectarine) was        stone. The true Hungarian
one most widespread in Hungary             recommended by VILLÁSI, on            specimen of ‘Paraszbarack’ are
was ’Korai Chevreuse’ (Picture 6),         the other hand Hungarian varieties    also of this kind which confirms
ripening at the end of August,             of such kind had already become       probably not only the successful
similarly to ’Veres Magdolna’.             popular, such as ’Metelka díjazott    maintenance of the Gaul peaches
ENTZ was the first to present              barackja’ (free stone), grown from    brought in via non-Balkan routes
the varieties ’Nagy kedvelt’,              seed by SOMA BARTHOLO-                but demonstrates the successful
’Kancellár’ and ’Szép Ôrnô’                MEIDÉSZ, the Lutheran pastor of       horticultural activity of the
                                                                                 military governor of the fortress of
                                                                                 Szeged, at least in the county of
                                                                                 Csongrád. The importance of the
                                                                                 variety ’Vérbarack’ on the other
                                                                                 hand is due to the fact that the
                                                                                 yellow fleshed varieties, e.g.
                                                                                 ’Sárga csodaszép’ and ’Elberta’
                                                                                 are considered to descend from it.
                                                                                 The latter of the two became so
                                                                                 popular that it is still present as a
                                                                                 companion plant in vineyards in
                                                                                 the Great Plain. ’Vérbarack’, on
                                                                                 the other hand, has almost
                                                                                 disappeared. ENTZ also considers
                                                                                 the cling stone varieties as
                                                                                 substantially Hungarian peaches
                                                                                 writing this way: ‘Any attempt to
                                                                                 undermine the reputation of the
                                                                                 French peach, the term denoting
                                                                                 the free stone cultivated varieties,
Picture 7: Gallic peach, painted by a French artist (work of Cézanne)            would be a futile effort, but I dare

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                            7
                                                                        (Picture 8), ’Vezerle duráncija’
                                                                        (variety of the parson of Bada-
                                                                        csony), ’Kecskeméti duránci’
                                                                        (obtained by János Buzás from
                                                                        seed) (Picture 9), ’Szöghi
                                                                        duráncija’ (seedling of the
                                                                        landowner in Szeged) and ’Bartha
                                                                        duráncija’ (selected in 1887 by the
                                                                        author of the name).
                                                                            As written by RAPAICS
                                                                        (1936), free stone varieties were
Picture 8: Mezôkomáromi duránci (Brózik, 1962)                          mostly of western origin and over
                                                                        the last century several cling stone
and will attempt, though not       peaches, should it cost some         varieties were selected in the
promising in advance, to achieve   German theme’. In the second part    country. The varieties ’Mezô-
that with time by the name of      of the 19th century several cling    komáromi duránci’ of Entz,
Hungarian      peach     foreign   stone varieties were described by    ’Vezerle duráncija’ (Badacsony),
pomologists will understand the    pomologists: ’Mezôkomáromi           ’Kecskeméti duránci’ (Kecs-
better ones of the cling stone     duránci’ (grown from seed)           kemét), ’Szöghi duránci’ (Szeged)
                                                                        and ’Bartha duráncija’ (Tisza-
                                                                        füred) were grown as local
                                                                        varieties. These, besides being of
                                                                        the cling stone type, had the
                                                                        common characteristic of having
                                                                        been produced from seedlings
                                                                        obtained by open pollination via
                                                                        selection (Table 1).
                                                                            The great Phylloxera epidemic
                                                                        brought about changes not only in
                                                                        the structure of viticulture, the
                                                                        techniques of cultivation, the
                                                                        geographical distribution of
                                                                        vineyards (allocation) and in the
                                                                        social position and initiated the
                                                                        migration of people, but had an
                                                                        influence also on the other sectors
                                                                        of agriculture. The peach pro-
                                                                        duction in the neighbourhood of
                                                                        Buda began at the devastation of
                                                                        the vineyards in Buda.
                                                                            KÁLMÁN TÖRS (1889),
                                                                        based on his experiences gained in
                                                                        the region of Buda, wrote as
                                                                        follows: ‘Peaches in mid-summer!
                                                                        How can we call ‘ôszibarack’
                                                                        (peach) as ôszi (autumnal) when it
                                                                        ripens earlier than some of the
                                                                        varieties of the apricot ripening in
                                                                        summer!’ TÖRS describes 12
                                                                        varieties in his article. That time
                                                                        the variety ’Legkorábbi’ was
                                                                        widespread in the hills of Buda
                                                                        under the name of ’Hóbarack’, but
Picture 9: Holy Mother of God with Peaches (Kecskemét, Roman            the most popular peaches were the
Catholic Church)                                                        ones of early July: ’Côte d’Azur’,

8                                                                      Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Table 1. Introduced and indigenous peaches in Hungarian growing                    ’Korai Alexander’ and ’Amsden’.
regions                                                                                Phylloxera (1875) appeared in
VARIETY                      Character     Ripening           Note
                                                                                   Hungary in a time when the
                                                                                   peaches from America were
Aranycsillag                 cling         1st July           long dormancy
                                                                                   becoming more and more popular.
Hóbarack                     cling         1st July           frost sensitive      The destructed vineyards were
Nektár H.                    free          1st July           frost resistant      replaced with peaches. The
Cegléd szépe C. 425          free          2nd July           good transporting    orchard of KÁROLY KER-
Bársonypír                   semi-free     2nd–3rd of July    good bearing         KÁPOLY was set up on Gellért
Mariska                      semi-free     2nd–3rd July       drought resistant    Hill, then in the 1930s the market
                                                                                   was dominated by peaches from
Piroska C. 1629              free          2nd–3rd July       winter resistant
                                                                                   Nagytétény. In Nagytétény also
Bartha duráncija             cling         3rd July           good cap cv.         hillsides had been planted with
Csizmadia magonca            cling         3rd July–1st Aug   no transporting      grapevines before the Phylloxera
Fehér korai                  free          3rd July–1st Aug   no transporting      epidemic, which were then
Csemôi gumibarack            cling         1st Aug            excellent            replaced with peaches. The
                                                              transporting         teacher VILMOS LEHNER made
Homokgyöngye C. 427          semi-free     1st Aug            good transporting    his home there, who nevertheless
                                                                                   tried to grow table grapes as well,
Vezerle duráncija            cling         1st Aug            very bearing
                                                                                   but soon changed over to the
Zwickly ôszibarack           cling         1st Aug            good market cv.      production of peaches. He
Fügebarack                   cling         2nd Aug            flat fruit           procured the best varieties and
Laczy-féle barack            free          2nd Aug            tasty                with them he conquered the
Szatymazi Ford               free          2nd Aug            good cap cv.         market of Budapest, contem-
Brugnon                      free          2nd–3rd Aug        monilia sensitive    porarily teaching farmers the
                                                                                   method of modern production,
Parasztbarack                free          2nd–3rd Aug        diverse use
                                                                                   though it is true that JÓZSEF
Cserhalmi szépe              free          3rd Aug            frost resistant      TÖRLEY and his family managed
Elberta                      free          3rd Aug            winter frost         to establish their famous vineyard
                                                              sensitive            and Champaign factory in
Fodor-féle névtelen          free          3rd Aug            diverse fruit size   Budafok. The region of Buda
Proskaui                     free          3rd Aug            seed-good cv.        extended in peach growing: the
Bourdin                      free          3rd Aug-1st Sept   good table cv.       example of Budafok and Nagy-
Metelka díjazottja           free          3rd Aug-1st Sept   greenish fresh
                                                                                   tétény was followed by Érd, Diósd
                                                                                   and Törökbálint. The experiences
Szegedi arany                free          3rd Aug-1st Sept   frost resistant
                                                                                   were summed up by ÖDÖN
Champion                     free          1st Sept           for rootstock        LEHNER in a very popular
Elberta                      free          1st Sept           for rootstock        catechism which had several
Kecskeméti duránci           cling         1st Sept           no sensitive         editions.
Nagy mignon                  free          1st Sept           severe bearing           Peaches spread not only in
Paczelt magonca              free          1st Sept           very juicy
                                                                                   place and at the expense of
                                                                                   grapevines. HUSZ (1940) in his
Württembergi király          free          1st Sept           good cap cv.
                                                                                   book entitled as Diseased Plant
Gyümölcskertek királynôje    free          2nd Sept           table cv.            and Its Cure describes his
Lord Palmerston              cling         2nd Sept           good transporting    experience demonstrating the
Magyar aranyduráncija        cling         2nd Sept           big fruit            harmful nature of deforestation in
Mezôkomáromi duránci         cling         2nd Sept           good transporting    the peach plantations planted in
Shipley                      free          2nd-3rd Sept       for rootstock
                                                                                   place of the forests. I can add, that
                                                                                   the present author was told similar
Szöghy duráncija             cling         2nd-3rd Sept       excellent cap
                                                                                   experiences at Vértesalja and in the
Kései bronzos Elberta        free          3rd Sept           drougth resistant    region of Gyöngyös by elderly
Vénusz emlôje                free          3rd Sept           good table cv.       farmers: ‘In the region of Érd in
Vérbarack                    free          3rd Sept           blood fresh          five years hardly any surviving
Salwey                       free          3rd Oct            late ripening        trees has remained of the peach
                                                                                   plantation planted in place of the

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                              9
exchange forest cleared. The trees
after the initial development stop in
growth, languish with smaller
yellowish leaves and gradually
perish’ (p 87). Thus, replant
diseases can occur in peach
plantations also after Austrian oaks
(SURÁNYI 1998). This isolated
phenomenon, on the other hand,
had no affect on the flourishing of
the growing region around Buda.
The 296 thousand peach trees of 12
settlements had increased to 1,101
thousand by 1959.

Epoch of changes in variety use
    The region of Szatymaz also
constitutes a traditional growing       Picture 10: Aranycsillag (Gyöngyös, 2001)
region and is important because it
is here where most of the               and his subsequent followers               the Second World War. The
traditions have survived. The first     JÓZSEF BÓDI, ISTVÁN FOKI                   growing region in the Danube
data demonstrating a large scale        and PÁL TÓTH. The result of                Bend was also established in the
peach production in this area are       their work includes ’Aranycsillag’         last century after the Phylloxeara
from the turn of the 18th and 19th      (Picure     10),      ’Bársonypír’,        epidemic, though the origins of
centuries. Therefore BÁLINT             Szatymazi Ford’, ’Szegedi arany’           peach      production      in    the
(1976) is cautious in saying:           and ’Szegedi óriás’. The region of         neighbourhood of Szentendre and
‘Little is known about the previous     Szatymaz had only 48 thousand              Óbuda go back to Roman times.
past of the peach in Szeged.            peach trees in 1935, but in 1968           Similarly, cultivation in the
However, the fact that the peach        already 685 thousand trees were            neighbourhood of Gyôr has
not tied up with either idioms or       bearing fruit in the neighbourhood         ‘classical roots’, too. Also, in the
beliefs seem to be a proof of the       of Balástya, Bordány, Csengele             vicinity of Lake Balaton and the
relatively recent presence of the       Forráskút, Szatymaz, Szeged,               city Pécs the existence of a peach
peach in Szeged. Its production is      Üllés, Zákány and Zsombó                   culture in the 4th–5th century
parallel to the development of          (BÁLINT 1976).                             seems probable. It was some of
viticulture on sandy soil’. (A              On the other hand, peach had a         the mother trees selected in the
szögedin nemzet, Col. I, pp             considerably wider growing                 vineyards of the Great Plain that
597–598). The oldest local variety      region in the decades following            proved favourable also as a
was ’Vedres-féle duránci’ then
records occur relative to a             Table 2. Rootstock peach and peach alomond cultivars at Cegléd
nectarine. JOSEPH, the Prince of                                                          Frost            Ratio,
Lotharingia, the military governor                 VARIETY       Self-fertility
                                                                                       resistance       seedling/seed
of the fortress of Szeged,                                            %                                    no./kg
introduced several French peach
                                        ’C. 932’                     12,2            weak                     94
varieties into cultivation in the
regions around Szeged. The              ’C. 2629’                    19,1            moderate                114
efforts of the Prince, unfor-           ’C. 2630’                    15,4            enough good              80
tunately, have fallen in oblivion,      ’Öttömösi nagyvirágú’        17,4            good                     80
even though the so-called               ’Öttömösi kisvirágú’         19,3            good                     95
‘Parasztbarack’ varieties deve-
                                        ’Shipley’                     6,2            moderate                110
loped from the French varieties
imported by him, thus being the         14/54 ’Elberta’              15,6            enough good              78
youngest Hungarian varieties.           50/54 ’Champion’             29,6            good                     83
    One can mention, as breeder,        ’C. 410’ almondpeach          9,7            very good               131
the name of RICHÁRD ZAUER

10                                                                                Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Picture 11: Pits of C. 932 peach rootstock (Cegléd, 1998)

rootstock variety (Picture 11)             Thus, only 3,808,901 trees were in      kopasz muskotály’ or ’Római
because of the small size of pit, of       cultivation in 1935 while 1959          violány’ (Brugnon violet musqué),
the favourable germination and             already 10,734,767 peach trees          DEZSÔ ANGYAL (1908), on the
the high resistance to ecological          were included in the inventory          other hand, praised the nectarine
stresses and diseases (Picture 12)         (the growth is 281%).                   ’Lord Napier’.
(Table 2).                                    As written by TIMON (2004),
    Also, a smaller growing area           from 1961 ‘Champion’ became             References
was formed at the feet of the hills        the leading variety in the country.
of Mátra–Bükk–Tokaj and, even              Peach production had a good                Faust, M. – Timon, B. 1995.
if in a manner less marked than            position and in 1972 the total yield    Origin and dissemination of
that of the abovementioned                 amounted to 131 800 tons and            peach. Hort. Rev. New York 17:
regions, peach production became           10–18 thousand tons went for            331–379.
typical as a companion crop in             exports. 87% of the fruiting areas         Mohácsy M. – Maliga P. – ifj.
vineyards on sandy soil in the             were concentrated on ecologically       Mohácsi M. 1967. Ôszibarack.
region between the rivers Danube           suitable areas. From the 1980s the      Mezôgazdasági Kiadó, Bp.
and Tisza. This old form of                nectarines started to have an ever         Rapaics R. 1936. Ôszibarack-
cultivation, on smaller patches of         greater role, nevertheless the          jaink. Term. tud. Közl. 68:
land, was observable in other parts        proportion of the early maturing        385–396.
of the country, constituting 6.75          varieties remained around 30%.             Rapaics R. 1940. A magyar
million trees (62.8%) on the level         Still, the economical, social-          gyümölcs. KMTT, Bp.
of the whole country. In contrast,         political situation is a hindrance to      Roach, F. A. 1985. Cultivated
the tree inventory listed 2.2              changes in variety use which            fruits of Britain. Their origin and
million peach trees in home                should not be neglected both from       history. B, Blackwill, New York.
gardens (20.5%) and 930                    the point of the development of            Surányi D. 1985. Kerti növé-
thousand (8.6%) as scattered.              the national fruit production and       nyek regénye. Mezôgazdasági
                                           because of the new phytosanitary        Kiadó, Bp.
                                           problems.                                  Surányi, D. 1998. Data to the
                                              Nectarines (Prunus persica           history of replant disease and soil
                                           var. nucipersica), on the other         sickness in Hungary. Acta Hort.
                                           hand, had long been known in            Hague 474: 162–169.
                                           Hungary, as already LIPPAY                 Surányi D. 1999. Csonthéjas
                                           (1667) knew them: ‘There are            alanyfajták botanikai leírása.
                                           hairless, smooth peaches which          GYDKFI, Cegléd.
                                           are usually cling stone’. Later,           Surányi D. 2002. Gyümöl-
                                           ISTVÁN MÁTYUS calls the                 csözô sokféleség. Biodiverzitás a
                                           ‘smooth skinned nut, plum and           gyümölcstermesztésben. Akcident,
                                           lemon peaches’ as ‘bastard              Cegléd.
                                           (=deformed) peaches’. They are             Timon B. 2004. Ôszibarack.
                                           most fully discussed by COLIN at        Mezôgazda Kiadó, Bp.
                                           the beginning of the 19th century.         Tomcsányi P. (szerk.) 1979.
Picture 12: Petals of virus infected       FERENC ENTZ (1858) recom-               Gyümölcsfajtáink. Gyakorlati po-
flower (1998)                              mended the cling stone ’Vérpiros        mológia. Mezôgazdasági Kiadó, Bp.

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                           11
Péter Sembery, Gábor Géczi1

Microwave treatment of food

Behaviour of foods in an                           moisture content (w, %). In the            In the equation (2) εmixture
electromagnetic field is highly                    equation (1) k is a complex            denotes the complex permittivity
dependant on the dielectric                        constant characteristic of wheat       of the wheat of the given moisture
constant of the material. In the                   (k=0.053–0.053j) and εa is a           content and bulk density νair is the
beginning of the investigation we                  theoretical set value corresponding    complex permittivity of air, in our
had a wave guide apparatus which                   to the dielectric constant of the      case always 1–0j (no loss) and
was suitable for the measurement                   ‘perfectly dry’ wheat seed             νseed is the complex permittivity
of solid phase permittivity. A                     (εa=4.132–0.151j).                     of the wheat seed calculated by the
measuring system utilizing a                                                              equation (1). Furthermore, νair and
cavity resonator (Figure 1) was                                                    (1)    νseed are the partial quantities
developed which allowed usto                                                              represented by the components
determine the dielectric properties                   By use of the equation (1) and      (air and seed) relative to which it is
of liquid foods (e.g. milk) as well.               also of the Landau-Lifshitz,           always true that vair + νseed = 1.
    Based on the results of our                    Looyenga mixture expression (2)            When the above described
measurements and calculations we                   we are able to make a quick and        algorithm was applied to the wheat
defined an algorithm permitting a                  simple assessment of the complex       samples tested, at a frequency of
quick and simple assessment of the                 permittivity of wheat with             2.45 GHz, to samples with
complex permittivity of cereals                    different moisture content and         different bulk density and
with different moisture content                    bulk density                           moisture content, the estimation
and bulk density. In the first step
we calculated the complex
dielectric constant of the ‘single                                                                                            (2)
kernel’ in the knowledge of the

Figure 1: A measuring system utilizing a cavity                       Figure 2: Cavity resonator and sample holder

1Szent   István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.

12                                                                                       Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3

       seed permittivity, e’seed

                                                                                                                                                            milling quality
                                   4,8                                                                                                                      feed quality
                                   4,7                                                                                                                      quality improver


                                         10                             10,5            11     11,5         12             12,5   13       13,5       14

                                                                                                 moisture content, w [%]

Figure 3: Seed permittivity expressed as a function of moisture content

error in the real dielectric constant                                                        substantial influence on the              control of wheat quality
compared to the measured values                                                              permittivity of wheat and on the          evaluation.
was 2% and in the case of the loss                                                           loss factor.                                  Tests of liquid foods (milk,
factor less than 4%.                                                                            The dielectric constant of an          beer) indicated that the dielectric
    Our investigations revealed a                                                            aggregate of grain or seed crops,         properties could not be cumulated
relationship between the dielectric                                                          by calculation using the Landau-          with a method similar to that of
properties of wheat and the                                                                  Lifshitz, Looyenga mixture                grain and seed crops. We failed to
parameters decisive for its quality.                                                         expression, permits to determine          demonstrate the possibility to
The basis for the classification of                                                          the dielectric properties of seeds        determine the dielectric properties
wheat into quality categories                                                                with a specific moisture content.         of the mix in the knowledge of the
(milling, feed and ‘quality                                                                  When the permittivity of the              dry matter content of the liquids
improver’) is the standard MSZ                                                               seeds is represented as a function        and the dielectric constant of the
6383:1998. The determining                                                                   of the moisture content, the              water. On the other hand, we
parameters are hectolitre weight                                                             results of the samples belonging          considered that the real dielectric
(bulk density) of the aggregate, its                                                         to different quality classes will         properties of the milk samples
moisture, wet gluten and crude                                                               clearly separate from each other          provided clear information on
protein contents and the falling                                                             (Figure 3). This finding will help        milk fat content as a positive
number. The first two have a                                                                 us in the accomplishment and              result. It can be seen from Figure 4

                                              dielectric constant [-]


                                                                               76                                                                 0.1 %
                                                                                                                                                  1.5 %
                                                                          75.5                                                                    2.8 %

                                                                                    0                  1                      2            3
                                                                                                      fat content [%]

Figure 4: Dielectric constant of milk expressed as a function of fat content

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                                                                                       13
                                                                                  be drawn from the results for the
                                                                                  efficiency of energy use (ratio of
                                                                                  heat output and electrical output).
                                                                                  On the other hand, it can be seen
              250                                                                 that when dealing with lower
                                                                                  quantities it is the microwave
              200                                                                 method that produces better
     E (Wh)

              150                                                    MW           results.
                                                                                      Based on these we set ourselves
              100                                                    VT
                                                                                  the objective to develop a
                                                                     EF           continuous operation apparatus
                                                         EF                       having a lower quantity in the
                0                                      VT                         microwave field at a given
                    100    250
                                                      MW                          moment during its operation,
                                   500 1000                                       thereby a better energy consump-
                          V (ml)                                                  tion was achieved even when
                                                                                  heating greater quantities. One of
                                                                                  the possibilities is the apparatus
Figure 5: Energy consumption                                                      provided with a flow-through
                                                                                  system carrying out the pasteuri-
that the value of the real dielectric    experiments,        besides      the     zation prior to packaging. The
property decreases with the              feasibility of pasteurization, was to    other possibility is the placement
increase in fat content.                 determine energy consumption.            of the already packed product
    Using our earlier results, we        Microwave heating was compared           (boxed milk, bottled beer) into the
continued our investigations with        to other electric heating methods,       microwave field and its pasteuri-
the study of food technologies           such as electric cooking plate and       zation. The latter is an energy
suitable for use in electromagnetic      constant temperature water bath.         efficient technology based on
field. We set ourselves the              Heating was carried out using a          internal heat generation in which
objective to find a solution for the     domestic        microwave       oven     process the pasteurization of
pasteurization of liquid foods by        (Whirlpool AT314), an electric           products already packed or bottled
the application of microwave             cooking plate (ETK 5508) and a           can be accomplished, capable to
energy. The particular character of      constant temperature water bath          substitute the costly aseptic
the thermal application of micro-        (PHYWE S07022). All three                techniques.
wave energy is given by the fact         methods had a nominal electric               A heat treatment apparatus
that the thermal energy is               capacity of 1000 W and energy            for laboratory use was developed
produced inside the material to be       consumption was measured using           for the purpose of the microwave
heated, thereby making heating           an Actaris SL 7000 energy meter.         treatment (pasteurization) of fluid
faster. Known applications of            Sample temperatures were conti-          foods prior to packaging. The
dielectric heating include the           nuously monitored at eight points        apparatus was constructed from a
drying of seeds and food products,       with the help of CU-CuNi                 commercial microwave oven for
the pre-sowing seed treatment in         thermocouples,         using      an     the purpose of, initially, batch and
order to improve germination and         ALMEMO 2590-9 device.                    then     continuous        operation
growth, heating of agricultural             Our investigations confirmed          pasteurization. Continuous opera-
products in order to improve their       the quickness of microwave               tion was achieved with the help of
nutritional and other properties,        heating (MW) for milk, distilled         a glass spiral placed in the
pest control, enzyme inactivation        water and beer. Based on the             microwave oven. Treatment time
(pre-cooking), pasteurization and        analysis of energy consumption           is controllable by the flow speed
sterilization. Microwaves are            (Figure 5) we can see that the           and by the modification of the
electric waves having frequencies        heating up of quantities over 1 litre    length of the spiral tube. The
from 300 MHz to 300 GHz.                 using the domestic microwave             design of the continuous operation
However, for safety reasons, only        oven required higher energy inputs       microwave        pasteurizer      of
a few frequencies are allowed in         than that using the constant             laboratory dimensions is illust-
the food industry: 915 MHz, 2.45         temperature water bath (CTWB)            rated in Figure 6. 2 holes of 7 mm
GHz, 5.8 GHz and 24.124 GHz.             or the electric cooking plate            in diameter were drilled, spaced at
    The purpose of the initial           (ECP). A similar conclusion can          8 cm apart, on the side of a

14                                                                               Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
                                    T5                 T4              T3

                                  T1                T2

                                         6.                      7.

Figure 6: Continuous operation pasteurizer of laboratory type
1 – Whirpool AT 314 microwave oven with spiral accessories, 2 – STENNER 85M5 controllable flow rate
pump, 3 – temperature maintenance section, 4 – Alfa-Laval CB14-14 heat recovery unit, 5 – flow sensor
6 – ALMEMO 2590-9 temperature sensor, 7 – ACTARIS SL7000 electric power meter

domestic       microwave       oven           of the volume flow rate Q (cm3/s)        cavity resonator tt (s) which has an
(Whirpool AT 314 MW) in order                 of the pump as well as the exchange      influence the level of heating.
to provide an inlet and outlet for            of the glass spirals fit for inclusion       The effectiveness of the
the liquid. The size and spacing of           in the microwave oven thereby            microwave heat treatments was
the holes were chosen to permit               permitting the choice of the length      checked by the analysis of
safe operation of the apparatus.              of the spirals lspiral (cm). Both        chemical composition and by
A pump having a controllable flow             embodiments allow us to modify           microbiological and sensorial
rate (STENNER 85M5), as well as               the time the liquid spends in the        tests. We carried out the Coliform
instruments for the measurement
of weight (XP-3000), volume,
time and temperature (ALMEMO
2590-9) were connected to the
apparatus supplemented with the
special glass spirals. The measuring
circuit was also equipped with a
plate heat exchanger (Alfa-Laval),
a temperature maintenance section,
as well as with a flow sensor and
with an electric power meter
    Based on Figure 6 individual
points of temperature measure-
ment are as follows: T1-initial
material temperature T2- tempera-
ture of preheated material T3-
product temperature on leaving the
microwave oven T4-product
temperature after the temperature
maintenance section and finally T5-
pre-cooled product temperature.
    The arrangement illustrated in
the figure permits the modification           Figure 7: Spiral coil placed in the microwave oven

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                                15
          TE10 mode                                                           and Pseudomonas aeruginosa tests
          feeder line                          Magnetron + cooling            for the beer and also sent it for an
                                                                              alcohol content check. The effects
             Wave trap                         Wave trap                      of heat treatment on milk was
                                                                              checked thorough pH measure-
                                                    Ceramic or Teflon tube
                                                                              ments, count of dead bacteria,
                                                                 Cooling      phosphatase and peroxidase test
                                                                              and by the determination of milk
                                                                              fat, milk protein, lactose and non-
     Power supply                                                             fat milk solid content (SNF).
        unit                                                                  Neither the sensorial analysis nor
                                                                              the analysis of chemical compo-
                                                                              sition and microbiological quality
                                                                              revealed any difference between
                                                                              the products pasteurized by us and
                                                                              those subjected to traditional heat
                                                                              treatment. The tests were carried
         TE311 mode cavity resonator                                          out by the Animal Health and Food
                                                                              Control Station (ÁÉEÁ) in
 Power: 3x1kW                                TE10 mode feeder line            Gödöllô.
 Magnetron control:                                                               As a result of the investigation
 – all three continuous or batch                                              it can be concluded that the
 – multiplex continuous or batch             TE311 mode cavity resonator      microwave heat treatment appa-
                            3x120°                                            ratus comprising spiral tubes is
                                                 Magnetron + cooling          suitable for pasteurization. After
        Ceramic or Teflon tube                                                subsequent development its model
                                                                              could be competitive with the
                                                                              traditional methods, both in terms
                                                                              of quality and energy efficiency.
                                                                                  In the course of our research,
                                                                              we made an attempt to develop a
Figure 8: Basic structure of continuous operation apparatus suitable for      continuous operation apparatus
microwave heat treatment of bottled beer                                      suitable for the microwave heat
                                                                              treatment of bottled beer. In the
                                                                              apparatus the beer bottle passes
                                                                              through a tubular wave guide the
                                                                              energy supply of which is ensured
                                                                              by three magnetrons spaced at 120
                                                                              degrees apart. On the other hand,
                                                                              the background radiation of the
                                                                              model developed exceeds the
                                                                              threshold limit value of workplace
                                                                              environment therefore the present
                                                                              embodiment is unsuitable for
                                                                              testing. The basic structure of the
                                                                              apparatus is shown in Figure 8 and
                                                                              the apparatus already existing but
                                                                              under modification for safety
                                                                              reasons can be seen in Figure 9.
                                                                                  In the terminal stage of the
                                                                              research we started to investigate
                                                                              about the microwave pasteuri-
                                                                              zation of egg juice. Results and
Figure 9: Continuous operation apparatus suitable for microwave heat          implementation of further deve-
treatment of bottled beer                                                     lopments are under way.

16                                                                           Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
József Popp1

The future of GM crops

Introduction                                       Table 1. Global area of biotech crops by country (2006–2007)

                                                                      2006       2007
    For science, biotechnology has                    Country                                       Biotech crops
already created opportunities and                                      Million hectares
opened up prospects which                          USA                 54.6     57.7      Soybean, maize, cotton, canola, squash,
ordinary people and consumers                                                             papaya, alfalfa
can barely comprehend. Since
                                                   Argentina           18.0     19.1      Soybean, maize, cotton
1996, when the first genetically
modified or GM soybean was                         Brazil              11.5     15.0      Soybean, cotton
harvested, biotechnology and its                   Canada               6.1       7.0     Canola, maize, soybean
adaptations by the food industry
have become one of the most                        India                3.8       6.2     Cotton
controversial and most disputed                    China                3.5       3.8     Cotton, tomato, poplar, papaya,
topics.                                                                                   sweet pepper
    The adoption of genetically                    Paraguay             2.0       2.6     Soybean
modified (GM) crops is occurring
at a rapid pace. The global area                   South Africa         1.4       1.8     Maize, soybean, cotton
planted with GM crops in 1996                      Source: ISAAA
was approximately 1.7 million
hectares. GM crop production has
increased each year since 1996,                   farms in 23 countries all over the        In 2007, 73% of the US maize
with an estimated 114 million                     world. The main producers of GM           crop was GM, as was 70% of the
hectares of GM crops planted in                   crops are, with the exception of          Argentinean crop. In the case of
2007. The United States is the                    the United States and Canada, are         soy, the proportion was 91% in
leading producer of GM crops                      all developing countries, i.e.            the US, 98% in Argentina and
accounting for 58 million hectares                Argentina, Brazil, India, China,          57% in Brazil (ISAAA 2008). The
of the total GM crop area.                        Paraguay and South Africa. Over           marketing of GM soybean,
Argentina is second, producing                    the next decade, the most                 soybean oil and meal, maize,
GM crops on about 19 million                      significant investments can be            cotton and rapeseed has already
hectares. Brazil had an estimated                 expected in China where, as a             been allowed in several countries
15 million hectares of GMO area                   consequence, almost half of the           all over the world. According to
in 2007 (Table 1). Virtually 100%                 crop production could be GM.              the experiences gained so far, due
of the world’s GMO area is                            In 2007, soybean had the              to the spreading of transgenic
planted to varieties of maize,                    largest area among GM crops with          plants, a decrease in global
soybeans, canola or cotton which                  58.6 million hectares (accounting         herbicides and pesticides use and
are either herbicide tolerant, or                 for 51 % of global biotech area). It      a rise in farm incomes can be
contain a Bt gene for insect                      was followed by GM maize with             noticed because of the improved
resistance, or combine both of                    35.2 million hectares (31 % of            productivity and efficiency of GM
these events.                                     global biotech area), then by GM          plants.     The      accumulative
    In 2007, GM crops were                        cotton and rapeseed with 15.0 and         reduction in pesticides for the
cultivated on about 12 million                    5.5 million hectares, respectively.       period 1996 to 2004 was

1Research   Institute for Agricultural Economics, Budapest, Hungary

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                                       17
estimated at 173,000 metric tons      7.9 million tons (36%) from              maximum of 0.1%, in the other
of active ingredient, which is        Brazil. The USA supplied only            countries mentioned above it is
equivalent to a 6% reduction in       just under 100,000 tons. The             sufficient to furnish proof that the
the associated environmental          USA, Brazil and Argentina                GMO content is below the
impact of pesticide use on these      dominated soybean cultivation            labeling threshold of 0.9%.
crops (Popp–Potori 2007). In          worldwide (Table 2).                        Supplying the market with
2007, the global value of the             Besides China and India, all         soybean meal not subject to
biotech crops was projected at        the other main soybean and               labeling is associated with higher
approximately US$6.9 billion          soybean meal producing and               costs because the marketing
representing 16% of the global        exporting countries have for the         chains have to be separated. In
crop protection market, and 20%       most part switched the cultivation       addition, having decided not to
of the global commercial seed         of soybeans to the GMO varieties.        plant GMO soy, the farmers in
market.                               Thus, GMO varieties had a share          Brazil have had the economic
                                      of 91 % of total soybean acreage         disadvantage of higher production
GM feed use in the European           in 2007 in the USA, while it was         costs. These costs have to be
                                      98 % in Argentina and approx. 65         offset by premiums.
                                      % in Brazil. In the other South             The premium, however, has
    The EU is unable to satisfy its   American        countries,     GMO       increased sharply in the last few
need for high protein feed by         varieties are likely to have the         years as a result of the increasing
itself. Most of the protein feed is   same share or higher than in             plantings of GMO soybeans in
imported from North and South         Brazil, while it is approx. 90 % in      Brazil. While the premium was
America where the exporting           Canada (Toepfer International            under 5 USD/t in 2004, it was
countries produce GM soybean,         2008).                                   around 10 USD/t in 2005 and
maize and rapeseed in large               This situation has an effect on      2006. In 2007 the premium for
quantities In total, 56.5 million     the supply of „GM-free“ soybean          soybean meal not requiring
tons of protein-rich feedstuffs       meal. This refers to soybean meal        labeling rose to 60 to 80 USD/t. It
were used in the EU in the            that is not required to be labeled in    can therefore be expected that
2006/07 marketing year. Of this,      the EU because it contains less          demand for soybean meal not
soybean meal alone accounted for      than 0.9 % GMO. Brazil is the            subject to labeling requirements
34.6 million tons, or a good 61 %.    only supplier on the world market        will decline at least in several
Around 22 million tons of usage       offering this and, besides Norway        Member States of the EU since the
were imported directly as soybean     and Switzerland, the EU is the           premiums will not be paid by the
meal, while approx. 12.6 million      only one with any demand.                market.
tons came from the processing of      According to the surveys and in-
soybeans into soybean meal and        depth discussions with a number          Consequences for the livestock
soy oil in the EU.                    of market participants in the EU,
    The EU imports soybeans and       around 3 million tons of soybean
soybean meal from the three large     meal is currently being used that is        The EU livestock sector faces
soybean producing countries. Of       not subject to required labeling         significant problems if the EU
total imports in 2006/07 in the       (Toepfer International, 2008).           does not urgently review its policy
amount of 14.8 million tons of        Soybean meal not requiring               of zero tolerance for imports of
soybeans, 8.9 million tons came       labeling thus has a share of             non-authorised          genetically
from Brazil (60%), 3.9 million        approx. 8.5% of total soybean            modified products. It topically
tons from the USA (26%) and just      meal consumption in the EU, so           takes twice as long to approve
under 200,000 tons from               that this can still be referred to as    new biotech strains in the EU than
Argentina (a good 1%). The            a niche market. This soybean meal        in the US. This means that
remaining 1.8 million tons were       is used almost exclusively in the        products which were being widely
imported from other South             broiler sector. Demand is                grown in North and South
American countries, Paraguay,         concentrated in France, the United       America were unavailable to EU
Uruguay and Bolivia, as well as       Kingdom, Austria and Scan-               importers because they had not
from      Canada.      Dominating     dinavia. Furthermore, demand has         completed the authorisation
soybean meal imports into the EU      been seen in Switzerland. While          process in the EU, and because of
was Argentina. Of total imports of    the sales contracts in Switzerland       the high costs of ensuring strict
22 million tons, 13.8 million tons    and to a large extent also in France     segregation of authorised and non-
(63%) came from Argentina and         limit the GMO content to a               authorised strains.

18                                                                            Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Table 2. EU-27: Imports and consumption of soybeans, soybean meal and corn gluten feed
                                                                                      2006/07            2005/06
                                             2006/07             2005/06
Soybeans                                      14,860            14,087                 100%               100%
thereof USA                                    3,550             2,510                  24%                18%
         Argentina                               270                76                   2%                 1%
         Brasil                                9,200             9,826                  62%                70%
Soybeanmeal                                   23,691            23,746                 100%               100%
thereof USA                                       98                72                   0%                 0%
         Argentina                            13,809            13,608                  58%                57%
         Brasil                                7,922             8,567                  33%                36%
Cornglutenfeed                                   950             2,833                 100%               100%
thereof USA                                      905             2,804                  95%                99%
                                                                    Domestic use
Protein Feedingstuff                          56,480            56,973                 100%               100%
thereof Soybeanmeal                           34,633            33,810                  61%                59%
         Rapemeal                              9,280             8,592                  16%                15%
         Palmkern Expeller                     2,890             2,916                   5%                 5%
         Sunflowermeal                         4,577             4,538                   8%                 8%
         Cornglutenfeed                        2,500             4,517                   4%                 8%
                                                             Compound Feed Production
Total                                        148 103           146 956                 100%               100%
         Cattle                               40 071            39 418                  27%                27%
         Hog                                  50 321            49 440                  34%                34%
         Poultry                              47 271            47 562                  32%                32%
         Others                               10 441            10 535                   7%                 7%
Source: Eurostat, Oilword, ACTI

    While the absence of corn              meal can be substituted only to a       it all the more important to
gluten feed could be absorbed by           small extent because of the             achieve higher yields on existing
rapeseed meal, palm kernel meal            optimal composition of essential        acreage. This, too, makes it seem
and grain (at a higher price,              amino acids.                            improbable that Brazil and
however), soybean meal can only                Moreover, it cannot be              Argentina will make allowances
be substituted to a very small             expected that other countries will      for the EU when it grants the
extent by other protein feedstuffs.        be able to provide the substitute       approvals for the second
The availability of other protein          for the exports from the South          generation of transgenic soybeans.
sources on the world market is             American countries. First of all,           Without a sufficient volume of
nowhere near enough to substitute          the necessary climatic conditions       soybean       meal,       livestock
to an appreciable extent for               for soybeans limit the number of        production in the EU could suffer
soybean meal. This is true for the         countries where soybeans can be         serious damage. If the current rate
animal      protein      feedstuffs,       cultivated. Secondly, it can be         of authorizations of new GMO
fishmeal and meat and bone meal,           assumed that because of the             traits is maintained, especially
as well as for the alternative plant       increasing competition between          with regard to soybeans and corn,
protein feedstuffs, such as feed           grain and oilseeds (especially          and if the strict zero tolerance is
peas, field beans, lupines and also        soybeans) for acreage worldwide,        adhered to for traits not yet
rapeseed meal. Also from a                 soybean acreage will grow only          authorized in the EU but already
nutritional perspective, soybean           relatively moderately. This makes       subjected to a risk assessment in

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                           19
the exporting countries and            directly. In the coming years, the       1829/2003 so that the EU can
approved for planting there, then      quest between the approximately          catch up with international
the livestock industry is in danger    800 million car owners and the 2         developments. No GM crops are
of losing an extensive part of its     billion poor of the world who fight      produced in Hungary due to the
protein feed basis. Thus, the          for survival every day will              introduction of a moratorium on
livestock industry would also          become stronger. This may lead to        the production of GMOs in 2005.
quickly become less competitive.       unrests and political instability in     The moratorium should be lifted
Consequently, an increasing share      low-income countries which are           as soon as possible, encouraging
of animal products in demand in        dependent on grain imports, and          the uptake of GM maize in the
the EU will no longer be produced      could obviously have a negative          light of increasing bioethanol
in the EU, only in other countries.    effect on global economic growth         production.
Especially the production of           and food security. This economic             In addition, threshold levels
poultry meat and pork will move        and political constellation favours      are needed for those GMO traits
to Brazil and Argentina, which         the further expansion of the area        that are in the midst of the
would be detrimental to local          of GM crops.                             authorization process but are
farming and the entire livestock           In the next few years, a             already being cultivated in other
sector.                                multitude of new GMO traits will         producing        and     exporting
    At the same time, the EU will      be introduced into the market.           countries. Of course, a prere
have to rely to an ever greater        With this in mind, a substantial         .quisite for this would be that this
extent on imports of animal            role will be played by a doubling        GMO trait would have been
products from these countries. The     in the next 20 years in demand for       subjected to a scientific risk
self-sufficiency rate in the EU for    food and feedstuffs and the              assessment in the producing
poultry meat and pork will decline.    rapidly increasing demand for            country exporting to the EU and
Without a doubt, the imported          agricultural raw materials used for      would have been found to be safe.
meat will have been produced           the production of renewable              So it is vital that the EU rapidly
using feedstuffs that contain GMO      energy, in particular biofuels.          implemented a code of practice
traits that will not yet have been     Agricultural production therefore        being drawn by the Codex
approved in the EU. As a result of     has to be boosted in those areas         Alimentarius, which would set out
the growing dependence on              already used for production. All         rules for authorizing the low-level
imports and higher feed costs, the     available advances in productivity       importation of GM products
livestock production remaining in      need to be used for this. This           which had already been safety-
the EU will result in significantly    includes GM crops. More and              assessed in another country.
higher consumer prices for meat in     more countries will plant
the EU (European Commission,           genetically modified plants              Referencies
2007).                                 regardless of the length of time
                                       necessary for the approval process          European Commission DG
Conclusion and consequences            in the EU. The dependence of the         AGRI (2007): Economic Impacts
                                       agricultural and food industries in      of Genetically Modified Crops on
    On the world market, a very        the EU on imported agricultural          the Agri-Food Sector. EC Direc-
strong competition for cereals has     raw materials will also not              torate-General for Agriculture,
started between the bioethanol,        become less.                             Brussels
food     and      feed     industry.       The EU is therefore facing the          ISAAA (2008): International
Traditional maize importers (e.g.      choice of accepting a reduction in       Service for the Acquisition of
Japan, Egypt and Mexico) are           the production of food and thus          Agri-biotech Applications: www.
getting more and more anxious          importing more, especially meat,         isaaa.org
over the likely decrease of US         or acknowledging the develop                Popp, J. – Potori, N. [2007]:
maize exports because the              .ment on the international markets       ‘A GM-növények (elsôsorban
shortage of feed grains may set        and ensuring that the approval           kukorica) termesztésének és ipari
back their livestock sectors.          process for GMO is freed of              felhasználásának közgazdasági
Furthermore, maize is not only a       politically motivated delays and is      kérdései Magyarországon’, Ma-
feed grain but also a primary          thus accelerated. This does not          gyar Tudomány, 167. évf.,
source of food in some developing      mean that the risk assessment will       2007/4: 451– 461.
regions (e.g. in Africa or Mexico),    be any less stringent. It is far more       Toepfer International (2008):
thus the increase of world market      the necessity to abide by the time       The Feedstuffs Market in the EU.
prices can be felt by the people       periods stipulated in Regulation         Toepfer International, Hamburg

20                                                                             Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Katalin Szováti, Péter Biacs, Attila Kiss1

Application of food quality methods in case bakery

Quality is defined as the group of            method is to provide the quality       be potential or actual (Scipioni et
those product characteristics that            and traceability of products, but it   al., 2005).
satisfy explicit and implicit                 would be suitable for the                  FMEA methodology was
customer requirements. Food                   controling of the practical usages     developed and implemented for
quality is an important food                  of the voluntary quality systems       the first time in 1949 by the
manufacturing         requirement,            as GAP, GHP, GLP; ISO-9001,            United States Army. Later it was
because food consumers are                    ISO-22000.                             used       for    aerospace/rocket
susceptible to any form of                                                           development to avoid errors in
contamination that may occur                  A tool for failure prevention:         small sample sizes of costly rocket
during the manufacturing process.                                                    technology. An example of this is
                                              The method of FMEA
Many consumers also rely on                                                          the Apollo Space program. The
manufacturing and processing                     A Failure mode and effects          primary push came during the
standards, particularly to know               analysis (FMEA) is a procedure         1960s, while developing the
what ingredients are present, due             for analysis of potential failure      means to put man on the moon
to dietary, nutritional require-              modes within a system for the          and safely get him back. In the
ments (kosher, vegetarian), or                classification by severity or          1970s, thanks to its characteristics
medical conditions (e.g., diabetes,           determination of the failures’         of strength and validity, its
or allergies). For the safety of              effect upon production techno-         application field extended first to
these manufacturing processes                 logy. It is widely used in the         aerospace       and     automotive
various quality safety systems                manufacturing industries in            industry, then to general manufac-
have been developed. In the food              various phases of the product life     turing (SVRP, 1997). Although
industry two different aspects of             cycle and is now increasingly          initially developed by the military,
product quality can be identified:            finding use in the service industry    the FMEA methodology is now
on one hand, food safety and                  as well. Failure causes are any        extensively used in a variety of
sanitary integrity, compulsory                errors or defects in process,          industries including semicon-
requirements for selling a food; on           design, or item especially ones        ductor processing, food service,
the other hand all those com-                 that affect the customer, and can      plastics, software, and healthcare.
ponents, such as exterior aspect,
functionality, nutritional charac-
teristics, etc., that attract the
customer (Scipioni et al., 2002).
    According to the point 8.5. of
the ISO 9001:2000 standard the
failure mode analyses has effect
on the right work of quantification
systems (Dr. Nádasi Józsefné,
2005). In our study the failure
mode and effect analyses (FMEA)
were modelled in case of a
medium size companies which use
the HACCP appropriate for many
years ago. In this work the FMEA

1Eszterházy   Károly Collage, EGERFOOD-Regional Knowledge Centre

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                              21
It is integrated into Advanced         technique, global evaluation of the         again 1–10. Actions need to be
Product Quality planning (APQP)        problem and identification of the           determined if the occurrence is
to provide primary risk mitigation     corrective actions and control              high (meaning >4 for non
tools and timing in the preventing     plans that could eliminate or               safety failure modes and >1
strategy, in both design and           reduce the chance of the potential          when the severity-number
process formats. Each potential        failures. This task cannot be               from step 1 is 9 or 10).
cause must be considered for its       achieved on an individual basis          • Probability that the failure
effect on the product or process       because FMEA is a team function             mode will be detected and/ or
and, based on the risk, actions are    (Neville, 1993).                            corrected by the applicable
determined and risks revisited             The most important aspect of            controls installed on the
after actions are complete             FMEA is the evaluation of the risk          production lines (Detection).
(Bertolini et al., 2006).              level of potential failures identi-         The detection number is 1, if
    The manufacturing process          fied for every sub-system or                the efficiency of quality
monitoring, standard for large         component.                                  control suitable and 10 if it is
corporations, is usually not               The global value of the damages         not correct.
implemented in the production          caused on the function or on the            There is no standard for the
cycle by small and medium size         surroundings by every failure is         choice of scale ranking, but,
companies. It is interesting to        indicated with the risk priority         generally, FMEA teams prefer a
observe how these difficulties         number (RPN). This number (from          ranking of 1 to 10, because it
have been solved through the           1 to 1000) is an index obtained          provides ease of interpretation,
adaptation of conceptual FMEA,         from the multiplication of three risk    and, at the same time, accuracy
as described in the reference          parameters, which are:                   and precision (Stamatis, 1995).
manuals, in the analysed case.         • Severity of the worst potential           After these 3 basic steps, Risk
Applying an FMEA to a                      resulting outcome due to the         Priority Numbers (RPN) can be
production cycle means following           failure in terms of safety           easily calculated by multiplying
a series of successive steps:              and system functionality             these 3 numbers: RPN = S x O x D
analysis of the process or product         (Severity).    The      severity        Once the actions have been
in every single part, list of              number (S) is from 1 (no             implemented in the design/
identified potential failures,             danger) to 10 (important).           process, the new RPN should be
evaluation of their frequency,         • Relative probability that the          checked, to confirm the improve-
severity (in terms of effects of the       failure will occur (Occur-           ments. Whenever a design or a
failure to the process and to the          rence). A failure mode is given      process changes, an FMEA should
surroundings) and detection                a probability number (O),            be updated.

22                                                                             Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
FMEA in strudel production

    FMEA was used by Hesi Kft.,
which is a leading producer of
baked goods and sweets in Heves
County. The company provides
employment for 160 people
achieved an annual sales-related
income of 725 million HUF in
2004. The firm produces over 150
types of products including 45 kinds
of breads and over 100 types of
baked goods, pastries, ready-made
biscuits, quick-frozen ready made
dough and crumb-based goods.
    The firm’s most important
product is fresh deep frozen pastry           The effects of the new or/and      does not mean the imperfection of
(strudel) dough primarily sold in          corrected steps should be             one or another but that the
Western Europe. In addition to             observed and after a process          efficiency of the food quality
Austria, Germany, and Switzer-             changes, an FMEA must have            methods are complements each
land, the firm’s chief domestic            been updated, new RPN values          other.
clients include the TESCO,                 should be determined.
METRO, and Penny Market retail                According to this FMEA             References
chains.                                    method the risk priority numbers
    The most important phases of           were more than 120, which mean            A. Scipioni, G. Saccarola, A.
the strudel production technology          real failure in cases of these        Centazzo, F. Arena (2002):
are the follows.                           movements of the technology:          FMEA methodology design,
    By using the FMEA method               1. Polluted flour as ingredients;     implementation and integration
the potential failure sources,             2. Microbiological pollution under    with HACCP system in a food
causes and its possible results were          portioning, machine pastry         company. Food control 13: (2002)
determined, then for all of steps of          making, sheet removing,            495–501.
the production technology the                 folding and machine made               A. Scipioni, G. Saccarola, F.
severity, occurrence and detection            packing. (This failures are        Arena, S. Alberto, (2005):
numbers were obtained and RPN                 originated from the aspergillus    Strategies to assure the absence of
numbers were calculated. After                pollution of the flour which       GMO in food products application
determining the RPN values an                 ingredients are present all the    process in a confectionery firm.
order of rank was specified, via              production technology.);           Food Control 16: (2005) 569–578.
potential failure factors.                 3. Pastry pollution during the            M. Bertolini, M. Bevilacqua,
    After the determination of the            drying technology by the           R. Massini (2006): FMECA
RPN values by the Pareto method               damaged cook taps.                 approach to product traceability in
the most important parameters              4. One of the most important parts    the food industry. Food Control
could be chosen.                              of the quality control is to       17: (2006) 137–145.
1. The critical movements will be             guarantee the quality of the           S. Neville (1993.): Failure
    taking into consideration that            food and its ingredients from      analyses of mechanical compo-
    must have been modified or                the yield to the table. So the     nents. Maintance technology
    neglected.                                last failure point is not          magazine, September FMEA- a
2. In case of risk parameters                 depending on the food industry,    valószínûsíthetô hibák és okainak
    having risk parameters over               but on the exporting company,      feltárása. Magyar Minôség 12:
    120, correction method should             because the exporting and          (2004) 27–28.
    be elaborated.                            storage conditions are also very       Dr. Nádasi Józsefné (2005):
    It is very important part of the          important.                         Az FMEA mint helyesbítô és
analyses that in practice the chief           In our study differences were      megelôzési módszer alkalmazása
and the time-limit of these                observed between the failure          a zöldség-gyümölcs feldolgo-
modifying procedures should be             points of the tried and tested        zásban. Rendszerek, Modellek,
selected.                                  HACCP and FMEA methods. It            Módszerek 6: (2005) 327–330.

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                         23
Márta Molnár–Láng, Éva Szakács, Gabriella Linc, István Molnár1

Chromosome mediated gene transfer via classical
hybridization techniques into wheat and detection
of the alien chromosomes using up-to-date molecular
cytogenetic and genetic methods
Introduction                                     identified     using     in     situ        producing new winter wheat ×
                                                 hybridization.Genomic in situ               winter barley hybrids using
    The wild and cultivated                      hybridization (GISH) is an                  barley cultivars possessing good
species related to wheat represent               excellent technique for distinguis-         agronomical traits.
a valuable gene source (reservoir)               hing between chromosomes of                     New winter wheat × winter
for breeding, as a large number of               different origin in the hybrids and         barley hybrids were produced
accessions have good resistance                  their derivatives. GISH allows the          using the embryo rescue technique
against various biotic (diseases,                detection of the translocation              after treating pollinated flowers
insects) and abiotic (drought,                   breakpoints in rearrangements               with hormones under controlled
frost) stresses. A large proportion              arising between chromosomes of              environmental conditions. More
of the related species can be                    different genomic origin. The               than 10 000 flowers were polli-
sexually crossed with wheat, so                  identification of alien chromo-             nated over several years, as a
favourable       traits   can    be              somes is based on the hybridi-              result of which three wheat ×
transferred from the hybrids via                 zation pattern achieved using               barley hybrid plants were
traditional crossing. The transfer               fluorescence in situ hybridization          developed (Molnár–Láng et al..
of the agronomically useful                      with the help of repetitive DNA             2000a). Fertilization was achieved
characters of barley, rye, and                   probes. Cytogenetic identification          with three of the sixteen barley
some Aegilops and Agropyron                      is confirmed with the help of               cultivars tested (Igri, Manas,
species into wheat via classical                 molecular markers mapped on                 Osnova), all three of which are
genetic methods is in progress at                various chromosomes.                        cultivated winter genptypes. Igri
the Agricultural Research Institute                                                          is a German two-rowed winter
of the Hungarian Academy of                      Wheat × barley hybridization                barley cultivar, while Manas and
Sciences in Martonvásár. The                                                                 Osnova are Ukrainan six-rowed
most up-to-date molecular genetic                    The first wheat-barley hybrid           winter barley cultivars well
and      cytogenetic     (in   situ              was produced by Kruse in                    adapted to Hungarian environ-
hybridization) methods are used                  Denmark in 1973. Some years                 mental conditions. In two
for the detection of alien gene                  later a set of wheat/barley addition        combinations the maternal parent
transfer and the analysis of the                 lines was developed in Australia            was the Martonvásári 9 kr1 line
hybrids and their derivatives. It is             from a cross between a genetic              developed from the wheat cultivar
planned to transfer salt and                     model spring wheat cultivar and a           Martonvásári 9 and containing the
drought tolerance, earliness and                 spring barley cultivar. Due to the          kr1 crossability gene transferred
favourable nutritional quality                   great incompatibility between the           from a Chinese wheat variety.
parameters from barley, disease                  two genera, it has proved difficult         Hungarian wheat, like the
resistance from rye and Agro-                    to      include      agronomically          majority of European cultivars,
pyron species and drought                        adaptable barley cultivars in the           has very low crossability with
tolerance from Aegilops species                  hybridization process in order to           alien species, making it very
into wheat.                                      promote the transfer of useful              difficult to hybridize them with
    The alien chromosomes in the                 genes. The work underway in                 related species. A Mv9 kr1
hybrids and their derivatives are                Martonvásár is thus aimed at                genotype has good crossability

1Research   Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,H-2462 Martonvásár, PO Pox 19.

24                                                                                          Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Figure 1. From left to right,              Figure 2. Detection of barley chromosomes in a wheat/barley disomic
spikes of wheat (Mv9 kr1),                 addition line (Asakaze komugi/Manas 7H addition) using GISH. Total
the wheat × barley hybrid                  barley DNA was labelled with Fluorogreen and thus barley
(Mv9 kr1 × Igri)                           chromosomes show up bright yellowish-green. The wheat
and barley (Igri)                          chromosomes are blue as a result of counterstaining with DAPI.

with related species (rye,                 25 plants were fertile, making it      al. 2005). The 4H, 6H and 7H
Aegilops, Agropyron, barley) and           possible to select lines containing    Asakaze komugi/Manas disomic
is well adapted to Hungarian               various barley chromosomes.            addition lines have been produced
environmental conditions, so it is                                                so far and the selection of 2H and
a good recipient for interspecific         Wheat/barley addition lines            3H disomic additions is in
hybridization aimed at alien gene                                                 progress      from     monosomic
transfer.                                     Disomic       addition      lines   addition lines carrying only one
   The hybrids (Mv9 kr1 × Igri,            containing the 2H, 3H, 4H, 7H          alien chromosome in addition to
Asakaze komugi × Manas, Mv9                and 1HS barley chromosomes             the wheat genome. The identi-
kr1 × Osnova) were vigorous and            were produced from the Mv9 kr1         fication of the chromosomes in the
had good tillering ability. The            × Igri combination (Szakács and        progenies was carried out with a
spikes were intermedate between            Molnár–Láng, 2007). Detection of       combination of molecular markers
wheat and barley, but bore more            the barley chromosome pair in the      and     fluorescence     in    situ
resemblance to wheat (Figure 1).           wheat genome was carried out           hybridization (GISH, FISH).
The hybrids exhibited complete             using GISH (Figure 2). The
male and female sterility, giving          barley      chromosomes       were     Wheat/barley translocation and
no seed set at all when pollinated         identified with FISH using a
                                                                                  substitution lines
with wheat, so they were                   combination of DNA probes
multiplied from young inflores-            (GAA, HvT01 and pTa71). The               The multiplication of the
cences in tissue culture. Hundreds         morphology of lines containing         hybrids was carried out in tissue
of regenerants were developed              the various barley chromosomes         culture, a result of which
from the two initial hybrid plants         was analysed and the seeds were        intergenomic      rearrangements
for two combinations (Mv9 kr1 ×            multiplied. The effect of different    between the wheat and barley
Igri, Asakaze komugi × Manas).             barley chromosomes on drought          chromosomes were observed in
The large number of regenerant             and salt tolerance is being studied    some progeny. The detection of
hybrid plants enabled us to                with the help of an international      wheat/barley translocations was
pollinate several thousand flowers         grant. It is also planned to study     carried out using GISH (Figure 3)
with wheat, resulting in 7                 other important agronomical traits     and plants containing homozy-
backcross progeny (BC1 plants –            (earliness, quality). Wheat/barley     gous translocations were selected
the first generation after                 disomic addition lines were also       from selfed seeds in the next
backcrossing with wheat). Out of           produced from a hybrid developed       generation (Molnár–Láng et al.,
the 41 BC2 plants developed after          using the six-rowed barley             2000b). Wheat chromosome
the second backcross with wheat,           cultivar, Manas (Molnár–Láng et        segments in the translocated

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                          25
                                                                            4H. The morphological para-
                                                                            meters of this substitution line
                                                                            were analysed in detail. It was
                                                                            concluded that the tillering
                                                                            ability, parameters connected to
                                                                            drought tolerance (WUE, CO2
                                                                            assimilation rate) and the amylose
                                                                            content exceeded those of the
                                                                            wheat parent (Molnár et al.,
                                                                            2007). Future work will focus on
                                                                            analysing the agronomical traits
                                                                            of the available wheat/barley
                                                                            addition and translocation lines to
                                                                            determine how the introgression
                                                                            of barley chromosome segments
                                                                            into the wheat genome influences
                                                                            earliness, nutritional quality and
                                                                            drought tolerance. This work is
                                                                            expected to clarify which barley
                                                                            chromosomes         carry    genes
                                                                            responsible for drought tolerance,
                                                                            earliness and various quality
                                                                            parameters. It should be possible
Figure 3. The somatic chromosomes of a wheat/barley translocation           to select genotypes with drought
line after GISH. The barley chromosome segments are bright red as a         and salt tolerance, early heading
result of labelling with Fluorored, and wheat chromosomes are blue as       and good nutritional quality
a result of counterstaining with DAPI. A distal segment of barley (Igri)
chromosome 5HS can be seen to be incorporated into the 7D
chromosome of wheat (Mv9 kr1).
                                                                            Production of wheat × rye
                                                                            and wheat × Aegilops hybrids,
chromosomes were identified          segments on various agronomical
using FISH with the help of          traits in now being studied in the     additions and recombinants
repetitive DNA probes (pSc119.2,     field (Figure 5). Wheat/barley
pAs1), while the barley chromo-      translocation lines can also be            In further experiments it is
some segments were determined        used for the physical mapping of       hoped to transfer the disease
with the help of molecular           the chromosomes (D.Nagy et al.,        resistance of rye and the drought
markers (Figure 4). The following    2002).      Molecular      markers     tolerance of a goatgrass species
wheat/barley translocation lines     genetically mapped close to the        (Aegilops biuncialis) into wheat.
were produced: 2DL.2DS-1HS,          centromere on chromosome 5HS           Wheat lines carrying new wheat-
3BL.3HS, 6BS.6BL-4HL, 4D-            were found to be physically            rye recombinant chromosomes
5HS, 7DL.7DS-5HS, where H            located in a distal position on the    were produced using rye
designates the barley chromo-        chromosome arm, towards the            genotypes with good leaf rust
somes, A, B and D the wheat          telomere. This confirmed the           resistance. Hybrids, amphidip-
chromosomes, S the short arm and     difference between genetic and         loids, addition and translocation
L the long arm. In other words,      physical chromosome map. The           lines were produced from the
3BL.3HS means that the trans-        development of new wheat/barley        wheat × Aegilops biuncialis
located chromosome was deve-         translocation lines is in progress,    crosses. The disease resistance
loped from a fusion between the      which will further help the more       and drought tolerance of genetic
long arm of wheat chromosome         precise physical mapping of wheat      materials developed are studied in
3B and the short arm of barley       and barley chromosomes.                the field. A wheat line containing
chromosome 3H. Lines carrying            One substitution line was also     a chromosome segment from the
different    wheat/barley trans-     selected from the progenies of the     old Hungarian rye cultivar
locations were multiplied in the     wheat × barley hybrids, in which       Lovászpatonai is promising,
nursery and the effect of the        wheat chromosome 4D is                 judging from the results of field
incorporated barley chromosome       replaced by barley chromosome          experiments

26                                                                         Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Figure 4. Identification of a wheat/barley translocation using sequential GISH and FISH with the help of
repetitive DNA probes (pSc119.2, pAs1).
a) Detection of wheat/barley translocation using GISH. Total genomic barley DNA was labelled with Fluorogreen, so the
barley chromosome segment is yellowish green. The unlabelled wheat chromosomes are blue.
b) Identification of wheat chromosomes using FISH with the help of repetitive DNA probes, pSc119.2 was labelled with
Fluorogreen and pAs1 with Fluorored.
c) The wheat/barley translocated chromosome after GISH.
d) The translocated chromosome can be identified as the wheat 2D chromosome on the basis of the FISH signals given
by the two repetitive DNA probes

                                                                                    Molnár–Láng, M., Novotny,
                                                                                C., Linc, G., D. Nagy, E.
                                                                                (2005): Changes in the meiotic
                                                                                pairing behaviour of a winter
                                                                                wheat-winter barley hybrid
                                                                                maintained for a long term in
                                                                                tissue culture, and tracing the
                                                                                barley     chromatin     in    the
                                                                                progenies using GISH and SSR
Figure 5. Spikes of various wheat/barley translocation lines.                   markers. Plant Breeding, 124:
he translocated chromosomes can be seen in the right corner of each             247–252.
picture after GISH. The barley chromosome segments are yellowish-                   Molnár, I., Linc, G., Dulai,
green and the wheat chromosome segments blue                                    S., D. Nagy, E., Molnár–Láng,
                                                                                M. (2007): Ability of chro-
References                                                                      mosome 4H to compensate for 4D
                                           behaviour of new hybrids of          in response to drought stress in a
    D. Nagy, E., Molnár–Láng,              winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)     newly developed and identified
M., Linc, G., Láng, L. (2002):             × winter barley (Hordeum             wheat-barley 4H(4D) disomic
Identification of wheat-barley             vulgare).       Genome,       43:    substitution line. Plant Breeding,
translocations by sequential GISH          1045–1054.                           126: 369–374.
and     two-colour     FISH     in            Molnár–Láng, M., Linc, G.,            Szakács, É., Molnár–Láng,
combination with the use of                Friebe, B. R., Sutka, J. (2000b):    M. (2007): Development and
genetically mapped barley SSR              Detection      of   wheat-barley     molecular cytogenetic identi-
markers. Genome, 45: 1238–1247.            translocations by genomic in situ    fication of new winter wheat/
    Molnár–Láng, M., Linc, G.,             hybridization in derivatives of      winter barley (Martonvásári 9
Logojan, A., Sutka, J. (2000a):            hybrids multiplied in vitro.         kr1/Igri) disomic addition lines.
Production and meiotic pairing             Euphytica, 112: 117–123.             Genome, 50: 43–50.

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                          27
József Stefler, Sándor Makray1

Grassland utilization by draft horse

Farming on grassland has been
going on since the Hungarians
settled in the Carpathian Basin.
    The role of grass as a natural
source of energy has changed over
the course history; it has
decreased. Recently 11% of the
country and 18% of the
agricultural land was covered by
grass. This means altogether 1015
million ha grassland. The vast
majority of this is poor-medium
quality, which is suitable for
extensive way of grazing.
(Vinczeffy, 1993). Beyond this,
our expectation is that grasslands
contribute to erosion protection,                cum. The special traits of horses,               using a New Zealand type fence
conservation of water supply,                    like good weight gain, excellent                 on the experimental farm. This
preservation of biodiversity and                 grazing ability (Ócsag, 19992;                   field has represented well the
develop an attractive landscape,                 Bodó and Hecker, 1992; Mihók,                    Hungarian grasslands, yield was
which serves the life quality                    1993; Dér et al. 1992, Makray et                 3.1–3.5 t/ha dry matter or 3.4–3.8
(Nagy et al. 2003).                              al. 1993) provide a reliable base to             t/ha hay annually. Although
    Grasslands can achieve the                   develop a technology process.                    change in yield was not important
mentioned goals only in the case                 According to these argues a                      during the long lasting experiment
of rational utilization. On non-                 several years lasting series of                  (table1.)but dry periods occurred
utilized areas deterioration will                experiments were carried out on                  often in July and August. On
start. The risk level of this is                 the Experimental Farm of the                     average the experimental stock
extremely high, because the                      Kaposvár University, to determine                had 40 mares . They were kept in
number of ruminants has                          the ability of meat production of                two harem groups during the
decreased to approximately half                  draft horses among grazing                       mating season from between May
in the last 15 years. To counter                 conditions to get experiences to an              15 and June 15. the grazing season
balance this spread of new, non                  effective production process,                    lasted from the end of April to the
traditional species (domesticated                which can work also among farm                   middle of October or November,
wild animals, horse) may arise                   conditions.                                      depending on weather conditions.
(Horn, 2000).                                                                                     The average number of the days
    Breeding and keeping meat                    Material and methods                             spent on pasture was 216 days.
horses on pasture is motivated                                                                    Calculated area for 1 mare and her
mostly by the demand of good                     Environment                                      foal was 1.1 ha. Controlled
quality slaughter horses (France,                                                                 grazing was carried out. Change
Italy, Belgium) and to widen the                    For this lengthy experiment a                 of paddock happened every 2–3
range of the so called Hungari-                  grassland of 41 ha was designate,                weeks, depending on the condi-

1Kaposvár   University, Faculty of Animal Science, H-7400 Kaposvár, Guba S. str. 40. Po. Box 16. Hungary

28                                                                                              Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
tion of grass. To ensure conti-               Table 1. Grass yield of the pastures (t/ha) during the experiment
nuous and safe water supply auto-
matic drinkers were employed.                 Yield/Year   1991 1992 1993 1994          1995 1996 1997 1998 Average
During the grazing period the
                                              Hay           3.4    3.5    3.6    3.6     3.7     3.8      3.4   3.5   3.6
basis of the forage supply was the
pasture, additional feed was given            Dry matter    3.1    3.2    3.2    3.2     3.3     3.4      3.1   3.2   3.2
only in dry periods in July–
August. This time animals may
consume ad. lib forage straw and             – Weight of mares at start and at         Results
2–3 kg hay. At the end of the                  the end of the grazing period
grazing period foals were weaned.            – Weight of foals at birth and               Since in meat horse produc-
For mares an open shed like                    weaning                                 tion-similar to beef cattle- the only
building was available. During               – Fattened foals:                         yield is weaned offspring, good
winter daily feeding consisted of                 initial and final weight             reproduction of the population is
2–4 kg oats (and corn), 5–10 kg                   dressing percentage                  essential. Mares were mated in
corn silage and 5–8 kg grass hay.                 carcass weight                       harems. As Figure 1 shows there
                                                  dry matter, protein,                 were considerable differences in
Data collection                                   N-free extract content               the major parameters year by year.
                                                  mineral elements                     Conception rate was 75.1% in
   Data collection was carried out                fatty acid content                   average. Best results were close to
to ensure the precise recording of                                                     90%, but an inexperienced stallion
reproduction traits and live weight              Primary data procession was           or other disadvantageous may
changes of mares, weight gain and            made using the Microsoft Excel            cause really poor conception.
slaughter     value    of     foals,         for Windows 95, Version 8.0               Losses composed by abortion,
considering that farm conditions             program package, evaluation of            dead foaling and death of foals.
have limited.                                results happened by SPSS for              Reason of abortion was mostly
   Reproductive and live weight              Windows Version 8.0 software.             because of feeding failures and
data are originated from the whole           Recurrent                                 not efficient prevention. Lack of
population, while slaughter data                 Data (reproduction of mares)          exercise and overfeeding caused
could be collected only from a               were evaluated via Chi2 test. To          too fat mares and big foals, which
sample test (n=47).                          detect trait effects t-test, ANOVA        appeared in dead foaling. Death of
   Recorded data:                            and MANOVA were used. To                  foals occurred mostly because of
– Time of foaling, foaling ease,             compare averages Student-Keuls            poor vitality. Ratio of weaned
   abortion, foal loss                       test was employed.                        foals was above 60%, but in best

                                         MARES 1992-2007


                          92 9 93 9 94 9 95 9 96 9 97 9 98 9 99 0 00 0 01 0 02 0 03 0 04 0 05 0 06 0 07
                       19    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2
                                      Foaling %                   Loss                  Weaning %

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                                    29
Table 2. Weaning weight of foals
              Denomination                           1992      1993      1994      1995        1996      1997      1998         x
n                                                    22        26         25        16          21        18         29         24
Age at weaning (day)                               152b       196d       203d      172c        207d      175c       109a       171
Weaning weight (kg)                                261.6b     319.9cd    330.2d    298.9c      297.2c    265.2b     225.8a     284.5
Weaning weight adjusted for
185 days (kg)                                      289.9ab    310.4b    3152b      310.2b      278.6a    273.8a     291.2ab    296.3
Weaning weight/age (g/day)                        1760c      1664abc    1642abc   1753c       1445a     1521ab    2092d       1711
Gain (g/day)                                      1330b      1332b      1321b     1372b       1139a     1156a     1496b       1318
Different letters mean a significant difference (P < 0,05)

years more than 70% of mated                            Calculations prove, that adjusting      extensive management system
mares produced marketable                               weaning weight for 185 days is          (groups, harem-like mating,
offspring.                                              much more appropriate in case of        controlled grazing, spring foaling-
    In Table 2. gain of foals can be                    foals, than adopt to 205 days,          autumn weaning).
seen till weaning. No concentrate                       which is accepted at beef calves.           Good milk production of
was fed when mothers and their                          This statement is based not only        mares resulted in high growing
young were together on pasture.                         by gain of foals but during the         rate at foals, which cases excellent
    Rearing ability data of mares is                    pregnancy of mares at seasonal          rearing ability. Consequently foals
shown in Table 2. As it can be                          mating. Moreover foals have been        are weaned by approx. 300 kg live
seen draft horse foals had                              weaned at age of 185 days without       weight at the end of the grazing
remarkable gain during the                              any problem.                            period. There is significant
suckling period on pasture at                               Age of foals at slaughter was       variation in reproductive para-
minimal additional (only hay and                        200 days at 316 kg weight in            meters by years and further
straw) feeding. Their daily gain                        average. Dressing percentage was        improvement is needed. First of
exceeds 1300 g in average.                              almost 55%. This parameter is           all well-planned nutrition and
                                                        close to that of medium quality         better management at foaling are
Table 3. Slaughter value of draft                       beef cattle and indicates the           the main tools to achieve this goal.
horse foals n=47                                        specific traits of draft horses.            Weaned        foals     produce
                                                        Moreover hay was available till the     excellent slaughter value after a
Nomination                         Average              last moment before the slaughter.       short fattening period and can be
Age at weaning (day)                200.7                                                       sold well by appropriate mar-
Slaughter weight (kg)               316.3                                                       keting strategy.
Carcass (kg)                        170.2                                                           Meat horse is a promising
Dressing %                           54.4                  Draft horses, similar to beef        alternative in utilization of
                                                        cattle can be kept effectively in       extensive pastures.

30                                                                                             Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Erik Tarczal, Zoltán Varga, László Kocsis1

Grapevine Rootstock Use: Physiological
and Cultivation Technology

History of Use of Grapevine                           Phylloxera invaded Hungary in      difficult to replant but giving the
Rootstock                                         1875 causing significant harm          best wines and besides they thrive
                                                  within twenty years in the wine        better in our best soils giving
    There is reliable information                 regions with heavy soils. The          grafts with a more uniform callus
on grapevine grafting from times                  enormous job of vineyard               formation that are this way more
long before the appearance of                     replanting was headed by               vigorous than the stock varieties
phylloxera, the grape root louse                  Zsigmond Teleky the vine-grower        known so far (Figure 1).
(Daktulosphaira            vitifoliae             from the region of Villány who         Zsigmond Teleky ordered 10 kg of
FITCH). at that time both graft                   did great services. Zsigmond           Berlandieri seeds from France in
partners belonged to a form of                    Teleky set up an experimental          1896 from which he raised 40,000
Vitis vinifera L. On the other hand,              rootstock vineyard in 1881 in          seedlings. Through carrying out
grapevine grafting and its                        Villány in order to produce a          selection over three years he
propagation by grafts became                      grapevine rootstock that could be      separated 10 types from the 40,000
common only in the battle against                 grown with the greatest success in     seedlings, which he considered
phylloxera on heavy soils. Since                  all types of soil. The Berlandieri x   worth propagating. He judged the
then for the purpose of rootstock                 Ripária Teleki rootstock varieties     types 5 and 8 to be the best and in
we use phylloxera resistant (wild)                bred by him and bearing his name       fact it was the rootstock varieties
varieties of American origin (Vitis               permitted the renewal of               of his Berlandieri x Ripária cross
riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis                   calcareous hillsides with poor,        that became popular all over the
berlandieri) and their hybrids. As                thin soil which were the most          world.
a consequence, the search for
grapevine rootstock varieties
began for the European vine-
growers starting in 1872, the
appearance of phylloxera in
Europe. It took a long time before
the technology of graft production
was elaborated and began to be
practiced widely. The breeding
and the utilization of the rootstock
varieties were even slower as the
principal method of breeding was
selection. In the beginning,
besides the French, Hungarians
and Austrians took an active part
in this fundamental work. Based
on an intensive research work, it
was the biological and cultivation
values of the North-American
Vitis species that were discovered
in the first place.                               Figure 1.

1Georgikon   Faculty of Agriculture of Pannon University, Keszthely

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                                 31
Figure 2.

    In the course of continued        play an important role in creating       into the issues of rootstock (scion)
research efforts it was discovered    the delicate harmony between             ecological effects and inter-
that Vitis riparia prefers the deep   grape yield and quality as they          actions. Relative to this, two
alluvial soils of the temperate       influence the productivity of            concepts became common in
climate zone, having a profusely      grafted grapevines through their         viticulture: ‘affinity’ (Coudrec
branching root system sensitive to    differing morphological and              1887) and ‘adaptation’.
soil lime levels, is characterized    physiological properties.                    The choice of the rootstock has
by an early bud break and                 In viticulture the targeted study    been the central issue in
ripening.                             of cultivation with grafted plants       viticulture since the phylloxera
    Vitis rupestris originates from   started only with the application        plague. The immunity to
the southern part of North-           of the American rootstocks, first        phylloxera is a fundamental
America, from the temperate           in France. Damage by phylloxera          precondition and the grapevine
climate zone. It sends its roots      was successfully prevented with          scion cultivar must be compatible
deep down into the soil, develops     grafted grapevines, at the same          with the rootstock in a lasting
few and fleshy thick roots and is     time, the European grapevine             manner for the whole life span of
able to support even the sandy and    variety maintains its character          the plantation. Further require-
rocky soils, is relatively drought    even after grafting and this             ments are: the rootstock should
tolerant and shows an excellent       character will not change either in      have good tolerance to the soil and
tolerance.                            the case of the table or the dried or    that as high a percentage of usable
    Vitis berlandieri originates      the wine grape. There is no              grafts should be obtained as
from the hot, dry western region      difference in the taste or chemical      possible and that strong, long-
of North-America. It is tolerant to   composition of the wine from             living, high yielding and high-
lime and to soil characteristics,     grafted and ungrafted vines. It was      quality producing grapevine
but roots poorly. Possibly, it was    the same time when the difference        plants should be obtained from the
to improve this latter charact-       in the behaviour of the different        grafts.
eristic that it was crossed with V.   rootstocks towards the scion and             The possibility of grafting is
riparia. Also this rootstock is       towards the ecological effects was       permitted by the stable existence
resistant to phylloxera and has       noted, which on the one hand             of compatibility between root-
good cold tolerance.                  determined the necessity and             stock and scion, i.e. there is a
    By now it is commonly known       objectives of rootstock breeding         certain level of physiological and
that the rootstock varieties also     and, on the other, the investigation     histological kinship or similitude.

32                                                                            Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Figure 3.

This determines the callus                 Nowadays, however, it is already       compatibility, growth vigour, lime
formation and rooting ability of           evident that the mutual influence      tolerance and drought tolerance.
the rootstock and the callus               between rootstock and scion can            Naturally, the relative quality
formation ability of the scion and         only be understood with                score permitting the ranking of
is primarily dependent on the              methodological experiments set         rootstock varieties is unsuitable
quality of the cane used. The              up under identical ecological and      for describing the absolute value
symbiotic ability of the rootstock         agro-technical conditions. As the      of the variety, since in this
and the scion variety is an                expression of the symbiotic            qualification relies on only 4
important factor which is based on         affinity is greatly influenced by      characteristics. Variety charact-
the mutual interaction between             the adaptation and the data            eristics on the other hand cannot
rootstock and scion. In the course         obtained are valid only for the        be limited to 4 aspects, further
of grafting an artificial symbiosis        given soil class. Nowadays             ones could be listed, the
is created between the rootstock           experiments in this direction are      knowledge of which could reflect
and scion in which the rootstock           being carried out in all major         the value of the rootstock variety
supplies the minerals absorbed             grape producing countries.             in an ever better and more realistic
from the soil and the scion the                In the case of all the plants      manner. These quality indicating
assimilates produced by the                where grafts are used in               characteristics are generally
leaves. Both partners receive              cultivation, the research of           suggested by life and special trials
materials from the other which are         rootstock characteristics is conti-    should be organised in order to
to a certain extent alien to them,         nuous, as well as the breeding of      estimate their values. For instance,
leading to a certain level of              rootstock. This applies to the         the experiments of BAVARESCO
change in their living processes.          grapevine too, though compared to      et al. (1991) were aimed at finding
In the case of grafted plants a            the cultivated grapevine Vitis         out about the nature and essence
further hindering factor is that the       vinifera much lower expenditures       of the differing chlorosis
formation of callus makes                  are spent on rootstock qualification   sensitivity of the individual
somewhat more difficult the                and breeding. Based on a very high     grapevine varieties.
transport of materials between the         number of observations and                 In the experiment bud cuttings
rootstock and scion.                       scientific works, CURRLE-              of 3 rootstock varieties and the
   The failures reported more              BAUER et al. (1983) qualified          very sensitive ‘Pinot blanc’ were
frequently in the older literature         rootstock according to 4 important     induced to root. According to the
were often ascribed to affinity.           characteristics, namely affinity or    results of the experiment, the iron

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                           33
uptake by the roots, the reduction      themselves in the intensity of the       wine regions. A number of
of EDTA (iron complex) and the          assimilation and eventually in the       experimental data also demon-
capacity of the reaction showed         must sugar levels.                       strate that yields can be increased
close correlation with root                                                      by the proper choice of rootstock
diameter and root hair number. It       Utility of Rootstock Experiments         without any loss in quality. Now
is somewhat surprising, but is a                                                 the use of grafts for the
significant result, widening our            Certain school books and             establishment of vineyards should
knowledge in this field.                manuals publish those general            not be considered purely as a
    The variety specific function of    findings according to which, for         compelled       solution     against
the root system, namely the             example, the varieties grafted on        phylloxera but as a possibility or
uptake and accumulation of a            Riparia portalis, an early ripener       means of yield potential control.
nutrient or another, can determine      quality rootstock or on Rupestris            Furthermore, the application of
at least significantly and can          and on Rupestris hybrids require a       rootstock can be a solution from
unfortunately modify, according         longer pruning. On the other hand,       the point of plant protection and to
to the characteristic of the variety,   the rootstock suitable for a given       overcome extremes of soil
the composition of the main             growing area cannot be chosen on         conditions. The adaptability to
product, i.e. of the must in our        the basis of general findings.           environmental        characteristics
case. The demonstration of this             The importance of the                besides biotic factors, the lime
hypothesis might play an                rootstock experiments is under-          tolerance ability, the adaptation to
enormous role relative to the           lined in the lecture notes of CSEP-      low pH soils and to extreme
quality of the grape.                   REGI published in 1951 which             humidity conditions and salt
    In the case of grafts, however,     highlight the particularities of the     tolerance are important charact-
the scion also plays an active part     setting up of rootstock experi-          eristics in a given area. Regarding
in concentrating the elements in        ments.                                   the abiotic factors, heat and
the must, as the varieties ‘Hárs-           The study of the nature of           drought tolerance can be
levelû’ and ‘Furmint’ on the same       grafted plants is interesting from a     important on certain growing
rootstock concentrates certain          scientific viewpoint and useful          areas. The effect on the
elements to different extents           from the viewpoint of the                characteristics resulting from the
(POLYÁK et al. 1992).                   economy. Increasing economic             co-habitation of rootstock and
    According to the researchers,       importance is also suggested by          scion is the third field comprising
as far as the uptake of the essential   the great number of experimental         the mutual affinity, the fastness of
nutrients is considered, there is       works. Certain researchers studied       initial development, the life span
little difference between the           the effect of the rootstock on the       of the grapevine plant, the growth
rootstock, and both the rootstock       yield potential and condition of         vigour, the yield potential etc.
and the scion have a great role in      the scion in the first place and to a        The study of rootstock scion
the accumulation of partly toxic        lesser extent on its physiological       interaction relative to the effect on
materials in the must.                  reaction. Nowadays, the primary          the quality parameters of the scion,
    Certain researchers accord to       objective of graft experiments           on yield quantity and on the quality
conclude that the rootstock has an      consists not in the protection from      parameters, on the development
influence chiefly on the growth         phylloxera, but in the improve-          stages of the grapevine plant, on
vigour of the grafted grapevine         ment of yield potential and yield        the rate of photosynthesis is still a
and on yield quantities and has         quality, as well as in the               question of interest also nowadays,
less effect on must quality             enhancement of the conditions of         the background of which is
parameters, sugar content and           the grapevine plants and life span       constituted by the expansion of
titrable acid content. Changes in       of the vineyard under the most           stock roots, their anatomy,
yield quantities can be attributed      various ecological conditions. It is     morphology, nutrient uptake and
to changes in cluster number per        this economical objective that           by the effect on the physiological
plant or in average cluster weight      should be followed in each wine          characteristics (KOCSIS et al.
and the role of the factors can         region in carrying out the               2000, SANJUN GU 2003). The
change almost from graft                experiments on rootstock effect          importance of the issue is also
combination to graft combination.       using the scion varieties which are      supported by the fact that under the
Decisive differences between the        common to those places, because          same ecological condition different
rootstock varieties were measured       the results of the individual            scion varieties will produce the
in the shoot growth and leaf area       growing regions cannot or can            best result not on the same
of the scion which manifested           only be partially adapted to other       rootstock variety (HEGEDÜS and

34                                                                              Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
                                                                                  environmental conditions in
                                                                                  combinations with different scion
                                                                                  varieties. The most important
                                                                                  components of this value are:
                                                                                  yield quantity and quality and
                                                                                  condition and life span of the vine
                                                                                  plant. These factors giving the real
                                                                                  value of the variety can be
                                                                                  determined by measurements and
                                                                                  by evaluations. The factors of the
                                                                                  value for cultivation and use of the
                                                                                  variety and their numeric
                                                                                  indicators reflect the value for
                                                                                  cultivation and use of the variety,
                                                                                  taken together and with attention
                                                                                  to the interconnections (Table 1).
                                                                                      The rootstock variety ‘Geor-
                                                                                  gikon 28’ (Figure 5), bred at our
Figure 4.                                                                         University, is characterized by an
                                                                                  outstandingly high value for
I’SÓ 1965, KOCSIS et al. 2000).            of calcium and iron and possibly       cultivation and use:
    The availability of nutrients          of phosphorous (KOCSIS et al.              It was produced by Károly
important to plants is influenced          2001) it is the scion charac-          Bakonyi and his colleagues
by all those factors that affect           teristics.                             through the crossing of ‘Berlan-
plant metabolism processes. In                 ROGERS and BEAKBANE                dieri. X Riparia T.K. 5BB’ and
this process the role of the plant         (1957) in their work on the study      Vitis vinifera pollen mixture.
manifests itself through the               of rootstock describe the major            Its value for cultivation: variety
expansion of the roots, their              possibilities of the mechanism         with very strong growth, good cane
adsorption capacity and cation             governing the rootstock-scion          yield. Lime tolerant, no special soil
exchange capacity and through              interaction (compatibility): of        requirements, good resistance to
root respiration. In the uptake of         which one is the ability to absorb,    fungal diseases, low susceptibility
soil solution nutrients the                synthesise and utilise nutrients,      to phylloxera, average demand for
composition and amount of the              the second is the nutrient transport   canopy management, its testing is
materials flowing towards the              ability and the type and amount of     under way.
scion is determined primarily by           plant growth regulating materials          Shoot is semi rigid, young
the selection ability of the roots of      present in the tissues.                shoot tips are half-open, boat-
the stock. Besides the tissues of              The root system absorbs the        shaped, bronze green, hairy,
the scion make a selection and             nutrients from its environment at a    leaves are concave.
determine the nutrient transport,          quantity and quality that are              Internode is red on the dorsal
this way the grafted plant absorbs         genetically encoded and transports     side, reddish green on the ventral
nutrients from the soil through a          them all or part of them towards       side, naked, has only weak
double selection: both the roots           the aerial parts. In the case of       patterns, is only slightly glaucous.
and the shoot have roles in the            grafted plants, however, the scion         Leaf is pentagon-shaped,
uptake of nutrients. The potassium         grafted on the rootstock will take     broad, big, funnelled, rugose,
and boron uptake of grafted                over only those materials and in       blistered, its tissue does not tear
grapevines was found to be more            such quantities as are also            easily, is dark green, shiny, waxy,
efficient on acid soils, compared          controlled by genetic codes.           unarticulated. Its basal sinus is
to the ‘Pinot noir’ on its own                                                    closed, the base is wedge shaped,
roots. KOCSIS (1996) investi-              National results                       bordered by the lamina. The
gating the interaction between                                                    margin is toothed, shallowly
rootstock and scion varieties                 The      objective     of    the    notched. Leaf surface is naked, the
concluded that in the uptake of            experiments on rootstock effect is     back of the leaf has hairs on the
potassium and magnesium it is the          basically to determine the             veins, veins are partly red, leaf
rootstock characteristics that are         cultivation value of the individual    stalk is wine red, naked, with
dominant, while in the utilisation         rootstock varieties under differing    weak patterns, is short.

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                             35
Table 1. Important characteristics of grapevine rootstocks in Hungary

                     Phylloxera               Tolerant                Effect on scion
     Rootstock                                                                                       Adaptation to soil
                     resitance      Drought              Lime     vigour       Min. nutrition
5C                  good          poor            medium        medium-        N=poor,          It likes good, well
                                                                strong         P,K=med          structured soils
5BB                 excellent     medium          good          strong         N,P,K= med       It likes good, well structured
SO4                 excellent     poor-medium medium            medium         N=poor-med It likes good,
                                                                               P=med      well structured soils
125AA               excellent     poor-medium medium            medium         N=med,      Mg deficiency could
                                                                               P=poor-med, ppear on it
Fercal              medium        medium          excellent     strong         N,P=med,
                                                                               K=poor           High lime, good water suppl.
Georgikon28         good          excellent       excellent     poor-medium N=poor,
                                                                            P,K=med             High lim, drought condition

   Rootstock experiments are                Experiments      relative     to        excised roots of different grape-
going on even now at the                 cultivation methods are also going         vine rootstocks and a Vitis
experimental farm at Cserszeg-           on at the farm, since the health           vinifera cultivar. Plant and Soil
tomaj. Currently, our priority is        condition of the rootstock cane            130 (1–2) 1991.109–113. p.
the investigation into the effect of     has great importance for the                   Currle, O. – Bauer, O.:
the rootstock on quality in the case     production of excellent propa-             Biologie der Rebe. D. Meininger
of red wine grape varieties.             gation material (Figures 3, 4, 5).         Verlag und Druckerei GmbH.
Among the quality parameters                                                        Neustadt 1983. 311. p.
special attention is given to the                                                       Csepregi P.: Alanyok a szôlô-
                                         References                                 termesztésben. Egyetemi Jegyzet
study of the effect of the rootstock
on the quantitative and qualitative         Bravaresco, L. – Fegoni, M. –           Budapest 1951 106. p.
parameters of fruit pigment              Praschini, P.: Investigation on                Hegedûs Á. – I’só A.: Egri
content.                                 iron uptake and reduction by               borvidékre legalkalmasabb alany-
                                                                                    fajták. Kísérletügyi közlemények
                                                                                    58/C. (3). 61–77. p.
                                                                                        Kocsis L.: Szôlô alany- és
                                                                                    nemes fajták kölcsönhatása az olt-
                                                                                    ványkészítéstôl a termôrefor-
                                                                                    dulásig. Kandidátusi értekezés,
                                                                                    Keszthely 1996.
                                                                                        Kocsis L. – Bakonyi L. –
                                                                                    Bakonyi K.: Szôlôalanyok hasz-
                                                                                    nálata Magyrországon. Mille-
                                                                                    niumi Szôlôs-Boroskönyv. Agro-
                                                                                    inform, Budapest. 275–283.p.
                                                                                        Polyák D. – Fodor P. – Tné
                                                                                    Surányi K. – Marczinkó F.:
                                                                                    Alanykísérletekbôl származó fur-
                                                                                    mint mustok „finom” összetétele.
                                                                                    Kertgazdaság 1992. XXIV. évf. 6.
                                                                                    sz. 65. p.
                                                                                         Rogers, W.S.– Beakbane,
                                                                                    A.B.: Stock and Scion relation.
                                                                                    Ann. Rev. of Plant Phys. 1957. 8.
Figure 5.                                                                           217–236.

36                                                                                 Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
Csaba B. Illés, Nándor Komáromi, Zsuzsanna Lehota1

Development of Traceability in Hungarian fresh
vegetable and fruit sector

Introduction                                        of transaction) (Williamson,         (Martino and Perugini 2006).
                                                    1979) and difficulty of perfor-      Information asymmetry leads to
     Establishment of the tracea-                   mance measurement (Holmström         opportunistic behaviour and
bility system in the food sector is                 and Milgrom, 1994), and inter-       contractual hazards (Williamson,
explained by the following factors                  dependence/connectedness of a        1996). Costs of the coordination
by Trienkens and Van der Vorst                      transaction to other (Milgrom and    within the supply chain are closely
(2007): differentiation of product                  Roberts, 1992) or analysis of food   correlated with the conception of
processes, in homogeneity of                        safety and quality. The critical     interdependence       (Thompson
basic materials and semi- finished                  areas of organizational issues:      (1967).
of basic materials and semi-                        information distribution of inter-
finished products, mixed sources                    mediate and final food products      Structure and features of
of batches, perishable character of                 features and coordination of
                                                                                         Hungarian fresh vegetable-fruit
the product, presence of bioactive                  activities between all the supply
material. Van der Vorst et al.                      chain’s agents and governance        sector
(2004) carried out an international                 option in relation to strategic
benchmarking, main features of                      positioning (Reynaud et al. 2004).       Two significant changes in the
the traceability system for                         Information distribution (asym-      structure of Hungarian fresh
vegetables-fruits were: very                        metry) is closely associated with    vegetable-fruit sector took place
diverse chain structure very                        quality and safety features of the   during the last two decades. Main
diverse        chain      structure,                product and with experience and      marketing channel types associated
traceability based on law and                       credence      product     features   with each phase are as follows:
consumer         demand,       more
branding, chain performance of
traceability few hours to grower,                                            Period before 1989
little use of ICT, use of bar codes                 Grower → ”Wholesaler market“→Small – scale vegetable and fruit
(EAN). the main bottlenecks in                      retailers”
fruit and vegetable supply chain                    Grower→State – owned wholesalers (ZÖLDÉRT Companies)→Large
were next: traceability is lost at                  – scale, state – owned retailers
retailers and traders, unit of
traceability strongly depends on                                         Period between 1989–2003
the packaging, regulation is
leading to traceability being                       Grower→”Wholesaler” market→Small – scale vegetable and fruit
unsystematic, lack of standards                     retailers
for coding, too small batches to                    Grower→Private wholesaler→Large – scale private retail chains.
make traceability cost effective.
                                                                                 From 2003
     Establishment and further
development of the traceability                     Grower→”Wholesaler market”→Small – scale vegetable and fruit
system effect a change in the                       retailers
features of transactions (asset                     Grower→Private wholesaler→Large – scale private retail chains.
specificity,      complexity      of                Grower→Producer cooperatives→Large – scale retail chains.
transaction/uncertainty, frequency

1Szent   István University, Faculty of Social and Economics Institute

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                                 37
Table 1. Main characteristics of transactions in Hungarian fresh vegetable and fruit supply chain

                    Factors                     Retailers            Producer cooperatives                  Producer
Asset specificity
         Physical specificity            Low                    Medium                             Medium-high
                                                                (logistics plans and               (produce inputs and
                                                                control devices)                   varieties)
         Time specificity                Low                    Medium-high in season              Medium-high in season
         Site specificity                Low                    Low-medium                         Medium
                                                                (member suppliers)
         Human resource specificity      Low                    Medium                             High
                                                                (selected members and              (Trained personnel,
                                                                suppliers, trained personnel)      different knowledge)
         Dedicated specificity           Low-medium               Medium                           High
                                         (small role of branding)
Measurement problems                     Low                    Medium                             High
                                                                (quality and safety                (quality and safety
                                                                characteristics)                   characteristics)
Frequency of transactions                Very high              Medium in season                   Medium in season
Uncertainty / complexity of transactions Low                    Medium-high                        Medium-high
                                         (supplier selection)   (diverse of inputs and
Interdependency                          Sequential             Pooled                      Sequential
                                         (unilateral dependency (bilateral dependency       (unilateral dependency
                                         of suppliers )          between coops and members) from buyers)

   The share of horticultural              consumption, 3% is constituted by           consists      of     export-import
sector (vegetable- fruit, potato and       storage loss or change in stock. In         wholesalers, the other part of
flower) in the value of plant              domestic sales of vegetables-               wholesalers, possessing domestic
production amounted to 22%,                fruits, the proportion of direct            regional market. The number of
(average of years 2002–2006) and           sales to consumers is still                 wholesalers, participating in
12.4% in the value or agricultural         significant, main forms of which            export-import may be estimated at
production. Both percentages               are sales on local markets,                 out 100. Among which the role of
show a decreasing tendency.                wayside sales, sales from the               8–10 (CR 8–10) is determinative.
Three-quarter and one-quarter of           farm, as well as “pick and carry”           From this sphere come out the
production of vegetables occur in          actions.      Another    important          main and regional (in case of
small-scale and large-scale farms,         element of the domestic distribu-           domestic chain) suppliers of
respectively, 80% of fruit pro-            tion system of vegetables –fruits is        international and domestic retail
duction may be found in small-             the system of wholesale markets,            chains. Other group of domestic
scale farms, 20% of it in large-           within which the wholesale                  wholesalers, dealing mainly with
scale farms.                               market of vegetable-fruit of                regional distribution of vege-
   51% vegetable-fruit produced            Budapest has a share of 80%                 tables-fruits originating from
in Hungary is sold as fresh                (other wholesale markets in                 wholesale markets, domestic
product on the market, in form of          Szeged, Szentes, etc.).                     production and import or own
wholesale, retail or direct sales.            Of the organizations, taking             purchases, participate first of all in
The remainder gets to industrial           part in the turnover, important role        supply of retailers, works
processing and processing within           is held by vegetable-fruit                  kitchens, restaurants, schools,
the plant. (30+6%), 10 % to own            wholesalers, one part of them               nurseries, special vegetables-fruits

38                                                                                    Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
shops. Another part of whole-                  Organizational system of            cies serve first of all penalties,
salers, having specialized them-           official control underwent a            the amount of which is
selves in mediation and specu-             significant transformation during       relatively low as compared with
lation are the so-called “nappers”,        the years past. Control of certain      the hazard and the damage
trading on the basis of utilization        fields, propagating materials,          caused.
of short-term price fluctuations           quality control of fresh vegetables   • The main problems associated
and possessing a circle of                 and kinds of fruits, control of         with the control of plant
customers of ad hoc character.             heavy metal- and plant protecting       protecting chemical – and
The system of traceability of these        chemical content and hygienic           heavy metal content are: the
wholesalers is the most uncertain          control belonged to independent         sample number, necessary for
one, since a part of their activity        organizations,      which     were      adequate analysis of hazard is
proceeds in the grey economy.              reorganized into an unified system      low (about only 50% of the
    The number of producers’               during the years 2006–2007. In          justified).      Examinations,
cooperatives on 1st January, 2007          the field of official control, four     carried out by companies
was as follows: 10 definitively            half-structured expert interviews       (producing, trading ones)
acknowledged organizations, 103            were made (telephonic interviews        extend to a few products and
were acknowledged in advance.              of 50–60 min duration). The main        some market actors only.
Preliminary licence of the                 conclusions, drawn from official        Companies make laboratory
majority of producers’ coo-                interviews are as follows:              examinations mainly in case of
peratives was withdrawn during                                                     export sales. Own laboratory is
the year and a part of them joined,        • Traceability systems differ           possessed by a few market
respectively. In the second half of          from one to another according         actors only. Within the frame
the year, the number of operating            to the sales channels. In case of     of official control, institution
producers’ cooperatives amounted             direct and sales on the               of automatic laboratories is
to 51, 10, 5% of the production              wholesale market, the system          now in progress. Costs of
was sold by the producers’                   of traceability exists and            laboratory examinations are
cooperatives on the average of               operates partially exists and         relatively high. The proportion
years 2002–2004. The final sales             operates partially only. Llack        of laboratory examinations of
stage is meant by retail sales,              of traceability documentations        preventive character is low.
where local vegetables markets,              and lack of transparency of the       Also the proportion of product
other direct marketing forms,                sales channel represent a             withdrawals and recalls is low.
traditional small shops (mainly              significant problem .
vegetables-fruits specialist shops)        • In case of major producers,             Regarding the retail chins,
HORECA agents, domestic and                  producers’ cooperatives, major      interviews were conducted with
foreign retail chains and                    wholesalers and retail chains, a    experts in vegetable-fruit pur-
wholesalers, dealing with export-            traceability     system      was    chase, operating in 16 chains.
import are taking place.                     established and operates on a       (Telephone interview, 50–60 min
                                             satisfactory     level.    Main     duration). Among the retail chains
Examination of the traceability              problems originate from the         3 hypermarkets (CORA, Auchan,
                                             lack of regular official control,   TESCO) 3 supermarket (TESCO,
system of Hungarian
                                             problems of laboratory con-         SPAR, SMATCH), 3 discount
vegetables-fruit sector:                     ditions and problems of quick       chains (Penny, Plus, Profi) 2 C+C
research and methods                         checking up of traceability         chains of department stores
                                             documentations (paper-based         (METRO, Interfruct) and 4 retail
   Analysis of the traceability              traceability system, scarcity of    chains (Coop Hungary, CBA,
system was carried out in four               labour force, lack of special       Reál, Heliker) were included.
domains:                                     knowledge).           Minimum           The mmain conclusions drawn
• System of official control (4              performance of traceability is      from retail trade interviews are as
   expert interviews by telephone)           not defined on level of the sales   follows:
• Large-scale retail chains (16              channel, thus checking up time
   export interview by telephone)            is very slow and in several         • The purchase system of
• Producers’ cooperatives (27/51             cases, it surpasses the duration      vegetables-fruits is strongly
   cooperatives by survey)                   of the consumption of the             differentiated, extending from
• Large-scale producers (46/320              product. For sanctioning quality      local, small-scale chains (local
   producers by survey)                      faults and food safety deficien-      ÁFÉSZ shop-nets) to regional

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                          39
  (Coop Hungary, Reál, CBA)                product liability and shift of              (infrastructural deficiencies,
  purchase system and country-             hazards, respectively. The                  problems with specialist
  wide purchase system (inter-             main purpose is first of all the            knowledges).
  national retail chains). A part          treatment of quality reclama-             • Economic and managerial
  of the retail chains has                 tions and only secondly the                 benefits of traceability systems
  category manager-like connec-            prevention of food safety                   are not comprehended by retail
  tion with the wholesalers (e.g.          problems.                                   chains. They regard the paper-
  regional wholesalers of Reál           • In compliance with food safety              based system as efficient. They
  and a part of the Pro-Coop               requirements, the role of                   are aware of the length of
  ZRt., e.g. Bács Zöldért).                official control is determi-                transit    time,     surpassing
• The traceability systems show            native. There was a precedent               consumption time, but this is
  significant differences depen-           for self-examinations or                    mainly explained by the
  ding on the degree o                     laboratory development in case              problems of official control.
  centralization of the purchase,          of a few retail chains only.
  product features (length of the          Regular inspection and control                Traceability systems used by
  production period, peris-                on the spot on behalf of                  producers’ cooperatives was
  hability, quality keeping of the         suppliers is scare, they fail to          examined by means of a
  product) and the proportion of           perform       regular      hazard         questionnaire (postal questioning)
  repacked products. Tracea-               analyses.                                 survey. At the time of the survey
  bility of products causes the          • Main form of the paper-based              51 producers’ cooperatives had
  greatest problem in case of              traceability system is the use of         permanent        or     temporary
  repacked mass goods and                  labels and tickets. Identifi-             authorization to operate. Of the
  when a few products origina-             cation of the product is done by          questionnaires sent off, 27 (54%)
  ting from a few suppliers are            the use of bar codes (EAN)                were returned. The favourable
  packed together                        • Retail chains possess internet            proportion of return may be
• Traceability system according            accessibility, but it is limitedly        attributed to telephone contact
  to phase’s levels is applied by          applied in purchasing activity            established before and following
  retail chains, main target of            because of differentiated                 the postal dispatch. Main
  which is the determination of            preparedness of suppliers                 conclusions in association with

Table 2. Main characteristics of traceability system in Hungarian fresh vegetable and fruit supply chain

         Factors                        Retailers                     Producer cooperatives              Producer
Characteristics            Mix of medium concentrated            Atomistic market structure.     Atomistic market structure.
                           oligopol and atomistic market         Increasing role and market      Diverse of size and level
                           structure. Increasing concentration   share.                          of technology and
                           and market power                                                      knowledge.
Forces of traceability     Mainly laws and regulation,           Mainly laws and regulation,     Mainly laws and
                           ittle affect of consumer behaviour.   power of retailers. Consumer    regulation, power of
                                                                 behaviour on export markets.    wholesalers.
Governance forms           Contracts with suppliers, mainly      Contracts with members,         Contract with buyers
                           less than one year.                   mainly more than one year       (wholesalers), mainly less
                                                                 Joint planning of variety       than one year.
Traceability performance   No exact time to suppliers or         No exact time to members        No exact time
                           producers                             of cooperatives
Traceability forms         Based on paper documents (labels), Based on paper documents           Based on paper
                           parallel with using barcode (EAN) (labels), parallel, with using      documents. Little use of
                           Little use of ICT                  barcode (EAN)                      ICT
                                                              Little use of ICT

40                                                                                  Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3
the traceability system are as               negative list of plant protecting   References
follows:                                     chemicals, advice, prescription
                                             of quality assuring system,             Holmström, B. – Milgrom, P.
• Producers’ cooperatives became             input assurance, prescriptions      (1994): The Firm as an incentive
  unambiguously aware of the                 relating to variety and to f        system, American Economics
  importance of the development              propagating material.               Review, 84 (4).
  of the traceability system. In           • The most frequent forms of              Martino, G. – Perugini, C.
  sales relations, expansion and             quality assurance systems are as    (2006): Hybrid forms in the
  further development of the                 follows: EUREP-GAP, HACCP,          supply of safe foods, In: J. Bijman
  traceability system was assigned           Good Processing Practice            – S. W. F. Omta, – J. H.
  to the third place of 8 factors by       • The traceability system is
                                                                                 Trienekens, – J. H. M Wijands –
  the respondents. Among future              exclusively paper-based, comp-
                                                                                 E. F. M. Wubben (eds) Inter-
  tasks (3–5 years) it was                   leted by the use of EAN-code.
                                                                                 national agri-food chains and net-
  regarded as the most important             A smaller part of the producers’
  issue beside the strengthening of          cooperatives possesses product      works, Wageningen Academic
  purchaser-supplier relations and           recalling program, hazard           Publishers, Wageningen
  branding activity on behalf of             handling system for treatment           Reynaud, E. – L. Sauvée – E.
  the producer and cooperative.              and registration of claims          Valceshini (2004): Fit between
  The advantages of the                    • Regarding       data     transfer   branding strategies and gover-
  traceability      system       are         technologies mobile phone, fax      nance of transactions. 8th Annual
  considered according to the                (100%) are most frequently          Conference of the New Institu-
  following: precondition of                 used, and wide-band internet        tional Economics, Institutions and
  market (first of all export                (88,9%).                            Economics        and       Political
  market) penetration, tool of                                                   Behavior, Tucson, Arizona
  adaptation to purchasers’ and            Main conclusions                          Thompson, J. D. (1967):
  consumer demands, reduction                                                    Organizations in action: social
  of costs originating from safety         • Lack of integrated traceability     science bases of administrative
  hazards.                                   system, mainly sequential           theory, New York
• Regarding            purchasing,           coordination and traceability           Van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.
  purchase from producers or                 forms.                              (2004): Performance levels in
  other producers’ cooperatives            • Lack of clear traceability          food traceability and the impact
  is determinative. In sales                 performance level for chain         on chain design: results of an
  relations, a most important role           actors.
                                                                                 international benchmark study, In:
  is played by sales to                    • Lack of vertical organization to
                                                                                 H. J. Bermmers, – S. W. F. Omta,
  wholesalers, retail chains and             coordinate traceability system
                                                                                 – J. H. Trienekens and E. F. M.
  direct export sales. the main              and transparency in chain.
  form of coordination is the              • Incentives of traceability          Wubben (eds), Dinamics in chains
  contract, within which forms               system based mainly on laws         and networks, Wageningen
  shorter than one year are                  and legislation, less on            Academic Publishers, Wagenin-
  preferred, while the proportion            economical ones.                    gen, the Netherlands
  of those for longer than one             • Lack of integrated chain                Williamson, O. E. (1979):
  year is low (18.1%).                       information system, little use      Transaction Cost Economics: The
• The tools applied most                     of ICT, only telephone and fax      governance       of    contractual
  frequently in supplier relations           (though most of them has            relations, Journal of Law and
  to purchasers are: positive or             internet).                          Economics 22.

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                          41

     Doyen of Hungarian Plant Breeding
     Ernô Kurnik (1913–2008)

         The years 2006–2008 are a sad period of our          HAS over several terms and its honorary
     national scientific life. Shockingly high is the         president until the end of his life. He was one of
     number of those who passed away, e.g. Iván               the founders of the Hungarian Plant Breeder’s
     Bócsa, Sándor Rajki members of the Hungarian             Association and later its honorary president. He
     Academy of Sciences (HAS), Andor Bálint and              was also a founder member of the Academy
     Gábor Kovács Doctors of HAS, who in the                  Committee of the town Pécs.
     second half of the 20th century were central                 If we try to recall his personality for a moment
     figures in national plant breeding. This tragic          an elegant, a real gentlemen steps out of the
     process unfortunately continued in 2008 since on         gloom with the obligatory cigar in his hand.
     the 3rd of March, when, at the age of 95, Ernô           Anywhere and any time he was met he looked as
     Kurnik, HAS member , one of the last giants of           if had just stepped out of the band-box There was
     classical Hungarian plant breeding passed away.          not a single year when his friends could escape
         Heaven granted him a long life teeming with          from going to see him at Iregszemcse. In the
     instances of success and failure, joy and sadness.       experimental area, between the plots, looking
     The Professor, as in his life he had to be               decades younger, neglecting the scorching
     addressed with this title, reached almost                sunshine, he presented his latest results, lines,
     everything that a plant breeder can achieve in our       varieties and hybrids.
     little homeland. On the mourning card                        He witnessed historical events. He was born
     announcing the of passing the Professor to               in 1913 at Mecsekszabolcs in Greater Hungary
     relatives, acquaintances, friends and to scientists      before the Trianon Peace Treaty. He saw the First
     contains a long list of the various national and         World War as a child and the Second as a soldier
     international titles, positions, prizes which are a      and then as a war prisoner. He graduated in
     clear demonstration of the greatness and                 agriculture at the József Nádor Hungarian Royal
     reputation of Ernô Kurnik academician.                   Academy of Technical and Economic Sciences
         Who was this plant breeder and scientist? He         where he obtained university doctor’s degree. His
     was the doyen of Hungarian plant breeders, the           masters were Zoltán Szabó and Géza Dobi,
     last member of the generation of polymath plant          renowned professors. He acquired the degree of
     breeders dealing with almost every field crop in         candidate of agricultural sciences in 1953 and the
     cultivation. This is best illustrated by the fact that   title of Doctor of HAS ten years later in 1963. In
     in his life out of 7 plant species, sunflower,           1970 he became Correspondent Member of HAS
     soybean, pea, horse bean, bean, chick pea and            and then in 1976 Ordinary Member of HAS.
     rape-seed, 74 in all were granted state registration         He started his breeding activity two years
     entering in commercial production. The varieties         before he was called up for military service, at the
     from Ireg were famous both at home and abroad.           establishment of the Ödön Mauthner Stock
     In addition to this, he was the author of 150            Company, a private company, at Iregszemcs and
     scientific publications, articles and studies. Of        remained faithful to Ireg over more than half a
     particular and lasting value are his monographs          century (56 years). He was founder and director
     (3), books (2) and his many book chapters. He            of the South-east Trans-Danubian Agricultural
     was president of the Plant Breeding Committee,           Experimental Institute and then of the Research

42                                                                              Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3

    Institute for Fodder Production. He took an active     Millennial Prize 1996, Baross Commemorative
    part in the reorganisation of the agricultural         Medal 1999, etc.) and he was elected Member of
    research of the country after the war. The work of     Szent István Academy and Honoris Causa Doctor
    the organisation of the network of the institutes      and honorary university professor of the Pannon
    for regional research is linked to his name which      University. In his autobiography, he writes on
    network was naturally reorganised then wound           this subject: ‘My research work and its results did
    up during the 1970s and 1980s. Nowadays the            not lack in recognition. Each award and honour is
    tasks deriving from our EU membership                  dear to me. But I can not resist from quoting the
    unfortunately justify the necessity of this regional   lines of the certificate granted by ‘OMMI’: ‘in
    research network. This way he was half a century       recognition of the fruitful work done for the
    ahead of his time with his organisation of the         enrichment of the treasures of the nation’ He
    regional institutes as Chief Director of               wore only one of his awards at all, but he wore it
    Experimental Issues in the Ministry (1952).            permanently, the Cross of the Order of Merit of
        He made friends with Péter Veres after that        the Republic of Hungary, ‘like once my
    the latter called plant breeding as ‘amusement for     grandfather wore the golden medal he won in the
    the idle rich’ in the early ‘50s in a county           Balkan War’, he writes on himself.
    newspaper. The Professor immediately invited               He could never say farewell to plant breeding
    him to visit his institute in order to provide a       and was working until his death. On this point he
    demonstration of the opposite. It did not take too     writes: ‘Common sense would dictate that you
    long before the response arrived: ‘Young friend,       should sit down by the fire-place and contemplate
    you invited me, here I am’.                            on the past since you had so many wonderful
        His humane nature is evidenced by the fact         experiences. And what am I doing?’ he asks
    that, similarly to our fellow academician Andro        himself ‘While walking up and down I am
    Jánossy, he was guard and benefactor and               meditating which is the one of my ideas for the
    supporter of the intellectual victims of the take-     accomplishment of which yet enough time is
    over by the communists. Those who were                 allowed by my fate given by God?’ Dear Ernô,
    permitted to continue their research work at his       Providence allowed you as much as this and let
    institute include, among others, György Mándy,         us admit it was not little.
    professor of agrobotany and plant breeding, as             You have died but only your body has passed
    well as the chemists Sándor Kuthy and Miklós           away and left us; the results of your work
    Jáky.                                                  continue to remain with us. Your varieties, of
        There was an anecdote in circulation in the        which more than a dozen are still in cultivation
    1980s of the last century at the Ministry called as    even nowadays in the country, your monographs
    ‘MÉM’ at that time, saying that one was                which are present on our shelves and in the
    recommended to go to Iregszemcse, where for            libraries of every university will keep reminding
    decades the director had been the professor, only      us of you. Dear and honoured Professor, in the
    in the morning or in the late afternoon because        name of the ordinary and correspondent members
    Director Ernô Kurnik would sleep in his office         of the Committee of Agricultural Sciences of the
    after lunch and a fiery young woman from Ireg          Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of the doctors
    would let no one enter his room. Naturally, this       and members of Public Body of HAS, as well as
    was based on true grounds, as even the heads of        in the name of the Hungarian Plant Breeder’s
    the Ministry, arriving unexpectedly at Ireg, had to    Association and of those who honour and respect
    wait in the anteroom until the professor was so        you I say farewell to you, the scientist and, not in
    kind as to wake up in the end. To tell the truth, in   the last place, a friend of all of us.
    his field he was treated with such a great respect
    that he could do so without any fear.                     Dear Ernô, rest in peace.
        He was recipient of numerous awards
    (Fleischmann Prize 1974, State Prize 1978,                                                László Heszky
    József Beszédes Prize 1992, Cross of the Order                                 ordinary member of HAS
    of Merit of the Republic of Hungary 1994,                                        Szent István University

Hungarian Agricultural Research 2008/2–3                                                                          43
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and readily comprehensible. The scientific fields covered regularly include: biotechnology; plant
production; animal husbandry; horticulture; forestry; food processing; economics; marketing;
engineering; ecology; environmental management; rural development; EU connections, and
questions of EU accession.
The journal is published quarterly with issues appearing in March, June, September and December.

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The annual subscription price: $ 16 + postal cost                                                                        rm.
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