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RWCAA1 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS CL652-3 THE ART OF ANCIENT GREECE INTRODUCTION The contributions of the ancient Greeks to Western civilisation are virtually immeasurable. In philosophy, art, government and scientific thought, the Greeks set a standard for ingenuity, perfection and beauty against which subsequent Western cultures have come to compare themselves. Indeed, as A. N. Whitehead has suggested, all of western European philosophy to date is merely a footnote to Plato. In short, our own civilisation is in many ways the realisation of ideas and ideals first formulated hundreds of years ago on the shores of the Aegean Sea. In this film, students will become acquainted with many of the achievements of the ancient Greeks. Through an historical perspective, students will see ancient Greece as a civilisation of in- dependent city-states concerned first and foremost with life-an impassioned and intelligent concern which has greatly affected the evolution of Western governments, art, philosophy and science to this day. VOCABULARY Doric Corinthian capital frieze Ionic DISCUSSION SUGGESTIONS 1. Discuss the cultural interchange between the Greeks and the Egyptians. In what ways, if at all, did the Greeks improve upon Egyptian ideas? 2. What is the major difference between the religions of the Egyptians and Mesopotamians as compared to that of the Greek? 3. Compare and contrast Greek and Egyptian sculpture. What seems to have been the effects of "freedom" in the art of the Greeks as compared to that of the Egyptians? 4. Discuss "naturalism" and "realism" as it relates to Greek art. 5. In what ways does the subject matter ()f.,.t.he Greek sculptors differ from that of the Egyptians and Mesopotamians? 6. What is the distinction of the Praxiteles "Hermes" as dis- cussed in the filmstrip. 7. What are the three orders of Greek columns used by the Greeks in their architecture? 8. Discuss the purpose for different types of columns in the construction of temples. 9. Explain the construction of the Parthenon. What, according to the filmstrip, distinguishes it as a work of art. 10. Discuss the evolution of the Greek vase. What subject matter was traditionally employed by the Greeks for their ornamentation? 11. Explain the construction of the Greek theatres in the terms of form and function. 12. After the conquest of Alexander, what change became evident' in the subject matter for Greek sculpture? 13. Why is there no distinct line between Greek and Roman art? SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES HISTORY 1. Have the students prepare written or oral reports on one of the following topics. Or assign. the topics to several students to be organised into an audio- visual presentation, using slides, overhead projectors, maps, graphs, artwork, etc. A. Pericals and the building of Athens B. Government in the Greek city – states c. The religion of ancient Greeks D. The Peloponnesian E. Education in Ancient Athens F. Discoveries of the Ionian scholars G. The ancient Greek theater H. The construction of the Acropolis I. The class structure of ancient Greece 2. Compare and contrast the meaning of democracy as it relates to Greek culture and as it exists in the modern world . Assign selected readings from the Greek philosophers, as well as modern philosophers and political scientists, on the nature of democracy and freedom. Assign the class to research and write a theme paper on the relationship of freedom and democracy. 3. Assign class readings on the educational "system " of ancient Athens. Assign readings on the nature of education in the United States. Have students write a theme paper on what they feel is the role of education in a democratic society. 4. Drawing upon museums and universities in your area, arrange for a speaker to address the class on the impact of ancient Greece on the development of Western Civilisation. 5. Conduct a Panel Discussion. Have five students prepare reports on various aspects of life in ancient Greece. (See suggestion # 2 under SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES, filmstrip CL652-1 for topic ideas) Allow time for student questions to the panel of "experts." 1. The film suggests that the creativity manifested in the art of ancient Greece is a result of the Greek " ...concern for life." Discuss the statement. Encourage students to support their opinions with examples. Discuss whether "concern for life" is a requirement of all art. Then assign a paper which re- quires each student to define what he believes "concern for life" means in terms of art. 2. Have students prepare written or oral reports on one of the following topics. A. Proportion in Greek sculpting and architecture B. “Naturalism” and “realism” in relation to Greek art C. Religious art in ancient Greece D. Styles and motifs of Greek Pottery E. Art in the ancient Greek theater F. The influence of Grecian architecture in America 3. Assign the reading of a Greek play (if the class is younger , read the play together and outline the plot elements and characterisations). Have the students research costumes and masks used in classic Greek theater. Then, have the students design masks and costume designs for a production. 4. If there is a museum or exhibit in your area featuring Greek art, arrange a lecture-tour . 5. If your school is situated in or near a large city, survey the area for elements of Greek architecture. Select a few of the buildings and require the students to determine which of the column orders were utilised in their construction. TEACHER’S INSTRUCTIONS CL652-4 THE ART OF ANCIENT ROME INTRODUCTION In this film students will become familiar with the art and history of the ancient Roman civilisation. Unlike the other civilisations in this series, the Roman Empire does not exhibit a distinctively original or unique style of art; but rather, reflects the art styles of the many cultures which Rome both dominated and governed-particularly that of ancient Greece. The Romans so admired the art and culture of the ancient Greeks, that much of their own architecture and art imitated that of the Greeks. Indeed, many Greek artisans were employed in the building of Rome. The Romans drew upon the education of the Greek scholars for the development of their code of laws and for a system of government which was unprecedented in the ancient world. The remains of the Roman Empire can be found in such diverse areas as Africa, The Middle East, Spain, even England-pointing to the pervasiveness of the Roman culture in the ancient world. Among impressive Roman accomplishments, are those which the following filmstrip puts into focus: the Roman system of roads; the building of aqueducts; the development of the vaulted ceiling and dome; the discovery and extensive use of concrete as a building material; and the codification of laws intended to successfully govern the widely disparate cultural groups conquered by the Roman armies. VOCABULARY aqueduct catacombs groined vault vaulted roof DISCUSSION SUGGESTIONS 1.Who were the Etruscans? Where were they located and what did they share in common with the ancient Egyptians? 2. In what ways did the discovery and utilisation of bronze affect the development of the Etruscan culture? 3. Define the limits of the Roman Empire. 4. Discuss the contributions of the Romans to the development of western civilisation. 5. What were the similarities and differences between Roman and Greek sculpture? 6. What role did Augustus play in the construction of Rome? 7. Compare the structure and use of the column in Roman and Greek architecture. 8. How did the discovery of concrete revolutionise architecture? 9. Discuss the column and arch as it is used in the construction of the Coliseum. How was the arch constructed? 10. What is a "vaulted roof," a "groined vault," a "dome." How were they used in Roman architecture? What ways did the development of the dome revolutionise architecture? 11. What dramatic change was employed by Roman sculptors in their rendering of the human head? 12. How and where were some of the Roman baths constructed? Who" used them? How did they figure in the daily life of the Roman citizenry? 13. What were some of the effects of Christianity on Roman art? 14. What was the basic structure of the Roman government? How were the Roman provinces governed?