SELF EVALUATION WITH THE MODEL OF THE EUROPEAN QUALITY by fjn47816

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									SELF EVALUATION WITH THE MODEL OF THE EUROPEAN
QUALITY AWARD




objectives:   the participant knows what nine criteria, the five stages and the procedures for
              use of the EFQM-model are;
              the participant experiences the use of thematrix-procedure for selfevaluation of
              an organisation.
tagetgroup:   fourth year students

study load:    6 hours
1.      contact hours: 90 minutes
Exercises
1.    Individual
1.1. Read the case. See appendix one. (30 minutes).
1.2. Study the nine criteria, five stages and procedures out of the “Method for improving
      the quality of higher education based on the EFQM-model”, pages 3 to 8. See
      appendix two. (90 minutes).
1.3. Read the matrix of processmanagement (o.c. pages 22 to 31). See appendix 3. (90
      minutes).
1.4. Score the case in the stages of the matrix, on to five. (60 minutes).

2.      Team/group (guided).
2.1     Discuss the result of the scores with the members of the group. (45 minutes).
2.2. Discuss with the members of the group for all the subcriteria the stages you would
strive for. (45 minutes).
Appendix one.
Case
CASE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE

Minutes of a meeting with some lecturers and students of the educational program of Social
Work Fontys Hogescholen.

The Educational program Social Work counts 400 students. The program has increased
enormously. Especially the amount of students form Maroc, Turkey, Suriname has increased.

The curriculum consisted of 16 disciplines and counted 28 contacthours. The drop out rate
has been high, not only in the first year, but especially in the third and last year.
Since August 1998 an educational reorganisation is started. A projectteam formulated a
vision on profession and education, that is approved of by the educational committee.
Students are not involved. The program is divided in four module periods. Each period 8
modules are scheduled. These modules are developed in small teams of lecturers and
executed immediately in the period there after.
The program starts in the second period of the first year with dischiplinary organised modules
like psychology, sociology an philosophy. In the third period the education is divided in
theme organised integrated modules, derived from thr profession i.e. sociol worker.
Also later periods of the curriculum contents are intergrated. That intergration is realised by
the above mentioned teams of lecturers, as far as they are able to. The structure of the
modules in general is identic: lecturers and selfstudy tasks in a so called student working
group, that looks a lor like teams they will be working in in the future. Although not every
lecturer sticks to the appointments. There is no time for control by the projectgroup.

Students complain about the hastiness and overlaod in the program. Especially the amount of
test is perceived as extraordinary. The disciplinary organised modules have a wrong
estimation of the study load. Also second year student are not content with the study load
estimations.
The students from other countries experience the module “Social work reports” as a
bottle-neck.
Only 20% of them passes the exam the first time. Students are allowed to try a test three
times. That‟s the way how 50% of foreign students pass the first year, after two years that is
60%. Figures for the total students population are even better, 60% passes the first year
exams after one year, 75% after two years. All students have problems concerning having
missed parts of the obliged trainings. the second time you can test these is a year after the
first time. There is little or no counselling of the study career.

The atmasphere in the unit is good. It has their own space in the building of departement
with its own classrooms and teacher rooms. There are sufficient facilities for library,
audio-visual materials that are open three evenings a week too. On Mondays the library is
too crowded to work there. Some student workinggroups take their refuge at home or in the
corridors.
Also the lecturers are content with the schedule, in which they feel their wishes are dominant.
They say to be satisfied with the fact that their judgement on the education and the resources
are asked for periodically. Just as the students they say little is done with the results.
Furthermore they complain that they don‟t get enough time to develop the modules. The
execution of the education demands all the energy. Little time is left for externat analysis.
Lecturers experience a heavy workload and absence because of illness is high (10 %). They
complain about the amount of test (partly take home tests). And about the fact that students
don‟t do their study tasks. Some lecturers think all the efforts in curriculum development in
general and writing study tasks especially have been useless. It would have been better to
invest all this money in computers for the teacher rooms.
Appendix two
The EFQM-method pag 3 to 8
      Method for the Improvement of
     the Quality of Higher Education
in Accordance with the EFQM Model


                  English version, 1998
2. The basic model

The expert group for Higher Vocational Education has opted for the model developed by the
European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). Characteristics of the model are used
in several countries as the basis of national Quality Awards, such as the Deming Prize and the
Malcolm Baldrige Award in the United States of America. This choice has been made not
only because the model is extremely manageable and accessible but also because it is more
complete than other models. In addition, the project group considered it important to create
and maintain a link with existing initiatives and developments in European trade and industry.
These initiatives and developments are aimed at encouraging organisations to apply integral
quality management and to stimulate continuous quality improvement. The international
acceptance of the model enables international benchmarking of universities.

The expert group for Higher Vocational Education was of the opinion that, for application in
higher education, a version more oriented towards the specific requirements of the branch was
necessary in order to increase the practicability (and acceptation) of the model.
At the same time, a number of recent insights from the field of business studies have been
added and all criteria named in the basic model have been made suitable for educational
organisations on the one hand and, in terms of their contents, have been geared towards
educational courses in higher education on the other.


2.1   Explanation of the basic model

The basic model illustrates that Leadership (see section 4.1) gives content and guidance to
Policy and Strategy (section 4.2), People Management (section 4.3) and Resources
Management (section 4.4). These are the organisational conditions by means of which the
Process Management (section 4.5) can be appropriately implemented (viewed as the
educational learning process: execution and development of education).
This determines the extent of the Customer Satisfaction (section 4.6), People Satisfaction
(section 4.7) and Impact on Society (section 4.8).

The criteria, in their mutual coherence, lead to the desired Business Results (section 4.9),
under which the results that issue from quality improvements are also included.
In other words, the assumption of the EFQM model is that Customer Satisfaction, People
Satisfaction, and Impact on Society are achieved through Leadership Driving, Policy and
Strategy, People Management, and Resources and Processes, leading ultimately to excellence
in Business Results.
                           3                                         7
                         People                                   People
                       Management                               Satisfaction



          1                  2                 5                     6                      9
      Leadership        Policy and        Management             Customer                Business
                         Strategy          Processes            Satisfaction             Results



                            4                                      8
                        Resources                               Impact on
                                                                 Society

                     Organisation                                           Results         

2.2   Explanation of the developmental stages

In the „Method for Improvement of the Quality of Higher Education in Accordance with the
EFQM model‟, the nine criteria and their criterion parts have been elaborated in five
developmental stages.
These developmental stages indicate a path of growth or, in other words, a direction of
improvement, from stage 1 to stage 5, in which each stage implies the previous developmental
stages.
A score in stage 1 does not mean that the educational organisation provides qualitatively poor
educational courses, it indicates rather that the organisation is capable of growing through the
other four developmental stages by means of which the guarantee of quality provision will
increase. The growth in question can take place with regard to the orientation (from internal to
external), policy implementation (from ad hoc to systematic), the general consensus for
decisions (limited to broad), and in the documentation of agreement (from the informal,
non-recorded setting to the adjustment and improvement of procedures).
The developmental stages have been designated in conformance with the classification made
by the Instituut Nederlandse Kwaliteit and have been categorised as being activity-oriented,
process-oriented, system-oriented, chain-oriented towards total quality management.

Stage 1 Activity-oriented
                      Educational activities are the central issue; much emphasis is placed
                        upon the rectification of problems once they have occurred.
                      The policy is short-term and ad hoc. Quality management is strongly
                        geared towards the level of the individual product (lessons, modules,
                        components of the educational programme) and is dependent upon the
                        commitment of the individual professional. Lessons are evaluated
                        occasionally.
                      The working methods and culture are strongly informal. The general
                        support for policy depends on the motivation and involvement of the
                        individual.
                      There are few/no procedures and directives. Most agreements are not
                        recorded.
Stage 2 Process-oriented
                      The primary process (education) and the management of the process
                         form the central issue; improvements are implemented in problem
                         areas on the basis of measurements and knowledge of the processes.
                         The organisation could be ISO-9000 certificated.
                      A „policy cycle‟ begins to arise at educational course level or at unit
                         level. Quality management is geared to an increasing degree towards
                         the work processes.
                      The responsibility for the policy no longer lies with the individual
                         alone but is tending to become the responsibility of the educational
                         team or department. The interdependence of colleagues increases.
                      There are more unequivocal directives and procedures at product
                         level. Unambiguity and clarity in procedures increase. Recording
                         and documenting take place.


Stage 3 System-oriented
                      The total organisation is controlled, including the supporting
                        departments; the management of all processes is governed by
                        internal and external customer orientation; the goal is to pre-empt
                        problems and complaints.
                      There is a formulated and agreed quality policy, but one which is in
                        the initial stages of implementation. There are forms of systematic
                        evaluation of products, services and entire work processes. A start is
                        being made on the formulation and the introduction of achievement
                        indicators in the quality managment.
                      The exchange of knowledge and expertise takes place, the lowest
                        level of this exchange being that of the unit/department. The
                        requested and spontaneous involvement of staff and students
                        increases conspicuously (people are stimulated to do so and are also
                        listened to). The management provides guidance on the basis of the
                        strength of the arguments.
                      Actions are carried out in line with the directives and procedures
                        (convincing evidence).


Stage 4 Chain-oriented
                         Maximum use is made of the knowledge and capacities of the
                          organisation in relation to suppliers, customers, interested parties,
                          commissioning agents etc. in order to satisfy the customer/target
                          group; in conjunction with these, the most effective distribution of
                          tasks is worked out and win-win situations are pursued and realised.
                         The organisation continuously anticipates the desires and
                          requirements of the customer and visibly provides an added value to
                          the solution of problems or the improvement of the customer‟s
                          situation.
                         The process of rendering services is appraised and the data are
                          analysed with the aim of improving the quality. There is an
                          operational, concretely elaborated quality system, which leads to
                          continuous improvements and in which the customer is intensively
                          involved in all the relevant stages.
                         Knowledge and expertise are exchanged on an organisation-wide
                          level by persons within the organisation and with people engaged in
                          that professional field increases visibly.
                         Procedures and directives are formulated on an organisation-wide
                          basis in conjunction with the professional field; actions are carried
                          out in conformity with procedures and directives. Where necessary,
                          the procedures and directives are improved.


Stage 5 Total quality management
                       The vision and policy of the organisation are formulated with the
                         intent of declaring responsibility to society; the total quality
                         management is anchored both internally and externally.
                       The organisation aspires to linking up with, and making a
                         contribution to, continuous innovation in the professional field.
                         Measures based on internal and external judgements are
                         demonstrable and enjoy broad support from the staff, the students
                         and the professional field.
                       Throughout the whole organisation, actions are carried out in
                         accordance with procedures and directives. The professional field is
                         involved in the drafting of procedures, and these are adjusted where
                         necessary. In this, the documentation and the regulations are
                         included.
                       External developments should be regarded as a guideline for policy
                         generation and quality improvement; one anticipates developments,
                         also those referring to customers. Scenarios for the future and trend
                         analyses help to determine the policy. Positive results are realised
                         on achievement indicators and a positive trend develops with the
                         passage of time.

Each stage implies the attainment of the previous stage.

In every criterion and every stage, the EFQM model promotes the principle of continuous
improvement. This principle has been translated by Deming in his PDCA cycle. An
organisation (and individuals and teams within) should Plan, Do, Check and Act, over and
over again. In doing so, a further stage can be achieved, as is shown in the following figure:
2. Procedure alternatives


Experience has been gained with the following procedures in many Universities of Higher
Professional Education. If you wish to make use of these, you should contact one of the
members of the Higher Vocational Education (Dutch: HBO) group (see Appendix 2).


Procedure I            Self-assessment and consensus

1. Individual staff members (or a representative sample) make an assessment to establish,
   with reference to all criteria and criterion parts, the stage in which the organisational unit
   (department, faculty, college) is currently situated.
2. Based on an overview of the individual scores, a consensus gathering is held on the
   characteristics of the organisational unit. This type of analysis is very useful at the
   beginning of the self-evaluation.


Procedure II           Self-assessment, consensus and audit

1. Individual staff members (or a representative sample) make an assessment to establish,
   with reference to all criteria and criterion parts, the stage in which the organisational unit
   (department, faculty, college) is currently situated.
2. Based on an overview of the individual scores, a consensus gathering is held on the
   characteristics of the organisational unit. This type of analysis is very useful at the
   beginning of the self-evaluation.
3. The organisation sends material (in conformance with a standard list) to an audit team
   consisting of external experts. The audit team studies the written documentation and
   information and makes an appraisal to establish the stage in which the organisation is
   currently situated. A report can be compiled based on the end results. The organisational
   unit can make use of this to draw up a list of points for improvement, as in the context of
   constructing a long-term policy for example. If necessary, the external experts can be
   involved in this process, in a workshop or similar activity.
4. An audit team pays a visit to the organisation and conducts dialogues with the individual
   staff members and students, or a representative sample of these. The discussions are
   conducted according to an agenda; the discussion partners hold different functions in the
   organisation.
   A report is drawn up of the end results. The organisation itself can determine the extent to
   which the report will be made public.
Appendix three
Matrix for management of processes
4.5   Management of Processes


                            People                                  People
                          Management                              Satisfaction



       Leadership                             Management                                 Business
                           Policy and          Processes           Customer              Results
                            Strategy                              Satisfaction




                           Resources                               Impact on
                                                                    Society

                      Organisation                                          Results       


In the Management of Processes in an educational organisation, we distinguish ten steps in
the process of educational development and implementation:
       1. external analysis
       2. formulating the vision on the profession and education (the specifications)
       3. constructing the curriculum
       4. designing the study course components
       5. controlling
       6. planning
       7. carrying out student activities
       8. carrying out teacher activities
       9. counselling the study career
       10. internal analysis


1.    External analysis

The first step in the process of educational development is the collection and interpretation of
data in order to obtain a good picture of the wishes and demands an educational organisation
has to meet. Based on these data (and those obtained from the internal analysis, step 10),
specifications can be drawn up (step 2) with which the product of the educational
organisation, the educational programme, has to conform.
The analysis is concerned with information that has been obtained from the government
regarding the legal framework and material preconditions, information from the student with
respect to the initial level and the wishes regarding the „studiability‟ (the extent to which the
course lends itself to study) (see the report by Wijnen et al.), and information from the
professional field with regard to the occupational requirements. The analysis results in an
occupational profile, a legal framework, a list of strong and weak points, chances for and
threats to the organisation, the initial level of the student, etc.

2.    Formulating the vision on the profession and education (the specifications)
The internal and external analyses provide the basis for the formulation of the specifications
which the curriculum has to meet. We distinguish three kinds of specifications:

a) Specifications originating from the vision on the profession
   The educational commission (or curriculum commission) gives substance to the
   occupational profile by means of end terms.

b) Specifications originating from the vision on education
   Features of the educational programme are named: the structure, the phasing, the
   demands on „studiability‟ (the extent to which the study course lends itself to study),
   including the norms for study load, group sizes and teacher allocation. The initial level of
   the student is operationalised.

c) Specifications originating from the vision on innovation
   In stage 5 in particular, we expect specifications in the field of occupational and
   educational innovation: to which innovations does the organisation aspire?

1.    Constructing the curriculum

Based on the vision on the profession and the education, a blueprint for the curriculum is
generated. This consists of a framework with educational units in a logical mutual coherence.
At the same time, for each educational unit/study course component, a description is made of
the educational aims, study points, method of examination and the maximum allocation of
teaching staff. These data are recorded in the specifications (see step 2).

2.    Designing the study course components

Teachers are assigned to the formulation of the educational/study course components. They
design the programme in accordance with the agreements in the step 2 specifications. They
select the work forms to be used in the education. The result is documented in study manuals,
for example.

3.    Control

An educational commission or educational co-ordinator is responsible for controlling that the
modules are furnished with adequate study material. A check is made as to whether the
modules, as described in the study manuals, are provided with study material in accordance
with, among others, the specifications (formulated in step 2). If this is the case, the
educational units are approved for educational implementation.

4.    Planning

Subsequently, the planning co-ordinator draws up an executable plan for student and teacher
activities, so that the students‟ learning process can progress in an optimal way.


5.    Formulating student activities
Students learn. They must eventually achieve the end terms. This learning process can take
place in a more or less controlled way, either within or outside the organisation.

6.    Carrying out teacher activities

The teacher facilitates the student‟s learning process. The teacher acts in accordance with the
educational functions: motivating students, adaptation to suit the initial level, and clarification
of the objectives. The teacher allows the students to orient themselves and to practise, and also
gives feedback.

7.    Counselling the study career

The student wishes to have insight into the result of the learning process. For this purpose,
he/she is tested and receives feedback on the test. The study results are recorded, certificates
or diplomas are handed out. The student is given counsel in his/her study. When this
counselling also covers the post-study period, we refer to the supervision of a study career.

8.    Internal analysis

The educational programme that has been implemented is evaluated by students, teachers,
graduates/people in the professional field. Analyses of data referring to study progression are
taken into consideration.
5 Management                  Stage 1                    Stage 2                          Stage 3                        Stage 4                        Stage 5              Current
 of Processes            Activity-oriented           Process-oriented                 System-oriented                 Chain-oriented           Total Quality Management       Stage


1                    The individual teacher     The organisation performs       Research takes place on the     The organisation performs      Links are created between    12345
External analysis    pays attention to the      systematic research on the      developments in the             systematic research on         the various research surveys
                     developments in the        subject and the                 professional field and the      developments in the            (and trends are indicated),
                     professional field and     corresponding teaching          professional profile in order   professional field, in         and the end results of these
                     uses these to keep         methodology, the initial        to determine an educational     governmental areas and in      are discussed with the staff
                     his/her educational        level and students‟ learning    profile. This information is    competing organisations        members and incorporated
                     programme up to date.      style. This information is      discussed with the staff        (benchmarking). This           into (the specifications of)
                                                discussed with the staff        members and incorporated        information is discussed       the curriculum.
                                                members and incorporated        into the curriculum.            with the staff members and
                                                into educational units/study                                    incorporated into the
                                                course components and the                                       curriculum.
                                                curriculum.


2                    The individual teacher     Teacher teams have a            Based on a broad                The organisation has a         The vision on the profession 1 2 3 4 5
Vision on the        has a personal vision on   collective vision on the        consensus, the organisation     vision on the profession and   and the education is
profession and the   the profession and the     profession and the              has a vision on the             the education, which is        regularly examined with
education            education. The             education, and use this in      profession and the              shared by representatives      regard to topicality and
(specifications)     educational course has     the compilation of (parts of)   education, and has laid this    from the professional field    consistency, and is adjusted
                     not specified any end      the curriculum. End terms       down in the curriculum.         and which has been             to developments in the
                     terms.                     have been formulated but        End terms have been             assimilated in the             environment if necessary.
                                                these are not visibly used in   formulated and are used for     curriculum, study course       The organisation is
                                                the education.                  educational development.        components, and the actual     innovative and pro-active
                                                                                Students are involved in this   execution of the education.    and aims, in conjunction
                                                                                process of determination via    The specifications have        with the professional field,
                                                                                the student                     been formulated partly on      at innovation in the
                                                                                council/educational             the basis of knowledge         profession and in education.
                                                                                committee.                      provided by the schools
                                                                                                                supplying inflow.
5 Management             Stage 1                    Stage 2                          Stage 3                        Stage 4                         Stage 5              Current
 of Processes       Activity-oriented           Process-oriented                 System-oriented                 Chain-oriented            Total Quality Management       Stage


3               The development of the     The curriculum is               The organisation works          Representatives of students     Public responsibility is    12345
Curriculum      curriculum is dependent    developed on the basis of       methodically on curriculum      and of the professional field   declared regarding the
                on the wishes of the       the material that has been      development.                    are involved in checking the    curriculum. The end results
                individual teacher and     gathered by groups of           The vision on the               curriculum against the          are applied for innovation
                the available personnel.   teachers according to a joint   profession and the              vision on the profession and    and co-operation, by mutual
                                           plan.                           education has broad support     the education.                  agreement with the
                                                                           and is recorded in the study    The end results are             professional field and the
                                                                           guide. Students are involved    compared to those in fellow     schools supplying inflow.
                                                                           in the formulation and          organisations.                  Benchmarking includes the
                                                                           development of the                                              curriculum.
                                                                           curriculum via the students‟
                                                                           council/educational
                                                                           committee.


4               The individual teacher     The aims, contents and form     The aims of study               Students are involved in test   Where relevant,               12345
Study           determines the aims,       of the study components are     components are derived          projects with the study         representatives of the
components      contents and, in           collectively determined and     from the end terms. The         manuals. A reaction from        professional field, of
                principle, also the form   programmed by groups of         organisation systematically     the professional field to the   schools supplying inflow
                of the study               teachers.                       determines the substance of     study components is             and of the competitors are
                components.                                                the study components on         occasionally requested. The     asked to assess the
                                                                           the basis of the                schools supplying inflow        consistency between the
                                                                           specifications established in   and the competitors are         curriculum and the study
                                                                           the study guide and the         taken into consideration.       components, and to
                                                                           Education and Examination                                       appraise the study manuals.
                                                                           Regulations. Student
                                                                           representation is involved in
                                                                           the development. The
                                                                           programme is described in
                                                                           study manuals.
5 Management                  Stage 1                     Stage 2                         Stage 3                         Stage 4                         Stage 5               Current
 of Processes            Activity-oriented            Process-oriented                System-oriented                  Chain-oriented            Total Quality Management        Stage


5                    The individual teacher      Checking for the adequate      The organisation has a           Representatives of the          After the study components     12345
Control              checks his/her “own”        programming of study           commission that                  students, of the professional   have been examined by
                     study components with       components is done by a        systematically checks the        field and of schools            representatives of students,
                     regard to adequate          group of teachers in joint     study components to              supplying inflow are            the professional field and
                     programming.                discussion.                    ascertain the extent to          involved in the examination     schools supplying inflow,
                                                                                which they conform to the        of study components.            improvement actions are
                                                                                specifications in the study                                      visible.
                                                                                guide and in the Education
                                                                                and Examination
                                                                                Regulations. Students are
                                                                                also involved in this.


6                    Planning the actual         Planning does not only take    Planning the execution of        Representatives of students,    The end results of the         12345
Planning             execution of the            place on the basis of the      the education takes place on     the professional field and      checks of the planning are
                     education takes place on    teachers and resources         the basis of specifications in   schools supplying inflow        demonstrably used for
                     the basis of the teachers   available but also on the      the curriculum. The              are involved in the             continuous optimising.
                     and resources available.    basis of specific choices in   practicability for both          examination of study
                                                 the formulation of the         teachers and students is         components.
                                                 curriculum, such as group      taken into account in the
                                                 size, class/lecture rooms,     planning.
                                                 resources, study
                                                 counselling.


7                    Student learning is only    Contact hours and private      Student activities take place    The formulation of study        The study load is well       12345
Student activities   organised through the       study have both been           on the basis of the vision on    tasks is adjusted as a result   divided over the months and
                     lecture timetable and       estimated and registered.      the profession and the           of proposals from students      weeks; there is even insight
                     private study               Time for private study has     education. Study tasks have      and teachers.                   into the (nominal) workload
                     assignments from            been made available ad hoc     been formulated. The             The organisation has a good     of each day. The estimated
                     individual teachers.        in the lecture timetable.      estimated study load is          insight into both the           study load is realised;
                                                                                adjusted on the basis of         evaluation and adjustment       students and staff
                                                                                evaluation data from             of the study load.              experience the time spent
                                                                                students.                                                        on study as worthwhile.
5 Management                  Stage 1                      Stage 2                           Stage 3                       Stage 4                       Stage 5              Current
 of Processes            Activity-oriented             Process-oriented                  System-oriented                Chain-oriented          Total Quality Management       Satge


8                    The teacher activities      Teacher activities are            Teacher activities are         The judgements of students,   The improvement of teacher 1 2 3 4 5
Teacher activities   are carried out on the      carried out in joint              carried out according to the   representatives of the        activities, on the basis of
                     basis of ideas from         discussion with groups of         specifications in the          professional field and        systematic studies among
                     individual teachers.        teachers.                         curriculum. Students are       schools supplying inflow      students, the professional
                                                 They are implemented on           asked to come up with ideas    are systematically used to    field and schools supplying
                                                 the basis of educational          for improvements.              adjust teacher activities.    inflow, can be demonstrably
                                                 functions: motivating,                                           The end results are           shown.
                                                 adjusting to the initial level,                                  compared to those in fellow
                                                 explaining objectives,                                           organisations.
                                                 giving feedback.


9                    The organisation is         The organisation                  There is systematic study      Signals from study progress   The end results are visible. 1 2 3 4 5
Counselling of       strongly dependent on       systematically registers and      (career) counselling for all   analyses and study career     Public responsibility is
study career         the individual teacher      analyses the students‟            students, based on analyses    supervision are used to       declared to the students, the
                     when dealing with           progress. Study (career)          of the study progress          improve the programme and     professional field, and
                     recording the progress      counselling takes place at        records so that students       the organisation.             schools supplying inflow,
                     of the student and giving   the request of the students.      receive feedback on their                                    regarding improvement of
                     feedback. Study (career)                                      progress and on the                                          the programme and the
                     counselling takes place                                       developments in their study                                  organisation of education.
                     ad hoc.                                                       career.
5 Management                Stage 1                     Stage 2                          Stage 3                     Stage 4                        Stage 5             Current
 of Processes          Activity-oriented            Process-oriented                 System-oriented              Chain-oriented           Total Quality Management      Stage


10                  The teacher evaluates ad   In addition to the evaluation   In addition to evaluations   Teachers are asked to report   It can be demonstrated that 1 2 3 4 5
Internal analysis   hoc, often orally; the     by the individual teacher,      by the individual teacher,   what they do with the end      measures are really being
                    subject matter is the      there is occasional,            the organisation uses        results of the written         taken on the basis of the end
                    central issue.             standardised, written           standardised written         evaluation or panel            results of the evaluations.
                                               evaluation in which             evaluations or panel         discussions. The               There is an action plan to
                                               didactics are also taken into   discussions with teachers    organisation has a good        minimise factors that delay
                                               consideration.                  and students, dealing with   overview of subjects           study.
                                                                               didactics and subject        causing bottlenecks and
                                                                               matter. The end results of   insight into the factors
                                                                               these are discussed by the   leading to study delay.
                                                                               teachers and students.
educational implementation                            research into the wishes and demands of the stakeholders                 educational development


                                                           INTERNAL ANALYSIS               EXTERNAL ANALYSIS

                                                           assessment by:                                 government
                                                           students
                                                           teachers
                                                           professional field                                    student
                                                           graduates                       professional
                                                                                           field

                                                                                                                                    FORMULATING THE
    COUNSELLING THE STUDY CAREER                                                                                                    SPECIFICATIONS

    *      study counselling                                                                                                        legal framework
    *      testing and giving feedback                                                                                              profession   end terms
    *      giving final exam                                                                                                        education    studiability
    *      recording study results                                                                                                  innovation topicality
    *      presenting diplomas

                                                                                                                               CONSTRUCTING THE CURRICULUM
STUDENT
ACTIVITIES                                                                                                                     *           constructing the framework with
                     TEACHER                                                                                                     coherent modules
*       learning     ACTIVITIES                                                                                                *           linking end terms, educational aims
                                                                                                                                 credits, method of assessment and teacher
                     *      facilitating                                                                                         commitment to modules
*      orientatin    *      educational                                                                                        *           allocating modules to teacher
       g               functions                                                                                                 (teams)
*      practising    *      study counselling
*      requesting
  feedback
                                                                                                                           DESIGNING THE STUDY COURSE
                         PLANNING                                                                                          COMPONENTS
                         formulating an executable                                                                         *        coherence between modules
                         curriculum with:                              CONTROLLING                                         *        contents
                         *            student activities                                                                   *        form
                         *            teacher activities               checking the modules against the                    *        educational situation
                                                                       specifications                                      *        recording in study manuals

								
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