Water Development Project Socorro, Guatemala by lpd48805

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									Guatemala Water Project
      Socorro, Guatemala
Project Objective
   Potable water distribution system
    ◦   Easy-to-use
    ◦   Cost-efficient
    ◦   Reliable
    ◦   Long-lasting
    ◦   Environmentally safe

    ◦ Sustainable!
               Outline
 Background
 Motivation
 Pre-trip planning
 Design Options
 Site Assessment & Results
 Design Considerations & Conclusion
 Additional Info
Socorro, Guatemala
 Rural Mayan village (300 people)‫‏‬
 Poor medical and sanitation infrastructure
 Persistent health
  problems
 NGO partner
    ◦ Wuqu’ Kawoq


                    Socorro
Motivation
 Identified by Wuqu’ Kawoq
 Persistent health problems due to
  unsanitary water
    ◦ Contaminated water source (River)‫‏‬
   Also, indentified by the community as a
    need
Early Research
 Focus on water-bourne diseases found in
  the area
 Assess viable water sources
 Filtration methods
 Spring development
 Survey techniques
 Health & water-usage survey techniques
 Community & NGO relations
Design Options
   Decontaminate river water
    ◦ Slow sand filter
    ◦ Chlorine
 Harness spring water
 Wells
 Point-of-use
    ◦ SODIS (solar disinfection)‫‏‬
    ◦ Clay pots
Site Assessment January 2008
         Community Meeting




Spring
         What we did:
   Completed water tests on potential & current water sources
   Completed distribution survey of Socorro
   Evaluated local soil
   Conducted health surveys
   Evaluated watershed
   Dealt with ownership issues
   Evaluated current piping system (inlet and discharge)‫‏‬
Surveying
Water
Quality
Testing
Health & General Survey
   Water-use practices
    ◦ Wash hands?
    ◦ Boil water?
 Frequency of illnesses
 Perceived cause of illnesses
 Household income
Technical Feasibility
 Water quality Achievable
 Water quantity
 Easy to use
 Capital cost of equipment
Deciding factors
 Land availability & cost
 Maintenance cost
 Community perception of design options
 Management needed (i.e. ensuring fairness
  in use)‫‏‬
Decision
   New development
    ◦ Spring land no longer available


   Design
    ◦ Gravity-fed distribution with the River Water
      as source
    ◦ Slow Sand Filter
Additional Info…
   General advice
    ◦ Communication is key!
    ◦ Evaluate all options
    ◦ Have good translators (we did )‫‏‬



   Resources: Engineering in Emergencies,
    World Health Organization, biosandfilter.org
Buying cuerdas…




                  ~ $4,000 for 1 1/2 curedas
                  (1 cuerda = 21m X 21m)‫‏‬


                  {normal cuerda price ~ $550}
The Spring Area
1. Supernatant Water (to be
   treated)‫‏‬
2. Schmutzdecke
   •   Layer of biologic film
                                        1m
   •   Forms an ultra-fine filter   2                1
   •   Breaks down organic
       matter

3. Fine Sand
                                         0.8-0.9 m       3
   •   Filters particulate
       matter
   •   Contains organisms
       that break down organic          0.5-0.6 m        4
       matter

4. Gravel
   •   Acts as a support for
       the sand
Slow Sand Filter Effectiveness
         Organism       Resistance to      Slow Sand
                        Chlorine           Filter
                        (Effectiveness)‫‏‬   Min/Max%
         Entamoeba      High (Rel.         50/99
         Histolytica    Ineffective)‫‏‬
         Giardia        High (Rel.         50/99
         Intestinalis   Ineffective)‫‏‬
         Helminth       Moderate
         Pathogens
         Viral          Moderate           20/99.99
         Pathogens
         Bacterial      Low (Rel.          50/99.5
         Pathogens      effective)‫‏‬


                  Reference: Guidelines for
                  Drinking-water Quality, World
                  Health Organization
                       SSF Maintenance

At least 2 filters (half-size) should be used so that one can be
cleaned without stopping the flow of drinkable water


When flow rate becomes too slow:
1. Drain tank
2. Scrape off top layer of sand and schmutzdecke
3. Resand if necessary
4. Refill tank
5. Wait for filter to ripen

								
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