DISEASE SURVILLANCE IN GRENADA PRESENTED BY DR. B. LOUISON Grenada is situated between Trinidad to the South and St. Vincent and the Grenadines to the North. Population approximately 96,000 persons Size / Area 344 km 133 square miles Animal population (Grenada 1995 Agricultural Census Species No. of Animals No. of Farmers Cattle 4,368 1,750 Sheep 13,052 3,299 Goats 7,004 1,896 Pigs 5,338 1,090 Total 29,762 8,035 Other Species quantities not determined Monkeys (Mona) Manicou (Opossum) Tatoo (Amadillo) Iguana Indigenous Birds Large populations of Mongoose. Our last major disease survey was done in 1995. At that time we looked at Tuberculosis and Brucellosis. The only on going disease surveillance (active) is done in Rabies. Passive surveillance is done in the case of the Tropical Bont Tick. All Officers are expected to report on all other diseases that they encounter on a daily basis. Infrastructure A fairly well equipped functional Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory where Brain tissues are examined and definitive diagnosis is made or cases are confirmed. In addition the Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the Ministry of Health run an annual Anti-rabies Vaccination Program. Under this program an attempt is made to vaccinate all domestic animals (dogs, cats, sheep, goat, cattle and donkeys). The animals are vaccinated in daily clinics in the communities. This takes place during the months of July to September when most schools are closed for their summer vacation. As a result kids are very useful in carrying the animals to the vaccination points. The following resources are made available to the program annually. Personnel 2 drivers 2 vaccinators 2 announcers 2 recorders 2 helpers 1 base coordinator 1 field coordinator Equipment 2 double cab 4x4 pick up vans 2 public address system 2 cold storage containers Supplies Vaccines Syringes Needles Disposable gloves Ice packs Cotton wool Disinfectant The objective of the program is to vaccinate as many domestic animals as possible especially dogs and cats through a series of approximately Three Hundred and Sixty (360) Vaccination Clinics Island wide within a period of Eight to Twelve weeks (8-12wks). The results of the program for the year Two Thousand (2000) are as follows: RABIES VACCINATION PROGRAMME July 11th- September 8th, 2000 PARISHES SPECIES VACCINATED TOTAL Dogs Cats Sheep Goats Bovine Other ST. 1356 94 399 163 21 04 2037 GEORGE’S ST. DAVID’S 462 18 140 75 16 01 712 ST.ANDREW’S 1252 82 575 223 95 14 2241 ST. 513 44 276 71 06 12 922 PATRICK’S ST.MARK’S 337 45 95 73 13 13 576 ST.JOHN’S 448 62 92 128 24 06 760 TOTAL 4368 345 1577 733 175 50 7248 SPECIES PERCENTAGE % DOGS 60.0 CATS 5.0 SHEEP 22.0 GOATS 10.0 BOVINE 2.4 OTHER 0.6 TOTAL 100.0 1998 – 4723 - animals vaccinated 1999 – 1221 - animals vaccinated Vaccines used – approx. 9783ml Vaccines on hand as at 08/09/2000 - -23 +2 bottles 1170 ml Balance at medical stores - 3047 ml or 60 boxes The year 2000 campaign reflected a 35% increase in vaccinated animals over 1998 and an 83% increase over 1999. Due to the fact that our Central Lab has been relocated to accommodate the construction of the Ministry of Education our surveillance programs was severely affected we are still in the process of making the lab fully operational. We are also hopeful that some new equipment will be obtained in the near future to expand the activities of the lab. Staffing 2 Veterinary Officers 1 Laboratory Technician 10 Animal Health Assistant/Livestock Extensions 5 Daily paid farm workers Livestock operation New livestock farm under construction to relocated existing farm. Constraints Financial (budgetary allocations limited) Personnel (1 trained person) Farming practices (loose livestock/free roaming animals) Education (limited resources for educating the public) Community participation (communication and coordination) Appropriate technology Data collection Economic importance Strategy Comprehensive disease surveillance plan Sensitize Government on the importance of disease control and monitoring Improve research capabilities Increase budgetary allocation Training (higher level) Staff (increase) SUGGESTION FOR THE NEW NETWORK - One of the concerns raised is the number of other network existing, some even related. Our role however is to concentrate on our network( lab) and make it work. Although the network must maintain internationally acceptable standards, the uniqueness of a Caribbean lab network must be preserved and build upon. - Inspite of the fact that funding for this phase is completed, new funds must be sought for continuing education and training. - The development of national infrastructure for the setting up of national research programmes. - In the absence of national programmes, generating data will be very Difficult , therefore it is necessary to assist Countries in developing Same. - All national programmes in animal health should be documented and shared among Countries.
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