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DISEASE SURVILLANCE IN GRENADA by lpd48805

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									DISEASE SURVILLANCE IN GRENADA PRESENTED BY
DR. B. LOUISON

Grenada is situated between Trinidad to the South and St. Vincent and the
Grenadines to the North.

Population approximately 96,000 persons
Size / Area 344 km 133 square miles

Animal population (Grenada 1995 Agricultural Census

Species      No. of Animals     No. of Farmers

Cattle       4,368                    1,750
Sheep       13,052                    3,299
Goats        7,004                    1,896
Pigs         5,338                    1,090

Total        29,762                    8,035

Other Species quantities not determined

Monkeys (Mona)
Manicou (Opossum)
Tatoo (Amadillo)
Iguana
Indigenous Birds
Large populations of Mongoose.

Our last major disease survey was done in 1995. At that time we looked at
Tuberculosis and Brucellosis.

The only on going disease surveillance (active) is done in Rabies. Passive
surveillance is done in the case of the Tropical Bont Tick. All Officers are
expected to report on all other diseases that they encounter on a daily basis.
Infrastructure

A fairly well equipped functional Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory where Brain
tissues are examined and definitive diagnosis is made or cases are
confirmed. In addition the Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the
Ministry of Health run an annual Anti-rabies Vaccination Program. Under
this program an attempt is made to vaccinate all domestic animals (dogs,
cats, sheep, goat, cattle and donkeys). The animals are vaccinated in daily
clinics in the communities. This takes place during the months of July to
September when most schools are closed for their summer vacation. As a
result kids are very useful in carrying the animals to the vaccination points.

The following resources are made available to the program annually.

Personnel

2 drivers
2 vaccinators
2 announcers
2 recorders
2 helpers
1 base coordinator
1 field coordinator

Equipment

2 double cab 4x4 pick up vans
2 public address system
2 cold storage containers
Supplies

Vaccines
Syringes
Needles
Disposable gloves
Ice packs
Cotton wool
Disinfectant

The objective of the program is to vaccinate as many domestic animals as
possible especially dogs and cats through a series of approximately Three
Hundred and Sixty (360) Vaccination Clinics Island wide within a period of
Eight to Twelve weeks (8-12wks).

The results of the program for the year Two Thousand (2000) are as follows:

                RABIES VACCINATION PROGRAMME

                      July 11th- September 8th, 2000


PARISHES                   SPECIES VACCINATED          TOTAL
                    Dogs Cats Sheep Goats Bovine Other
ST.                 1356 94   399   163   21     04    2037
GEORGE’S
ST. DAVID’S         462 18      140     75      16       01      712
ST.ANDREW’S         1252 82     575     223     95       14      2241
ST.                 513 44      276     71      06       12      922
PATRICK’S
ST.MARK’S           337 45      95      73      13       13      576
ST.JOHN’S           448 62      92      128     24       06      760
TOTAL               4368 345    1577    733     175      50      7248
SPECIES         PERCENTAGE %
DOGS                                   60.0
CATS                                    5.0
SHEEP                                  22.0
GOATS                                  10.0
BOVINE                                  2.4
OTHER                                   0.6
TOTAL                                 100.0

1998 – 4723 -    animals vaccinated
1999 – 1221 -    animals vaccinated

Vaccines used – approx. 9783ml

Vaccines on hand as at 08/09/2000 - -23
                                    +2 bottles

                                   1170 ml


Balance at medical stores - 3047 ml or 60 boxes


The year 2000 campaign reflected a 35% increase in vaccinated animals
over 1998 and an 83% increase over 1999.



Due to the fact that our Central Lab has been relocated to accommodate the
construction of the Ministry of Education our surveillance programs was
severely affected we are still in the process of making the lab fully
operational. We are also hopeful that some new equipment will be obtained
in the near future to expand the activities of the lab.
Staffing

2 Veterinary Officers
1 Laboratory Technician
10 Animal Health Assistant/Livestock Extensions
5 Daily paid farm workers

Livestock operation

New livestock farm under construction to relocated existing farm.

Constraints

Financial (budgetary allocations limited)
Personnel (1 trained person)
Farming practices (loose livestock/free roaming animals)
Education (limited resources for educating the public)
Community participation (communication and coordination)
Appropriate technology
Data collection
Economic importance

Strategy

Comprehensive disease surveillance plan
Sensitize Government on the importance of disease control and monitoring
Improve research capabilities
Increase budgetary allocation
Training (higher level)
Staff (increase)
               SUGGESTION FOR THE NEW NETWORK




- One of the concerns raised is the number of other network existing, some
  even related. Our role however is to concentrate on our network( lab) and
  make it work. Although the network must maintain internationally
  acceptable standards, the uniqueness of a Caribbean lab network must be
  preserved and build upon.

- Inspite of the fact that funding for this phase is completed, new funds must
  be sought for continuing education and training.

   - The development of national infrastructure for the setting up of
     national research programmes.

   - In the absence of national programmes, generating data will be very
     Difficult , therefore it is necessary to assist Countries in developing
     Same.

   - All national programmes in animal health should be documented and
     shared among Countries.

								
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