THE GOVERNMENT OF GRENADA by lpd48805

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									                INTEGRATED DRUG REDUCTION STRATEGY



                     NATIONAL DRUG
                      MASTER PLAN

                            1998 - 2002




               THE GOVERNMENT
                     OF
                   GRENADA
                Prepared by the National Drug Avoidance Committee,
in collaboration with the UNDCP Caribbean Regional Office, Bridgetown, Barbados.


                            OFFICIAL DOCUMENT
                             December 1, 1997
INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

For a long time, the major drug problem facing Grenada was the cultivation of
marijuana, mostly for local consumption. The response was to focus drug
control activities on law enforcement and crop eradication. But since the
1980's the problem has shifted dramatically and abuse of drugs such as
cocaine and crack by the local population has become a serious problem, as
have the crimes associated with this phenomenon such as theft and physical
violence.

In formulating anti-drugs measures, the distinction whether the trafficking
serves the local market of drug consumption, or whether Grenada is used as
a transshipment hub for overseas markets in North-America and Europe, is
not longer relevant. Transit of narcotics "spills-over" in local consumption,
and domestic demand "provokes" supply. In this context it should be
emphasized that tolerance towards ganja is at least trickery. The incentives
to engage in illegal ganja or cocaine trade are one and the same, the traders
behind the ganja or crack/cocaine business are playing in the same league,
and the "business rules" are identical.

Although crack/cocaine users are almost universally disrespected, the
glorification in certain layers of the society of those who have profited in
ganja or cocaine trade, potentially compromises the anti-drug efforts. While it
is tempting to attribute the responsibility of the drug problem to external
factors, it is the individual who finally will need to make a choice to be
involved or not. The change in the perception of values and ethics pervades
the whole social environment and also traditional role models, unconsciously
or consciously, are part of this process. Drugs and crime are a societal
problem and unless the public in general, law enforcement officers and
magistrates believe in the moral and ethical justification of the legislative
framework they will have difficulties to enforce these. An attitude of active or
passive cooperation will create a state of lawlessness, which erodes the
Authority of a Nation and its underlying ethical values and beliefs.

Unless drug users and drug-linked behavior such as drug trafficking or
pushing, are identified as being problematic, it is unlikely that efforts can be
mobilized successfully to address that behavior. Whilst all layers of the
society do have a shared responsibility, a major concern is how to approach
the drug vulnerable and often marginalised, adolescent and young males.
What looks as irrational behavior in a specific environment may be
considered the norm in a different social setting. Particular attention must be
given to youths who have completed or discontinued schooling and who are
attempting to earn a living through high exposure industries such as tourism.
This group will be under the hardest (economic) strain to participate in the
chain of drugs distribution, will be more likely to be penalized by the legal
authorities, and will be most vulnerable for drug consumption.

It can be concluded that demand reduction and interdiction strategies are
profoundly inter-woven; one cannot be effective without the other. This

                                                                               i
National Drug Master Plan acknowledges that neither the drug trafficking
measures nor the demand reduction measures can be applied in a vacuum.
Based on a logical frame, the Master Plan denotes the priorities of the
Government of Grenada with respect to the drug scourge on the island.
Notwithstanding this, public funding is limited and external assistance will be
required to implement this comprehensive anti-drug strategy.

Part 1 of the National Drug Master Plan illuminates the socio-economical
context in which the drug problems in Grenada occur. It further assesses the
incidence of drugs in the country and appraises the measures undertaken by
the Government until now. Out of this combination of data a list of future
priorities can be extracted which are further elaborated in Part 2. The latter
part also defines the thrust of the National Drug Master Plan and clarifies the
legal status of the document. It summarizes the overall strategy and the
common trend among the interventions to be followed, the resource
requirements and a timetable of the estimated implementation of the principal
activities. Finally, Part 3 delineates each of the planned interventions,
specifying the most important activities.




                                                                             ii
_________________________________________

     INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

     _________________________________________

     PART 1. PRESENT SITUATION AND ASSESSMENT

     1.1 Economic and Social Situation of the Country

           1.1.a- General characteristics of the country ................................... p. 1
           1.1.b- Macro-economic situation and policy..................................... p. 2
           1.1.c- Recent socio-political development ....................................... p. 2

     1.2 Specific Problems and Incidence of Drugs in the Country

           1.2.a- Introduction to Specific problems and Incidence of Drugs…. p. 10
           1.2.b- Marijuana Cultivation ............................................................ p. 12
           1.2.c- Drug Manufacturing .............................................................. p. 13
           1.2.d- Drug Trafficking .................................................................... p. 14
          1.2.e-Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering ............................ p. 17

     1.3 Nature of the Measures Presently Applied

           1.3.a- Policies and measures implemented
                           Ο Law Enforcement ................................................... p. 18
                           Ο Demand Reduction ................................................ p. 19
                           Ο Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering........... p. 21
           1.3.b- Legal and judicial apparatus
                           < Specific Drug Legislation ........................................ p. 22
                           < International Cooperation ....................................... p. 23
           1.3.c- Institutional framework .......................................................... p. 24
           1.3.d- Available machinery and resources...................................... p. 24

           1.4 Critical Assessment

                    1.4.a- Critical analysis of activities carried out hitherto
                           _ Marijuana Cultivation .............................................. p. 26
                           _ Drugs Manufacturing .............................................. p. 26
                           _ Trade and Transit Interdiction ................................ p. 26
                           _ Demand Reduction ................................................. p. 28
                           _ Legislative and Judicial Apparatus ......................... p. 29
                           _ Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering ........... p. 29
                           _ Institutional Framework .......................................... p. 29
                           _ Research ................................................................ p. 30

           1.4.b- Priorities for the future
                  ∼ Marijuana Cultivation......................................................... p. 30
                  ∼ Drugs Manufacturing ......................................................... p. 31


                                                                                                         iii
                   ∼ Trade and Transit Interdiction ........................................... p. 31
                   ∼ Demand Reduction............................................................ p. 32
                   ∼ Legislative and Judicial Apparatus.................................... p. 33
                   ∼ Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering ...................... p. 34
                   ∼ Institutional Framework ..................................................... p. 34
                   ∼ Research ........................................................................... p. 34


_________________________________________

PART 2. POLICIES, STRATEGIES, RESOURCES REQUIRED AND
FUNDING


2.1 Overall Policy in Drug Control.............................................................. p. 36

2.2 Objective of the National Drug Master Plan ......................................... p. 38

2.3 General Features and Link with Planning System ............................... p. 39

2.4 Institutional Framework and Management, Monitoring
   and Evaluation .................................................................................... .. p. 40

2.5 Resource Requirements ...................................................................... p. 43

2.7 Timetable of Principal Activities............................................................ p. 45


_________________________________________

PART 3. DETAILS OF ACTIVITIES BY SECTOR

3.1 Institutional Strengthening / Activities................................................... p. 51

3.2 Demand Reduction

4 Research and Information / Activities...................................................... p. 53
4 School Prevention / Activities.................................................................. p. 53
4 Community Prevention / Activities ........................................................... p. 54
4 Treatment and Rehabilitation / Activities................................................. p. 54

3.3 Supply Reduction

      1 Marijuana Cultivation / Activities................................................... p. 56
      1 Drugs Manufacturing / Activities ................................................... p. 56
      1 Internal Strengthening / Activities................................................. p. 56
      1 Community Participation / Activities.............................................. p. 57
      1 External Strengthening / Activities................................................ p. 57
3.4 Research / Activities............................................................................. p. 59

                                                                                                            iv
   3.5 Legislative and Judicial Apparatus

          : Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering / Activities................. p. 60
          : Legislation / Activities.................................................................... p. 60
          : Judiciary System / Activities .......................................................... p. 61

   3.6 International and Interagency Cooperation / Activities......................... p. 62

   3.7 Economic, Social and Cultural Development / Activities ...................... p. 64

     APPENDIX 1: Historical Profile Of Major Drug
     Control Activities, Programmes And Events In
     Grenada……………………………………………………………………… p. 65
_________________________________________




                                                                                                            v
PART 1. PRESENT SITUATION AND ASSESSMENT
1.1 Economic and Social Situation of the Country:

1.1.a - General characteristics of the country,-
Grenada is most southerly of the geographical grouping known as the Windward Islands.
Located at latitude of 12 degree North and 61 degrees West. The political entity
comprises of a chain of smaller islands of which Carriacou and Petite Martinique are the
biggest. The total land area occupies 344 square kilometers. Its immediate neighbours
are Trinidad and Tobago in the South, Barbados to the East and St. Vincent and the
Grenadines to the North. Petite Martinique (Grenada) and Petit St.Vincent (St.Vincent &
the Grenadines) are separated by only a small stretch of water. Mainland Grenada is a
hilly volcanic island with lush forested hills, picturesque waterfalls and extinct volcanic
craters. Mount St. Catherine (840m) is the highest peak. The climate of Grenada is
tropical. It receives high rates of often intense precipitation during the raining season from
July to December. Vegetation growth is rapid and dense, which makes the island well
suited for the cultivation of a variety of tropical fruits.

The volcanic character contributes immensely to the popularity of the island as a tourist
destination. Popular sites on the island include the Grand Anse Beach, a mile long stretch
of sand, the Grand Etang Lake which occupies a volcanic crater in the mountainous centre
of the island, and the capital, St. George's. The capital is also the major port with berths
for ocean-going vessels, a schooner pier and a container park.

The official language is English, although knowledge of "Patois" remains with the older
folks, as a legacy of French colonization between 1651 and 1763. The population is
predominantly of African descent and Roman Catholicism dominates in spite of substantial
inroads by small evangelical faiths in recent decades. Government is modelled on the
Westminster Parliamentary Democracy, and the country maintains close ties with the
former colonial power, Britain, despite the proximity of American economic and political
interests in the region. The bicameral Parliament consists of an appointed 13-member
Senate and a 15-member House of Representatives who normally serve for a five-year
term.

Data from the 1991 Population Census pointed out that in that same year, the population of
Grenada was 95,597 people. The population in the age group 5-19 years, were 33,596.
This represents 35.1% of the total population. Also, the population for the age group 20-34
years was 21,983 persons. This represents 22.9% of the total population. Just over 70%
of the total population is under 35 years of age. With a 95% literacy rate, infant mortality is
35 per 1,000 newborns, and a 105% calorie intake compared to FAO's minimum, Grenada
has sustained a growing social system which has enabled it to be placed in the first third of
the UN Human Development Index (number 59 with a 0.787 rating from a possible
maximum of 0.999).
1.1.b - Macroeconomic situation and policy,-

Grenada is a small, open and dependent economy, based mainly on agriculture which still
contributes to 15% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 75% of export earnings,
                                           1
and 50% of the employment. Traditionally, the agriculture banked on three main crops,
cocoa, nutmeg and mace, and bananas for its exchange earnings. These primary
commodities tie the economy closely to the state of the world economy and in particular to
the industrialized economies of North America and Western Europe. During the latter half
of the 1980's, GDP grew at an average rate of 5.5% per annum. This was due to high
prices for Grenada's traditional export crops, as well as increased financial assistance from
friendly governments for budgetary support and infrastructural development. In 1993
Grenada only received 40% of the aid which it received in 1991 or 1992. The gradual fall
in the performance of the economy started already in 1991, as GDP grew by 2.9% in that
year compared with a 5.2% growth the year before. In 1992, the economy grew by only
0.6%, reaching 0.7% in 1993. In 1992 a Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) was
implemented which aimed at correcting certain imbalances in the economy.

The principal features of the SAP were a major reduction in the civil service personnel,
reduction of expenditure on goods and services, a reduction of the number of items exempt
from import duties, and enhanced tax collection. The reintroduction of the latter made a
substantial increase of Government income possible. Employment in the civil service was
reduced by about 700 workers in the first two years of the SAP. The ratio of wages to
current Government revenue declined from 52.8% in 1992 to 47.3% in 1993. External debt
arrears totalling US$ 10 million will be eliminated by the sale of government land and the
divestment of half of the shares in Grenada's Electricity Company and the National
Commercial Bank. Nonetheless, the agricultural sector shrinked during recent years and
while it contributed in 1989 still 18.6% of the GDP this fell to a meager 13% in 1993.
Hence, more attention is being paid to tourism. The hotel and restaurant sector
contributed about 8% to GDP in 1993. In a move to diversify away from beach holidays, a
national park has been opened in the north of the island, boosting the development of
"ecological" tourism.

The success achieved in the implementation of SAP between 1992 and 1994 has resulted
in a resumption of loans and grants from major international financial institutions, including
the World Bank. This is expected to impact positively on the performance of the economy.
 The economy is expected to grow on an average of 4% annually between 1996 and 2000.

1.1.c- Recent socio-political development,-

The estimated GDP per capita was US$2,228 in 1992. The unemployment rate was
estimated early 1993 at 28% with women and youth being the most affected, but improved
in 1994 down to 18%. The stringent cost-cutting measures considerably reduced the
Government's popularity with the electorate. Traditionally the agricultural sector was seen
as the sector in which surplus labour could be absorbed. This is no longer the case and
the actual or relative employment opportunities in the agricultural sector are declining. In
an extremely competitive labour market, under-skilled juveniles find it difficult to integrate in
the society. This trend among youth seems particular evident in communities where other
negative social conditions exist i.e. unemployment and school drop-out rates above the
national average, low-income communities, inadequate housing and, in general, a dearth
of opportunities for self development. The disillusion among these groups is extremely
                                            2
high, their self-esteem low.

There are many socio-economic factors that may have contributed to the growing drug
problem such as, unemployment, the rural-urban drift, and the rapid population. The
alarmingly large percentage of persons under the age of thirty-five years (70% of the
population), parental deprivation, experimentation of drugs the teenage population have all
stimulated the use of mind altering substances and the tendency towards more addictive
drugs. Also, with their flamboyant lifestyles local drug dealers and traffickers have
established negative role models for the many young persons. Some youth perceive
"affluent" drug dealers and traffickers as successful role models worthy of emulation.
While the significance of external factors and negative role models cannot be denied, it is
clear that the final responsibility to engage or not in drug activities is an individual choice.
Moral, ethical, cultural, economical and social elements, including the risk of defying the
law, will be balanced against materialistic gains. Rewards from drug trafficking are
attractive especially in "low-risk" environments such as Carriacou and Petite Martinique,
where the stringent hand of law enforcement is less felt. Also the marijuana farmers seem
to have powerful incentives to do so: a fast growing crop and high cost payments made on
the spot with no need, in many cases, to transport or market the crop themselves.

Data from the Prisons show that by 1988 the number of persons being incarcerated for
drug-related offenses indicated a cause for concern, and thereafter the steady increase in
the incarceration of traffickers and users of both marijuana and to a lesser extent
crack/cocaine has been nothing less than alarming.




TABLE 1: Number Of Persons Arrested And Charged For Drug-Related Offenses
        (1988-1996)




    YEAR           MALES          FEMALES



                                           3
    1988          76             7

    1989         180             8

    1990         118             6

    1991         210            17

    1992         187            13

    1993         290            23

    1994         266            18

    1995         231            11

    1996         324            44

SOURCE: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St. George's, Grenada.




TABLE 2: Number Of Persons Twenty Years and Under, Arrested and Charged
    For Drug-Related Offenses (1988-1996)


    YEAR          NUMBER OF              PERCENTAGE
                   PERSONS                 CHANGE


                                     4
    1988                 9                       -

    1989                15                     66.6

    1990                10                    (33.3)

    1991                24                     140

    1992                15                    (37.5)

    1993                23                     53.3

    1994                33                     43.5

    1995                38                     15.1

    1996                23                    (39.5)

SOURCE: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St. George's, Grenada




TABLE 3: Number Of Persons Sent To Her Majesty's Prisons For Drug-
   Related Offenses (1986-1996)


    YEAR           NUMBER OF              PERCENTAGE
                    PERSONS                 CHANGE

                                      5
    1986               39                      -

    1987               56                    43.6

    1988               74                    32.1

    1989               80                     8.1

    1990               89                    11.3

    1991               94                     5.6

    1992               92                    (2.1)

    1993               118                   28.3

    1994               117                   (0.8)

    1995               127                    8.5

    1996               82                    (35.4)

SOURCE: Her Majesty's Prisons.




TABLE 4: Age Range And Number Of Persons Sent To Her Majesty's
   Prisons For Drug-Related Offenses (1986-1996)


 AGE-RANGE            NUMBER OF             PERCENTAGE
                       PERSONS              DISTRIBUTION

                                    6
   15-19 YRS               48                      5.0

   20-24 YRS              165                      17.0

   25-29 YRS              230                      24.0

   30-34 YRS              262                      27.0

   35-39 YRS              184                      19.0

   40 + YRS                79                      8.0

 TOTAL                    968                      100
SOURCE: Her Majesty's Prisons.

TABLE 5: Age Range And Percentage Of Males And Females Sent To Her
   Majesty's Prisons For Drug-Related Offenses (1986-1996)


 AGE-RANGE      MALES      %     FEMALE      %      GRAND       %
                                    S               TOTAL

 15-19 YRS        47      5.1       1        4.8         48     5.0

 20-24 YRS        158     16.9       7      33.3      165      17.0

 25-29 YRS        211     22.5       9      42.9      230      23.8

 30-34 YRS        259     27.6      3       14.2      262      27.0

 35-39 YRS        184     19.6      0         0       184      19.0

 40+ YRS          78      8.3       1        4.8         79     8.2

 TOTAL            937     100       21       100      968       100
SOURCE: Her Majesty's Prisons, Grenada.
TABLE 6: Types Of Drug-Related Offenses For Which Persons Were Sent To       Her
Majesty Prisons (1986-1996)


             OFFENSE                NUMBER OF                 PERCENTAGE
                                     PERSONS                  DISTRIBUTION

                                     7
       Possession of Drugs                      821                       84.8

       Trafficking of Drugs                      16                       1.7

   Cultivation/Manufacture of                    80                       8.3
  Drugs

       Other Drug-Related                        51                       5.2
       Offenses

       TOTAL                                    968                     100

SOURCE: Her Majesty's Prisons.


In 1993, the National Drug Avoidance Committee,(which is the Government of Grenada's
main institution to design and implement drug prevention programmes) in collaboration
with the Caribbean Community Secretariat, conducted a National School's Survey on
Drugs. This survey was conducted among one thousand, two hundred (1200) students, at
the primary and secondary school level, between ages eleven (11) and sixteen (16) years.
 The primary objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of drug use among
students.

Regrettably, there were some discrepancies in the survey instrument, and in the responses
to the questions by the respondents. These discrepancies included:

(i)        The questionnaires were not properly completed, and consequently there
           was considerable difficulty in collating and analyzing data.

(ii)       The response rate to some of the questions was low.

(iii) Some of the questions were ambiguous. It was therefore difficult for the
students to respond appropriately to these questions.




Despite these discrepriencies, the following conclusions were determined based on the
responses to the questions:

(i)        Over 60% of the respondents admitted having drunk alcohol.
(ii)       Thirty-eight (38) students admitted having used marijuana; twenty-four (24) males
           and fourteen (14) females.
                                            8
      (iii)   The largest percentage of students who admitted to using marijuana was in the 13 -
              15 age group.

      (iv)    As many as twenty-three (23) students admitted using cocaine.

      While the findings of the survey do not fully reveal the extent of drug use among students,
      they do indicate that some students are involved in the use of drugs and alcohol.




1.2 Specific Problems and Incidence of Drugs in the Country:


1.2.a- Introduction to Specific Problems and Incidence,-

The production and consumption of alcohol has been part of Grenada's tradition for many
centuries. It is interesting to note that in the year 1650, some French colonists "bought" the
island from the native inhabitants, the Carib Indians. The payment included two (2) bottles of
                                                9
brandy. One of our most popular alcoholic beverage is known as "Carib Beer". Alcohol is
relatively cheap, easily available and socially accepted. The use of alcohol is widespread and is
used by all sections of the society, including minors. (It should be noted that the Liquor Dealers'
Licenses Ordinance (1911) forbids the sale and purchase of alcohol by minors. An analysis of
statistical data from the local treatment and rehabilitation centres reveals that the majority of
persons admitted due to alcoholism are over the age of forty (40) years. However, it is not
uncommon to admit patients for similar reason, who range between ages twenty (20) and thirty-
five (35) years.

Marijuana became noticeable in Grenada in the late 1960's and early 1970's. It was used initially
by members of the Rastafarian Movement and the Black Power Movement. It is grown locally,
easily available and relatively cheap. The use of marijuana is not widespread as alcohol mainly
because the production, use and sale of marijuana is illegal ("Drug Abuse/Prevention and Control
Act, No. 7 of Grenada, March, 1992"). Marijuana is used mainly among persons twenty (20) to
thirty-five (35) years.

The first Police record of cocaine use dates back to 1972, when a small quantity of Cocaine was
found on board a foreign yacht in Grenadian territorial waters. The use of cocaine and its
derivative crack, is a relatively new phenomenon in Grenada, having emerged during the last ten
(10) years. The use of cocaine and crack is mainly among persons in the twenty (20) to thirty-five
(35) age group. The use of cocaine and crack is not prevalent as marijuana.

There is little or no evidence of the use of heroin in Grenada, unless it appears among visitors to
the island. Other narcotic substances and the hallucinogens or other psycho-tropic substances
are also not obviously being used or abused to a great extent.

Statistical data from various sources such as the Royal Grenada Police Force, Her Majesty's
Prison, and the treatment and rehabilitation centres indicate that the majority of drug users are
males. During the period 1986-1995, eight hundred and eighty-six (886) persons were
imprisoned for drug-related offenses in Grenada. This amount consisted of eight hundred and
sixty-five (865) males and twenty-one (21) females, mainly between ages twenty (20) and thirty-
five (35) years. Information from Police records further indicate that the majority of persons,
males, who are arrested for drug-related matters, are unemployed, and come from the lower end
of the socio-economic scale.

A typical example of this situation was in 1990 when one hundred and twenty-four (124) persons
were arrested and charged for drug-related offenses, namely possession, cultivation and
trafficking; ninety (90) percent were unemployed, eight (8) percent were unskilled workers and
two (2) percent were school-age persons. This pattern remains very much the same for other
years. Similarly, most of the patients at the treatment and rehabilitation centres are young males,
with little or no formal education, unemployed and unskilled. The following table presents data on
the number of admissions to the treatment and rehabilitation centres between 1991 and 1994.

TABLE 7: Number Of Admissions To Carlton House Treatment And Rehabilitation
  Centre (1991 - 1996)

                                                10
    DRUG OF                        CARLTON HOUSE
     ABUSE
                  1991    1992    1993   1994    1995       1996

  Alcohol          35     25      36      33         32      35
  Marijuana        09     08      03      00         04      02
  Cocaine/         21     20      22      14         07      09
  Crack
  Poly Drugs       01     02      04      08         07      07

SOURCE: Carlton House.


TABLE 8: Number Of Admissions To Rathdune Psychiatric Unit (1991 - 1996)


    DRUG OF                 RATHDUNE PSYCHIATRIC UNIT
     ABUSE
                  1991    1992    1993   1994    1995       1996

  Alcohol          35     32      n/a     n/a        41      62
  Marijuana        78     94      n/a     n/a        67      31
  Cocaine/         16     10      n/a     n/a        07      05
  Crack
  Poly Drugs       00     03      n/a     n/a        15      00

SOURCE: Rathdune Psychiatric Unit.

(n/a: not available)

Statistics from the Ministry of Health, Grenada, indicate that approximately seven thousand
(7,000) persons in Grenada suffer with mental disorders. It is estimated that one thousand eight
hundred (1,800) of these cases are related to the use of drugs.

1.2.b- Marijuana Cultivation,-

There was, for a while, concern that marijuana exports may supplant declining banana exports. It
is hard to put against the abundance of wealth and luxury the role model of a farmer who for
generations has been toiling in the hills and mountain slopes of the country providing a variety of
foods, but who will be unable to show any substantial financial benefits at the end. Cultivating
with less efforts cannabis, a "fast-cash-crop", on a smaller portion of the same mountain, results
already in a tangible increase of income after a single crop. Through successful eradication
exercises, however, the Government succeeded to reduce the problem substantially.

TABLE 9: Quantity And Type Of Drugs Seized By The Royal Grenada
                                                11
           Police Force (1986-1996)


 YEAR       MARIJUANA             CURED                  MARIJUANA
              TREES             MARIJUANA                CIGARETTES
                                   (LBS)

 1986          29, 825                99                       792

 1987          21,537                 193                      998

 1988          44,568                 195                      5,507

 1989          50,479                 52                       2,500

 1990          10,519                 59                       918

 1991          16,014                 75                       795

 1992          10,860             8,837                        695

 1993          23,639             1,778                        913

 1994          20,857                 654                      1,167

 1995          13,139             3,982                        650

 1996          16,768                 420                      1,542

Source: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St.George's.


TABLE 10: Number Of Criminal Cases - Marijuana Cultivation (1989-1996)


                                                                                 1996
 Cultivatio     1989     1990   1991        1992        1993      1994    1995
    n of
 Marijuana

 Arrests         16       09     18          22          23          22    12     31


                                                   12
  Brought to      16     21       24      40        37       18        12       25
  Court

  Sent to         11     16       06      11        10       07        04       05
  Prison

Source: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St.George's.

The current ganja problems in Grenada are less caused by indigenous cultivation as by the
import of cannabis in some neighbouring islands. Grenada serves as a transport hub for ganja.
In 1994 five (5) shipments ready to leave the country were intercepted at the airport. This ganja
trade is closely related with a broader contraband commerce active among the islands-chain of
the Windward Islands (Grenada, St.Vincent & the Grenadines, St. Lucia), Barbados and
Martinique, during which drugs are exchanged for luxury goods, illegal weapons, or cash.
Criminal elements from Colombia and Trinidad are actively involved in this trade.

In January 1995, the Police found three thousand, eight hundred and eighteen (3818) pounds of
marijuana on a beach in Grenada. The Police report indicated that the drug came from Colombia.
 On two previous occasions, Colombians were caught with marijuana and cocaine on Grenadian
beaches. It is believed that due to this large quantity (3818 lbs of marijuana), most of it was
intended for transshipment.

1.2.c- Drugs Manufacturing,-

Strong indications show that the Eastern Caribbean region functions as a transit centre between
North and South-America for precursors since the late 1980's. This is even more so now that the
region is in full economical transition. Free-markets make it easier to transport chemicals from
producing countries to Latin-America undetected, where the chemical substances are utilized to
manufacture drugs. Agencies with the responsibility for controlling the movement of legal
chemicals are generally restricting their activities to the issuance of permits, and limited
inspections of facilities and storage. Most complain that they do not have adequate personnel,
equipment or expertise to meet their mandates. Should irregularities be detected, they are
usually referred to a law enforcement agency for investigation. These agencies also have limited
expertise with respect to chemicals and investigations and are hampered by a lack of knowledge
of chemicals and investigative procedures relative to clandestine laboratory operations. The lack
of knowledge and experience is why the controls of chemical precursors moving in and out the
country are largely ineffective. The same is equally true for Grenada.

TABLE 11: Volume Of Imported Precursors (1991-1992)


 CHEMICAL              1991        1992
 (amount in kg)

                                               13
 Toluene                    4,786       9,203
 Ethyl Ether                (44)         132
 (plus other Ether
 Alcohols)
 Acetone                    150         1,292
 Methyl Ethyl Ketone        168           4
 Hydrochloric Acid       (8,337)         467
 (plus
 Chlorosulphuric
 Acid)
                                        1,148
 Sulphuric Acid             5,987
 TOTAL                  (19,472)       12,246
 (Ether Alcohols &
 Chlorosulphuric
 Acid included)

Source: Produce Chemist Laboratory

Remarkable in this table is the high increase of the import of acetone, a major precursor for the
production of cocaine, between 1991 and 1992.

It should be noted however, that these precursors are imported legally.           But, the lack of
appropriate system to monitor the legitimate use of these precursors is absent.


1.2.d- Drug Trafficking,-

Since the 1970's, drug traffickers have used Trinidad & Tobago as one of the principal Caribbean
regional transshipment corridors for narcotics. Cocaine, marijuana and heroin are smuggled
southward from Latin America to the northern markets. Through Venezuela towards Trinidad &
Tobago, where a small portion of the drugs are transported directly to Europe (Netherlands),
Canada, and to a lesser extent to the US, and another portion moves further north to the Eastern
Caribbean Islands. The Windward Islands (Grenada, St.Vincent & the Grenadines, Barbados, St.
Lucia, Martinique) are new springboards and again a part of it will be diverted directly to North-
America or Europe (from Barbados to England, from Martinique to France). The remaining share
continues its way up north, through the Leeward Islands (Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat,
Antigua & Barbuda, St.Kitts & Nevis, St. Martin, Anguilla, and the US and British Virgin Islands) to
Puerto Rico, the closest American territory to Latin America. Since the Operation Bahamas and
Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) disrupted operations in the Bahamas and southern Florida in 1987,
Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands became preferred entry points for the North-American
market. Guadeloupe and St. Martin, on the other hand, are well-known traditional transshipment
                                                 14
hubs for the European market (France and the Netherlands).

Many of the smaller islands, who have not previously experienced any significant drug problems,
are since the late 1980's, early 1990's, being used as transshipment points. For example in
Montserrat (11,000 people), a sophisticated radar trafficking facility being used by Colombian
traffickers to guide small craft on their journey north, was discovered in a remote house and
dismantled in 1993. In St. Kitts, the chief of the drug intelligence unit was assassinated by
unknown assailants in the fall of 1994 during the investigation of a drug case. More recently, 850
kgs of cocaine were discovered in Devil's Bay, British Virgin Islands. The trend is clear, and the
anti-narcotics fight in the Caribbean puts a heavy burden on these micro-states already
confronted by serious socio-economical problems.




TABLE 12: Quantity of Cocaine/Crack Seized By The Royal Grenada Police
         Force, (1986 - 1996)


    YEAR               COCAINE                        CRACK

    1986              5 lbs 3 ozs                    205 blocks

    1987                   0                         74 blocks

    1988              4 lbs 4 ozs                    390 blocks

    1989                 3 ozs                       550 blocks


                                                15
    1990                    6 ozs                          499 blocks

    1991            187 lbs 15 ozs                         507 blocks

    1992                481 lbs 0 ozs                      510 blocks

    1993                457 lbs 6 ozs                      412 blocks

    1994                 20 lbs 4 ozs                      792 blocks


    1995                 7 lbs 0 ozs                       611 blocks


    1996                   20 lbs                          508 blocks

SOURCE: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St.George's.

TABLE 13: Drug-Related Arrests (1988-1996)



  OFFENSE         1988      1989       1990   1991        1992    1993   1994   1995   1996

 Possession        63       138         84    132          137     231    224    187   265
 of Marijuana

 Possession        12        34         31     77          41      59     41     41     38
 of Cocaine

SOURCE: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St.George's.
TABLE 14: Number Of Drug-Related Cases Brought To Court (1989-1996)



  OFFENSE         1989      1990       1991   1992        1993   1994    1995   1996

 Possession
 of Marijuana     138       117         251   263         245     227    154    261

 Cultivation of
 Marijuana         16        21         24     40          37     18      12     25

 Possession
 of Cocaine        14        04         54     32          38     36      38     32

                                                     16
 Possession
 With Intent to   00       00      04      08        30     35      67       38
 Supply
 Possession
 of Apparatus     00       00      00      01        49     37      10       19

 Trafficking in
 Drugs            00       00      00      03        02     01      04       01

 Importing
 Drugs            00       00      00      01        00     00      00       00


SOURCE: Royal Grenada Police Force, Police Headquarters, St.George's.

1.2.e- Financial proceeds and money laundering,-

Grenada is not considered an important financial or money laundering centre. Although there is
no evidence that currently drug proceeds are being laundered, prior to the 1992 registration laws
some 100 companies fraudulently represented themselves to be banks. In 1991 and 1992
amendments were enacted to regulate the registration of offshore banking companies. Additional
legislation were enacted in 1996, to regulate the offshore financial services. In addition to
defining money laundering as a punishable crime under the 1992 Proceeds of Crime Act,
Grenadian banks are required to maintain records of cash deposits exceeding EC$5,000.00.




                                                17
1.3 Nature of the Measures Presently Being Applied in Drug Abuse Control:

1.3.a- Policies and measures implemented,-

 Law Enforcement

  Ν Internal situation:-

      < The Royal Grenada Police Force (RGPF) and the Customs and Excise Department are
      the main law enforcement agencies responsible for supply reduction activities. Sea-
      surveillance is being carried out in cooperation with the Grenada Coast Guard using the
      three vessels available. The Police has overall responsibilities for interdiction within the
      national territory. Customs and Excise exercises control at Sea Ports and Airports
      through:-

      (i)     Passenger and passenger baggage examination (Verbal and physical
              examination);

      (ii)    Cargo examination (documentary and physical examination);

      (iii)   Rummage of ships and Aircrafts.

      < The Grenada Produce Chemist laboratory (GPCL) is a small multipurpose Government
      Laboratory serving both the private and public sectors. The services provided are
      analytical (chemical, microbiological, sensory evaluations), product research and
      development, pilot plant facilities, quality control, technical assistance and training. The
      Laboratory performs analysis on seized drug materials for the Royal Grenada Police Force
      and the Ministry of National Security.

      < No legal regulations or licensing procedures are in place for controlling the importation
      and use of precursors. Regulations and procedures are in place for pesticides and
      pharmaceuticals and in 1986 a Pharmacy Council was established to control and monitor
      the importation and sale and distribution of all drugs.

      Ν External cooperation:

      Grenada is active in the Regional Security System, an Eastern Caribbean initiative to
      enhance military cooperation. The other members are: Antigua, Barbados, Dominica,
      St.Lucia, St.Vincent & the Grenadines, and St.Kitts & Nevis. Grenada is also member of
      the Regional Maritime Movement Information System, a project funded by the US, which
      started in 1989 and allows regional Coast Guards to track vessels as they move through
      the Eastern Caribbean (located at central RSS HQs, and with computers at Coast Guard
      bases on Antigua, Dominica, St.Lucia, St.Vincent & the Grenadines, St.Kitts, Grenada, and
      Trinidad & Tobago).

      The Regional Security System (RSS), which functioned under a Memorandum of
                                                18
Understanding for more than a decade, was upgraded to Treaty status in 1996. Grenada
became a signatory to the Treaty on February 21, 1996. A major priority of RSS is
combatting the illegal drug trade.

Grenada signed the Memorandum of Understanding, on February 13, 1996, which allows it
to participate in the Joint Information Coordination Centre (JICC), a joint effort by the US
Department of State, the US Justice & DEA, and various host countries in the Caribbean to
collect narcotic traffick data (Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands,
Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago). The installation of the
software will be fully funded by the US Government. Grenada also collaborates closely
with the Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council (CCLEC). A CCLEC Junior Officer
Basic Training Course was held in Grenada from the 13th of February to the 3rd of March
1995.

Since 1992, the Government of the United States of America has provided over US
$600,000.00 for law enforcement activities including purchase of equipment by the Royal
Grenada Police Force and the Customs and Excise Department, and drug prevention
activities by the National Drug Avoidance Committee. Support is also received from the
US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) with the use of helicopters to monitor the illicit
cultivation of marijuana.

   Demand Reduction

The Minister of Education appointed in 1986 the National Drug Avoidance Committee
(NDAC) to formulate and implement policies to reduce the demand for narcotics.
Educational programmes have also be prepared by the Public Relations Unit of the RGPF.
 The Ministry of Health has also been involved in conducting drug prevention programmes
aimed at the schools and the general public. Finally, some religious bodies such as the
Catholic Church, have conducted anti-drug abuse programmes, which seek to encourage
people to develop moral and spiritual values and attitudes. A Christian Anti-Drug Abuse
Committee (CADAC) was established in 1987 to conduct similar programmes.

The NDAC is primarily focussed on demand reduction. The recognition of the importance
of the latter programme, enticed the NDAC and the Royal Grenada Police Force (RGPF) to
look for areas of cooperation and coordination. The following areas were listed:-

(i)     Greater exchange of information and increased communication between
        RGPF and NDAC;

(ii)  Increased participation of members of RGPF and NDAC in training
programmes conducted by each party;

(iii)  Inclusion of drug education as an integral part of the Training Curriculum for
      police recruits and regular in-service training for police officers on various drug-
 related subjects;

                                           19
(iv)   Strengthened linkages between the Community Affairs Division of RGPF
       and NDAC;

(v)   Improved documentation of drug-related matters thus making data more
accessible and relevant;

(vi)   Increased participation of RGPF on NDAC.

The NDAC also began a working relationship with Her Majesty's Prisons, Richmond Hill.
Such a relationship became necessary, because of the growing concern of the amount of
inmates at the prison on drug-related offenses.

There are four (4) treatment and rehabilitation institutions in Grenada; three (3) of these
institutions are maintained by the Government and the other by the Richmond Fellowship.
The following is a brief description of each institution.

1 Carlton House: This is a sixteen (16) bed institution located in the parish of St. George's,
which was established in 1985 to provide treatment to alcoholics, both males and females.
 However, it soon began to provide services for cocaine, crack and marijuana addicts. It
offers four (4) to six (6) weeks of treatment and rehabilitation care to its patients, a limited
out-patient and home visiting      service, conducts Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, and
has an active liaison with the General Hospital. Patients are admitted to Carlton House on
a voluntary basis, and referrals. The services at this institution are free of cost.

1 Rathdune Psychiatric Unit: This Unit was established at the General Hospital in 1986, for
patients with psychiatric disorders including acute drug-use problems. It is a twenty (20)
bed facility which provides short-term stay for patients. It also serves as a detoxification
unit.

1 Mt. Gay Mental Hospital: This institution was established in 1987. It is a ninety-six (96)
bed facility which provides long-term stay for patients who experience prolonged
psychiatric disorders including drug-related problems.

1 Grand Bacolet Rehabilitation Centre: This centre was established in 1992 jointly by the
Government of Grenada and the Richmond Fellowship of England. Its services are geared
for young people (mainly persons under twenty (20) years of age), who encounter
problems with the law, such as petty crimes and drug use. Young offenders are referred to
this facility by the Courts and social workers. Residence at the centre can be up to a
maximum of two (2) years. Services provided include skills-training, and educational
programmes.
Between 1989-1992, the Government of Grenada and the United Nations International
Drug Control Programme spent approximately US $144,495.00 on drug prevention
activities (Project GRN/89/607 which was run from Jan. 1989 to June 1992 for a total
amount of US$ 118,109). OAS/CICAD also provides ad-hoc assistance to Grenada such
as training for staff of treatment and rehabilitation centers, or the publication "The Chance
to Grow: Education in the Campaign against Drug Abuse" which was distributed throughout
                                           20
all secondary schools. Finally, financial and technical assistance was provided by the US
Government.

Ο Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering

In 1991 and 1992 amendments were enacted to regulate the registration of offshore
banking companies. In addition to defining money laundering as a punishable crime under
the "1992 Proceeds of Crime Act", Grenadian banks are required to maintain records of
cash deposits exceeding EC$5,000. Indirect protective measures are the need for
approval of the Ministry of Finance to open a foreign currency account and the background
check of foreign investment projects.

In 1996, several pieces of legislation were also enacted to further regulate the registration
and conduct of offshore financial services. These legislation included: The Offshore
Banking Act, The International Insurance Act, The Company Management Act, The
International Trusts Act, and The International Companies (Amendment) Act.

The Acts prohibit offshore banking in Grenada, unless a company is registered or
incorporated in Grenada, and has been granted a licence under the Offshore Banking Act,
for the purpose. The terms for the provision of such licence are defined in The Offshore
Banking Act, 1996.

The Government of Grenada established an Office of Offshore Services in the Ministry of
Finance in 1997. The Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Finance is the Registrar of
Offshore Services, and has special responsibilities to assist the Minister of Finance in
relation to regulation and supervision of licenees. A Deputy Registrar assists the
Registrar.

An International Business Committee was also established by Cabinet in 1997, to advise
Government on regulations for the offshore sector.

Finally, Grenada participates in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF)
initiative and took part in the second CFATF meeting organized in Kingston, Jamaica
(1992).

1.3.b- Legal and judicial apparatus,-

The legal system is based on UK Common Law as exercised by the Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court of Justice. Provision is made for appeal to the Privy Council in London.
< Specific Drug Legislation:

Up until 1981 the importation, exportation, manufacture and sale and use of dangerous
drugs in Grenada were controlled by the "Dangerous Drug Ordinance". This law was
limited, in that in the case of summary convictions only provided for the maximum penalty
of a fine of $5,000 dollars or a sentence of three years imprisonment. In 1981, the
"Dangerous Drug Ordinance" was repealed by the "Misuse of Drugs Law of 1981". This
                                          21
law for the first time provided for a forfeiture order of anything shown to the satisfaction of
the Court to relate to offenses under the Act. The maximum penalties however were
altered from a fine of $5,000 or a sentence of three years' imprisonment, to a fine of $2,500
or a sentence of twelve months imprisonment or both such fine and imprisonment. The
records of the Magistrate's Court show a 59.64% rise in drug charges in 1992 over the year
1989 when the penalties were reduced. In 1992 the "Misuse of Drugs Act of 1981" was
replaced by the "Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1992" which provides for
greater penalties and wider powers of sentencing under this Act, on conviction of an
offense a Magistrate may impose a fine up to $250,000 or imprisonment of up to five years
or both such fine and imprisonment.

The new 1992 anti-drug legislations embraced the following:-

(I)    "The Drug Abuse (Prevention and Control) Act, (1992)" - which is divided into ten
       parts. Part I is mainly definitional, but also sets up an Advisory Committee on the
       Misuse of Drugs. The second Part enacts the restrictions relating to controlled
       drugs, that is any narcotic drug, psychotropic substance or other listed substance.
       The Minister of Health is permitted to make regulations with respect to some of
       these offenses. Part III treats the rules pertaining to controlled drugs in transit
       including their licensed removal. Part IV deals with drug trafficking and related
       offenses. The amount of a trafficable quantity of cannabis is fifteen grammes, while
       a trafficable quantity of morphine is only three grammes. Part V seeks to protect
       children and young persons from the effects of drugs. Part VI specifies the powers
       of the Minister of Health under the Act while Part VII creates miscellaneous offenses
       and powers such as giving false information and assisting, outside Grenada, in the
       commission of an offense under a corresponding law. Part VIII governs the
       enforcement of the law and the punishment of the offenses. In addition to or "in lieu"
        of sentence, the offender may be detained for up to twice six months in a
       rehabilitation centre. Part IX details matters relevant to the evidence and the last
       Part deals, inter alia, with the power of the Court to forfeit anything used in the
       commission of or in connection with an offense under this Act.

(II)   "The Proceeds of Crime Act, (1992)" - which provides for the forfeiture or
       confiscation of the proceeds of certain crimes and connected or related matters. It
       allows the forfeiture of real property used to facilitate illicit drug exchanges. It
       deprives narcotic traffickers of their illicitly obtained wealth. The Act further imposes
       certain obligations on financial institutions. Such an institution must retain the
       original document that relates to a financial transaction carried out by the financial
       institution. The institution and its officers, employees and agents acting in the
       course of employment or agency are protected from any proceedings in respect of
       the release of information which it believes (reasonably) to be relevant to an
       investigation of, or prosecution. The financial institutions referred to are licensed
       banks, licensed building societies, registered credit unions and recognized trust
       companies, finance companies or other deposit taking companies. Part IV creates
       and penalizes several offenses, among these money laundering.

                                           22
Finally, Grenada has acceded to two of the four United Nations conventions viz the "1971
Convention on Psychotropic Substances" and the "1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic In
Narcotic Drugs And Psychotropic Substances".

< International Cooperation:

In July 1987 an "Agreement for the Prevention, Control and Suppression of the
Consumption of, and Trafficking in, Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances was signed
between the Governments of Grenada and the Republic of Venezuela". The agreement
comprises the communication of relevant information, the apprehension and confiscation of
vessels of air, land or sea, and the supervision and surveillance of imports and exports of
raw materials, including basic substances and essential precursors. In 1991 a Letter of
Agreement establishing a "Narcotics Control Agreement" was signed between the
Government of the United States of America and the Government of Grenada. This Letter
of Agreement was revised in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997. The "1993 Mutual
Assistance (Criminal Matters) Act" created the possibility for Mutual Legal Assistance
Treaties. In 1995 a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty was signed by Britain and Grenada.
The Treaty will help both countries to trace, freeze and confiscate the assets of drug
traffickers. In 1995, a Maritime Counter Drug Agreement was also signed between
Grenada and the United States of America. This was amended on November 26, 1996, to
include overflights to land. On May 30, 1996, the Governments of Grenada and the United
States of America signed an "Extradition Treaty and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty."
Both Treaties involves measures to control drug-related crimes. The Extradition Treaty
replaces the 1931 Extradition Treaty between both countries. Grenada also became a
member of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), during the
Twenty-Six Regular Session of the Organization of American States (OAS), held June 3-7,
1996, in Panama City, Panama. On March 25, 1997, the Government of Grenada signed
the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy, which was adopted by the OAS, to combat the drug
problem.

The Government of Grenada also supports the Plan of Action for Drug Control Coordination
and Cooperation in the Caribbean, which was adopted at a regional meeting on drug
control cooperation in the Caribbean. The meeting was held under the auspices of the
United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), in Barbados, May 15-17,
1996. The Plan of Action outlines several initiatives to counter the threat of illegal drug
trafficking in the following areas: National Drug Bodies, Legislation, Law Enforcement,
Demand Reduction, and Maritime Cooperation.


1.3.c- Institutional framework,-

The National Drug Avoidance Committee was appointed by the Government of Grenada in
1986, charged with the responsibility of designing and implementing programmes geared
toward reducing the demand for drugs. It consisted of representatives from several
Government and non-government organizations, headed by a chairman. An Executive and
three sub-committees were established to assist in the implementation of the programmes
                                         23
of the National Drug Avoidance Committee. The Committee was given a mandate for one
(1) year to conduct its programme of activities.

In 1988, the Government of Grenada reappointed the National Drug Avoidance Committee
for a two (2) year period, with increased membership. The National Drug Avoidance
Committee was mandated by Government to, "shape policies and oversee the
implementation of action programmes aimed at reducing the demand for drugs in our
society." This task was outlined in the "National Policy And Programme Of Action Against
The Illicit Use And Production And Trafficking In Narcotic Drugs And Psychotropic
Substances", which the Government of Grenada issued in 1988. The first National Drug
Master Plan was also completed in 1888.

In 1989, the Government of Grenada established the Drug Avoidance Secretariat in the
Ministry of Education, to carry out the administrative duties of the National Drug Avoidance
Committee and to assist in the co-ordination and implementation of drug demand reduction
programmes.

The National Drug Avoidance Committee was again reappointed by Government in 1990,
1992, 1994 and 1997, with Government representatives from Government and non-
governmental organizations. NDAC has five sub-committees which assist in the design
and implementation of its programmes. These sub-committees are: Education and
Training, Legal and Policing, Medical and Research, Media and Public Relations, and,
Finances and Fundraising.

1.3.d- Available machinery and resources,-

Statistical data is not available to adequately describe the social and economic costs of
drug abuse in terms of prevention, treatment services, loss of productivity, violence,
accidents, law enforcement, mortality and morbidity. However, the following table give
some indication on the expenditure by institutions which provide services to the general
public, including drug abusers.
TABLE 15: Actual Expenditure Of Institutions 1992 - 1996 (EC$)



 INSTITUTION           1992            1993           1994           1995           1996

 Prisons            2,523,770       2,670,519      2,789,490       2,539,732      2,870,255

 Police             13,443,364     16,260,508      17,864,794     17,169,059     18,205,972

 *Richmond          2,697,903       2,515,157      2,456,687       2,524,326      3,030,131
 Hill
 Institutions

                                         24
* Richmond Hill Institutions consist of Rathdune Psychiatric Unit, Mt. Gay Mental
Hospital, Carlton House Treatment Centre, and the Richmond Home.


SOURCE: Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure, Grenada, 1994 and 1995.


It should be noted that the provision of services by these institutions to persons who
experience drug-related problems have increased significantly. It therefore can be
concluded that the expenditure at these institutions to cater for this section of the
population whether they are addicts or inmates on drug-related offenses, have also
increased.

Combating drugs in a comprehensive way requires both political will and resources. The
first is in abundance available, the latter causes serious problems. The Government is
however aware that resource incapacity often obstructs the energy needed to deal with the
drug operations and the myriad problems they precipitate. It can also embolden drug
operators if they recognize that the makers and executors of public policy adapt a fatalistic
attitude. Hence to keep up the momentum of this national drug strategy, the Government
will follow the example of other countries in seeking to ensure that assets seized from
traffickers are ploughed back into the counter-narcotics effort. Nonetheless, it will need to
rely partly on external technical and financial support to maintain the momentum created
around the approval of this National Drug Master Plan.




                                          25
1.4 Critical Assessment:

1.4.a- Critical analysis of activities carried out hitherto,-

_ Marijuana Cultivation:

The regular eradication exercises were successful in restraining the growing of indigenous
marijuana. Hence, the current problem is not so much the cultivation of ganja but rather the
transshipment of ganja imported from St.Vincent & the Grenadines which enters Grenada
through its northern islands, Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Operational collaboration
and intelligence exchange between the countries are weak and sporadic, rooted in mutual
mistrust and fear to provide valuable information to corrupted officials.

_ Drugs Manufacturing:

Measures to tighten the control of precursors are at the preliminary stages. To date
discussions have been held with the legal department and the Commissioner of Police.
These serve mainly to introduce the topic and concept of precursors. The lack of
knowledge on precursors itself as well as on investigation methods are hampering an
effective control. Further, the listing of the precursors needs improvement. Some are
listed individually but others are listed jointly with other compounds. It is thus very difficult
to get accurate figures.

_ Trade and Transit Interdiction:

> Reducing local drug consumption through prevention and education is increasingly
accepted as the only sustainable and economical justified method to control and restrain
illicit drug trafficking. Hence, demand reduction programmes in Grenada and the major
offshore markets in Europe and North-America are essential to reduce drug import and
trafficking. Nonetheless, the link between demand and supply is two-sided. While a
reduction of the demand should theoretically lead to a reduction of the supply, reality may
be more complex.

The history of drug abuse in Grenada and the Caribbean suggests that an increased
supply may, in its turn, create demand. Even with theoretical "clean" domestic markets, the
particular geographical situation of the Windward Islands remain ideal transit hubs. Huge
volumes of well-known narcotics and eventually new products, such as heroine, are
entering these islands; the gross waiting for transshipment but a small part will spill-over on
the local market. Local "middle-men" are often renumerated with a mixture of cash,
cocaine, illegal weapons, and luxury goods. Drugs and weapons obtained this way, are
cashed locally. Hence, efficient demand reduction exercises cannot be successfully
implemented without stern law enforcement measures. Supply "spills-over" in demand;
demand "provokes" supply. Demand Reduction and Supply Interdiction problems are inter-
woven. Without a strong interdiction mechanism, demand reduction strategies will prove
futile.

                                           26
> While it may be true that Grenada is considered as a low risk spot by donors, this on
itself has some serious implications. First, even if the size of the problem may seem small
in a global context, it may prove onerous for a micro-state. The 1985 institutional crisis in
Turks & Caicos Islands and the need for a RSS intervention in St.Kitts & Nevis (November
1994) are illustrative. The second implication is that bilateral assistance will be more
difficult to obtain which will make it more difficult to set up a proper anti-drugs mechanism.
Finally and as demonstrated with the OPBAT operation in the Bahamas and Turks &
Caicos, illicit narcotics traders are fully aware of this situation and divert their operation
towards "safe-havens".         Marijuana cultivated in St.Vincent & the Grenadines and
destinated for offshore markets, is transshipped towards Grenada and Barbados to give it
a less suspicious port of embarkment.

Hence, detection and operational capacities of the interdiction units need to be
strengthened, streamlined and complimentary, instead of competing and overlapping.
Coordination among services such as the Police, Customs, and the Coast Guard is too
much ad-hoc and very often one-sided, without mutual sharing of intelligence or
information. Illustrative is that no system is in place for the collection or resubmittance of
samples at the Forensic Lab. If the Officer who submitted the samples, for one or another
reason is unable or "forgets" to pick up the results no follow-up will be given.

> Limited means and resources makes it difficult to match the ever evolving and often
sophisticated methods used by organized and international crime. But as happened in
several Caribbean countries/territories, passive and active corruption may erode an
efficient operation of the law enforcement units. Reasons for this phenomenon are a
general depressed economic condition of vast numbers of people, the amounts which
narcotics traffickers apparently are willing to pay for services received, and the low pay
rates within the law enforcement units. But the origins of corruption need not always to be
rooted in economics. Unless law enforcement officers believe in the moral and ethical
justification of the legislative framework they will have difficulties to enforce these.
Moreover, if the public ethos not really condemns the economic benefits of drug trafficking,
and if support from the judicial apparatus is felt as lacking, it might be easier for law
enforcement officers to ignore a problem than to be actively involved preventing it. The
latter is even more true on small islands where the suspect may easily be a family member
or acquittance of the officer in duty.

> Finally, the regional bonding of the drug trafficking, makes it also increasingly important
to improve the detection and operational capabilities on the regional and bilateral level. An
essential part of this is an efficient intelligence network allowing to share information freely
and quickly among the regional police forces. At the moment various information systems
are operational on the region (EPIC, JICC, RMMIS, Interpol) and, with exceptions, are not
linked up to each other, resulting in a loss of time and efficiency.

_ Demand Reduction:

  First level - prevention:

                                           27
Information - A recognizable deficiency is the quality of the information. People are pretty
much aware of the existence of the drug problem. Even in those communities in which
crack/cocaine does not have a significant presence, daily reminders in the newspapers and
radio talk shows inspires and shapes drug-related discourse. Informal discussions among
community residents constituted the most common vehicle for transfer of information about
illicit drug consumption and trafficking. Nonetheless, short-term economic reasons often
prevail over the moral objections in the latter case.

Traffickers and traders not only personify the material gain from their illicit business with
their expensive cars, boats and houses, but often legitimize themselves by a "Robin Hood"
image offering donations for religious and social occasions, and sponsoring activities in the
community. The Government on the other hand, is loosing its legitimacy in the same
communities due to a stringent discipline of financial policy. While addicts are almost
universally disrespected, the glorification of those who have profited of the trade potentially
compromises the anti-drug efforts. Awareness raising and information campaign should
aim to alter this popular view. Unless drug users and drug-linked behavior such as
trafficking or pushing, are identified as being problematic, it is unlikely that efforts can be
mobilized successfully to address that behavior.
School - Critical to the success of the primary prevention aspects of the programme will be
the ability of the programme to influence the drug related behavior and attitude of the
school aged population. In this regard NDAC and the Curriculum Unit of the Ministry of
Education have already infused drug education activities into the education curriculum.
However, the programme needs to be expanded and benefit the entire school population.
Insufficient schools materials about drug prevention in Secondary Schools are available
and extra-curriculum activities such as discussions with the Parents-Teachers Associations
or the creation of student peer-counsel groups among students, are not common enough.


  Second level - prevention:

Community - While it is essential to teach children about the dangers and implications of
drugs, equal attention must be given to young people who have completed or discontinued
schooling and who are living in communities with poverty and unemployment rates above
the average. This group, attempting to earn a living, will be under the hardest (economic)
strain to participate in the chain of drugs distribution, will be more likely to be penalized by
the legal authorities, and will be most vulnerable for drug consumption.

  Third level - reduction:

Treatment and Rehabilitation - A challenge is to identify and assist drug addicts to
overcome their dependence on such substances. While general drug rehabilitation
services already exist in the community, these programmes are, in the main, not available
to those in prison. Prison Officers have not learned how to deal with drug abuse problems
among prisoners. The lack of rehabilitation and resocialisation services leads to high lev-
els of recidivism, resulting in overcrowding of the prisons, and increasing negative social
consequences for the community. In addition, persons emerging from the main residential
                                           28
rehabilitation programmes have no transitional facility to go to, and frequently their
untimely return to the community without having consolidated the gains they have made in
the rehabilitation centre leads to relapse.

_ Legislative and Judicial Apparatus:

Whilst the legislative framework is quite complete and updated, it has rarely been tested
until now. The Judicial system has been restricted by unfamiliarity with newer and
sophisticated legislation, and a chronic shortage of financial resources and qualified staff.

_ Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering:

Whilst it is acknowledged that there is no evidence of money laundering, the proceeds
generated by marijuana and cocaine trafficking are believed to be primarily owned by local
criminal groups. With relative important riches at stake, sophisticated forms of fraud and
corruption has the potential to erode the institutional setting. A financial investigation unit,
within the Police Force, exists but lacks proper training.

The enactment of legislation in 1992 and 1996 to regulate the conduct of offshore financial
services, provides a number of mechanisms which would restrict money laundering.

_ Institutional Framework:

A prerequisite is the strengthening of the assessment, monitoring and evaluation capacity
of NDAC. With the limited resources available the demand reduction programme cannot
be allowed to repeat mistakes experienced in previous community projects. Hence, a
strong NDAC management is required to monitor, assess and review existing projects, to
coordinate and avoid overlapping and duplication of activities, and to plan new initiatives
based on a convincing and accurate analysis and research.

Both the NDAC and the interdiction units do acknowledge that the drug problem is two-
sided. Although nobody will deny that active involvement on the project level of law
enforcement in health issues such as treatment and rehabilitation, or vice-versa, may be
counter-productive, the causes and final solutions for the demand and supply problems are
inextricably intertwined.     Hence, efficient demand reduction exercises cannot be
successfully implemented without stern law enforcement measures. It is therefore
essential that a formal link between both sectors is forged, facilitating coordination and, in
specific cases, supporting each others activities (such as public information campaigns,
treatment and rehabilitation in the prison system, or research).

_ Research:

Information on the drug situation is collected by various sources. These include the Royal
Grenada Police Force and Her Majesty's Prisons, which compile statistical data on drug-
related seizures, arrests, court cases and imprisonments. The treatment and rehabilitation
centres, namely, Carlton House, Rathdune Psychiatric Unit, and Grand Bacolet
                                           29
Rehabilitation Centre, compile statistics on drug-related admissions. These statistics are
easily available, but do not present a complete description of the situation regarding the
use of drugs among the population. In 1993, the NDAC, in collaboration with the
Caribbean Community Secretariat, conducted a National Schools' Survey On Drugs. This
Survey was conducted among one thousand, two hundred (1200) students, in primary and
secondary schools, between ages (11) to sixteen (16) years. However, there were a
number of inconsistencies in the survey instrument, and the responses to the questions by
the respondents. Consequently, this affected the validity of the results. There is urgent
need for further research into the extent of drug use among students.

1.4.b- Priorities for the future:

The basic idea that crime and drugs are a societal problem, implying that the communities
themselves should be able to play a pivotal role to change the attitude towards crime and
drugs, is accepted by all national stakeholders involved in the fight against drugs. Whilst
the law enforcement and judicial measures are pivotal, unless drug users and drug-linked
behavior such as drug trafficking are identified as being problematic by the society it may
not be sufficient. Therefore, education, information and prevention are equally crucial to
mobilize a national thrust against the drug scourge. On the other hand, a successful
demand reduction strategy might not be adequate to keep narcotics from the island. The
supply and demand reduction policy are entirely inter-woven and an integrated national
thrust is necessary to tackle the complex narcotics problem.

∼ Marijuana Cultivation:

Sustainable eradication programmes must be accompanied by the provision of regular
income alternatives. The Government recognizes its obligation to protect and assist the
socially disadvantaged. The Government provides assistance for young men and women
to create opportunities for self employment. One of the sources of assistance is the Micro
Enterprise Development Programme, which is aimed at encouraging private sector
entrepreneurship activity throughout the country. This initiative has the potential to create
unprecedented developments in the establishment of small cottage industries and
manufacturing enterprises. A coordinated training programme and management system
has been put in place to guarantee the success of this programme. On the other hand,
legal deterrence such as eradication exercises heightens the barrier for ganja cultivation.
The balance between the positive and negative incentives need to be respected.

∼ Drugs Manufacturing:

With the subsequent awareness of the use to which certain chemicals are being put in the
manufacture of cocaine and heroin, additional controls became necessary.               New
regulations need to be drafted, targeting for control all known precursor chemicals that are
imported into Grenada and incorporating the ideals contained in the OAS-initiated Model
Regulations Concerning Precursor Chemicals. These measures should not only deter the
manufacture of illicit drugs in Grenada, but should also prevent this country from being a
conduit through which these chemicals might be procured. Accurate listing of the
                                          30
precursors, licensing and monitoring of local importers and users of precursor chemicals
will be the objective of a specific programme.

∼ Trade and Transit Interdiction:

> Internal strengthening: Next to the traditional shortages in staffing, equipment and other
resources, adequate attention should be given to optimize the existing means. A number
of instruments have to be set in place to facilitate coordination, operational cooperation
and mutual exchange of information between the interdiction line units. Communication
now is deficient and leads to counter-productive personal and inter-agency rivalries. A
second measure is to train the existing staff which, through an enhanced professionalism
which will boost the self-image of the officers, will positively affect the "corps morale" and
enforce a codified code of conduct or ethics. Training courses, with a mix of candidates
from several cultures, are an excellent vehicle to promote police professionalism. Also for
this reason, the Government supports the establishment of the Regional Counter-Narcotics
Law Enforcement Drug Training Centre (REDTRAC) in Jamaica.

> Higher community involvement: The Police Force should be provided with resources to
establish more police posts in especially difficult neighborhoods, form youth clubs,
encourage the formation of neighborhood watchgroups and participate in other community
activities.

> External strengthening: Since the situation in Grenada is related to the situation in the
Eastern Caribbean in its entirety, regional bonding is an absolute priority in terms of
handling drug trafficking. The RSS initiative, REDTRAC, or the CCLEC are illustrations of
what need to be done and strengthened. Detection capabilities means not only equipment,
but even more an efficient intelligence network. The concept for the establishment of a
Regional Organized Crime Intelligence Sharing System (ROCISS) was first outlined by
Barbadian Police Commissioner Orville Durant in a study presented to the 9th Annual
Conference of the Association of the Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) in May
1993.

∼ Demand Reduction:

The current Government's view is that drug abuse problems are more effectively ad-
dressed if programmes are complimentary in a manner such that the expected behavioral
changes are reinforced by the synergistic effects of various activities. This can be done
through a continuous process of education and positive influences on attitudes and values.
 An integrated approach through the school system and local communities seems most
appropriate to address the complex nature of the antecedents to drug abuse.

  First level - prevention:

Information - There is an urgent need to maintain emphasis on educating the population
on the dangers of drug abuse and how to attend to the problems. Demand reduction
programs must go beyond the "say-no" approach, making narcotics real to those who are
                                          31
not directly exposed to its devastating consequences ("say-no" why?). The moral
justifications that make consumption wrong but distribution acceptable, and the
concentration of crack/cocaine use in certain areas, have continued to isolate the trafficker
from the addict and have compromised prevention programs. It needs to be clarified that
this kind of individual behavior might lead to considerable individual profits in the short-
term but will backlash later on. Public campaigns or awareness rising need to be
intensified, aiming to correct the perception of the impact of drugs, away from a short-term
profit view to a holistic perception explaining the damage done by drugs or drug related
business on the society, its institutions and its economy. While it is tempting to attribute
the responsibility of the drug problem to external factors, it is the individual who finally will
need to make a choice to be involved or not. Through a correct understanding of the long-
term implications of this choice, the individual will be enabled to make correct decisions.

School - A comprehensive National School's Policy for Drugs will be developed covering
all schools.

  Second level - prevention:

Community - This aspect of the drug strategy aims to target the young, specifically trying
to give them greater hope in the future. To realize this implies providing more technical
skills, and life interesting work experiences. This will help to increase the attractiveness of
an honest livelihood.          Youth training, employment programmes and business
apprenticeships are therefore crucial. To that has to be added projects for neighborhood
and community betterment, which will serve to improve the general environment where
young people live and work. The overall aim should be to recover the communities in all of
their dimensions from the few who terrorize them.

  Third level - reduction:

Treatment and Rehabilitation - Medical treatment and rehabilitation programmes do not
only need intrinsic strengthening and improvement, but must also address social and
economical rehabilitation to create permanent solutions. Detoxification, treatment and
rehabilitation, and half-way house facilities need to become available for "forgotten" groups
such as female and adolescent addicts, or people sentenced to the prison system. A
three-day workshop on the design and implementation of prison-based drug treatment and
rehabilitation programmes, was conducted in February 1996, for Prison Officers and Social
Workers. The workshop focussed on issues such as counselling skills, methods of
creating an environment of change in a correctional setting, life management skills, and
relapse prevention. Some of the recommendations from the workshop were: the need for
specific training in communication and counselling skills for Prison Officers, and the need
for implementation of a substance abuse education component in the educational
programmed at the Prisons. The workshop was funded by the Florida Association of
Voluntary Agencies for Caribbean Action(FAVA\CA).

∼ Legislative and Judicial Apparatus:

                                           32
The Government intents to enforce and implement the existing legislative framework, such
as the forfeiture of assets. Until such time as the Courts impose stiff sentences, the law
will not act as a deterrent. Therefore, new and more sophisticated legislation requires
additional means such as the upgrading of the human resources in the judicial apparatus.
Judges, Magistrates, Public Prosecutors, Police prosecutors and Investigators need to
acquire a thorough knowledge of the provisions of the legislation through training including
topics such as forfeiture, money laundering or the enforcement of mutual legal assistance
treaties (MLAT's).

Finally, two recommendations formulated at the OECS Magistrates' Workshop held in
Grenada, March 25-26, 1994, are also valid for Grenada. These are:

(i)    New law and/or procedures should be introduced to deal with the security of
exhibits e.g. controlled drugs in police custody. Consideration also needs to be
given to the introduction of an appropriate procedure whereby the substance in
question can be tested and destroyed in presence of the analyst who should give
evidence of the results of the test and as to the destruction of the substance.
Such a procedure might remove the current spectacle of exhibits disappearing or
being switched whilst in police custody;

(ii)   Appropriate amendments need to made to the Evidence Acts to supplement the
       provisions of the various drug control legislation in individual states to take
       account of modern police investigate techniques eg. tape recordings.



∼ Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering:

At the core of the future programme will be the implementation of the 1996 legislation to
regulate the offshore financial services, the forty recommendations of the Financial Action
ask Force (FATF), the 19 recommendations of the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force
(CFATF), the 1988 UN Convention and the Model regulations concerning Money
Laundering adopted by the Inter American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD).

∼ Institutional Framework:

NDAC - A priority is to enhance the capability of the NDAC Secretariat in the areas of
programme development, coordination, resource management, monitoring and evaluation,
strategic planning and information management to enable the NDAC to increase its
operational efficiency and the effectiveness of the national drug control programmes. Most
of the NGO's are not striving towards a common national goal, but base their activities on
an assessment of the local situation in their community or personal experiences.
Accordingly, also the majority of the official initiatives do have an individual agenda. The
NDAC has to continue its efforts to bring all these efforts together in a synergetic national
thrust, ensuring the quality of the services provided.

                                          33
National Drug Strategy - Whereas the National Drug Avoidance Committee (NDAC) deals
with the demand side of the drug problem, a Sub-Committee on Drug Control (SCDC) will
be created, to forge a link between the supply and demand side which guarantees an
integrated approach including all aspects of the anti-drug fight. This formal link will not
only enable to intensify mutual interaction, but also to monitor and review the
implementation of the national drug strategy. Consistent monitoring and evaluation is
crucial to the maintenance of the national drug strategy relevance and to the attainment of
goals.

Regional strengthening - Institutional strengthening should also transpire on a (sub)
regional level. While bilateral or multilateral assistance may be welcome on an ad-hoc
basis, and even structured in MLAT's or Memorandums of Understanding (MOU's), the
geographical particularity of the region and the often small jurisdictions with limited means
and resources requires a solid cooperation among the Caribbean countries/territories.

∼ Research:

Research is related to methodology. Its primary function is to provide information and data
as an aid to sound decision-making at the levels of policy and practice in the field.
Research will highlight trends, patterns and typologies which in turn will influence the foci
of the strategy. It serves to monitor progress against social circumstances in order that
adjustments to strategy and resource allocations can ensure project relevance over time.
Research will not only reveal the degree of effectiveness of this current, or future strategy,
but will also pinpoint deficiencies. It would provide options for addressing these
deficiencies which would be developed not only from surveying the Grenadian environment
and experiences, but also by keeping abreast of experiences in other countries. Although
it may be useful to solicit assistance from external sources such as the UWI for exhaustive
research, the NDAC should be able to undertake basic data collection and analysis.




                                          34
PART 2. POLICIES, STRATEGIES, RESOURCES REQUIRED AND FUNDING

2.1 Overall Policy in Drug Control:

"Drugs pose a serious threat to the social and economic development of our people and in
small economies such as ours, the drug menace is eating away our human capital. Its
effect has been shown by recently compiled statistics for Grenada which indicate a rise in
the increase of drug offenses from 83 in 1988 to 200 in 1992, these offenses include
possession of marijuana and cocaine, and cultivation of marijuana. What is significant
however is the fact that most of the offenders were young men between the ages of 15 and
40 - the most productive period of their lives! During the period 1986 to 1993, out of 626
inmates at the Richmond Hill Prison serving sentences on drug related offenses, 601 fell
within that age group. ...

These so-called drug barons set themselves up as benefactors to the impoverished, thus
posing a serious threat to the legal system and hence to the democratic process. The
penalties and sanctions imposed on all aspects of the use of illegal substances must not
only tough a clear message but has to be transmitted to those who pedal drugs that the
gains of their deadly trade will be confiscated. Vulnerable youths who fall prey to these
unscrupulous traffickers should be sent to rehabilitation programmes but continuous users
should be given stiff sentences in addition to compulsory rehabilitation."

(Excerpt from Opening address by Mr. Nicholas Brathwaite, Prime Minister of Grenada, at
the Opening Ceremony of the OECS Magistrates' Workshop held in Grenada, March 25-
26, 1994)
                                        35
"Mr. Speaker, this Government is committed to wiping out illicit drug use, abuse and
trafficking. For those who feel that they can make quick money from drug related activities,
please be advised that this Government will do all in its power to ensure that the drug lords
and merchants of death face the full force of our laws."

(Extract from "1996 Budget Speech," of Dr. the Honourable Keith Mitchell, Prime Minister
and Minister of Finance, to the House of Representatives, January 19, 1996)

"After more than a decade, the RSS [Regional Security System] has been elevated to the
status of a Treaty. This gives more teeth to the system legally, and we shared discussions
with the leadership of the RSS on the matter. A major priority is the illegal drug trade.

Fighting the drug barons is the responsibility of all Governments and all peoples. The
cocaine disease is destroying the brains of young people across the Hemisphere and the
Caribbean. Drug money has created an empire of unscrupulous street dealers and money-
laundering bankers. These are some of the challenges facing our regional security
forces."

(Excerpt from Address to the Nation by Dr. the Honourable Keith Mitchell, Prime Minister of
Grenada, March 12, 1996)

The Government of Grenada is aware of its responsibilities with regards to the war against
drugs. In recent times, there has been a significant increase in the frequency and intensity
of trafficking in drugs in the Eastern Caribbean region, the consequence of the magnates
and barons of drugs being pushed southward to seek new havens for the operations of
their illegal activities. The Government derives no comfort from this observation and is
forced to declare a response to this drug menace, which affects all of mankind.

The Government states in this policy outline, a programme of action which will encompass
the Integrated Drug Reduction Strategy, in dealing with the problem of drugs and alcohol.
This Strategy will consist of action programmes in the following areas:

A.    Institutional Strengthening
B.    Demand Reduction
C.    Supply Reduction
D.     Research
E.     Legislative and Judicial Apparatus
F.     International and Interagency Co-operation
G.     Economic, Social and Cultural Development




                                          36
2.2 Objective of the National Drug Master Plan:

The long term objective of the National Drug Master Plan is to contribute to the social-
political stability and democratic tradition of Grenada, through the promotion of a drug-free
and equitable community, founded on the Rule of Law and Respect for Authority, and by
doing so to safeguard and strengthen the international reputation and image of the country
as a peaceful and tolerant multi-cultural society, attractive for foreign investors and
tourism.

The objective can be subdivided into the following strategies:-

(i)     To anchor the idea of a drug-free society as a common national goal, and to
        sharpen anti-drug measures through a synergetic national approach;

(ii)    To obtain a clear understanding of the size of the drug problem, the trends and its
        antecedents, causes or motives;

(iii)   To upgrade the level of deterrence and to minimize profits from drug cultivation,
        trafficking, production and dealing by harassing law offenders through a state of the
        art, fair but stern interdiction approach;

(iv)    To create an atmosphere of non-tolerance towards drugs by raising awareness for
        individual responsibility, behavior and choices relative to lifestyle, drug production,
        drug supply, drug demand, lawlessness, crime, for the development of the social
        fabrics of the community and the future economic development of the country;

(v)     To conceive alternatives for individuals and groups vulnerable to, or negatively
        affected by the drug problem; and by doing so, to reduce the flow of new entrants
        into crime, while at the same time dealing resolutely with existing perpetrators.
                                           37
       Among other things this means targeting the young, specifically trying to give them
       greater hope in the future.

(vi)   To forge a better understanding and collaboration among the Caribbean
       countries/territories; and to enhance international cooperation.




                                        38
2.3 General Features and Links with Planning System:

Although a comprehensive depiction of the roots of the complex drug problem was given in
the first part of this National Drug Master Plan, the document has not the ambition, neither
the intention to provide solutions for all of these. Therefore and while the National Drug
Master Plan is an attempt at containing and controlling drug abuse with all its attendant
problems, the implementation of the Plan will for its major part depend on the relevant
Ministries, Agencies and other public and private institutions or organizations. Cross-
references are thus made between the national drug strategy and other sectoral and
departmental planning documents. The following steps will be followed to secure the
highest authoritative support and to ensure the link with the national planning system and
budget:

(i)     The NDAC will submit the draft National Drug Master Plan to the relevant
        Departments, Agencies and other public and private institutions to study the
        contents of the drug policy;

(ii)    A Sub-committee will be appointed by Cabinet, to review and revise the draft Plan,
        to identify and estimate the resources needed for the implementation of the Plan; to
        agree on a time framework to implement the activities of the Plan; and to decide on
        the formal status of the Plan.

(iii)   The NDAC will refine, complete, correct and the draft Master Plan accordingly;

(iv)    The draft National Drug Master Plan will be submitted by the NDAC to the Ministry
        of Finance (Planning) to ensure clear indication and separation of responsibilities,
        tasks and budgets between the different Departments, Agencies and other public
        and private institutions. The Ministry of Finance will return the National Drug Master
        Plan to the NDAC;

(v)     Upon receival from the Ministry of Finance, the NDAC will submit the finalized
        draft Master Plan to the Sub-Committee on Drug Control (SCDC) for its and,
        subsequently, the Cabinet or Parliament's approval;

(vi)    Once the National Drug Master Plan has obtained the highest authoritative support,
        every Department, Agency or other public and private institution will be expected to
        include realistic financial allocations for implementation of its component of the
        National Drug Strategy in their annual Sectoral Plan and Budget for a particular
        year. While it is pivotal that the interventions and activities stipulated in the National
        Drug Strategy are really desired by the respective Departments, Agencies and other
        institutions, it is accordingly essential to have the Sectoral Plans and Budgets
        checked by the Ministry of Finance to ensure that necessary allocations are made
        for the implementation of the interventions and activities of the National Drug Master
        Plan.

2.4 Institutional Framework and Management, Monitoring and Evaluation:
                                            39
The overall responsibility for the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the
National Drug Master Plan is trusted to the Sub-Committee on Drug Control (SCDC). The
SCDC will be assisted by the National Drug Avoidance Committee (NDAC) which task it is
to coordinate, to monitor and to review the Master Plan implementation on a daily level,
and to brief the SCDC on progress and shortcomings. If, in this context, decisions are
required for the smooth implementation of the national drug strategy which go beyond the
authority of the NDAC, recommendations will be formulated by the NDAC and submitted to
the SCDC for decision.

The Government of Grenada will establish a Sub-Committee on Drug Control(SCDC) as
the institutional framework for giving direction to and providing general co-ordination to the
National Drug Avoidance Committee. It will be headed by the Prime Minister and consist of
the Minister of Education, Minister of Health, Commissioner of Police, Attorney General,
Accountant General, Chairman of NDAC, and the Drug Avoidance Officer. The SCDC will
meet at least twice a year to discuss the annual progress report prepared by the NDAC.
The SCDC will further meet on an ad-hoc basis when requested by one of its members,
including the Chairman of the NDAC. The responsibilities of the SCDC are the following:

a)    To ensure that all due priority is assigned to the Integrated Drug Reduction Strategy
      as formulated in the National Drug Master Plan;

b)    To ensure that the Integrated Drug Reduction Strategy is implemented;

c)    To mobilize resources and at a senior level co-ordinate drug reduction activities of
      the Ministries of Security, Education, Legal Affairs, Finance, Health, Social Services
      and Community Development, and where possible, non-government Organizations;

d)    To monitor the implementation and progress of all interventions and activities of the
      National Drug Master Plan, based on the recommendations and annual report
      submitted by the NDAC;

e)    To decide on recommendations formulated by the NDAC and which go beyond the
      authority of the NDAC;

f)    To facilitate the tasks and responsibilities of the NDAC.

The National Drug Avoidance Committee will be the central agency charged with
formulating the national plan and programmes regarding drug demand reduction and also
with exercising general co-ordination, supervision, control and monitoring of activities
related to drug abuse which are being implemented in Grenada. The Executive Board of
the NDAC will be expanded, reflecting the importance of the supply reduction side for the
national drug strategy. The responsibilities of the NDAC are the following:

a)    To implement specific interventions and activities of this Integrated Drug Reduction
      Strategy;
                                          40
b)    To coordinate, monitor and review all the activities of the Integrated Drug Reduction
      Strategy;

c)    To brief the SCDC on progress and shortcomings of the implementation of the
      Integrated Drug Reduction Strategy through ad-hoc recommendations and an
      annual report;

d)    To provide an annual report to the SCDC on the status of the drug problem in
      Grenada and the progress made;

e)    To formulate recommendations to improve the implementation of the Integrated
      Drug Reduction Strategy, or to adjust the Strategy if this must be deemed necessary
      based on assessments and research findings.

The Government of Grenada will provide adequate staff to the Drug Avoidance Secretariat
of the Ministry of Education. The Secretariat will perform the administrative duties of the
National Drug Avoidance Committee and assist in the implementation of programmes
geared toward reducing the demand for drugs.




                                         41
                           ORGANIZATIONAL CHART:

                       MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
                                    OF
                         NATIONAL DRUG MASTER PLAN




                                      PRIME
                                     MINISTER



                                   SUB-COMMITTEE
                                        ON
                                   DRUG CONTROL



                                     NATIONAL
                                       DRUG
                                    AVOIDANCE
                                    COMMITTEE



                                       DRUG
                                     AVOIDANCE
                                    SECRETARIAT



MINISTRY    MINISTRY    MINISTRY     MINISTRY      MINISTRY   CUSTOMS    ROYAL
   OF          OF          OF           OF            OF         &      GRENADA
FINANCE    EDUCATION     LEGAL       FOREIGN       HEALTH      EXCISE    POLICE
                        AFFAIRS      AFFAIRS                             FORCE




                                        42
2.5 Resource Requirements:



  RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS                                 US $
  (Estimations for 1998 to 2002)
                                                         TOTAL    INTERNAL      EXTERNAL
                                                                  RESOURCE     RESOURCES
                                                                  S
                                                        (cash)                    (cash)
                                                                   (in-kind)

  A. Institutional Strengthening:
                                                                                   --
       A.1. Strengthening NDAC                           10,000      10,000        --
       A.2. Data collection system                        2,000       2,000       n/a
       A.3. Regional/international contacts               n/a          n/a

  B. Demand Reduction:

       B.1. Public awareness programmes                  12,000       2,000      10,000
       B.2. Central information resource centre           2,000       2,000        ---
       B.3. Expansion of school programme                 5,000         ---       5,000
       B.4  Community programme pilot                     5,000         ---       5,000
           communities
       B.5. Expansion community programme                20,000         ---     20,000
       B.6. Monitoring and evaluation system              3,000       3,000        ---
       B.7. Data base Treatment and                       2,000       2,000        ---
            Rehabilitation (T/R)
       B.8. Strengthening T/R (training)                 10,000        ---       10,000
       B.9. Strengthening T/R prison system              25,000     20,000        5,000
       B.10. Repairs to Carlton House                    20,000        ---       20,000
       B.11.Employment of staff to Carlton House        100,000        ---      100,000


 C. Supply Reduction:

     C.1.Eradication exercises                          100,000      20,000      80,000
     C.2. Precursors Chemical Control                    5,000         ---        5,000
     C.3. Equipment Police Force                        60,000       10,000      50,000
     C.4. Equipment Customs and Excise                  60,000       10,000      50,000
     C.5. Equipment Coast Guard                         60,000       10,000      50,000
     C.6. Study-visit to Trinidad                        2,000        2,000        ---
     C.7. Strengthening domestic intelligence           10,000         ---       10,000
     C.8. Strengthening financial investigation          3,000         ---        3,000
     C.9. Training law enforcement units                 6,000         ---        6,000
     C.10. Promotion community initiatives               5,000         ---        5,000
     C.11. Multi-or bilateral cooperation                 n/a          n/a         n/a

                                                   43
  D. Research:

          D.1. NDAC strengthening                      2,000          ---         2,000
          D.2. Information flow mechanism               n/a           n/a          n/a
          D.3. Training                                5,000          ---         5,000
          D.4. Conduct two Rapid Assessment           25,000          ---        25,000
              Surveys (RAS)
          D.5. Subcontracting                         10,000          ---       10,000


  E. Legislative and Judicial
 Apparatus:

          E.1. Training                               5,000           ---        5,000

  F. International and Interagency
 Cooperation:                                           n/a    n/a                  n/a

  G. Economic, Social and Cultural
 Development:

          G.1. Public awareness                      12,000            ---     12,000
          G.2. Skills training                        6,000            ---      6,000
          G.3. Social and cultural activities        10,000          10,000         ---


   H. Miscellaneous:                                 15,000          5,000     10,000


 TOTAL                                               617,000     108,000      509,000

n/a: not applicable




                                                44
2.6 Timetable of Principal Activities:


   TIMETABLE OF PRINCIPAL
   ACTIVITIES
                                               1998 (Quarters)          1999 (Quarters)           2000 (Quarters)          2001(Quarters)         2002(Quarters)
   A. Institutional Strengthening              1st   2nd   3rd   4th   1st   2nd     3rd   4th   1st   2nd   3rd   4th   1st   2nd   3rd   4th   1st   2nd   3rd   4th



             A.1. Creation of SCDC                   X

             A.2. Executive Board NDAC         X                                                  X                                               X

             A.3. Data collection system                   X

             A.4. Strengthening NDAC           X                        X                         X                       X                       X

             A.5. Policy units in Ministries                     X                         X                       X                       X                       X

             A.6. Local networking             X                 X      X                  X      X                X      X                X      X                X

             A.7. Regional/international             X                        X                        X                       X                       X
            contacts

  B. Demand Reduction                                 1998                        1999                  2000                    2001                     2002

            B.1. Public awareness              X     X     X     X      X     X      X     X      X    X     X     X      X    X     X     X      X    X     X     X
            programme

             B.2. Central information centre               X
                                                                             45
B.3. Accumulation research               X   X   X    X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X

B.4. Comprehensive school                                     X
policy

B.5. Sensitization school        X   X   X   X   X    X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X
personnel

B.6. Sensitization of Parent     X   X   X   X   X    X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X
Teachers' Associations

B.7. Revised school curriculum               X                                                X

B.8. Extra-curricular            X   X   X   X   X    X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X
programme
                                 X
B.9. Monitoring and evaluation                   X                X               X               X
of Schools

B.10. Expansion of school        X   X   X       X    X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X
programme

 B.11. Pilot programme                       X                                X
communities                                  X

 B.12. Monitoring and            X               X                X               X               X
evaluation of communities

B.13. Expansion of community                     X                                X
programme


                                                     46
          B.14. Assess current T/R                                 X
         system

          B.15. T/R data base                                             X                      X

          B.16. Strengthening T/R                                         X                      X

          B.17. Strengthening T/R prison                                  X                      X

          B.18. T/R coordinating unit                                     X

          B.19. National Fund              X

          B.20. Repairs to Carlton House                  X   X

          B.21. Employment of staff at                             X          X
                Carlton House


C. Supply Reduction                                1998            1999           2000           2001        2002


          C.1. Eradication exercices                  X                   X          X               X          X

          C.2. Regulation of precursors                       X

         C.3. Precursors control                              X                              X
         programme

          C.4. Inventory needs             X                                             X                          X

          C.5. Equipment Police Force          X              X               X              X           X
                                                                  47
        C.6. Equipment Customs &                            X                   X               X                  X
        Excise

         C.7. Equipment Coast Guard          X              X                   X               X                  X

         C.8. Study-visit to Trinidad

         C.9. Domestic intelligence          X                   X                  X               X                  X

         C.10. Financial investigation              X

         C.11. Training                      X                   X                  X                      X           X
                                                                                                                               X
        C.12. Promotion community                       X                   X               X                  X
        activity

         C.13. Multi- or bilateral       X   X      X   X   X    X      X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X      X   X   X   X   X   X
        cooperation

D. Research                                      1998            1999               2000            2001               2002


         D.1. NDAC strengthening         X                  X                   X               X                  X

        D.2. Information flow            X
        mechanism

         D.3. Training                              X                   X               X               X                  X

         D.4. Conduct of two RAS             X                                                                             X


                                                                48
           D.5. Selection critical indicators   X                                                  X

           D.6. Unified methodology             X                                                  X

           D.7. Subcontracting research             X                                      X

E. Legislative and Judicial Apparatus           1998             1999       2000       2001    2002


           E.1. Cooperation bank sector         X            X              X          X       X

           E.2. Approval UN Conventions                 X

           E.3. Precursors control                      X
          legislation

          E.4. Amendments Evidence                                      X
          Acts

           E.5. Amendments                              X
          alcohol/tobacco
          legislation

           E.6. Assessment legislation                                             X

           E.7. Training                                X                          X




                                                            49
 F. International and Interagency         1998            1999       2000       2001       2002
Cooperation

          F.1. Approval MLAT's and           X               X          X          X          X
         MOU's
G. Economic, Social and Cultural
Development                               1998            1999       2000       2001       2002

           G.1. Public Awareness      X      X   X           X   X      X   X      X   X          X

           G.2. Statements            X          X               X          X          X

           G.3. Skills Training              X               X          X          X          X

           G.4. Social and cultural          X               X          X          X          X
           Activities




                                                     50
PART 3. DETAILS OF ACTIVITIES BY SECTOR

3.1 Institutional Strengthening:

The strengthening of the institutional framework is a prerequisite to coordinate
the national drug strategy in a synergetic and cost-effective manner, and to
implement, monitor and review activities of this comprehensive strategy. Such
institutional mechanism should guarantee coordination among existing
initiatives, without claiming the leadership for each of the initiated activities while
meanwhile avoiding duplication and overlapping of activities and scare
resources.

1.     The institutional arrangements as described in point 2.4. (Institutional
       Framework and Management, Monitoring and Evaluation) of this
       document, will be implemented;
2.     The NDAC will make an assessment review to determine the needs
       required to execute its functions described in point 2.4. (Institutional
       Framework and Management, Monitoring and Evaluation) of this
       document;
3.     The NDAC Executive Board will expand its membership to reflect the
       integrated demand/supply reduction strategy;
4.     Managerial skills will be enhanced to make the operational branch in
       Carriacou more effective. Staff will be trained in project and strategic
       management, implementation, monitoring and evaluation skills,
       coordination and resource management skills;
5.     The NDAC will create and maintain a data collection system which will
       ensure a continuous evaluation and monitoring existing programmes,
       projects and activities, and assessment of future needs;
6.     The NDAC will be able to value the success rate of projects and
       programmes, to compile these data, and to disseminate the positive
       and negative experiences;
7.     The NDAC will expand and consolidate the existing linkages with the
       other components of the drug abuse prevention and control
       programme, especially        working relations and coordination between
       grassroots organizations;
8.     Whilst avoiding turf or ownership battles, the NDAC will strengthen its
       role as a neutral forum wherein all major national stakeholders can
       meet, discuss, coordinate and foster activities towards a common
       national thrust in a synergetic and cost-effective manner;
9.     The NDAC will collaborate closer with existing community initiatives,
       to explore ways to duplicate successful experiences of community
       projects in other communities;
                                      51
10.   The network of the cadre of persons in each parish trained in drug abuse
prevention and leadership will be intensified;
11.   Policy units will be established within relevant Ministries, which will be
      responsible for facilitating and furthering the national anti-drug efforts
      within their respective Ministries;
12.   Regional and international links will be established with counterpart
      organizations in the Caribbean, to exchange experiences and data on a
      structural basis (Use of e-mail & staff training).


Estimated Budget for five years: US$12,000
Responsible for management and implementation: Government of Grenada,
National Drug Avoidance Committee




3.2 Demand Reduction:

                                   52
4 Research and Information:

13.   A significant improvement in public awareness particularly in the focus
      communities, translated into increased participation in community
      prevention activities and reduced involvement in drug use and drug
      related activities.    This public awareness should be focussed on
      encouraging individuals to take responsibility for their own well-being,
      especially those persons in high risk environments, and on the
      implications of this individual behavior for the community and the social
      and economical development of the country;
14.   An adequately equipped central information resource center located at
      NDAC, possessing a range of material relevant to the need of the general
      public and the local communities, with support obtained within the focus
      communities/parishes from strategically located satellite centres;
15.   At the start of the implementation of the Integrated Drug Reduction
      Strategy and at the end a rapid assessment study (RAS) will be
      undertaken, to measure the actual size of the problem, to adjust anti-drug
      measures depending on the outcome of the RAS, and to evaluate the
      impact of the measures;
16.   Accumulation of current research information to guide more efficiently the
      development, implementation and evaluation of drug abuse prevention
      policies, programme and projects;

4 School Prevention:

17.   Development and application within the school system of a
      comprehensive drug policy;
18.   School personnel will be informed on the nature and scope of the drug
      problem (holistic view; impact on the social and economical development
      of the country), so to get them motivated to participate actively in the
      school prevention programme;
19.   Sensitization of parents to the drug abuse problem and to their function
      as role-models through PTA's;
20.   A revised primary and secondary school curriculum supported by a wide
      range of educational material, providing a value-rich information and
      education programme that is imaginative, innovative, relevant and
      sensitive to the different cultures and sub-cultures in the country;
21.   An enhanced on-going extra curricular programme within the school of
      selected communities involving sporting, cultural and community
      activities; promoting healthy life-styles through participation in co-
      curricular and extra-curricular activities, and creation of inter-peer
                                   53
      students counselling groups;
22.   Development of systems and instruments to monitor and accurately
      evaluate the performance of the programmes in the school prevention
      sector;
23.   To expand the Drug Abuse Resistance Education programme to those
      schools who were not involved yet.

4 Community Prevention:

24.   Empowerment of specific districts and communities to undertake effective
      reduction of the demand for illicit and licit drugs, with the emphasis on
      young people outside the school system, and with the fullest utilization of
      the communities' resources, community mobilization and popular
      participation at the national and district community levels;
25.   Development of systems and instruments to monitor and accurately
      evaluate the performance of the programmes in the community prevention
      sector;
26.   The NDAC will collaborate closer with existing community initiatives, to
      explore ways to duplicate successful activities in other communities in a
      cost-effective way;
27.   The establishment and implementation of policies and programmes by
      Governmental agencies (Community and Sport Departments, Youth
      Department) and national NGOs that complement the objectives of NDAC
      and augment rather that duplicate the activities of involved agencies and
      organizations.

4 Treatment and Rehabilitation:

28.   Monitor and evaluate the existing performance of the programmes in the
      treatment and rehabilitation network, and assess the future needs;
29.   A significantly improved data base on clients of treatment and
      rehabilitation services, resulting from the establishment of a standardized
      system for the collection and analysis of data;
30.   Training of personnel in treatment and rehabilitation methods;
31.   Development of efficient services for crisis intervention, detoxification,
      out-patient rehabilitation and after-care for addicts and their family that
      meet appropriate quality standards and are accessible to the addicted
      throughout the country;
32.   The treatment and rehabilitation programme will be strengthened at the
      penitentiary institutions;
33.   In order to facilitate the above programme, a small coordinating unit will
      be created;
                                   54
34.   The Government of Grenada will establish a National Fund for the
      Prevention of Drug Abuse, to treat drug addicts at the various local
      rehabilitation centres. These funds will come from:
                     a) Voluntary public and private contributions;
                     b) Government subsides, grants and subventions;
                     c) Funds and assets linked to unlawful drug trafficking that
                     have been seized by national authorities.
35.   The renovation/repairs of Carlton House;
36.   The employment of a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Occupational
      Therapist.


Estimated budget for five years: US$204,000
Responsible for management and implementation: Ministry of Health, National
Drug Avoidance Committee




                                   55
3.3 Supply Reduction:

1 Marijuana Cultivation:

37.   The present level of eradication and interdiction operations will be
      intensified;
38.   Regular income alternatives will be promoted especially in those regions
      which are affected by the slowdown of the agricultural sector.

1 Drugs Manufacturing:

39.   Rules and regulations will be formulated relative to the import, trade and
      export of chemicals and precursors, incorporating the ideas contained in
      the OAS-initiated Model regulations Concerning Precursor Chemicals;
40.   A programme to monitor and list the import, trade and export of chemicals
      and precursors, will be designed;
41.   Law enforcement officers will be trained in investigation procedures
      relative to clandestine laboratory operations and to chemicals.

1 Internal Strengthening:

42.   An accurate inventory will be made to identify the needs for equipment,
      staffing and budgeting, and to optimize the existing means;
43.   Internal and external sources of funding will be sought to overcome the
      shortcomings in equipment and staffing;
44.   The level of legal deterrence will be kept sufficiently high enforcing
      legislation against offenders in a stern but fair way. Special emphasis will
      be given to greater surveillance of territorial waters (increasing the Coast
      Guard presence through an increase of vessels patrolling, aerial
      surveillance capability, and coastal radar equipment) and tightening up
      controls at the port of entry (through measures such as training of human
      resources and bringing in more drug dogs);
45.   The coordination, operational collaboration and information exchange
      between the interdiction line units (Police, Customs & Excise, and Coast
      Guard) will be strengthened through the introduction of a Crime and
      Drugs Coordination Meeting once a month between these services on
      which common strategies will be discussed;
46.   The interdiction line units will study the sample of the JICC Unit in
      Trinidad & Tobago (Office of Strategic Services), to determine how this
      experience of cooperation and coordination may serve as the embryo for
      closer cooperation between the line units;
47.   Domestic intelligence service and intelligence analysis will be
                                    56
      strengthened through coordination, training of intelligence analysts, and
      the approval of new state of the art legislation. The expected results will
      be: better management and use of information data; greater volume of
      intelligence collection; formulating strategies to combat crime and criminal
      activities; and to assist the line units in forecasting problems;
48.   The quality of human resources will be strengthened through training of
      Law Enforcement Officers (Police and Customs Officers) on basic police
      skills and investigation techniques. These include: maintenance of
      equipment, project and investigation management, citizens rights,
      physical surveillance, identification of illegal substances, interviewing and
      interrogation techniques, preservation of exhibits and presentation of
      evidence in Court, development of informants, investigation techniques,
      investigation on clandestine drug laboratories and chemicals/precursors,
      forensic investigation, training in the use and effective employment of
      state of the art surveillance equipment, financial fraud and money
      laundering;
49.   The Financial Investigation Unit at the Royal Grenada Police Force will be
      enhanced to track corruption cases.

1 Community Participation:

50.   Law Enforcement Units will not only personalize the trust in the Rule of
      Law through an upright and professional attitude, they will also actively
      participate in raising the public awareness for the importance of individual
      responsibility and behavior affecting social and economic development
      (holistic view of the drug problem);
51.   Cooperation will be sought within the communities/parishes through
      Neighbourhood Watchgroups and Youth Clubs;

1 External Strengthening:

? Information sharing,-
52.    The close contacts with corresponding agencies abroad will be expanded.
        Support will be sought abroad to promote the idea of liaison officers and
       to facilitate exchange of personnel and other experts intensifying
       cooperation with similar agencies abroad;
53.    Action will be taken on the agreement between sites participating in the
       JICC to freely share and exchange information generated by their
       respective JICC's;
54.    The ROCISS concept will be studied on its merits;

? Operational collaboration,-
                                    57
55.   The possibility will be explored of major multilateral operations that span a
      medium to long term frame;

? Resource sharing and training,-
56.   Detection and investigation capabilities need to be improved through
      cooperation on a regional level;
57.   Regional training will be enhanced through the establishment of the
      Regional Drug Training Centre (REDTRAC) in Jamaica;


Estimated budget for five years: US$311,000
Responsible for management and implementation: Royal Grenada Police Force,
Ministry of National Security, Customs and Excise Department




3.4 Research:

Research is related to methodology. Its primary function is to provide
information and data as an aid to sound decision-making at the levels of policy
and practice in the field. It also serves to monitor progress against social
circumstances in order that adjustments to strategy and resource allocations can
                                    58
ensure project relevance over time. Sound assessment of correct data and
updated information is also pivotal for the management of the National Drug
Master Plan.

58.   The capability at the NDAC will be reinforced (secondment of Government
      staff + training) to enable it to more effectively process and report on
      relevant drug prevention data (quantitative and qualitative) from surveys
      as well as from health, social and law enforcement agencies and the
      community at large;
59.   The provision of training for personnel involved in work related to the
      collection and analysis of data and other types of research and the
upgrading of equipment essential to improving the efficiency of the
process;
60.   A system for flow of information between NDAC, relevant law enforcement
      and social departments/agencies, communities and treatment and
      rehabilitation facilities, will be established;
61.   A group of critical indicators will be collected in a standardized manner
      and reported on regularly, allowing national programme leaders and
      policy makers to effectively implement, monitor and evaluate prevention
      programmes;
62.   The NDAC will agree on an unified methodology and quality level for all
      future research which will make the results of diverse studies compatible;
63.   Two rapid assessment studies (RAS) will be conducted throughout the
      country to quickly establish baseline information on the drug related
      problems existing in the diverse communities throughout the country;
64.   More elaborated studies, such as the economic cost of drugs: economic
      implication of the drug problem (cost estimation of the implications for the
      society and the individual citizen), or the impact of drugs on crime, will be
      subcontracted.


Estimated budget for five years: US$42,000
Responsible for management and implementation: National Drug Avoidance
Committee, Minsitry of Finance Statistics Division)
3.5 Legislative and Judicial Apparatus:

: Financial Proceeds and Money Laundering:

65.   The investigation capability required for the successful prosecution of
      money laundering as well as for the identification, seizure and forfeiture of
      assets will be strengthened in the Financial Investigation Unit of the Royal
      Grenada Police Force;
                                     59
66.   Magistrates and Prosecutors will obtain training to apply the legislation;
67.   The Government will continue and consolidate its cooperation with the
      bank sector and other financial experts to declare suspicious money (in
      and outgoing of suspicious money in the country);
68.   The cooperation with the Caribbean Financial Action Task-Force (CFATF)
      will be consolidated and further strengthened.

: Legislation:

69.   The Government will assent to all Conventions passed by the United
      Nations on Narcotic Drugs, Psychotropic Substances and Drug
      Trafficking;
70.   The Government will pass enabling legislation that will bring about the
      establishment of rigid control for the manufacture, importation,
      exportation, transportation and marketing of solvents, precursors and
      chemical products that are essential to the preparation of drugs;
71.   Amendments facilitating the "chain of evidence" will be approved (such as
      for the evidence treated at the forensic laboratory);
72.   New state of the art police methods will be legalized (such as
      wiretapping);
73.   The Government will undertake to review existing legislation dealing with
      the sale and use of alcohol and tobacco, especially to minors, at school
      functions, and times when such sales are prohibited;
74.   The Government of Grenada will review the mechanism for the
      distribution of licenses for the sale of alcohol;
75.   The Government will give consideration to the imposition of penalties
      requiring certain drug offenders to perform community duties as an
      alternative to being imprisoned;
76.   Existing legislation will be tested and reviewed, thus identifying what is
      still needed to improve the legislative framework;
77.   The Government will seek to harmonise national laws on drug trafficking
      with similar laws which exists in the region;
78.   The Government will adopt specific bilateral and multilateral instrument
      on particular aspects of drug abuse and unlawful trafficking in drugs in
      common with other countries of the region, including mechanisms for
      extradition, and for co-operation among judicial, police and customs
      authorities in the region, leading to more effective action against all drug
      traffickers.

: Judiciary:

79.   A new and sophisticated legislative framework will be matched by a better
                                    60
      trained judicial corps of magistrates and prosecutors trained in topics
      including forfeiture, money laundering or the enforcement of legal
      assistance treaties, but also in topics such as technical training,
      automation, and facility maintenance.


Estimated budget for five years: US$5,000
Responsible for management and implementation: Ministry of Legal Affairs,
Ministry of Foreign Affairs




                                  61
3.6 International and Interagency Co-operation:

The Government of Grenada is aware that the problem of drug is a local,
regional and international one, and would impact on the lives of the people of
this country directly or indirectly. In this regard, Government will encourage
contacts between itself and other nations but also between local, regional and
international agencies which are engaged in drug reduction and prevention
activities.

80.   Advocate the Government's stance in the anti-drug thrust on sub-regional
      and international political, trade, tourism, defense, drug and other fora;
81.   The Government will endorse and strengthening of existing sub-regional
      and international initiatives related to narcotics such as supported by
      CARICOM, CFATF, WCO, Interpol, JICC, CCLEC, RSS, RMMIS,
      OAS/CICAD, UNDCP or ACCP (ROCISS);
82.   The institutional strengthening of the regional cooperation between drug
      councils (demand reduction and interdiction) will be promoted and
      consolidated;
83.   The Government will negotiate and approve Memorandums of
      Understanding (MOU's) and/or Mutual Legal Assistance treaties (MLAT's)
      to facilitate the above (intelligence sharing, operational collaboration,
      training and resources sharing);
84.   The Government will actively seek external technical and/or financial
      assistance on a bilateral and multilateral basis.


Estimated budget for five years: US$ n/a
Responsible for management and implementation: Ministry of Foreign Affairs




3.7 Economic, Social and Cultural Development:


                                   62
85.    The Government of Grenada recognises that socio-economic
       development cannot be fostered if the environment is lacking in
       conditions conducive to personal dignity, democracy and state security. It
       is imperative therefore, to promote the concepts of values and value
       clarification, positive attitudes, self-esteem, healthy lifestyles and social
       skills in the schools' curricula and in formal and non-formal training
       institutions and the wider society;
86.    The Government of Grenada's statements on socio-economic
       development will clearly outline the need to reduce the demand for drugs.
        It believes that these statements are consistent with our views on human
       rights, the integrity of the human race, our traditions, customs and culture;
87.    The Government of Grenada will promote skills training programmes
       which would help the youth and unemployed sector of the population to
       acquire and develop employable skills. This would assist in reducing the
       unemployment level, which is a factor in encouraging drug use and drug
       trafficking. These training programmes will also be targeted to persons
       who were imprisoned on drug charges, to thus encourage them to
       abandon this illegal practice upon their release from imprisonment and
       engage in legal business practices and employment;
88.    The Government of Grenada will encourage social and cultural activities
       which would help to build family relationships, enhance the community
       spirit and promote the development of our culture and artforms.


Estimated budget for five years: US$28,000
Responsible for management and implementation: Ministry of Community
Development




                               APPENDIX 1

                  HISTORICAL PROFILE OF
      DRUG CONTROL ACTIVITIES, PROGRAMMES AND EVENTS
                        IN GRENADA

                                     63
1911:     Liquor Dealers' Licences Ordinance was enacted.
          (January 1)

1937:     Dangerous Drugs Ordinance was enacted. (March 1)
1960's:   Marijuana was possibly introduced in Grenada.

1972:     Dangerous Drugs Ordinance was amended

1972:     First record of cocaine seizure in Grenada, by the Police. Found
          aboard a yacht.

1980:     Grenada acceded to the United Nations 1971 Convention on
          Psychotropic Substances (April 25)

1981:     Produce Chemist Laboratory, Tanteen, St. George's, began testing
          drug samples.

1981:     Misuse of Drug Act (People's Law No. 39), was passed by the
          People's Revolutionary Government. October 30)

1985:     Establishment of Carlton House Treatment and Rehabilitation
          Centre, at Parade, St. Pauls, St. George's.

1986:     Establishment of the National Drug Avoidance Committee (NDAC)
          by the Government of Grenada. Placed under the Ministry of
          Education. Sir Reginald Palmer was the first Chairman. NDAC
          was given a one-year mandate.

1986:     Establishment of the National Law Enforcement Agency (NLEA), to
          combat Customs offenses, and drug trafficking at ports of entry.
          NLEA was a joint effort between Police and Customs.

1986:     Rathdune Psychiatric Unit was established at the General Hospital,
          St. George's. It also provides treatment services to patients who
          suffer acute mental disorders from drug abuse.
          1986: Establishment of a Pharmacy Council, to control and monitor
          importation, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical drugs.

1987:     Relocation of the Mental Hospital from Richmond Hill to Mt. Gay,
          St. George's. The Mental Hospital also provides treatment and

                                64
        rehabilitation services to patients who suffer acute mental
        disorders due to drug abuse.

1987:   Establishment of the Christian Anti-Drug Abuse Committee
        (CADAC), at Evangelistic Centre, Market Hill, St. George's, to
        conduct drug prevention programmes. (March)

1987:   Grenada Football Association instituted a random Drug Testing
        Programme for all national footballers and premier league clubs.

1987:   Introduction of "sniffer dogs" into Grenada.

1987:   Draft Agreement Between The Government Of The Republic of
        Venezuela And The Government Of Grenada for The Prevention,
        Control And Suppression Of And Trafficking In Narcotic Drugs And
        Psychotropic Substances, was signed. (July 17)

1988:   Recommission of NDAC for a two-year term. (June)

1988:   Formulation of the National Policy Programme of Action Agains the
        Illicit Use and Production and Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and
        Psychotropic Substances. (June)

1988:   The Second Meeting of the Ad Hoc Group on the Regional Drug
        Avoidance Secretariat Programme was held at the Ramada
        Renaissance Hotel, Grand Anse, St. George's. The Ad Hoc Group
        was established by the Caribbean Community Secretariat.
        (November 2)

1988:   Meeting on Education in the Campaign Against Drug Abuse hosted
        by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD),
        the Inter-American Council for Education, Science and Culture,
        CARICOM, was held at the Ramada Renaissance Hotel, Grand
        Anse, St. George's. (November 9-12)

1989:   Compilation of bibliography of materials on drug abuse, funded by
        the European Economic Commission (EEC), and implemented
        CARICOM. (November-December)

1989:   Master Plan on Drug Control was formulated, with assistant from
        the United Nations Fund for Drug Control (UNFDAC), now United
        Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).

                               65
              (January)

1989:         Establishment of the Drug Avoidance Secretariat in the Ministry of
              Education. Secondment of Mr. Dave Alexander, Teacher at Boca
              Secondary School, to be Field Officer at the Secretariat
              (September)

1989:         Commencement of the Illicit Drug Demand Reduction Project
              (IDDRP) AD/GRN 89/607 by the Government of Grenada through
              the National Drug Avoidance Committee. The Project was funded
              by UNDFAC, at the cost of US $ 115, 895.00 (October 1)

1989:         Grenada became a member of the Regional Maritime Movement
              Information System, which allows Coast Guards to track vessels as
              they move through the Eastern Caribbean.

1990:         Appointment of Mr. Dave Alexander as Drug Avoidance Officer.
        (January 1)

1990:         Drug Avoidance Secretariat at the Ministry of Education, was
              formally opened. (March)

1990:         Grenada participated in the OAS-Teleconference on Drugs.
              Technical assistance for Grenada’s participation was provided by
              Lighthouse Television, St. Paul’s. (May 22)

1990:         The Sixteenth Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and other Drug
              Problems (CARIAD), was held at the St. George's University
              School of Medicine. CARIAD is usually held at the University of
              the Virgin Islands, but due to damages to its campus by hurricane
              in 1989, it was held in Grenada. (June 4-15)

1990:         Celebration of Drug Free Day in St. Andrew's, co-sponsored by St.
              Andrew's Youth Council and NDAC. (July 8)

1990: Recommission of NDAC for another two-year term.
           (August 10)

1990:         Grenada acceded to the United Nations Convention Against illicit
              Traffic In Narcotic Drugs And Psychotropic Substances of 1988.
              (December 10)


                                    66
1991:        Launch of the organization, "STUDENTS AGAINST DRUGS" in St.
             Andrew's. (March 2)

1991:        The Embassy of the United States of America, St. George's,
             presented a gift of audio-visual equipment valued at US $5380
             (EC $14,000), to the Ministry of Education, for use by the National
             Drug Avoidance Committee. (July 2)

1991:        Eight Americans from the United States Military Information
             Support Team (MIST), assisted NDAC in the production of drug
             prevention educational materials (posters, television spots, bumper
             stickers). (July 11-26)

1991:        Daniel Vincent "Diego" Peters was arrested on June 18, 1991, at
             17:42 hours, for three drug related offences namely: conspiracy to
             supply a controlled drug, supplying a controlled drug, and concern
             in supplying a controlled drug to wit. 48 kilos (108 lbs.) of cocaine.
              He was convicted on March 24, 1994, in the No. One Supreme
             Court on two counts, namely: concern with the supplying of a
             controlled drug, and supplying a controlled drug.             He was
             sentenced to two years imprisonment on each count, to run
             concurrently.

1991:        The Drug Squad of the Royal Grenada Police Force, arrested five
             men (four Venezuelans and one Colombian), in Pearls, St.
             Andrew's, for possession of 9 1/4 lbs. of cocaine, valued at EC
             $1/4 million. (September 17)

1991:        Members of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), of the
             Royal Grenada Police Force, seized 16 kilos (EC $8.8 million), of
             cocaine, in Beaulieu, St. George's, and arrested David Cooper
             and Carl Gibbs. (September 21).

1991/92:     Amendments were enacted to restrict the registration of
      offshore banking companies.

1992/97:     Letters Of Agreement Between The Government Of The United
             States Of America And The Government Of Grenada
             Establishing A Narcotics Control Agreement. (Revised in 1992,
             1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996).

1992:        Police seized 3.2 tons of marijuana on Isle De Rhonde a small

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             island of the coast of Grenada).

1992:        Establishment of the Drug Squad Unit of the Royal   Grenada
             Police Force.

1992:        Grand Bacolet Rehabilitation Centre was opened at Grand Bacolet,
             St. Andrew's, for young offenders of the law, including drug
             offenders. (February 8)

1992:        US $9,000.00 worth of school bags, with anti-drugs labels,
             (approximately 1,150 bags), were donated to NDAC by the
             Embassy of the United States of America, Grenada, for distribution
             to Primary and Secondary Schools. (February)

1992:        Repeal of the Misuse of Drugs Act. (April 15)

1992:        Drug Abuse (Prevention and Control) Act, and Proceeds of Crime
             Act were enacted. (April 15, & July 31 respectively)

1992:        Revision of the National Policy on Drugs, which was formulated
             in1988. (May)

1992:        Grenada Telecommunications Ltd. (GRENTEL) donated a
             telephone services to NDAC. Payment installation and one year
             rental. (May 27)

1992:        Visit of Dr. Winston Davidson, Chairman, National Council on Drug
             Abuse, Jamaica, to conduct National Consultation on Drug Abuse.
             (June 1-6)

1992:         Recommission of NDAC. Dr. Roger Radix and Mr. Evelyn Cenac
              was appointed as Chairman and Deputy Chairman respectively.
        (August 27)

1992:        The National Drug Avoidance Committee honoured Sir Reginald
             Palmer, for outstanding service to NDAC. Sir Reginald served as
             Chairman of NDAC between 1986-1992. (October 1)

1992:        Two Officers of the Special Services Unit were allegedly caught
             red-handed, attempting to deliver 9 lbs 12 ozs of marijuana to a
             contact man in the St. George's Market Square, presumably for
             sale. (October 16)

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1992:   Implementation of the Illicit Drugs Demand Reduction Project was
        completed. (December 31)

1993:   Mr. George Chichester, member of NDAC (1986-1992), passed
        away. He was a prominent member of Alcoholics Anonymous.
        (February 26)

1993:   Four Cricketers from Pakistan were arrested, charged and brought
        to Courts, for possession of nine handrolled marijuana cigarettes.
        The matter was "nolle prosequi" - unwilling to prosecute a
        procedure by which the Attorney General may terminate criminal
        proceedings. (April 8)

1993:   NDAC honoured sixteen students who were outstanding in the
        1993 Common Entrance, and School Leaving Exams, at Ceremony
        held at the Public Library, St. George's. (September 20)

1993:   Distribution of bookmarkers with anti-drug messages to all students
        in Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary schools in Grenada,
        Carriacou and Petite Martinique. The bookmarkers were produced
        by NDAC and members of the United States Military Information
        Support Team (MIST). (October-November)

1993:   The first National Survey on Drug Abuse was conducted in
        Grenada, among 1200 students in twenty Primary and Secondary
        Schools. The survey was sponsored by NDAC and CARICOM.
        (November)

1994:   Grenada Union of Teachers expressed concern over the sale of
        alcoholic drinks at School Sports meetings. (February)

1994:   Associate Regional Advisor of the United Nations International
        drug Control Programme, Barbados, Ms. Muki Daniel, paid a
        familiarization visit to Grenada. (February 28-March 1)

1994:   Five shipments of marijuana were intercepted at Point Salines
        International Airport, ready for export.

1994:   Mr. Phillip Kommar of Holland, was arrested and jailed on and
        charge of drug possession, when 17 kilos of cocaine were
        discovered wrapped around his waist as he checked in for his flight

                              69
        out of Grenada at Point Salines International Airport. (September)

1994:   Agnes Bishop was freed by the Courts, for being in    possession
        of 45 lbs of marijuana. (October 31)

1994:   Recommission of NDAC for another two-year term. Mr. Evelyn
        Cenac was appointed as Chairman of NDAC. (November 1)

1994:   A Police Officer claimed that he was robbed on Church Street, St.
        George's, of 18 ozs of exhibit cocaine, while on his way to the St.
        George's Magistrates Court. (December 2)

1995:   Seizure of 55 boxes of marijuana (3818 lbs) on a beach in
        Calivigny, by the Police. (January 9)

1995:   Bilateral Agreement for the Tracing, Freezing and Confiscating the
        Proceeds of Drug Trafficking, was signed between the Government
        of the United Kingdom and the Government of Grenada (February
        6)

1995:   Details began emerging of a "drug-taking ring" at Richmond Hill
        Prisons, involving mainly inmates. (February)

1995:   A 19-year old woman, Louie-Ann Daniel, of Pearls, St. Andrew's,
        was arrested for trying to smuggle drugs into Richmond Hill
        Prisons, for her boyfriend, an inmate. (February)

1995:   Launch of "THE NEWSLETTER", by the Drug Avoidance
        Secretariat. (March 22)

1995:   Launch of "LIVING DRUG FREE", on Community Channel
        Television. (April 12)

1995:   Shipriders Agreement: Maritime Counter Drug Agreement was
        signed between the Government of Grenada and the Government
        of the United States of America (May 16). This Agreement was
        then amended to allow overflights/order to land, on November 26,
        1996.

1995:   Commencement of the revision of the National Master Plan on
        Drug Control. The first draft was completed on May 20.


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1995:       An Englishman, James Haynes, was fined EC $25,000.00 for
            possession of a controlled drug and possession with intent to
            supply almost 5 lbs of cocaine. (June 9)

1995: A Task Force on Crime was established by the Government of Grenada.
            NDAC's is represented on the Task Force by its Chairman, Mr.
            Evelyn Cenac (May 19). Following the1995 General Elections, a
            new Task Force was appointed. Mr. Dave Alexander, Drug
            Avoidance Officer, Ministry of Education, was appointed as a
            member of the Task Force. (August 19).

1995:       St. Andrew's Skills Training Programme for unemployed women,
            was conducted in Tivoli, St. Andrew's. It was sponsored Barclays
            Bank PLC at the cost of EC $5965.00. It was the first such
            programme to be conducted by NDAC. (September 18-29)

1995:       Donation of a Computer, valued at EC $15,000.00 to the Drug
            Avoidance Secretariat Avoidance Secretariat, by the British High
            Commission, Grenada. (October 18)

1996:       Memorandum of Understanding for the Establishment and
            Operation of a Joint Information Coordination Centre (JICC), to
            facilitate the exchange of information related to narcotics
            trafficking, was signed between the Government of Grenada and
            the Government of the United States of America. (February 13)

1996:       Training programme for Prison Officers in Drug Treatment and
            Rehabilitation, was co-sponsored by the Florida Association of
            Voluntary Agencies for Caribbean Action (FAVA/CA), and NDAC.
            This was the first such programme to be conducted in Grenada.
            (February 19-21)

1996:       Grenada became a signatory to the Treaty, which upgraded the
            Memorandum of Understanding, under which the Regional Security
            System functioned. (February 21)

1996:       Mutual    Legal Assistance Treaty, and an Extradition Treaty were
            signed    between the Governments of Grenada and the United
            States    of America. The Extradition Treaty replaced the 1931
            Treaty.   (May 30)

1996:       Launch of programme, "Total Eradication of Drugs" (T.E.D) by

                                   71
               the Royal Grenada Police Force, at workshop at Rex Grenadian
        Hotel, Point Salines, St. George's. (June 5)

1996:         Commissioner of Prisons, Mr. Winston Courtney, alleged that
              Clergymen are numbered among the island's Drug Lords. The
              allegation was made at the launching of T.E.D. (June 5)

1996:         Grenada became a member of the Inter-American Drug Abuse
              Control Commission (CICAD), at the Twenty-Sixth Regular Session
              of the Organization of American States, Panama City, Panama.
              (June 3-7)

1996:         Establishment of a computerized database of drug-related
              information at the Drug Avoidance Secretariat.

1996:         Grenada     began     participation in     the   Inter-American
              Telecommunications System for Drug Control (SITCOD). Provision
              of computer software and hardware, and training was provided by
              the OAS. (October)

1996:         Commencement of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E)
              programme in sixteen Primary Schools in Grenada and Carriacou.
              DARE is being taught by eight Police Officers. (October 7-11)

1996:         The two-year mandate of the National Drug Avoidance Committee
              was completed. (November 1)

1996:         Popular MC Michael "Senator" Mitchell was given a seven year jail
              sentence for handling a controlled drug, possession and intent to
              export (seven years for intent to export the drug, five years for
              possession and two years for handling. The years are to run
              concurrently). He was arrested at Point Salines International
              Airport in October 1994, along with Clarke John, and Michael Cox,
              when100 lbs of compressed marijuana were found in five boxes of
              fruit they were about to export. Cox was given seven years for
              attempting to export and five for handling. The years are to run
              concurrently also. John was acquitted on a no case submission.
              (December 19)

1996:         A 22 year old British woman, Natalie Fairclough was arrested by
              Police after she was allegedly caught with six ounces of cocaine
              inside her vagina, at Point Salines International Airport, when she

                                     72
        was clearing security to take a flight back home. Also arrested in
        connection with the discovery of the cocaine was Lawrence "Riley"
        Lendore of Woburn, St. George's. He was charged with
        conspiracy to export a controlled drug, with Fairclough.
        (December 14). In January 1997, she was found guilty, and fined
        EC $75,000.00 or three years imprisonment.

1997:   The Ministry of Education received 8,000 pamphlets on drug abuse
        prevention, for distribution to students in Primary and Secondary
        schools. The pamphlets were produced and donated by the
        Regional Office of the United Nations International Drug Control
        Programme, Barbados. (January 8)

1997:   Grenada signed the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy which was
        adopted by the Organization of American States to combat drug
        abuse. (March 25)




1997:   The Drug Avoidance Secretariat began the use of Internet
        services, as part of the Inter-American Telecommunications
        System for Drug Control (SITCOD), which is funded by the OAS.
        (August 7)




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