The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome the discovery

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					The Legacy of Ancient Greece
        and Rome

   the discovery of reality
        and humanity
    Ancient Greece (need years)

• We value the Greeks because they
  invented many of the ideas and
  techniques that are the basis for modern
  Western civilization, such as: philosophy,
  history, realistic art, lyric poetry, and
  science.
The influence of Egyptian sculpture (left, 2575 BCE) on
  the early Greek Kore from Delos (right, 650 BCE)
   Greek korai sculptures over time, from left (older)
                 to right (more recent)
Kouros from Attica                                   Kouros from Anavysos
                     The Calf-Bearer   Peplos Kore   530 BCE
600 BCE
                     550 BCE           530 BCW
The Kritios Boy, Acropolis,
           Athens 490BCE
 The philosopher Protagoras sums up
   the attitude of Greek intellectual
       thought when he writes:
• “Man is the measure of all things, of
  the existence of those that exist, and
  of the nonexistence of those that do
  not.”
Perhaps the most human-centered intellectual
     work of the Greeks is philosophy.
            What is philosophy?
Perhaps the most human-centered intellectual
     work of the Greeks is philosophy.
            What is philosophy?
  • Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom.”
Perhaps the most human-centered intellectual
     work of the Greeks is philosophy.
            What is philosophy?
  • Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom.”
  • In the Western tradition it usually refers to inquiries into
    the nature and ultimate significance of human
    experience, including such areas as logic, metaphysics,
    epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, and politics.
Perhaps the most human-centered intellectual
     work of the Greeks is philosophy.
            What is philosophy?
  • Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom.”
  • In the Western tradition it usually refers to inquiries into
    the nature and ultimate significance of human
    experience, including such areas as logic, metaphysics,
    epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, and politics.
  • Philosophy is not religion. Greek philosophers turned
    away from religious teachings to study the above topics,
    using the power of human reason to try to discover how
    the world came into being and how it works, and to
    understand the place of humans in it.
The first schools of philosophy:
The first schools of philosophy:
• Materialism: the earliest school of Greek
  philosophy. Sought to explain all phenomena in
  terms of one or more elements.
The first schools of philosophy:
• Materialism: the earliest school of Greek
  philosophy. Sought to explain all phenomena in
  terms of one or more elements.
• Pythagoreanism: mathematical relationships
  represent underlying order of universe.
The first schools of philosophy:
• Materialism: the earliest school of Greek
  philosophy. Sought to explain all phenomena in
  terms of one or more elements.
• Pythagoreanism: mathematical relationships
  represent underlying order of universe.
• Dualism: there are two worlds, the world around
  us and an ideal world accessible only through
  the intellect and reason.
The first schools of philosophy:
• Materialism: the earliest school of Greek
  philosophy. Sought to explain all phenomena in
  terms of one or more elements.
• Pythagoreanism: mathematical relationships
  represent underlying order of universe.
• Dualism: there are two worlds, the world around
  us and an ideal world accessible only through
  the intellect and reason.
• Atomism: reality consists of ultimate,
  unchangable particles that are not obvious to the
  eye and also of void (nothingness).
     The Greek Classical Ideal
• The belief that the quest for reason and order
  could succeed.
          The Classical Ideal
• The belief that the quest for reason and order
  could succeed.
• Existence can be ordered and controlled.
          The Classical Ideal
• The belief that the quest for reason and order
  could succeed.
• Existence can be ordered and controlled.
• Human ability can triumph over the apparent
  chaos of the natural world and create a
  balanced society.
          The Classical Ideal
• The belief that the quest for reason and order
  could succeed.
• Existence can be ordered and controlled.
• Human ability can triumph over the apparent
  chaos of the natural world and create a
  balanced society.
• The aim of life should be a perfect balance:
  everything in due proportion; “nothing too much.”
          The Classical Ideal
• The belief that the quest for reason and order
  could succeed.
• Existence can be ordered and controlled.
• Human ability can triumph over the apparent
  chaos of the natural world and create a
  balanced society.
• The aim of life should be a perfect balance:
  everything in due proportion; “nothing too much.”
• Individuals can achieve order by understanding
  the motives for their own action.
    The Classical Ideal informs every
        aspect of Greek culture:
•   Greek philosophy
•   Greek architecture
•   Greek sculpture
•   Greek drama
•   Greek history
The Parthenon, a temple built for Athena atop the Acropolis, Athens
   The Classical
            Style:
    ideal beauty
 represented in
  realistic terms
     Chrysippus writes: “beauty
   consists of the proportion of
the parts; of finger to finger; of
 all the fingers to the palm and
        the wrist; of those to the
 forearm; of the forearm to the
     upper arm; and of all these
    parts to one another, as set
            forth in The Canon of
                       Polykleitos”
This statue by Praxiteles (copied
many times) represents the
discovery of the female body as an
object of beauty in itself.

It is also one of the first attempts to
bring the element of sensuality into
the portrayal of the female form.
              Athenian Drama
• Athens the center of dramatic production in Greece; plays
  produced for the festival of Dionysus, god of wine and
  song.
• The Athenian tragic dramatists: Aeschylus, Sophocles,
  Euripides. Tragedy is the art of hamartia and catharsis.
• The Athenian comedies (Aristophanes): mocked the
  constantly warring culture of Greece.
Philosophy in the Late Classical Period:
       Platonist and Aristotelian
• Socrates: proponent of the Socratic method of
  questioning of traditional values through dialog
• Plato: Socrates‟s student; wrote down the dialogs of
  Socrates; founded The Academy (the first univesity);
  proposed concept of ideal societies and forms in works
  such as The Theory of Forms and The Republic
• Aristotle: Plato‟s student; founded the Lyceum in
  competition with The Academy; known as the great
  systematizer; rejected in works such as The Metaphysics
  and The Rhetoric Plato‟s other-worldly idealism in favor
  of the analysis of the essences of the material and
  mental world as directly experienced; inspiration for
  modern science.
Rome, circa CE 320
 Rome conquers Greece in the
    second century BCE
• And in the process Rome assimilates and
  adapts many parts of Greek culture,
  including:
• Philosophy
• Literature
• Sculpture
• Architecture
• Religion (same pantheon of gods as the
  Greeks, but different names)
Roman sculptors worked in the classical
  Greek style, but with a difference:
         Polykleitos‟s Greek Spear Bearer (left)



                Roman emperor
                Augustus (right)

          The Roman orator
          Cicero (below)
               Roman architecture

The column (Greek)   The arch (Etruscan)   The dome (Roman)
The power of
    the arch:
     massive
basilicas and
  aqueducts
The dome creates huge buildings
with open interior spaces such as
         The Pantheon
                     Medieval Art




10th Century Russian Icon (left) and 14th Century Florentine Passion (right)
A Medieval
Book Cover

Carved in Ivory

Note the highly
symbolic
arrangement of
the figures.
Illiterate worshippers would learn the Bible by „reading‟ sculptures
above church doorways. What do they learn here?
Medieval Art
in the
International
Style

Note the bright
colors, crowded
composition,
and rounded
figures

No single-point
perspective
Everyman

Medieval
morality
play