ACCRA-ACTION PLAN WORKSHOP ON CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING by spo23891

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									                                                 Document of
                             The International Fund for Agricultural Development

                                             For Official Use Only




                                         ACCRA-ACTION PLAN
                 WORKSHOP ON CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING
             INITIATIVE FOR THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA REGION
                                   (Accra, Ghana 20 - 22 March, 2006)




                                            Africa I Division
                                    Programme Management Department

                                                   May 2006




This report has a restricted distribution and may be used by recipients only in the performance of their official
duties. Its contents may not be disclosed without authorization of the International Fund for Agricultural
Development (IFAD)
                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                            Pages


LIST OF ACRONYMS                                                                               ii

INTRODUCTION                                                                                  01

CHAPTER I                                                       02
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING
IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA AND IFAD’S EXPERIENCE

A.     The cassava sub-sector in Western and Central Africa                                   02
B.     Market segments and untapped potential                                                 03

CHAPTER II                                                                                    06
REGIONAL PROCESSING AND MARKETING INITIATIVE ON CASSAVA

A.     Justification and rationale                                                            06
B.     Objectives                                                                             07
C.     Adopting a commodity chain approach                                                    07

CHAPTER III                                                                                   09
THE ACCRA ACTION PLAN

A.     Approach                                                                               09
B.     Key lessons                                                                            09
C.     Action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products                              10
D.     Action plan for development of the High Quality Cassava Flour                          14
E.     Action plan for the development of the “industrial use” of cassava commodity chain     20



ANNEXES


I.     IFAD’s engagement in the cassava sub-sector
II.    Workshop agenda
III.   List of workshop participants
IV.    List of powerpoints presentations produced during the workshop




                                                 i
                                LIST OF ACRONYMS


AIP        Advanced Industrial Processing commodity chain
BAFCO      Ba nyanie Agro Food Processing Organization
BDS        Business Development Service
BFP        Basic Food Processing commodity chain
CC         Commodity Chain
CIAT       International Centre for Tropical Agriculture
CIRAD      Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le
           développement
CMP        Cassava Multiplication Programme
ECCAS      Economic Community of Central African States
ECOWAS     Economic Community of West African States
E10        Policy for petrol in Nigeria (10% inclusion of ethanol in Premium Motor Spirit)
EMPRETEC   Entrepreneurship, Employment, Export: UNCTAD’s Integrated Capacity-Building
           Programme to promote SME development
FAO        Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FRI        Food Research Institute
GCDS       Global Cassava Development Strategy
GDP        Gross Domestic Product
HQCF       High Quality Cassava Flour
IFAD       International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFP        Improved Food Processing commodity chain
IITA       International Institute for Tropical Agriculture
MOFA       Minister for Food and Agriculture
MTCE       Ministry of Trade, Commerce and Economy
NEPAD      New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NGO        Non Governmental Organization
NPACI      NEPAD Pan-African Cassava Initiative
NRI        Natural Resources Institute
PA         Western and Central Africa Division, IFAD
PDRT       Programme de Développement des Racines et Tubercules (Benin )
PNDRT      Programme national de développement des racines et tubercules (Cameroon)
PSI        Presidential Special Initiative, Ghana
R&T        Root and Tuber
REP        Rural Enterprise Project
RPMIC      Regional Processing and Marketing Initiative on Cassava
RTEP       Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (Nigeria)
RTIMP      Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme (Ghana)
SME        Small and Medium Enterprises
TIR        Tri-term implementation review
USD        United States dollar
WCA        Western and Central Africa




                                            ii
                                         INTRODUCTION


1.        IFAD has over the past ten years invested considerably in the development of the cassava
sub-sector. A brainstorming meeting convened by IFAD in 1996 in Rome in collaboration with the
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the International Institute of
Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the National
Resources Institute (NRI) and the Centre de cooperation internationale en recherché agronomique pour
le développement (CIRAD) paved the way for the formulation of a Global Cassava Development
Strategy (GCDS). In addition, IFAD is supporting the cassava sub-sector by funding national
programmes in Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria totalling over USD100 million since 1996.
2.        Today, the development of the cassava sub-sector is a key component of IFAD’s Regional
Strategy for Western and Central Africa (WCA) given: a) the importance of cassava in terms of
household food security in rural areas, especially for the rural poor; b) the gender dimension of
cassava production which sees women taking a leading role in processing and marketing activities; c)
the strategic dimension of cassava for the future generations of the region: with increasing
urbanization rates, cassava products can offer a response to the growing demand for food products
which will otherwise require an increase in food imports; and d) the possibilities offered by the
regional market which is increasingly integrated.
3.         The perceived challenge at present is that ongoing efforts are not enough and that cassava
needs a further push to get to the position it deserves. In order to grasp new opportunities offered by
the WCA cassava market, IFAD has developed a Regional Processing and Marketing Initiative on
Cassava (RPMIC). The initiative’s long-term objective is to link IFAD-funded root and tuber projects
to regional markets through the development of commodity chains. The initiative is a response to the
call from African leaders, through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), to accord
priority to cassava in the regional agricultural development strategies.
4.         The RPMIC was kicked-off through a regional workshop in Accra during March 20-22,
2006. Participants of the workshop included private sector operators (small-scale processors, farmers,
traders, semi-industrial and industrial processors), IFAD-funded R&T projects, researchers, farmers’
organisations and IFAD staff. The objectives of the Accra-workshop were the following: a) learning
and exchanging experiences; b) identifying opportunities for the development of certain cassava
products; c) identifying key issues which would need further reflection and research; d) identifying
regional policy issues to be addressed at both national and regional level; and, e) developing concrete
action plans for identified key cassava chains.
5.         This document presents the findings of the Accra-workshop. Chapter I gives a brief
description of the context, key challenges and opportunities of the cassava sub-sector. Chapter II
presents the rationale and approach of the RPMIC. Chapter III contains the action plans prepared by
the participants for the three selected commodity chains.
                                             CHAPTER I

OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING
       IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA AND IFAD’S EXPERIENCE

                  A.       The cassava sub-sector in Western and Central Africa
1.       Since the early sixties, cassava has been a strong growth engine for the rural economy in the
forest and savannah belt of Western and Central Africa. Domestic, urban and rural demand have been
pulling cassava production. Over the period 1961-2005 the cumulated annual growth rate of cassava
production was 3.85% in Western Africa and 2.60% in Central Africa. In 2004, production of fresh
cassava roots amounted to 56 million tons in Western Africa and 28 million tons in Central Africa.
The annual value of fresh roots at farm gate can be estimated at USD 3 to 4 billion. Cassava’s
contribution to the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is increasing rapidly in most countries
of WCA (already 46% in Ghana), which reflects its growing importance as a cash crop and urban food
staple. Its cultivation is still expanding further from coastal areas to the dry savannah as farmers are
desperate to identify new cash crops and income generating opportunities. The introduction of high-
yielding and disease tolerant varieties and mechanization of certain processing stages has contributed
to this expansive trend.
2.       Traditional cassava food products, with a share of 95% of all cassava produced and harvested,
will continue to dominate distribution channels in the short and medium term. The growth rate of this
sub-sector has been at least 4-6% per annum since the 1960s and should remain high with progressing
urbanization. It already provides livelihoods to more than 30 million processors (often poor rural
women) in the region, as well as to numerous equipment manufacturers, wholesale and retail traders,
and transporters. In addition, small-scale cassava processing has gradually become the main source of
non-farm rural employment in many countries. Nevertheless, the emerging cassava commodity chains
are almost completely informal, poorly organized, with the processing and marketing segments
requiring strong upgrading, both in terms of “soft” and “hard” infrastructure. Processing equipment
(graters, presses, mills, stoves) is easily adopted, but is expensive, not standardized and often of poor
quality. Access to credit for investment in equipment remains a challenge. The chains have high unit
costs, generally a low labour productivity and a low innovation rate (artisanal mechanization) and
deliver products of an irregular quality. This reduces competitiveness of cassava in the domestic
market where it competes with imported wheat and rice.
3.       Growth potential in other sectors than the traditional food sector is significant, but remains
mostly untapped. Nigeria is the most advanced country in the industrial use of cassava, followed by
Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Limited progress has been made in Benin, Cameroon and Sierra Leone.
Governments in the region favour the industrial utilization of cassava (ethanol, starch, unfermented
cassava flour as substitute of imported wheat). However, the industry is often reluctant to use or has
difficulties to buy cassava because: a) structured supply lines and outgrower schemes do not exist:
although farm gate prices are often low, bulking significant volumes is quite expensive and time-
consuming because of small surpluses per farm and small transactions with the result that most
production zones with a 50-km radius are not able to supply a significant volume (more than 100
tons/day) during an extended period; b) cassava prices have a strong cyclical component: only at
levels of less than USD30 per ton can cassava compete with grains; c) cassava has an image problem:
livestock owners prefer maize as an energy source whilst industrial users prefer wheat flour and
imported cornstarch because cassava flour and starch are associated with poor processing techniques,
low quality, irregular supply and are at times more expensive. In order to become competitive as an
industrial raw material, cassava will have to surpass the rates of improvement in efficiency achieved
by the major grain crops. Continuous efforts to bring down the cost of production and to organize
supply lines are required.




                                                   2
Table 1. Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Constraints (SWOT analysis) of
         the Cassava sub-sector in WCA

                       Strengths                                              Weaknesses
                                                   •       Smallholder farmers often commercialize only a
•   Large, traditional food market                         minor part of production (not specialized and rarely
•   Although mostly informal, very widespread              organized)
    availability of food-related processing and    •       Land tenure regulation uncertain
    trade                                          •       Market infrastructure needs improvements
•   Cross border trade channels already exist              (information, roads, storage, markets)
•   Cassava is price competitive in some product   •       Fresh roots too expensive for industrial use
    markets (eg. animal feed)                      •       Commodity Chains are in an embryonic stage
•   IITA (and other research centres) experience   •       Poor primary stakeholders organizations
    and knowledge                                  •       Policy makers support does not necessarily match
•   Pretty large consensus on what are the                 business needs
    winning factors to have high rate cassava      •       In most non-consumable-food product markets,
    growth                                                 cassava is a substitute for other crops
                                                   •       Industrial processing level nearly not existing
                                                   •       Long term price cycles

                   Opportunities                                                Threats
•   Growing urbanization, new distribution
    channels (eg. supermarkets)                    •       Aggressive competition for cassava industrial use,
•   Changing consumers’ food habits, demand for            particularly from Asian countries
    convenience food                               •       Low international market prices
•   New markets can be developed (eg. small        •       Low local consumer purchasing power
    scale animal feed or HQCF for food industry)   •       Change of consumers’ food habits
•   Intensifying cassava-based human food          •       Added value grows downstream in the commodity
    processing and trade                                   chain
•   Governments become aware of possible           •       Sector policies not aligned
    cassava industry development                   •       Africa’s conflicting interests that prevent cassava to
•   NEPAD Initiative on Cassava (NPACI) and                become continental staple
    Donors’ interest                               •       Imported cereals


                             B.    Market segments and untapped potential
4.      Cassava has still a high untapped potential. As previously mentioned, in all WCA countries,
the key strength is the presence of a widespread, growing human food market and the opportunity to
further develop it through intensification and diversification. Human food is still the dominant use of
cassava in sub-Saharan Africa (95%), compared to 55% in Asia and 40% in Latin America. An
expansion into other market segments (see: table 2) would allow cassava production to keep growing
and to have significant alternative sales outlets in the medium to long term. Several new product
markets, such as high quality cassava flour, ethanol and feed seem viable on the basis of economic
analyses. Table 3 summarizes the opportunities and type of commodity chain required.


Table 2. Market segments and products
                 Market                                             Product Family
Traditional food products                Gari, dried/milled roots, attiéké, paste, boiled roots
                                         Cassava leaves
Feed                                     Cassava chips and pellets, feed millers
                                         Commercial farms and smallholders
Food-grade flour                         Bread and biscuits, cassava snacks (unfermented)
                                         Cassava snacks (fermented flour)
Starch and derivates                     Textile, paper and plywood, glucose syrup, biodegradable plastics
                                         and industrial chemicals
Ethanol                                  Fresh roots or chips for production of ethanol
                                                       3
5.       At the moment, the political goodwill exists to develop new products and market segments for
cassava in Western and Central Africa. A number of initiatives have been taken by the Government of
Nigeria to support cassava utilization. These include: i) the set-up of a Presidential Committee on
national cassava production and export in 2002; ii) the mandatory inclusion, since January 2005, of
10% cassava flour in all composite flour formulations for the baking and confectionary industry; iii)
the introduction of gari in the National Strategic Food Reserve Programme; iv) the ban on poultry
imports, which may well spur local cassava chips processing. In Benin, Sierra Leone and Ghana,
Government’s policy at post-harvest level is to develop the HQCF niche and to upgrade traditional
processing. Also other industrial uses of cassava are being analysed. In Ghana, a Presidential Special
Initiative launched the Ayenso Starch Factory.
6.       Traditional food products. Urbanization and rural exodus will also be the future driving
force behind market demand for cassava in most Western and Central African countries. Average
population growth is about 2.8 percent in most countries, but urban growth is generally higher (4-6
percent) than rural growth (0-1 percent); a five percent annual urban growth rate results in a 63 percent
increase in the urban population in ten years. The low growth or stagnation of the rural population and
number of farm households implies that the marketable surplus of cassava per household could be
made available to fulfil growing domestic market demand. Future urban consumption of cassava will
depend on: a) how well cassava is prepared into convenient food forms (quality, packaging, sales
outlet), which will make it an alternative to wheat, rice and maize; and b) cassava’s ability to compete
with grains in terms of cost and availability. Currently, traditional cassava processing is done by
informal processing groups of women and entrepreneurs, organised in informal processing units.
Future growth rates in this segment will remain high, as experience has shown that these units are
more competitive than medium-scale enterprise initiatives. Traditional processing of cassava is
characterized by enormous differences in quality of equipment, know-how, business skills, bargaining
power, quality of products, hygiene and packaging.
7.     In the short and medium term, the triple challenge for the development of the traditional food
products sector includes:
            a) developing a chain of high-quality cassava products in order to respond to the niche of
               quality convenience foods (and to compete with rice). This niche exists in the so-
               called ethnic export market, but is often less developed in the domestic market. The
               challenge will be “to bring cassava in the supermarket”;
            b) pilot testing with packaging material (e.g. the Sierra Leone experience where BAFCO
               succeeds in introducing improved retail packaging for gari at a large scale and to
               position premium gari with a higher price in the market, using modern marketing
               techniques in combination with capacity training of processors); and
            c) the necessity to gradually upgrade the chains for bulking of traditional cassava
               products. There is room for designing pilot processing plants that are improved with
               respect to layout, labour productivity, product quality, hygiene, environmental aspects
               and equipment. In addition, return to capital should be sufficient to finance these units
               on the basis of loans. Until today, projects and research institutes have failed in
               developing an affordable and appropriate prototype of a group-owned cassava
               processing facility. Pilot plants should be low cost, based on the successful informal
               concepts, designed using a participative exchange and tested with existing processor
               groups in order to satisfy their specific requirements.
8.      Feed. The expansion of the use of cassava in domestic livestock feed has short and medium-
term potential. Research has shown that the use of cassava instead of maize can reduce the cost of feed
by 20-30%. During the next decades, meat and poultry consumption is predicted to increase sharply in
the coastal urban mega cities of Western and Central Africa. In order for cassava to be competitive,
the price of dried cassava chips should not exceed 70 percent of the maize price. Two options have
potential:
            a) organizing farmers in outgrower schemes, introducing chipping equipment and drying
               floors, and develop supply lines for the feed industry. A major challenge will be to
               improve the drying process of chips;

                                                   4
            b) promoting the use of cassava and its by-products (peels) as feed components at farm
               level (both commercial and smallholder farms).
9.       Food-grade unfermented cassava flour. The high-quality cassava flour as substitute to
imported wheat niche is growing rapidly in Nigeria. The recent policy of the 10% inclusion of cassava
flour in bread in Nigeria might be a breakthrough for the use of HQCF in the region. In Ghana, the
plywood industry is seen as an important potential client for cassava flour, but effective demand is yet
unclear. In Benin, Cameroon and Ghana, small-scale bakeries are interested in the use of composite
flour. In Ghana, part of the HQCF is turned into instant fufu that finds its ways to the supermarkets.
Supply systems for industrial users do not exist yet. Key constraint to produce high quality cassava
flour are: i) the drying process and the cost of energy; ii) access of small and medium-size enterprises
to working capital; iii) non-existence of commodity chains. Development of good and cheap solar
dryers, as well as (hybrid) forced dryers is necessary in order to produce cassava flour that can
compete with imported wheat flour. In Ghana, grits (grated fresh root material that is pressed and
subsequently dried) are used as intermediate products to speed-up the drying process. The problems of
sun-drying are: poor hygienic conditions, humid weather conditions in forest areas and during rainy
seasons. Attempts to use mechanical dryers have failed because of the high energetic cost, although
technically an excellent quality flour was obtained.
10.      Industrial utilisation of cassava. The industrial use of cassava in Asia is based on efficient
root production, chipping, drying and pelletizing. Although farmers in sub-Saharan Africa complain
that there is surplus production, cassava is not yet available as a competitive commercial commodity.
Future industrial use of cassava will depend on how well supply lines of fresh roots and intermediate
forms (chips, pellets, grits) can be organized. Bringing down cost of production, post-harvest of fresh
roots/chips and bulking remain major challenges for the next decade. The principal bottleneck for
industrial use of cassava is to organize cassava supply in a cost-efficient way and to guarantee an
equitable share of profits to peasant farmers.
11.      In West Africa the strong cyclical fluctuations in price/availability of raw material over the
years, especially near the cities, hinders a sustainable production flow, as in some years farmers can
get higher prices for their roots than can be obtained by wheat substitution. Farmers and other
stakeholders are highly market and opportunity oriented. They pop out easily if current prices or other
stimuli interfere; low trust is involved therein. This leads to a stop-and-go of innovative SME
initiatives.
12.      International markets. International cassava markets require national competitive systems
that are currently not available in WCA (except for the ethnic food market). Export of cassava pellets
to the European food sector is not a viable option given the huge gap between current international
prices for cassava pellets and chips and the Freight-On-Board (FOB) price in Western Africa. Also,
locally produced cassava starch is not competitive in international markets.


Table 3. Summary of opportunities and type of commodity chain
             Market             Product Market          Ranking       Opportunity         Type of CC
            Geography                                                 Timeframe            involved

             Domestic       Traditional food products       1           Short term          BFP, IFP
  Benin                           Animal Feed               3           Mid term              IFP
Cameroon                      Flour for bakery and          3           Mid term              IFP
                             confectionary industry
             Regional       Traditional food products       2          Short term             IFP
             Domestic       Traditional food products       1          Short term           BFP, IFP
                                  Animal Feed               3           Mid Term            IFP, AIP
 Ghana                        Flour for bakery and          3      Short Term               IFP, AIP
 Nigeria                     confectionary industry                (Nigeria) /
                                                                        Mid Term
                                     Starch                 5          Long Term              AIP
              Regional      Traditional food products       2          Short term           BFP, IFP
                                     Starch                 5          Long Term              AIP

                                                    5
                                             CHAPTER II
         REGIONAL PROCESSING AND MARKETING INITIATIVE ON CASSAVA

                                  A.       Justification and rationale
1.       The need for a Regional Processing and Marketing Initiative on Cassava (RPMIC) in Western
and Central Africa comes from the recognition that the mere support of farmers in developing their
cassava production practices is not enough to improve their livelihoods in a sustainable way. It is no
guarantee to long-term competitiveness of cassava in a global, liberalized economy. IFAD’s regional
initiative, which will focus on processing and marketing aspects, should leverage existing country
strategies, complementing them either where the scope of intervention is beyond the national domain
(e.g. regional policies), or where an identified benefit of supra-national action exists. The regional
initiative will maximize cooperation and ability to catch synergies at national and regional level.
2.    The RPMIC is coherent with the national cassava sub-sector strategies in Nigeria, Benin,
Cameroon, Ghana and Sierra Leone, as well as with the NEPAD Pan Africa Cassava Initiative
(NPACI)’s which specific objective and vision is to create a cassava market pull.
3.      The RPMIC is based on the following assumptions:
              a) market demand drives processing and production;
              b) the cassava sub-sector is composed of several markets segments (food, feed, flour,
                 starch, etc.). Each segment defines a competitive system with its own requirements. In
                 order to be successful and competitive, processing and production in a market
                 segment must comply with the market requirements of that segment; and
              c) at the moment, only the traditional food market segment (gari, attiéké, fermented
                 flour, paste, boiled root) is booming, but other segments have short and medium-term
                 potential (HQCF, ethanol, feed) as economic analyses have shown (as per table 3).
4.      The RPMIC will promote the following drives among stakeholders, while keeping the focus
on IFAD’s target groups: i) have market opportunities guide development plans throughout cassava
supply chains; ii) utilization of the value chain approach, estimating participants’ costs and benefits for
each opportunity, should lead the selection of criteria for new ventures; iii) the involvement of the
“private sector” (private entrepreneurs) is a necessary condition to successfully and sustainably
develop the cassava sector through required know-how, business skills, and investments.
5.      The RPMIC will work along two axes:
        i.        Synergies exploitation
              •   supporting fruitful “sharing and innovation” among IFAD-funded programmes;
              •   setting up of knowledge-sharing practices among IFAD programmes, through the
                  Fidafrique regional information network; and
              •   supporting policy dialogue at national and regional levels based on ongoing
                  experiences.
        ii.       Market development
              •   consolidating a WCA market development strategy (based on demand, products,
                  volumes, expected return on investments);
              •   taking action on pursuing selected market opportunities, starting with pilot
                  programmes; and
              •   spurring dialogue at all levels to strengthen industry commodity chains and voice
                  cassava sector development needs.
6.      The RPMIC will adopt a pragmatic approach and develop a limited number of pilot value
chains. Crucial guiding principles for screening and selecting commodity chains, based on a private
sector partnership approach, are the following:
                                                    6
            •   building on existing strengths, intensifying and diversifying existing food product
                markets;
            •   preferably targeting national and regional markets;
            •   developing new markets in line with national and sub-regional competitive systems;
            •   identifying opportunities is not enough; delivering is a must (through commodity
                chains);
            •   exchanging lessons learned; and
            •   spurring dialogue and partnerships at all levels to support efforts to strengthen the
                cassava industry.
7.      The RPMIC will adopt a commodity chain approach. Processes will be demand-driven and as
consultative as possible, always including private stakeholders (entrepreneurs, processors and
farmers). The Accra workshop represents the first step, when private stakeholders were involved in the
preparation of the three action plans (see Chapt. III). On the basis of the mentioned analyses and
guiding principles, the Accra working groups explored three commodity chains:
            a) upgrading of traditional cassava products;
            b) developing the High Quality Cassava Flour commodity chain; and
            c) organizing smallholders’ outgrower schemes for industrial utilization of cassava.
8.      All partners will assist IFAD in advancing policy dialogue among cassava industry
stakeholders and sub-regional and regional institutions.

                                          B.         Objectives
9.      The general objective of the RPMIC is to make IFAD cassava-related programmes more
effective in the field of processing and marketing through proper coordination among them as well as
other similar non-IFAD initiatives.
10.     The specific objectives are the following:
            •   focusing on maximizing cross-fertilization among IFAD programs (loans and grants)
                and on best exploitation of existing (food) product markets; and
            •   developing new markets (also for existing products) and emphasizing policy dialogue
                to support industry efforts.

                          C.       Adopting a commodity chain approach
11.      The RPMIC will adopt a Commodity Chain Approach, which is per definition a pragmatic,
results-oriented approach. A Commodity Chain (CC) describes the full range of activities required to
bring a product (e.g. fresh cassava) from its conception (in our case described as production)
throughout all intermediary transformation (e.g. processing) and delivery (e.g. marketing) phases to
final consumers. The latter ones can be either individuals, consuming the product for personal benefit
or entities, using the product as an intermediate good. In its most elementary form, a CC can,
therefore, be represented as follows (although in reality it could include several transformation stages
before getting to the final users).



      Production                    Processing                        Marketing




                                                     7
12.     A CC is more complicated than “a supply chain” and is made up of the primary stakeholders
of a specific industry. A Cassava CC may involve many different players: importers, producers,
processors, transporters, marketers/traders, wholesalers retailers and exporters. Each one has her/his
specific role in the CC as well as a particular relationship with the other chain participants and all,
generally, respect the agreed “rules of the game”.
13.      Commodity Chains are also referred to as value chains, value streams or value systems. In
these latter cases emphasis is put on the “value” generation aspect of a commodity chain as the driving
factor in the chain’s creation and evolution. There are three viewpoints that make value chain analysis
insightful:
            a) the CC approach investigates how rewards are distributed along the chain and what is
               their dynamism (rents/value);
            b) CCs are usually implicitly or explicitly governed. CC governance strongly influences
               the value captured by each player. Governance can be from within or from outside the
               CC itself; and
            c) the CC approach allows to move from        point-efficiency to system-efficiency by: i)
               increasing overall competitiveness; ii)    fostering cooperation based on successful
               experiences and common interests; iii)     understanding which improvements benefit
               most the chain; iv) spotting out new       market opportunities; v) assessing system
               constraints.
14.     The challenge of using the CC approach in cassava development will be to: i) establish
competitive and market-based CCs (demand-driven interventions); ii) identify leverage points and
areas of intervention to improve CC governance; iii) develop market linkages; iv) expand smallholder
farming and micro-enterprises (value distribution); v) improve target group bargaining power (higher
and more stable revenue) and equip the poor to respond to market signals and requirements; and, vi)
innovate production, processing and marketing.




                                                  8
                                                CHAPTER III

                                    THE ACCRA ACTION PLAN

                                            A.      Approach
1.     The basic idea of the Accra action plan is to select a limited number of cassava
products/market segments and to develop/improve their value chains.
2.      The Accra working groups have discussed and prepared action plans for three commodity
chains: i) upgrading of chains for traditional cassava products; ii) development of High Quality
Cassava Flour commodity chain; iii) integration of small farmers in outgrower schemes (supply chains
for industrial users of cassava). The work consisted of the following stages: a) preparing an analysis of
the present situation; b) understanding needs and setting objectives; c) developing action guidelines.
3.       The action plans: a) are formulated in terms of result-based outputs; b) include clear indicators
to measure progress; c) define potential leaders and partners for each activity, as well as potential
partnerships with ongoing projects and programmes; c) are complementary to ongoing IFAD-cassava
initiatives; d) are coherent with the NEPAD framework.
4.      Through the RPMIC, a secretariat will be established through Italian supplementary funds to
support and monitor implementation of the action plans.
5.       In order to optimize access to knowledge and information, the RPMIC will also:
     •   facilitate the organisation of regional learning and exchange events; and
     •   support regional information services: i) regularly update databases on market-related issues,
         easily accessible by stakeholders throughout the region, and supported by the project; ii)
         facilitate access to existing sources of information; iii) establish specific linkages with IFAD’s
         Information and Knowledge Networks at the regional level (i.e. Fidafrique) and NEPAD’s
         initiative on cassava;
     •   promote regional exchange and training on market–oriented thematics.


                                           B.       Key lessons
6.       Following key lessons learned from the workshop, discussions on the following themes are
crucial for the future development of the cassava value chains:
o    Cassava production:

         •   introduction of new varieties for specific use and with specific characteristics;
         •   increasing productivity; and
         •   promoting crop multiplication by smallholders.
o    Cassava processing:

         •   increase availability, reduce cost and standardize equipments (at local, regional and
             international level); and
         •   new products: how do we support innovation to respond to both urban and rural markets?
o    Cassava marketing:

         •   the need to target middle income consumers with high quality convenience food and the
             majority of people with improved forms of traditional products;
         •   quality should be linked to the different types of market and market segments;
         •   cassava should follow the world’s globalisation and standardisation trend; and
         •   regional support to market policies in one country should be avoided.



                                                     9
             C.       Action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products
7.   Major challenges identified by the working groups are the following:
     •   informal processing and marketing. Cassava cannot really compete with imported cereals
         as it is not available in supermarkets and other convenient sales outlets (where bread and
         rice are sold);
     •   efficient processing equipment not broadly used; equipment is expensive (no
         manufacturing line for equipment manufacturing); information database on processing
         equipment not available; unavailable working capital and lack of investment capital;
     •   lack of quality standards and control of quality; lack of sub-regional standardization
         technologies; weaknesses or lack of organized processors’ groups;
     •   weak transportation system;
     •   lack or inadequate processing infrastructures (water, energy, transportation); appropriate
         prototypes of group-owned cassava processing facilities not available;
     •   poor packaging (except interesting example in Sierra Leone);
     •   High-Quality Cassava exported to Europe, but not available in domestic supermarkets;
         and
     •   poor knowledge transfer across the region on improved technologies and successes.


8.   The objectives of the action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products are as follows:
         a) develop and promote good prototypes of processing facilities (best practice centres);
            develop a concept that responds to market requirements, with low investment costs
            (affordable for processing groups) but improved product quality, labour productivity,
            hygiene and environmental aspects. The concept should be based on successful
            informal processing plants, designed in a participative way;
         b) contribute to the standardization of processing equipment in Western and Central
            Africa;
         c) test the introduction of improved retail packaging at a large scale; and
         d) “bring cassava to the supermarket”: develop the domestic niche market for High
            Quality Cassava products, including introduction of improved packaging material (i.e.
            Sierra Leone).




                                               10
Table 4. Action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products
What?                      How?                                            Who is responsible?                         Indicators                                 Time scale
                                                                                                                                                                  (3-year project)
I) Improve cassava         1) Screening and distribution of high           1) Partnership among farmers, service       1) Private sector participants have        Ongoing activity of
production (ongoing work   yielding and disease-tolerant varieties         providers and ongoing IFAD-projects.        access to planting materials with          IFAD-projects
in IFAD projects)                                                          RPMIC could facilitate among IFAD-          specific characteristics
                                                                           projects and its own target groups
II) Design good            1) Participative design of prototype            1) Partnership among processing groups,     1) RPMCI recruits a service provider in    Year 1
prototypes of processing   processing plant in collaboration with          IFAD projects, RPMCI and NGOs (i.e.         quarter one
plants                     women groups (Ghana, Benin, Nigeria,            VECO, Benin; Christian Mothers
                           Sierra Leone)                                   Association, Ghana; etc.)
                           2) Construction of prototype processing         2) Processing groups, NGOs (service         2) First prototype is constructed in       Year 2-3
                           plant with women groups’experience              providers)                                  quarter 4, second in quarter 8, third in
                                                                                                                       quarter 12
                           3) Training of involved processing groups       3) RPMIC, processing groups, specialized    3) Reports in quarter 4, 8 and 12          Year 2-3
                           (re. hygiene, environmental issues,             NGOs and service providers
                           packaging, quality, energy use and the
                           like)
                           4) Participative monitoring of                  4) Specialized NGO                          4) Quarterly monitoring reports of         Year 1-3
                           stakeholders’ satisfaction. Monitoring as                                                   stakeholders’ satisfaction.
                           the basis of an ongoing learning and                                                        Feedback and learning system is
                           exchange process                                                                            operational
                           5) IFAD projects copy improved                  5) IFAD cassava projects                    5) Successful concept has been copied      Year 3
                           processing concepts                                                                         from year 3 onwards
III) Standardize and       1) Preparation of a regional strategy           1) Partnership: RPMIC, IFAD cassava         1a) Partnership established, through a     Year 1
upgrade cassava            document to standardize equipment.              Projects, IFAD rural enterprise projects,   memorandum of understanding signed
processing equipments      Organization of regional planning and           IITA and other important equipment          after 6 months
                           exchange event                                  manufacturers (Centre Songhai-Benin,        1b) Regional planning and exchange
                                                                           COBEMAG, GRATIS-Ghana, etc.)                event organized in year 1
                                                                                                                       1c) Operational regional strategy
                                                                                                                       document available before the end of
                                                                                                                       year 1
                           2) Identification of best performing            2) Partnership: RPMIC, IFAD country         2a) Partnership established, through a     Year 1
                           processing equipment (the objective             Projects, IITA and other important          memorandum of understanding signed
                           being not to prepare a comprehensive list       equipment manufacturers (Centre Songhai-    before the end of year 1
                           of all manufacturers, but to identify good      Benin, COBEMAG, GRATIS-Ghana, etc.)         2b) Prototype plants promote “best
                           prototypes of graters, presses, stoves, etc.)                                               performing equipment”



                                                                                       11
                          3) Organize regional learning events for      3) IITA/ GRATIS, IFAD to provide              3a) At least 1 regional learning event     Year 1-2
                          equipment         manufacturers          on   funding. IFAD to integrate cassava strategy   are organized in the region every year
                          standardization issues                        into its country programme.
                          4) Regional forum to discuss progress and     4) RPMIC facilitates the setting up of the    4) The regional learning event monitors    Annually, year 1-3
                          promote standardization of processing         forum for a highly specialized public of      and updates the standardization strategy
                          equipment                                     private sector entrepreneurs
IV) Give access to        1) Explore the financial instruments          1) RPMIC links up with RTIMP (Ghana)          1) Inventory of existing innovative        Year 2
financial products and    available within each country to capitalize   and learns about micro-lease; IFAD country    instruments and case studies in the
services                  the poor (learn from micro-lease and          projects, collaborates with financial         region available by the end of quarter 6
                          other instruments). Focus on market           institutions
                          conformed instruments to be used after a
                          matching grant phase
                          2) Organize regional learning event on        2) RPMIC establishes regional partnership     2a) Regional learning event is             Year 2
                          innovative financial products for small-      with cassava projects, involved MFIs and      organized
                          scale     and     medium-size      cassava    other specialized actors                      2b) IFAD cassava projects promote
                          enterprises (combine with design of                                                         these innovative instruments
                          prototypes of processing plants)                                                            2c) Both small-scale processing groups
                                                                                                                      and medium cassava enterprises
V) Establish commodity    1) Develop partnerships with processors       1) RPMIC facilitates the creation of          1) National working group is created       Year 1
chains for high-quality   and domestic supermarkets. Establish a        national working groups of private sector     and designs national action plans for
cassava products          working group that sets up a commodity        operators (Elsa Foods, Owara, Alitech, ..)    value chain development in year 1
                          chain to bring high quality cassava
                          products to supermarkets through the
                          design of a national action plan
                          2) Semestral follow-up meetings to            2) RPMIC functions as secretariat and         2a) Every six months the action plan is    Year 1-3
                          monitor progress and update the action        animator of the working group                 updated
                          plan                                                                                        2b) High-quality cassava products are
                                                                                                                      available in supermarkets
VI) Introduce retail      1) BAFCO with the assistance of an            1) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone) and       1) Partnership between RPMIC and           Year 1
packaging material at a   economist      (business     experienced)     business consultant                           BAFCO established to bring the Sierra
large-scale in Ghana,     prepares a detailed report of its approach                                                  Leone’s experience to Ghana, Benin
Benin, Cameroon and       and results (who, how, how expensive,                                                       and Nigeria
Nigeria                   which type of packaging material)
(as per Sierra Leone      2) Assessment of feasibility to copy the      2) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone) and       2) Assessment of feasibility to copy       Year 1
example)                  Sierra Leone experience in other              IFAD country projects                         experience is available before the end
                          countries                                                                                   of quarter 3




                                                                                   12
                            3) Action plans are prepared and the         3) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone),           3a) National action plans are available   Year 1 and 2
                            example copied in other countries            IFAD country projects, processing groups       in quarter 4
                                                                         and involved SME                               3b) National action plans are
                                                                                                                        implemented in year 2
                            4) Monitor implementation, register          4) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone),           4) Monitoring and feedback mechanism      Year 1-3
                            lessons learnt and update action plan        processing groups and involved SME,            operational
                                                                         IFAD country projects
VII) Updated cassava data   1) Fidafrique to coordinate the              1) RPMIC and Fidafrique to coordinate          1) Up-to-date Regional Cassava            Year 1-3
through the “Regional       development of a “Regional Cassava           inputs from other stakeholders. Fidafrique     Information Network is operational and
Cassava      Information    Information Network”. This should            receives inputs from all stakeholders in the   private sector stakeholders have access
Network”                    provide information on prototypes,           commodity chain to effectively share and
                            cassava processing equipment, and            disseminate knowledge
                            contacts for equipment manufacturers and
                            technical and business service providers
                            to the cassava industry
                            2) Regional exchange and learning events     2) RPMIC facilitates organization        of    2) Proceedings of meetings                Meetings in quarter
                            with specialized stakeholders are            regional meetings and events                                                             1, 5, 9 and 13
                            organized
VIII) Policy dialogue and   1) Stakeholders identify issues, establish   1) RPMIC and cassava sub-sector                1) Advocacy agenda exists at the end of   Year 1-3
advocacy                    advocacy agenda                              stakeholders, IFAD, NEPAD, ECCAS,              year 1
                                                                         ECOWAS, NEPAD Pan African Cassava              2) Stakeholders organize advocacy and
                                                                         Initiative                                     communication events




                                                                                    13
        D.       Action plan for development of the High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF)

9.     Major challenges facing the HQCF Commodity Chain:

        •    high price and supply volatility of raw cassava;
        •    weak linkages between producers and processing industries; farmers cannot find a market
             whilst industry cannot obtain reliable supply;
        •    expensive and non-standardised equipment (particularly driers);
        •    high energy cost makes drying of cassava products expensive and uncompetitive;
             technology for high-quality sun-drying not really developed and promoted;
        •    inconsistent quality and hygiene; lack of product standardisation;
        •    poor packaging and labelling;
        •    lack of product and process innovation for expanding existing markets;
        •    weak marketing strategies (lack of sales promotion, pricing mechanisms and distribution
             channels);
        •    fragmented industry too weak to lobby government on issues of general concern (e.g.
             energy cost, utility provision, import regulation, tariffs, taxes etc.); and
        •    poor knowledge transfer across the region on improved technologies and market
             information.


10.    Desirable characteristics of the HQCF Commodity Chain:
        •    small-scale farmers are more commercially focused, i.e. through contract farming schemes
             that ensure a reliable supply of raw cassava to industry;
        •    functions of each player along the commodity chain are more focused and specialised,
             thus improving productivity, economies of scale and efficiency (i.e. farmers do not
             become processors);
        •    product quality, hygiene and packaging are upgraded;
        •    national standards for cassava products are developed (regional standards will follow);
        •    research on improved drying efficiency and lowering drying costs is undertaken;
        •    research on product and process innovation for expanding markets undertaken;
        •    research to identify new markets, pilot promotional strategies and distribution channels
             undertaken;
        •    industry associations created to share knowledge benefit from joint functions (such as
             research, training, marketing, purchasing of bulk inputs e.g. equipment, packaging
             materials, etc.) and represent a strong voice to lobby government on key issues; and
        •    regional cassava knowledge system on available technologies, service providers and
             market information is put in place.
11.     The action plan is developed within four countries: Ghana, Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon.
However, it is important to note that large disparities in levels of cassava marketing and commodity
chain development exist between these countries. Therefore, the action plan can only provide a generic
framework, fine-tuning will be required for its implementation in each country, including specific
indicators, milestones and timeframes.




                                                   14
12.     In terms of execution responsibility, it is suggested that national institutions be identified to
work in partnership with international institutions such as IITA and FAO to enable transfer of
capacity-building and knowledge transfer takes place not only between service providers and
beneficiaries, but also between national and international institutions.
13.     The objectives of this action plan are:
        •   to set up (one or two) concrete value chains for high-quality cassava flour in each of the
            four countries (and, possibly, in Sierra Leone, too) through partnerships with private
            sector processors;
        •   to work on HQCF drying technology to lower the cost of drying significantly (and not to
            reach marginal technical improvements); and
        •   to establish a “Regional Cassava Information Network” as a learning and exchanging tool
            on the HQCF market segment.




                                                   15
                                                                                   Mis en forme : Police :24 pt,
                             HQCF Chain                                            Gras



                                                               Nucleus farmers     Mis en forme : Police :11 pt
                Cassava                                        Outgrower farmers
                Farmers
              (nucleus or
              outgrowers)




 Nucleus of Semi-
   Processors
    (wet cake,
   grits/pellets)                                           Technical Assistance
                                                             Regulatory Bodies




                                                                                   Mis en forme : Police :11 pt

Agents             Agro-                                                           Mis en forme : Police :14 pt
                Processors




                Markets                                                            Mis en forme : Police :11 pt
                (Food &
                No-Food)       Food industry-bakers, confectioneries,
                               convenience high quality foods
                               Non food industry, plywood industry,
                               paperboard industries
                                              16
Table 5. Action plan for the development of the High Quality Cassava Flour
What?               How?                                                Who is responsible?                       Indicators              Time scale

I) Creation of      1) Private sector stakeholder working               1) RPMIC facilitates the process.         1) Working groups       Quarter 2
stakeholder         group/team established in each country with         Private sector stakeholders involved      established
working groups      interested processors. Working group prepares       in the production process of high-
and preparation     an action plan to establish the value chain.        quality cassava flour (i.e. Elsa Foods,   2) Stakeholders agree
of action plan      RPMIC secretariat facilitates the process.          Owari, Alitech, etc.)                     on action plan before
                    Private      sector     stakeholders      invest                                              quarter 2
                    money/clients (willing to buy the product)

                    2) Research institutes, public institutions and
                    agents could be used as service providers. They
                    could become members of the working groups
                    if private sector agrees. They should represent a
                    small minority in the working team
II)                 1) Semestral follow-up meeting of working           RPMIC       and      private    sector    RPMIC monitoring        Year 1-3: every six
Implementation      group organized to monitor implementation           stakeholders                              reports on progress     months
and monitoring      and updating of the action plans                                                              made
of action plan
                    2) RPMIC enables private sector players to put
                    in place all part/players of the value chain and
                    establish required links
III)     Linking    1) Selected farmer groups working under the         1) Farmers’ associations, private         Contractual             Quarter 4
farmers      and    national IFAD cassava programmes sensitised         sector stakeholders, RPMIC, IFAD          agreement      among
processors in the   and trained in commercially oriented                project production managers at            parties produced by
HQCF                production, and linked up with involved             national levels in Benin, Ghana,          the end of year 1
commodity chain     processors. Different approaches, including         Cameroon and Nigeria
                    outgrower schemes and contract farming,
                    piloted and supported by providing assistance
                    in improved agronomic practices, production
                    planning, business management and facilitating
                    access to credit
                    2) Facilitate establishment of “intermediary        2) Farmers’ associations, private         Regular supply     of   Year 2-3
                    processing centres” in cassava production areas     sector stakeholders, RPMIC, IFAD          raw material
                    as bulking up centres for processing dried grits    project production managers at
                    or chips                                            national levels in Benin, Ghana,
                                                                        Cameroon and Nigeria



                                                                                       17
IV)       Capacity   Needs for training defined in action plan.          Food Research Institute (FRI), IITA     Training          needs   Year 1-2
building       for   Private sector player and personnel trained in      and industry                            defined
processors and       post-harvest     handling   and    processing
their staff          technologies, food quality and safety, plant        Business    Development   Service       Technical     training
                     design, hygiene, water use, business                (BDS) providers like EMPRETEC           organised
                     management, development of business plans           (provides business training for
                     and access to credit                                entrepreneurs)                          Business      training    Year 2-3
                                                                                                                 organized
V) Make low-         1) Economic and technical evaluation of             1) RPMIC recruits         specialized   Concrete options are      Year 1
cost       drying    existing driers and cassava peelers (in             service providers                       defined and technical
technology           particular the ones already available in Nigeria)                                           plan exists
available            including use of cost energy
                     2) Test drying systems with lower energy costs      2) Private sector processors in         Pilots are established    Year 2
                     (integrate sun-drying?) at a pilot scale            collaboration      with   specialized   and successful
                                                                         research institute (FRI-Ghana, IITA)
                     3) IFAD-cassava projects promote technology         3) IFAD cassava projects and private    Systems are adopted       Year 3
                     at a larger scale                                   sector processors                       by private sector
VI) Expanding        1) Carry out surveys on existing promotional        1) Commercial marketing agencies,       Processors are linked     Year 1-3
markets through      and distribution channels; develop and pilot        universities and industry               up with users of
improved             new promotional strategies and distribution                                                 HQCF in specific
product              mechanisms targeting different levels of urban                                              market segments
promotion,           consumers (through supermarkets, traditional
distribution and     markets and convenience stores)
innovation
                     Initial efforts should be focused on
                     development of national markets. Regional
                     trade and development of regional markets
                     might be addressed on a second phase
                     2) Carry out surveys on existing products and       2) RPMIC will partner with FRI,         Progress report           Year 1-3
                     processes; develop and pilot value-added            FAO and industry*
                     products and processes to meet emerging
                     market needs, particularly for urban consumers,
                     including non-food
VII)      Quality    1) National Standards Boards to develop and         National Standards Boards and           Progress report           Year 1
assurance     and    implement quality standards for HQCF and            industry* (i.e. Ministry of trade in
product              products made with HQCF to meet product             Benin)
standardisation      safety, quality and traceability requirements




                                                                                       18
VIII) Updated       1) Fidafrique to coordinate the development of    1) RPMIC and Fidafrique to               1) Up-to-date           Year 1-3
cassava data        a “Regional Cassava Information Network”.         coordinate inputs from other             regional cassava
through the         This should provide information on prototypes,    stakeholders in the commodity chain      information network
“Regional           cassava processing equipment, and contacts for    to effectively share and disseminate     is operational and
Cassava             equipment manufacturers, technical and            knowledge                                private sector
Information         business service providers to the cassava                                                  stakeholders have
Network”            industry                                                                                   access
                    2) Regional exchange and learning events with     2) RPMIC facilitates organization of     2) Proceedings of       Meetings in quarter 1,
                    specialized stakeholders organized                regional meetings and events             meetings                5, 9 and 13
IX) Policy          1) Stakeholders identify issues and establish     1) RPMIC and cassava sub-sector          1) Advocacy agenda      Year 1-3
dialogue and        advocacy agenda                                   stakeholders, IFAD, NEPAD,               exists at the end of
advocacy                                                              ECCAS, ECOWAS, NEPAD Pan                 year 1
                                                                      African Cassava Initiative               2) Stakeholders
                                                                                                               organize advocacy
                                                                                                               and communication
                                                                                                               events

* In all cases, the term “industry” and “processors” refers to small and medium scale commercial processing enterprises that are registered, employ external labour and
operate from dedicated premises. This definition is intended to exclude micro enterprises that use family labour and where processing is often conducted on a part-time or ad-
hoc basis.




                                                                                     19
  E.       Action plan for the development of the “industrial use” of cassava commodity chain
14.    Major challenges faced by cassava’s industrial users:
       •     outgrower schemes do not exist; weak linkages between producers and processing
             industries; farmers cannot find a market whilst industry cannot obtain reliable supply;
       •     high price and supply volatility of raw cassava;
       •     low yields and high production cost of fresh roots (small average farm size; difficult
             access to land; high cost of land);
       •     high drying cost of chips;
       •     inputs often not available (adapted varieties for industrial use often not available);
       •     high cost of bulking cassava (small farm size, limited surpluses per farm);
       •     high transport costs due to: bad road conditions, dispersed offer, complex transportation
             chains (tractors, pick-ups, trucks), excessive road taxes; and
       •     factories’ difficulties: high energy costs, lack of water, financing, waste management,
             inadequate number of skilled labour and management capacity, need for technical
             assistance, high taxes, difficult access to spare parts/MTCE.
15.        Desirable characteristics of cassava supply chains:
       •     diminish costs of cassava as raw material;
       •     increase farm size through land tenure options (involving communities);
       •     support to the development of agro-service centres and tailored credit schemes;
       •     supply of agro-input;
       •     solve farm labour constraints: mechanization and skills development;
       •     promote investments and incentives for plants and equipments;
       •     organize supply chains for bulky goods (bulking): and
             –   organize outgrower schemes;
             –   nucleus farms providing 50-60% of raw materials to factories (complemented by
                 community-based outgrower schemes, extension and input support.
       •     provide rural financial services:
             –   increase number of agricultural experts in financial sector;
             –   single-digit interest rates.

16.        Develop market opportunities through availability of cassava as a primary commodity:
       •     Ethanol: strong growing markets with demand > than a billion litres in Nigeria and Ghana:

             –   distilleries in Ghana (>30 million litres) and Nigeria (>120 million litres);
             –   bio fuels (> 500 million litres required to comply with E10 policy);
             –   paint in Nigeria (>20 million litres).

       •     Starch:

             –   quality grades: food and industrial starch;
             –   potential use and demand (textiles, food and beverage industry, paper and plywood,
                 oil industry, plastics and glues).



                                                    20
        •   Unfermented flour:

            –   quality grades: food and industrial use, bakeries, confectionaries, plywood and glues.

        •   Feed:

            –   pigs, poultry, fish, ruminants, camels, horses.

17.       The objective of the cassava action plan is to develop supply chains for interested industrial
users. The action plan will focus on the organisation of small farmers in outgrower schemes to make
cassava raw material available.
18.       In 2004, IFAD financed an analysis of all operational aspects prior to establishing supply
chains that will guide the RPMIC and implement this action plan.




                                                   21
Table 6. Action plan for organisation of farmers in outgrower schemes (cassava supply chains)
What?                      How?                                         Who is responsible?                     Indicators                                      Time scale

I) Establish partnership   1) Inform private sector cassava’s users     RPMIC and industrial cassava’s users    A memorandum of understanding between           Year 1
with private sector        and identify interested partners.                                                    RPMIC and an industrial cassava’s user
cassava processor          2) After identification, RPMIC                                                       (fresh roots or chips) is signed in year 1
                           negotiates on how to organize the work
                           and the role of all parties involved
II) Working group          1) Develop a concrete action plan to         1) RPMIC facilitates and monitors       1) Action plan available at the end of year 1   year 1
established and action     organize outgrowers                          implementation of action plan
plan prepared and
implemented
                           2) Implementation of action plan             2) RPMIC facilitates a process that     2) Semestral progress reports available         Year 2-3
                                                                        involves directly all stakeholders
                                                                        (industry, credit institutions, IFAD
                                                                        projects)
                           3) Monitoring and updating of action         3) RPMIC and stakeholders’ working      3) Semestral progress reports available         Year 2-3
                           plan semestral planning meetings)            groups
III) Organization of       1) Link-up interested farmers’               1) RPMIC, private sector stakeholders   1) Farmers’ associations sign memorandum        year 1-2
supply chain for raw       associations with industry                   supported by ongoing IFAD projects,     of understanding
material                                                                IITA
                           2) Organize farmers associations in          2) RPMIC and private sector             2) Farmers are organised in outgrower           Year 2-3
                           outgrowers schemes; bring in the             stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’   schemes and start production
                           necessary technologies; provide              associations
                           required training
                           3) Skills development in organisation        3) RPMIC and private sector             3) Training sessions organised according to     Year 2-3
                           of outgrower schemes                         stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’   action plan
                                                                        associations
                           4) Organize supply of certified seeds        4) IITA and IFAD cassava projects       4) Farmers receive planting material            Year 1
                           5) Pilot initiatives to test chips’          5) RPMIC and private sector             5) Successful adoption of chips’ equipment      year 2-3
                           equipment                                    stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’
                                                                        associations
                           6) Pilot initiatives to test drying flours   6) RPMIC and private sector             6) Farmers sell high-quality cassava chips      Year 2-3
                           and chips’ production                        stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’
                                                                        associations
                           7) Pilot initiatives on land concession      7) RPMIC, local governments,            7) Land available through memorandum of         year 2-3
                           and development activities                   traditional leaders, farmers            understanding




                                                                                        22
IV) Policy dialogue    1) Stakeholders identify issues and    1) RPMIC and cassava sub-sector         1) Advocacy agenda exists at the end of      Year 1-3
and advocacy           establish advocacy agenda              stakeholders, IFAD, NEPAD, ECCAS,       year 1
                                                              ECOWAS, NEPAD Pan African               2) Stakeholders organize advocacy and
                                                              Cassava Initiative                      communication events
V) Updated cassava     1) Fidafrique to coordinate the        1) RPMIC and Fidafrique to coordinate   1) Up-to-date regional cassava information   Year 1-3
data through the       development of a Regional Cassava      inputs from other stakeholders in the   network is operational and private sector
“Regional Cassava      Information Network. This should       commodity chain to effectively share    stakeholders have access
Information Network”   provide information on prototypes,     and disseminate knowledge
                       cassava processing equipment, and
                       contacts for equipment manufacturers
                       and technical and business service
                       providers to the cassava industry
                       2) Regional exchange and learning      2) RPMIC facilitates organization of    2) Proceedings of meetings                   Meetings in
                       events with specialized stakeholders   regional meetings and events                                                         quarter 1, 5,
                       organized                                                                                                                   9 and 13




                                                                              23
                                              ANNEX I

                  IFAD’S ENGAGEMENT IN THE CASSAVA SUB-SECTOR

1.      Since 1996, IFAD’s first-generation cassava projects in Nigeria, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon
have contributed to the rapid production, expansion and yield increases with their focus on poor
farmers’ access to high-yielding varieties. Meanwhile, other IFAD-financed rural development
projects were involved in screening, multiplication and distribution of new cassava varieties. The
achievements at production stage have been important, particularly in terms of food security. A
continuous renewal of cassava varieties for food and other specific uses, with higher yields, shorter
growth cycles, and better disease tolerance will remain necessary in the future. The fight against
cassava mosaic disease in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo,
Cameroon and Gabon) will remain a key factor for household food security. Since 2003, the IFAD
cassava-programmes are making a partial shift towards processing and marketing support
(approximately 35% of the budget is allocated to production, 65% to post-harvest aspects in the
newest generation of projects).
2.      In Ghana, IFAD is the only donor that is directly involved in cassava production and
processing. The IFAD-funded Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme, (RTIMP):
2006-2012, USD24 million) is supporting: a) participative distribution of improved planting material;
b) upgrading of traditional cassava processing; c) innovative cassava processing initiatives; d)
strengthening of processing groups. The first phase of the project (1998-2005) mainly focused on the
multiplication of planting material. The second phase will adopt a commodity chain approach for its
post-harvest initiatives. IFAD’s Rural Enterprise Project, (REP), is involved in the cassava sub-sector
through support to small-scale processing. The first phase of RTIMP has been working with private
sector processors and bakers in order to establish the High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) pilots. The
Ayenso starch factory is facing supply problems as no outgrower scheme exists.
3.       The “Projet de développement des Racines et Tubercules”, (PDRT), is financed by IFAD and
the Government of Benin for a total amount of USD20 million for 7 years (2002-2008). Its objectives
in the field of cassava production are: a) to train approximately 15 000 farmers in production
techniques; b) to make specific inputs available to farmers; c) to double cassava yields through
distribution of improved cultivars. At processing level, the project aims to: i) organise groups of
processors; and ii) upgrade processing equipment. The cassava-based ethanol industry in Benin has
supply problems as no outgrower schemes exist.
4.      The IFAD-funded “Projet National de développement des Racines et Tubercules”, (PNDRT),
in Cameroon, effective since 2004, builds on the IFAD-funded Global Cassava Development Strategy
and other IFAD R&T projects. Post-harvest and marketing are the main programme focus, comprising
37% of total costs and another 27% committed to capacity-building activities and farmers’
organizations. Marketing related sub-components include: a) preparation of R&T development action
plans at community level; b) development of marketing infrastructure; c) development of a market
information system and a national observatory for R&T commodity chains.
5.        The IFAD-funded Root and Tuber Expansion Programme, (RTEP), in Nigeria was launched
in July 2001 to capitalize on the Cassava Multiplication Programme (CMP), which had contributed to
a dramatic increase of cassava production. RTEP’s key objective is to place additional emphasis on
processing and marketing. In accordance with RTEP planning, the first Tri-Term Implementation
Review (TIR) of the programme took place. The TIR report mentions that processing and marketing is
still the weakest link in the chain of RTEP implementation. The approach of the second term will be to
make storage, processing and market development components the driver of RTEP activities in the
next tri-term, increasing them from 17% of total programme spending to 60%. Major efforts will be
devoted to diversifying cassava-based primary products into new derivates (e.g. flour, animal feed,
starch, ethanol) and markets.
                                                   ANNEX II




                                                                                      Republic of Ghana


        CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING REGIONAL INITIATIVE WORKSHOP
                     NEW COCO BEACH RESORT, ACCRA, GHANA
                               20 - 22 MARCH 2006

                                                   AGENDA

    Monday, 20 March 2006


8.30-9.15     Registration
9.30-10.30                                              Inaugural Session

                           Mrs. Juliana Dennis, Director of Women in Agriculture Development, chairperson

                              Mohamed Beavogui, Director for Western and Central Africa, IFAD
                         Message delivered on behalf of Prof. Richard Mkandawire, NEPAD Secretariat
                       His Excellency, Fabrizio de Agostini, Ambassador of the Republic of Italy in Ghana
                       Hon. Ernest Debrah, Minister for Food and Agriculture (MOFA), Republic of Ghana


10.30-10.50   Coffee break
11.00-11.30   Presentation of study and working proposals for a regional cassava marketing           Mr. D. Nesci,
              initiative.                                                                            Consultant
11.30-12.00   Discussion
12.00-12.30   IITA: Issues and challenges for cassava in Western-and Central Africa                  Mr. A. Dixon,
                                                                                                     Director

12:30-13:00   Discussion
13:00-14:15   Lunch
              Presentation from IFAD-sponsored programmes
14.30-14.50   Mr. Akwasi Adjei Adjekum, Deputy Director MOFA & former Coordinator RTIP,
              (Ghana)
14.50-15.10   Mr. Thomas Ngué Bissa, Coordinator PNDRT (Cameroon)
15.10-15.30   Mr Eric N’da Kouagou, Coordinator PDRT (Benin)
15.30-15.50   Mr. Ade Adeniji, Coordinator RTEP (Nigeria)

16.00-16.20   Coffee break
16.30-17.00   BAFCO: Gari value chain development, experience from Sierra Leone                      Mr. T. Muana,
                                                                                                     Director
17:00-17:45   Discussion
17.45-18.15   Preparation for the second day meeting.
                                                                                        Republic of Ghana




     Tuesday, 21 March 2006


8:30-9.00     Summary of the first day and presentation on issues, challenges and                     Mr. F. Goossens,
              opportunities in the cassava sector in WCA                                              Consultant
09.00-9:30    Applying the value-chain approach in the working groups                                 Mr. D. Nesci,
                                                                                                      Consultant
9:30 -12:30   Working groups by commodity value chains (3) (coffee served in rooms)
              (High Quality Cassava Flour; Gari/traditional processing chains; Supply-lines for
              industry)
              Groups to focus on key constraints and opportunities for the development of the
              commodity value chains with a regional perspective
12:30-13.45   Lunch
13:45-14.30   Presentation of working group results in Plenary
14:30-15:15   Discussion
15:30-18:00   Working groups by commodity value chains resume (coffee served in rooms)
              Preparation of action plans for activities at regional level


     Wednesday, 22 March 2006


9.00-10.30    Presentation of country action plans in Plenary
10.30-10.50   Coffee break
11.00-13.00   Discussion and commitment to action plans

13.00-14.15   Lunch

14.30-15.30   Closing Session




                                                      2
                                                            ANNEX III

                                        LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (AS OF 26.04.06)

                  CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING REGIONAL INITIATIVE WORKSHOP
                                          20-22 MARCH 2006
                              NEW COCO BEACH RESORT, ACCRA (GHANA)

Staff from Roots and Tubers Projects

 Country        Contact                Address             Email                      Tel & Fax
 Benin          Mr. Eric Tetegan       02 BP 164           pdrt@intnet.bj             Tel. 00229 23 61 26 70
                Marketing and          Parakou             pdrtbenin@yahoo.fr         Mob. 00229 90 03 01 60 or 95 86 91 30
                Processing             Benin                                          Fax. 00229 23 61 00 56
                PDRT
 Cameroon       Mr. Thomas Ngué        BP 15308            nguebissafr@yahoo.fr       Tel. 00237 222 74 16
                Bissa                  Yaoundé             owonob@yahoo.fr            Mob. 00237 991 73 95/795 55 51 (Mr.
                Coordinator            Cameroon                                       Ngué)
                PNDRT                                                                 Mob. 00237 93 195 21 (Ms. Owono)
                                                                                      Fax. 00237 222 73 25
                Ms. Berthe Nanga
                Mefant Owono
                Responsible
                Gender
                PNDRT
 Ghana          Mr. Akwasi Adjei       BP 7728             aaadjekum@yahoo.co.uk      Tel. 00233 51 33 159/25 835
                Adjekum,               Kumasi              rtip@africaonline.com.gh   Mob. 00233 277 56 82 87
                Project Coordinator    Ghana                                          Fax. 00233 51 25 835
                RTIP
 Ghana          Mr. K. Attah-          PO Box 6841         rep@africaonline.com.gh    Tel. 00233 51 24 232/287 66
                Antwi                  Kumasi              mallamis2000@yahoo.com     Mobile. 00233 2051 100 47
                Project Coordinator    Ghana                                          Fax. 00233 51 28 767
                REP II

                Ms. Irene
                Owiredua Eshun
                Assistant
 Nigeria        Mr. Adeoye A.          Federal Dept. of    aaadeniji@yahoo.com        Mob. 00234 80 551 78 766/80 34 73 02
                Adeniji Programme      Agr., Ijebu-Ife     rtep@skannet.com           31
                Coordinator RTEP       PMB 2130                                       Tel/Fax. 00234 37 43 29 33
                                       Ijebu-Ode
                                       Nigeria

Staff from IFAD HQs

 PA            Mr. Mohamed             Via del Serafico,   m.beavogui@ifad.org        Tel. 0039 06 5459 2240
               Béavogui,               107                                            Fax. 0039 06 5459 3240
               Director                00142 Rome
                                       Italy
 PA            Ms. Cristiana           Via del Serafico,   c.sparacino@ifad.org       Tel. 0039 06 5459 2306
               Sparacino,              107                                            Fax. 0039 06 5459 3306
               Programme               00142 Rome
               Manager                 Italy
 PA            Mr. Mohamed             Via del Serafico,   m.manssouri@ifad.org       Tel. 0039 06 5459 2330
               Manssouri,              107                                            Fax. 0039 06 5459 3330
               Country Programme       00142 Rome
               Manager                 Italy
 PA            Mr. Mohamed             Via del Serafico,   m.tounessi@ifad.org        Tel. 0039 06 5459 2530
               Tounessi, Country       107                                            Fax. 0039 06 5459 3530
               Programme               00142 Rome
               Manager                 Italy
PA   Mr. Hamed              Via del Serafico,   h.haidara@ifad.org          Tel. 0039 06 5459 2604
     Haidara,               107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3604
     Country Programme      00142 Rome
     Manager                Italy
PA   Mr. Léopold Sarr       Via del Serafico,   l.sarr@ifad.org             Tel. 0039 06 5459 2126
     Country Programme      107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3126
     Manger                 00142 Rome
                            Italy
PA   Mr. Ulac Demirag       Via del Serafico,   u.demirag@ifad.org          Tel. 0039 06 5459 2616
     Implementation         107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3616
     Support Officer        00142 Rome
                            Italy
PA   Mr. Hubert Boirard     Via del Serafico,   h.boirard@ifad.org          Tel. 0039 5459 06 2298
     Country Programme      107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3298
     Manager a.i.           00142 Rome
                            Italy
PA   Ms. Annabelle          Via del Serafico,   a.lhommeau@ifad.org         Tel. 0039 06 5459 2783
     Lhommeau               107
     Associate              00142 Rome
     Professional Officer   Italy
PA   Ms. Laura Puletti      Via del Serafico,   l.puletti@ifad.org          Tel. 0039 06 5459 2186
     Assistant to the       107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3186
     Programme              00142 Rome
     Manager                Italy
     Mr. Frans              Krombrakenstraa     goossensfrans@yahoo.fr      Tel. 0032 14 85 37 32
     Goossens,              t 19                                            Fax. 0032 14 85 37 32
     Consultant             B-2460
                            Kasterlee
                            Belgium
     Mr. Domenico           Via Laurentina,     domenico.nesci@tiscali.it   Tel. 0039 06 54 11 11 97
     Nesci,                 203                                             Mobile. 0039 335 77 091 80
     Consultant             Rome
ES   Ms. Vivianne Di        Via del Serafico,   v.dimajo@ifad.org           Tel. 0039 06 5459 2235
     Majo                   107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3235
     Acting Conference      00142 Rome
     Officer                Italy
ER   Mr. Vincenzo           Via del Serafico,   v.galastro@ifad.org         Tel. 0039 06 5459 2609
     Galastro               107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3609
     Programme              00142 Rome
     Manager                Italy

EC   Ms. Geraldine          Via del Serafico,   g.mpoumalogmo@ifad.org      Tel. 0039 06 5459 2759
     Mpouma Logmo           107                                             Fax. 0039 06 5459 3759
     Regional               00142 Rome
     Information Officer    Italy
     Mr. Fernand Tona       BP 16791            raceco@arc.sn               Tel. 00221 824 49 94
     Agbewonannou           Dakar Fann                                      Fax. 00221 825 24 00
     Journalist
     Raceco
     Mr. Libasse Ndiaye     BP 16791            raceco@arc.sn               Tel. 00221 824 49 94
     Cameraman              Dakar Fann                                      Fax. 00221 825 24 00
     Raceco
     Mr. Bernard Otabil     11 Dorset Road      otabil@africaweekmagazine
     Journalist             Beckenham           .com
     Africa Week            Kent BR3 46A        botabil@gmail.com
     Magazine               London
     Mr. Yao Alexis         Ministere de                                    Tel. 00225 20 210 833
     Haccandy               l’agriculture                                   Fax. 00225 20 21 46 18
                            BP V 82
                            Abidjan


                                                       2
Farmers Oganisations

 Ass. des        Ms. Marie de       BP 04                                           Tel. 033 22 32
 femmes          l’Ange MendouKa    Bertoua
 pour le dév.    Mbele              Cameroon
 de              President          (c/o PNDRT
 Doumaintan                         Cameroon)
 g
 Bertoua
 AFCOP           Ms. Suzanne Nké    Ass. des femmes     suzannenke@yahoo.fr         Tel. 00237 231 55 10/237 178 4228
                 Vice-President     contre la
                                    pauvreté de
                                    LOBO
                                    8143
                                    Younde
                                    (c/o PNDRT
                                    Cameroon)

 FONG            Mr. Amoah King-    PO Box MD 772       daa@africaonline.com.gh     Tel. 00233 21 31 58 94
                 David              Madina              ecasard@ghana.com           Ms. Lydia Sasu. 00233 2 444 31 456
                                    Accra
 CNOP-           Mr. Victor Tekwe   PO Box 7445         cnop_cam2001@yahoo.fr       Mobile. 00237 752 92 58
 CAM             Coordinator        Yaounde             tekwevictor@yahoo.com       Tel./Fax. 00237 223 41 90
 PROPAC

 USMEFAN         Dr. Makanjuola     9, Adenuga          arigbede@skannet.com        Tel. 00234 2 810 73 67
                 Olaseinde          Street              dpc@skannet.com.ng          Mobile. 00234 80 34 64 77 97
                 Arigbede           Kongi Layout        olaseindearigbede@yahoo.c   Fax. 00234 2 810 73 67/2 810 37 20
                 National           New Bodija          om
                 Coordinator        Estate
                                    Ibadan
                                    Oyo State
                                    Nigeria

Private Sector

 AIVC            Ms. Bernadette     BP 90               sakalouba@yahoo.fr          Tel. 00229 97 07 44 68/90 04 37 24
 ADEN            Dossa              Azove                                           Fax. 00229 23 61 00 56
                 President          Benin
 ALITECH-        Mr. Gabriel        Villa 14            alitechind@yahoo.fr         Tel. 00229 21 36 02 28/95 05 74 80
 Industrie       Monteiro           Residence des
                 Director           Palmiers Royaux
                                    Abdmey
                                    Calavi
                                    Benin
 AMASA           Mr. Kwasi Oware    PO Box 6302         amasaagro@yahoo.com         Tel. 00233 21 3000 83
 Agro            Director           Accra                                           Fax. 00233 21 30 65 46
 Processing
 Co.
 ASI-consult     Mr. Jean-Louis     2, Av. Villemaire   2idea@free.fr               Tel. 0033 6 82 80 19 79/
                 Juillard           F 75014 Paris       www.asi-consult.com         0033 1 56 80 16 16
                 Director                                                           Fax. 0033 1 56 80 16 17

 BAFCO           Mr. Taplima        10, Sillah Street   taplima@bafcogari.com       Tel. 00232 76 640 103
                 Muana              Bo                  taplima@yahoo.com
                                    Sierra Leone
 CALTECH         Mr. Christopher    PO Box 6716         jayque@africaonline.com.g   Tel. 00233 21 811 372
 VENTURE         Quarshie           Accra               h
 S



                                                              3
 CALTECH        Mr. Leslie Awere     380 Kame           leslie@constroconsult.com    Tel. 0233 21 2242 52
 VENTURE        Kyere                Nkrumah Ave.       leslieawerekyere@yahoo.co    Mobile.00233 244 36 87 69
 S                                   Adabbraka          .uk
                                     Accra
 Cassava        Mr. Boma Simeon      The Cassava        bomaanga@yahoo.com           Tel/Fax. 00234 9 673 04 87/9 222 40
 Agro-          Anga                 House              boma@cassavaagroindustrie    46/9 272 27 03
 Industries     Executive            House 32           s.com                        Fax. 00234 9 272 27 01
 Ltd. And       Chairman             351 Road off 3rd                                Mobile. 00234 80 33 03 10 97
 Presidential                        Av.                                             Res. 00234 803 3031 097
 Committee                           Gwarinpa
 on Cassava                          Abuja
 CHRISTIA       Ms. Susanna          c/o MOFA                                        Tel. 0244 51 20 84
 N              Owusu                PO Box 72
 MOTHER’S                            Akrofrom
 GARI                                Techiman Brong
                                     Ahafo
                                     Ghana

 COBEMAG        Mr. Erasme           BP 161             cobemag@intnet.bj            Tel. 00229 23 61 08 48/97 57 22 69
                Whannou              Parakou                                         Mobile. 0029 95 28 80 79
                Director             Benin                                           Fax. 00229 23 61 00 58
                Coopérative
                Béninoise de
                Matériel Agricole

 ELSA           Ms. Elizabeth        PO Box 7565        elsafoods@yahoo.com          Tel. & Fax. 00233 21 71 21 87/0244
 FOODS Ltd.     Maldini Afriyie      Accra                                           257 239
                Director
 GIC AOUDI      Ms. Aminatou         BP 35              aminatouwanga@yahoo.fr       Tel. 00237 938 68 61
                Wanga                Meiganga
                                     Cameroon
                                     (c/o PNDRT
                                     Project)
 NSM            Dr. Christopher      Nigerian Starch    chris@ajumogobiaokeke.co     Fax. 002341 26 30 410/26 355 85
                John Nonyelum        Mills Limited      m
                Okeke                Ihiala             chrisnokeke@aol.com
                                     Anambra State
                                     Nigeria
 Peak           Mr. Ayobami          Km 16              thepeakproducts@yahoo.co     Tel. 00234 803 33 42 174
 Products       Oluwunmi Olubori     Masaba             m                            00234 80 25 74 84 10
 Enterprise                          Complex
                                     Ita-Oshin
                                     Abeokuta
                                     Lagos
 President’s    Mr. Osei Owusu       Office of the      psighana@africaonline.com.   Tel. 00233 21 66 20 48/00233 20 201 2
 Special        Agyeman              President          gh                           776
 Initiative                          PO Box 46
                                     Accra
 President’s    Mr. Papa Kow         Statehouse         Telbartpapa@yahoo.com        Tel. 0244 619 621/020 832 999 8
 Special        Bartels              Accra
 Initiative

Research Organisations

 CIAT           Mr. Martin Fregene   Km 17, Recta       m.fregene@cgiar.org          Tel. 0057 2 44 50 000/1 650 833 66 25
                Cassava Geneticist   Cali-Palmira                                    Fax. 0057 2 44 500 73
                                     AA6713                                          Tel. 001 650 833 66 25
                                     Cali                                            Fax. 001 650 833 66 26
                                     Colombia
 FRI            Mr. Nanam Tay        PO Box M 20        nanamtay@yahoo.com           Tel. 00233 21 560 470/244 79 58 45
                Dziedzoave           Accra                                           Fax. 00233 21 777 647
                Scientific Officer
                                                              4
 IAR           Mr. Abdulai Jalloh      Njala               palmojay@hotmail.com         Tel. 00232 22 22 33 80
               Director                PMB 540             iarsl@sierratel.sl           Mobile. 00232 76 604 983
                                       Freetown                                         Fax. 00232 22 22 34 73
 IITA          Mr. Alfred Dixon        PMB 5320            a.dixon@cgiar.org            Tel. 00234 2 241 2626
               Director                Oyo Road                                         Fax. 00234 2 241 222 1
                                       Ibadan State
                                       Nigeria
 IITA          Mr. Chuma               Oyo Road            c.ezedinma@cgiar.org         Tel. 00234 2241 2626
               Ezedinma                PMB 5320                                         Fax. 00234 2241 2221
               Integrated Cassava      Ibadan, Oyo                                      Cell. 00234 080 37 141 152/00234 080
               Project                 State                                            345 76 082
                                       Nigeria
 IITA          Ms. Adeyinka            Oyo Road            a.onabolu@cgiar.org          Tel. 00234 2 241 2626 ext 2689/
               Onabolu                 PMB 5320                                         00234 803 400 2756
                                       Ibadan State                                     Fax. 00234 2 241 2221
                                       Nigeria
 IITA          Dr. Lateef Sanni        Oyo Road            l.sanni@cgiar.org            Tel. 00234 2 241 2626
               Oladimeji               PMB 5320            lateef2@yahoo.com            Mobile. 00234 080 33 46 9882
               Postharvest             Ibadan State                                     Fax. 00234 2 241 2221
               Specialist              Nigeria

NEPAD

 IITA          Mr. Nzola Meso          Chitedze            sarrnet@malawi.net           Tel. 00265 1 707 014/004
 SARRNET       Mahungu                 Research Station                                 Fax. 00265 1 707 026
               Coordinator             PO Box 30258                                     Mobile. 00265 99 68 702
                                       Lilongwe 3
                                       Malawi
 NEPAD         Mr. Augustin            PO Box 1234         augustinw@nepad.org          Tel. 0027 11 313 31 23
 SECRETAR      Wambo                   Halfway House                                    Cell. 0027 72 326 93 74
 IAT                                   Midrand 1685                                     Fax. 0027 11 313 34 50
                                       South Africa

National/International Organisations

 FAO Rep.      Mr. Dieudonne           PO Box 1628         Dieudonne.koguiyagda@fao     Mobile. 00233 244 31 59 51
 Ghana         Koguiyagda              Accra               .org
               Resident
               Representative
               o.i.c.
 FAO           Mr. Yeboah Elsaid       FAO Regional        Elsaid.yeboah@fao.org        Tel. 00233 21 67 5000/70 10 930
 Ghana                                 for Africa
                                       1 Gamel Abdul
                                       Nasser Road
                                       Accra
 FAO           Ms. Stephanie           Via delle Terme     Stephanie.gallat@fao.org     Tel. 0039 06 570 53 818
 Rome          Gallat                  di Caracalla, 100                                Mobile. 0039 349 294 2270
               Post-production         Rome
               Systems Officer
               Agricultural and
               Food Engineering
               Technologies
               Service
 FIDAFRIQ      Mr. Gilles              c/o UNOPS           g.mersadier@fidafrique.net   Tel. 00221 869 38 48
 UE            Mersadier               12524                                            Fax. 00221 869 39 69
               Coordinator             BP 15702
                                       Dakar Fann




                                                                 5
 WFP            Mrs. Kara              UNOPS Build.       kara@rac.dk                  Tel. 024 28 73 786
 Ghana          Djurhuus               Ring Road East
                Programme              Accra
                Assistant

 WB             Ms. Esther Usman       Plot 433 Yakubu    ewalabai@worldbank.org       Tel. 00234 9 314 52 69 75 ext.267
                Walabai                Gowon Crescent                                  Fax. 00234 9 314 52 67/8
                Senior                 Opposite
                Agriculturist          ECOWAS
                                       Secretariat
                                       Asokoro District
                                       PO Box 2826
                                       Garki Abuja

Service providers

 GRATIS         Mr. Sheini Abu-        PO Box CO 151      sabubakar@gratis-            Tel. 00233 208 11 82 33/22 20 42
 FOUNDATI       Bakar                  Tema               ghana.com                    43/20 76 10
 ON             General Manager,       Ghana                                           Fax. 00233 22 20 43 74
                Technical Unit
 VECO           Ms. Chiaratou          BP 3550            chiaratou@vecobenin.org      Tel. 00229 21 32 46 67/32 70 73
                Oceni                  Cotonou
                Responsible
                Marketing

High Level Representatives

 Gov. of        The Honourable         Ministry of Food   mofa@africaonline.com.gh     Tel. 00233 21 66 30 36/54 21
 Ghana          Ernest Debrah          and Agriculture    min@mofa.gov.gh              Fax. 00233 21 66 32 50/82 45
                Minister for Food      PO Box M37
                and Agriculture of     Accra
                the Republic of
                Ghana
 Gov. of        Mrs. Juliana           Ministry for       mofa@africaonline.com.gh     Tel. 00233 21 66 30 36/54 21
 Ghana          Dennis                 Food and           min@mofa.gov.gh              Fax. 00233 21 66 32 50/82 45
                Director               Agriculture
                Women in               Development
                Agriculture
                Development
 Gov. of        Mr. Michael Egyir      Ministry of                                     Tel. 00233 21 771 777 ext 148
 Ghana                                 Regional                                        Mobile. 00233 244 79 58 87
                                       Corporation and
                                       Nepad
                                       Box Lt.633
                                       Cantonments
                                       Accra
 Italian        His Excellency         Jawahrlal Nehru    Ambasciata.accra@esteri.it   Tel. 00233 21 77 56 21/2
 Embassy        Fabrizio De            Road                                            Fax. 00233 21 777 301
 Ghana          Agostini               Accra
                Ambassador of the
                Republic of Italy in
                Ghana
 Italian        Mr. Pietro Bucci       Jawahrlal Nehru    Ambasciata.accra@esteri.it   Tel. 00233 21 77 56 21/2
 Embassy        Private sector         Road                                            Fax. 00233 21 777 301
 Ghana          development fund       Accra
                (GPSDF)




                                                                 6
                                             ANNEX IV

           POWERPOINTS PRESENTATIONS HELD DURING THE WORKSHOP

During the workshop the following powerpoint presentations were prepared by the participants. These
can be viewed in the regional website, www.fidafrique.net, coordinated by Mr. Gilles Mersadier:

    1. Presentation of Study and Working Proposals for a Regional Cassava Marketing Initiative by
       Mr. Domenico Nesci

    2. IITA: Issue and Challenges for Cassava in Western and Central Africa by Mr. Alfred Dixon

    3. Cassava Processing and Marketing: Experiences from Ghana by Mr. Akwasi Adjei Adjekum

    4. Atelier sur une initiative régionale pour la transformation et la commercialisation du manioc
       by Mr. Thomas Ngue Bissa

    5. Initiative régionale pour la transformation et la commercialisation du manioc au Benin by
       Mr. Eric Patric Tetegan

    6. Cassava Processing and Marketing in Nigeria by Mr. Ade Adejiji

    7. Cassava Processing and Marketing in Sierra Leone: BAFCO’s experience by Mr. Taplima
       Muana

    8. Cassava Processing and Marketing: Challenges for Value Addition by Mr. Frans Goossens

    9. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Mr. Domenico Nesci


The working group presentations are the basis of the three action plans incorporated in the main report
and therefore not included in this annex.

								
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