Document of The International Fund for Agricultural Development For Official Use Only ACCRA-ACTION PLAN WORKSHOP ON CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING INITIATIVE FOR THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA REGION (Accra, Ghana 20 - 22 March, 2006) Africa I Division Programme Management Department May 2006 This report has a restricted distribution and may be used by recipients only in the performance of their official duties. Its contents may not be disclosed without authorization of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages LIST OF ACRONYMS ii INTRODUCTION 01 CHAPTER I 02 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA AND IFAD’S EXPERIENCE A. The cassava sub-sector in Western and Central Africa 02 B. Market segments and untapped potential 03 CHAPTER II 06 REGIONAL PROCESSING AND MARKETING INITIATIVE ON CASSAVA A. Justification and rationale 06 B. Objectives 07 C. Adopting a commodity chain approach 07 CHAPTER III 09 THE ACCRA ACTION PLAN A. Approach 09 B. Key lessons 09 C. Action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products 10 D. Action plan for development of the High Quality Cassava Flour 14 E. Action plan for the development of the “industrial use” of cassava commodity chain 20 ANNEXES I. IFAD’s engagement in the cassava sub-sector II. Workshop agenda III. List of workshop participants IV. List of powerpoints presentations produced during the workshop i LIST OF ACRONYMS AIP Advanced Industrial Processing commodity chain BAFCO Ba nyanie Agro Food Processing Organization BDS Business Development Service BFP Basic Food Processing commodity chain CC Commodity Chain CIAT International Centre for Tropical Agriculture CIRAD Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement CMP Cassava Multiplication Programme ECCAS Economic Community of Central African States ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States E10 Policy for petrol in Nigeria (10% inclusion of ethanol in Premium Motor Spirit) EMPRETEC Entrepreneurship, Employment, Export: UNCTAD’s Integrated Capacity-Building Programme to promote SME development FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FRI Food Research Institute GCDS Global Cassava Development Strategy GDP Gross Domestic Product HQCF High Quality Cassava Flour IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFP Improved Food Processing commodity chain IITA International Institute for Tropical Agriculture MOFA Minister for Food and Agriculture MTCE Ministry of Trade, Commerce and Economy NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development NGO Non Governmental Organization NPACI NEPAD Pan-African Cassava Initiative NRI Natural Resources Institute PA Western and Central Africa Division, IFAD PDRT Programme de Développement des Racines et Tubercules (Benin ) PNDRT Programme national de développement des racines et tubercules (Cameroon) PSI Presidential Special Initiative, Ghana R&T Root and Tuber REP Rural Enterprise Project RPMIC Regional Processing and Marketing Initiative on Cassava RTEP Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (Nigeria) RTIMP Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme (Ghana) SME Small and Medium Enterprises TIR Tri-term implementation review USD United States dollar WCA Western and Central Africa ii INTRODUCTION 1. IFAD has over the past ten years invested considerably in the development of the cassava sub-sector. A brainstorming meeting convened by IFAD in 1996 in Rome in collaboration with the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the National Resources Institute (NRI) and the Centre de cooperation internationale en recherché agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD) paved the way for the formulation of a Global Cassava Development Strategy (GCDS). In addition, IFAD is supporting the cassava sub-sector by funding national programmes in Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria totalling over USD100 million since 1996. 2. Today, the development of the cassava sub-sector is a key component of IFAD’s Regional Strategy for Western and Central Africa (WCA) given: a) the importance of cassava in terms of household food security in rural areas, especially for the rural poor; b) the gender dimension of cassava production which sees women taking a leading role in processing and marketing activities; c) the strategic dimension of cassava for the future generations of the region: with increasing urbanization rates, cassava products can offer a response to the growing demand for food products which will otherwise require an increase in food imports; and d) the possibilities offered by the regional market which is increasingly integrated. 3. The perceived challenge at present is that ongoing efforts are not enough and that cassava needs a further push to get to the position it deserves. In order to grasp new opportunities offered by the WCA cassava market, IFAD has developed a Regional Processing and Marketing Initiative on Cassava (RPMIC). The initiative’s long-term objective is to link IFAD-funded root and tuber projects to regional markets through the development of commodity chains. The initiative is a response to the call from African leaders, through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), to accord priority to cassava in the regional agricultural development strategies. 4. The RPMIC was kicked-off through a regional workshop in Accra during March 20-22, 2006. Participants of the workshop included private sector operators (small-scale processors, farmers, traders, semi-industrial and industrial processors), IFAD-funded R&T projects, researchers, farmers’ organisations and IFAD staff. The objectives of the Accra-workshop were the following: a) learning and exchanging experiences; b) identifying opportunities for the development of certain cassava products; c) identifying key issues which would need further reflection and research; d) identifying regional policy issues to be addressed at both national and regional level; and, e) developing concrete action plans for identified key cassava chains. 5. This document presents the findings of the Accra-workshop. Chapter I gives a brief description of the context, key challenges and opportunities of the cassava sub-sector. Chapter II presents the rationale and approach of the RPMIC. Chapter III contains the action plans prepared by the participants for the three selected commodity chains. CHAPTER I OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA AND IFAD’S EXPERIENCE A. The cassava sub-sector in Western and Central Africa 1. Since the early sixties, cassava has been a strong growth engine for the rural economy in the forest and savannah belt of Western and Central Africa. Domestic, urban and rural demand have been pulling cassava production. Over the period 1961-2005 the cumulated annual growth rate of cassava production was 3.85% in Western Africa and 2.60% in Central Africa. In 2004, production of fresh cassava roots amounted to 56 million tons in Western Africa and 28 million tons in Central Africa. The annual value of fresh roots at farm gate can be estimated at USD 3 to 4 billion. Cassava’s contribution to the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is increasing rapidly in most countries of WCA (already 46% in Ghana), which reflects its growing importance as a cash crop and urban food staple. Its cultivation is still expanding further from coastal areas to the dry savannah as farmers are desperate to identify new cash crops and income generating opportunities. The introduction of high- yielding and disease tolerant varieties and mechanization of certain processing stages has contributed to this expansive trend. 2. Traditional cassava food products, with a share of 95% of all cassava produced and harvested, will continue to dominate distribution channels in the short and medium term. The growth rate of this sub-sector has been at least 4-6% per annum since the 1960s and should remain high with progressing urbanization. It already provides livelihoods to more than 30 million processors (often poor rural women) in the region, as well as to numerous equipment manufacturers, wholesale and retail traders, and transporters. In addition, small-scale cassava processing has gradually become the main source of non-farm rural employment in many countries. Nevertheless, the emerging cassava commodity chains are almost completely informal, poorly organized, with the processing and marketing segments requiring strong upgrading, both in terms of “soft” and “hard” infrastructure. Processing equipment (graters, presses, mills, stoves) is easily adopted, but is expensive, not standardized and often of poor quality. Access to credit for investment in equipment remains a challenge. The chains have high unit costs, generally a low labour productivity and a low innovation rate (artisanal mechanization) and deliver products of an irregular quality. This reduces competitiveness of cassava in the domestic market where it competes with imported wheat and rice. 3. Growth potential in other sectors than the traditional food sector is significant, but remains mostly untapped. Nigeria is the most advanced country in the industrial use of cassava, followed by Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Limited progress has been made in Benin, Cameroon and Sierra Leone. Governments in the region favour the industrial utilization of cassava (ethanol, starch, unfermented cassava flour as substitute of imported wheat). However, the industry is often reluctant to use or has difficulties to buy cassava because: a) structured supply lines and outgrower schemes do not exist: although farm gate prices are often low, bulking significant volumes is quite expensive and time- consuming because of small surpluses per farm and small transactions with the result that most production zones with a 50-km radius are not able to supply a significant volume (more than 100 tons/day) during an extended period; b) cassava prices have a strong cyclical component: only at levels of less than USD30 per ton can cassava compete with grains; c) cassava has an image problem: livestock owners prefer maize as an energy source whilst industrial users prefer wheat flour and imported cornstarch because cassava flour and starch are associated with poor processing techniques, low quality, irregular supply and are at times more expensive. In order to become competitive as an industrial raw material, cassava will have to surpass the rates of improvement in efficiency achieved by the major grain crops. Continuous efforts to bring down the cost of production and to organize supply lines are required. 2 Table 1. Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Constraints (SWOT analysis) of the Cassava sub-sector in WCA Strengths Weaknesses • Smallholder farmers often commercialize only a • Large, traditional food market minor part of production (not specialized and rarely • Although mostly informal, very widespread organized) availability of food-related processing and • Land tenure regulation uncertain trade • Market infrastructure needs improvements • Cross border trade channels already exist (information, roads, storage, markets) • Cassava is price competitive in some product • Fresh roots too expensive for industrial use markets (eg. animal feed) • Commodity Chains are in an embryonic stage • IITA (and other research centres) experience • Poor primary stakeholders organizations and knowledge • Policy makers support does not necessarily match • Pretty large consensus on what are the business needs winning factors to have high rate cassava • In most non-consumable-food product markets, growth cassava is a substitute for other crops • Industrial processing level nearly not existing • Long term price cycles Opportunities Threats • Growing urbanization, new distribution channels (eg. supermarkets) • Aggressive competition for cassava industrial use, • Changing consumers’ food habits, demand for particularly from Asian countries convenience food • Low international market prices • New markets can be developed (eg. small • Low local consumer purchasing power scale animal feed or HQCF for food industry) • Change of consumers’ food habits • Intensifying cassava-based human food • Added value grows downstream in the commodity processing and trade chain • Governments become aware of possible • Sector policies not aligned cassava industry development • Africa’s conflicting interests that prevent cassava to • NEPAD Initiative on Cassava (NPACI) and become continental staple Donors’ interest • Imported cereals B. Market segments and untapped potential 4. Cassava has still a high untapped potential. As previously mentioned, in all WCA countries, the key strength is the presence of a widespread, growing human food market and the opportunity to further develop it through intensification and diversification. Human food is still the dominant use of cassava in sub-Saharan Africa (95%), compared to 55% in Asia and 40% in Latin America. An expansion into other market segments (see: table 2) would allow cassava production to keep growing and to have significant alternative sales outlets in the medium to long term. Several new product markets, such as high quality cassava flour, ethanol and feed seem viable on the basis of economic analyses. Table 3 summarizes the opportunities and type of commodity chain required. Table 2. Market segments and products Market Product Family Traditional food products Gari, dried/milled roots, attiéké, paste, boiled roots Cassava leaves Feed Cassava chips and pellets, feed millers Commercial farms and smallholders Food-grade flour Bread and biscuits, cassava snacks (unfermented) Cassava snacks (fermented flour) Starch and derivates Textile, paper and plywood, glucose syrup, biodegradable plastics and industrial chemicals Ethanol Fresh roots or chips for production of ethanol 3 5. At the moment, the political goodwill exists to develop new products and market segments for cassava in Western and Central Africa. A number of initiatives have been taken by the Government of Nigeria to support cassava utilization. These include: i) the set-up of a Presidential Committee on national cassava production and export in 2002; ii) the mandatory inclusion, since January 2005, of 10% cassava flour in all composite flour formulations for the baking and confectionary industry; iii) the introduction of gari in the National Strategic Food Reserve Programme; iv) the ban on poultry imports, which may well spur local cassava chips processing. In Benin, Sierra Leone and Ghana, Government’s policy at post-harvest level is to develop the HQCF niche and to upgrade traditional processing. Also other industrial uses of cassava are being analysed. In Ghana, a Presidential Special Initiative launched the Ayenso Starch Factory. 6. Traditional food products. Urbanization and rural exodus will also be the future driving force behind market demand for cassava in most Western and Central African countries. Average population growth is about 2.8 percent in most countries, but urban growth is generally higher (4-6 percent) than rural growth (0-1 percent); a five percent annual urban growth rate results in a 63 percent increase in the urban population in ten years. The low growth or stagnation of the rural population and number of farm households implies that the marketable surplus of cassava per household could be made available to fulfil growing domestic market demand. Future urban consumption of cassava will depend on: a) how well cassava is prepared into convenient food forms (quality, packaging, sales outlet), which will make it an alternative to wheat, rice and maize; and b) cassava’s ability to compete with grains in terms of cost and availability. Currently, traditional cassava processing is done by informal processing groups of women and entrepreneurs, organised in informal processing units. Future growth rates in this segment will remain high, as experience has shown that these units are more competitive than medium-scale enterprise initiatives. Traditional processing of cassava is characterized by enormous differences in quality of equipment, know-how, business skills, bargaining power, quality of products, hygiene and packaging. 7. In the short and medium term, the triple challenge for the development of the traditional food products sector includes: a) developing a chain of high-quality cassava products in order to respond to the niche of quality convenience foods (and to compete with rice). This niche exists in the so- called ethnic export market, but is often less developed in the domestic market. The challenge will be “to bring cassava in the supermarket”; b) pilot testing with packaging material (e.g. the Sierra Leone experience where BAFCO succeeds in introducing improved retail packaging for gari at a large scale and to position premium gari with a higher price in the market, using modern marketing techniques in combination with capacity training of processors); and c) the necessity to gradually upgrade the chains for bulking of traditional cassava products. There is room for designing pilot processing plants that are improved with respect to layout, labour productivity, product quality, hygiene, environmental aspects and equipment. In addition, return to capital should be sufficient to finance these units on the basis of loans. Until today, projects and research institutes have failed in developing an affordable and appropriate prototype of a group-owned cassava processing facility. Pilot plants should be low cost, based on the successful informal concepts, designed using a participative exchange and tested with existing processor groups in order to satisfy their specific requirements. 8. Feed. The expansion of the use of cassava in domestic livestock feed has short and medium- term potential. Research has shown that the use of cassava instead of maize can reduce the cost of feed by 20-30%. During the next decades, meat and poultry consumption is predicted to increase sharply in the coastal urban mega cities of Western and Central Africa. In order for cassava to be competitive, the price of dried cassava chips should not exceed 70 percent of the maize price. Two options have potential: a) organizing farmers in outgrower schemes, introducing chipping equipment and drying floors, and develop supply lines for the feed industry. A major challenge will be to improve the drying process of chips; 4 b) promoting the use of cassava and its by-products (peels) as feed components at farm level (both commercial and smallholder farms). 9. Food-grade unfermented cassava flour. The high-quality cassava flour as substitute to imported wheat niche is growing rapidly in Nigeria. The recent policy of the 10% inclusion of cassava flour in bread in Nigeria might be a breakthrough for the use of HQCF in the region. In Ghana, the plywood industry is seen as an important potential client for cassava flour, but effective demand is yet unclear. In Benin, Cameroon and Ghana, small-scale bakeries are interested in the use of composite flour. In Ghana, part of the HQCF is turned into instant fufu that finds its ways to the supermarkets. Supply systems for industrial users do not exist yet. Key constraint to produce high quality cassava flour are: i) the drying process and the cost of energy; ii) access of small and medium-size enterprises to working capital; iii) non-existence of commodity chains. Development of good and cheap solar dryers, as well as (hybrid) forced dryers is necessary in order to produce cassava flour that can compete with imported wheat flour. In Ghana, grits (grated fresh root material that is pressed and subsequently dried) are used as intermediate products to speed-up the drying process. The problems of sun-drying are: poor hygienic conditions, humid weather conditions in forest areas and during rainy seasons. Attempts to use mechanical dryers have failed because of the high energetic cost, although technically an excellent quality flour was obtained. 10. Industrial utilisation of cassava. The industrial use of cassava in Asia is based on efficient root production, chipping, drying and pelletizing. Although farmers in sub-Saharan Africa complain that there is surplus production, cassava is not yet available as a competitive commercial commodity. Future industrial use of cassava will depend on how well supply lines of fresh roots and intermediate forms (chips, pellets, grits) can be organized. Bringing down cost of production, post-harvest of fresh roots/chips and bulking remain major challenges for the next decade. The principal bottleneck for industrial use of cassava is to organize cassava supply in a cost-efficient way and to guarantee an equitable share of profits to peasant farmers. 11. In West Africa the strong cyclical fluctuations in price/availability of raw material over the years, especially near the cities, hinders a sustainable production flow, as in some years farmers can get higher prices for their roots than can be obtained by wheat substitution. Farmers and other stakeholders are highly market and opportunity oriented. They pop out easily if current prices or other stimuli interfere; low trust is involved therein. This leads to a stop-and-go of innovative SME initiatives. 12. International markets. International cassava markets require national competitive systems that are currently not available in WCA (except for the ethnic food market). Export of cassava pellets to the European food sector is not a viable option given the huge gap between current international prices for cassava pellets and chips and the Freight-On-Board (FOB) price in Western Africa. Also, locally produced cassava starch is not competitive in international markets. Table 3. Summary of opportunities and type of commodity chain Market Product Market Ranking Opportunity Type of CC Geography Timeframe involved Domestic Traditional food products 1 Short term BFP, IFP Benin Animal Feed 3 Mid term IFP Cameroon Flour for bakery and 3 Mid term IFP confectionary industry Regional Traditional food products 2 Short term IFP Domestic Traditional food products 1 Short term BFP, IFP Animal Feed 3 Mid Term IFP, AIP Ghana Flour for bakery and 3 Short Term IFP, AIP Nigeria confectionary industry (Nigeria) / Mid Term Starch 5 Long Term AIP Regional Traditional food products 2 Short term BFP, IFP Starch 5 Long Term AIP 5 CHAPTER II REGIONAL PROCESSING AND MARKETING INITIATIVE ON CASSAVA A. Justification and rationale 1. The need for a Regional Processing and Marketing Initiative on Cassava (RPMIC) in Western and Central Africa comes from the recognition that the mere support of farmers in developing their cassava production practices is not enough to improve their livelihoods in a sustainable way. It is no guarantee to long-term competitiveness of cassava in a global, liberalized economy. IFAD’s regional initiative, which will focus on processing and marketing aspects, should leverage existing country strategies, complementing them either where the scope of intervention is beyond the national domain (e.g. regional policies), or where an identified benefit of supra-national action exists. The regional initiative will maximize cooperation and ability to catch synergies at national and regional level. 2. The RPMIC is coherent with the national cassava sub-sector strategies in Nigeria, Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Sierra Leone, as well as with the NEPAD Pan Africa Cassava Initiative (NPACI)’s which specific objective and vision is to create a cassava market pull. 3. The RPMIC is based on the following assumptions: a) market demand drives processing and production; b) the cassava sub-sector is composed of several markets segments (food, feed, flour, starch, etc.). Each segment defines a competitive system with its own requirements. In order to be successful and competitive, processing and production in a market segment must comply with the market requirements of that segment; and c) at the moment, only the traditional food market segment (gari, attiéké, fermented flour, paste, boiled root) is booming, but other segments have short and medium-term potential (HQCF, ethanol, feed) as economic analyses have shown (as per table 3). 4. The RPMIC will promote the following drives among stakeholders, while keeping the focus on IFAD’s target groups: i) have market opportunities guide development plans throughout cassava supply chains; ii) utilization of the value chain approach, estimating participants’ costs and benefits for each opportunity, should lead the selection of criteria for new ventures; iii) the involvement of the “private sector” (private entrepreneurs) is a necessary condition to successfully and sustainably develop the cassava sector through required know-how, business skills, and investments. 5. The RPMIC will work along two axes: i. Synergies exploitation • supporting fruitful “sharing and innovation” among IFAD-funded programmes; • setting up of knowledge-sharing practices among IFAD programmes, through the Fidafrique regional information network; and • supporting policy dialogue at national and regional levels based on ongoing experiences. ii. Market development • consolidating a WCA market development strategy (based on demand, products, volumes, expected return on investments); • taking action on pursuing selected market opportunities, starting with pilot programmes; and • spurring dialogue at all levels to strengthen industry commodity chains and voice cassava sector development needs. 6. The RPMIC will adopt a pragmatic approach and develop a limited number of pilot value chains. Crucial guiding principles for screening and selecting commodity chains, based on a private sector partnership approach, are the following: 6 • building on existing strengths, intensifying and diversifying existing food product markets; • preferably targeting national and regional markets; • developing new markets in line with national and sub-regional competitive systems; • identifying opportunities is not enough; delivering is a must (through commodity chains); • exchanging lessons learned; and • spurring dialogue and partnerships at all levels to support efforts to strengthen the cassava industry. 7. The RPMIC will adopt a commodity chain approach. Processes will be demand-driven and as consultative as possible, always including private stakeholders (entrepreneurs, processors and farmers). The Accra workshop represents the first step, when private stakeholders were involved in the preparation of the three action plans (see Chapt. III). On the basis of the mentioned analyses and guiding principles, the Accra working groups explored three commodity chains: a) upgrading of traditional cassava products; b) developing the High Quality Cassava Flour commodity chain; and c) organizing smallholders’ outgrower schemes for industrial utilization of cassava. 8. All partners will assist IFAD in advancing policy dialogue among cassava industry stakeholders and sub-regional and regional institutions. B. Objectives 9. The general objective of the RPMIC is to make IFAD cassava-related programmes more effective in the field of processing and marketing through proper coordination among them as well as other similar non-IFAD initiatives. 10. The specific objectives are the following: • focusing on maximizing cross-fertilization among IFAD programs (loans and grants) and on best exploitation of existing (food) product markets; and • developing new markets (also for existing products) and emphasizing policy dialogue to support industry efforts. C. Adopting a commodity chain approach 11. The RPMIC will adopt a Commodity Chain Approach, which is per definition a pragmatic, results-oriented approach. A Commodity Chain (CC) describes the full range of activities required to bring a product (e.g. fresh cassava) from its conception (in our case described as production) throughout all intermediary transformation (e.g. processing) and delivery (e.g. marketing) phases to final consumers. The latter ones can be either individuals, consuming the product for personal benefit or entities, using the product as an intermediate good. In its most elementary form, a CC can, therefore, be represented as follows (although in reality it could include several transformation stages before getting to the final users). Production Processing Marketing 7 12. A CC is more complicated than “a supply chain” and is made up of the primary stakeholders of a specific industry. A Cassava CC may involve many different players: importers, producers, processors, transporters, marketers/traders, wholesalers retailers and exporters. Each one has her/his specific role in the CC as well as a particular relationship with the other chain participants and all, generally, respect the agreed “rules of the game”. 13. Commodity Chains are also referred to as value chains, value streams or value systems. In these latter cases emphasis is put on the “value” generation aspect of a commodity chain as the driving factor in the chain’s creation and evolution. There are three viewpoints that make value chain analysis insightful: a) the CC approach investigates how rewards are distributed along the chain and what is their dynamism (rents/value); b) CCs are usually implicitly or explicitly governed. CC governance strongly influences the value captured by each player. Governance can be from within or from outside the CC itself; and c) the CC approach allows to move from point-efficiency to system-efficiency by: i) increasing overall competitiveness; ii) fostering cooperation based on successful experiences and common interests; iii) understanding which improvements benefit most the chain; iv) spotting out new market opportunities; v) assessing system constraints. 14. The challenge of using the CC approach in cassava development will be to: i) establish competitive and market-based CCs (demand-driven interventions); ii) identify leverage points and areas of intervention to improve CC governance; iii) develop market linkages; iv) expand smallholder farming and micro-enterprises (value distribution); v) improve target group bargaining power (higher and more stable revenue) and equip the poor to respond to market signals and requirements; and, vi) innovate production, processing and marketing. 8 CHAPTER III THE ACCRA ACTION PLAN A. Approach 1. The basic idea of the Accra action plan is to select a limited number of cassava products/market segments and to develop/improve their value chains. 2. The Accra working groups have discussed and prepared action plans for three commodity chains: i) upgrading of chains for traditional cassava products; ii) development of High Quality Cassava Flour commodity chain; iii) integration of small farmers in outgrower schemes (supply chains for industrial users of cassava). The work consisted of the following stages: a) preparing an analysis of the present situation; b) understanding needs and setting objectives; c) developing action guidelines. 3. The action plans: a) are formulated in terms of result-based outputs; b) include clear indicators to measure progress; c) define potential leaders and partners for each activity, as well as potential partnerships with ongoing projects and programmes; c) are complementary to ongoing IFAD-cassava initiatives; d) are coherent with the NEPAD framework. 4. Through the RPMIC, a secretariat will be established through Italian supplementary funds to support and monitor implementation of the action plans. 5. In order to optimize access to knowledge and information, the RPMIC will also: • facilitate the organisation of regional learning and exchange events; and • support regional information services: i) regularly update databases on market-related issues, easily accessible by stakeholders throughout the region, and supported by the project; ii) facilitate access to existing sources of information; iii) establish specific linkages with IFAD’s Information and Knowledge Networks at the regional level (i.e. Fidafrique) and NEPAD’s initiative on cassava; • promote regional exchange and training on market–oriented thematics. B. Key lessons 6. Following key lessons learned from the workshop, discussions on the following themes are crucial for the future development of the cassava value chains: o Cassava production: • introduction of new varieties for specific use and with specific characteristics; • increasing productivity; and • promoting crop multiplication by smallholders. o Cassava processing: • increase availability, reduce cost and standardize equipments (at local, regional and international level); and • new products: how do we support innovation to respond to both urban and rural markets? o Cassava marketing: • the need to target middle income consumers with high quality convenience food and the majority of people with improved forms of traditional products; • quality should be linked to the different types of market and market segments; • cassava should follow the world’s globalisation and standardisation trend; and • regional support to market policies in one country should be avoided. 9 C. Action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products 7. Major challenges identified by the working groups are the following: • informal processing and marketing. Cassava cannot really compete with imported cereals as it is not available in supermarkets and other convenient sales outlets (where bread and rice are sold); • efficient processing equipment not broadly used; equipment is expensive (no manufacturing line for equipment manufacturing); information database on processing equipment not available; unavailable working capital and lack of investment capital; • lack of quality standards and control of quality; lack of sub-regional standardization technologies; weaknesses or lack of organized processors’ groups; • weak transportation system; • lack or inadequate processing infrastructures (water, energy, transportation); appropriate prototypes of group-owned cassava processing facilities not available; • poor packaging (except interesting example in Sierra Leone); • High-Quality Cassava exported to Europe, but not available in domestic supermarkets; and • poor knowledge transfer across the region on improved technologies and successes. 8. The objectives of the action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products are as follows: a) develop and promote good prototypes of processing facilities (best practice centres); develop a concept that responds to market requirements, with low investment costs (affordable for processing groups) but improved product quality, labour productivity, hygiene and environmental aspects. The concept should be based on successful informal processing plants, designed in a participative way; b) contribute to the standardization of processing equipment in Western and Central Africa; c) test the introduction of improved retail packaging at a large scale; and d) “bring cassava to the supermarket”: develop the domestic niche market for High Quality Cassava products, including introduction of improved packaging material (i.e. Sierra Leone). 10 Table 4. Action plan for upgrading of traditional cassava products What? How? Who is responsible? Indicators Time scale (3-year project) I) Improve cassava 1) Screening and distribution of high 1) Partnership among farmers, service 1) Private sector participants have Ongoing activity of production (ongoing work yielding and disease-tolerant varieties providers and ongoing IFAD-projects. access to planting materials with IFAD-projects in IFAD projects) RPMIC could facilitate among IFAD- specific characteristics projects and its own target groups II) Design good 1) Participative design of prototype 1) Partnership among processing groups, 1) RPMCI recruits a service provider in Year 1 prototypes of processing processing plant in collaboration with IFAD projects, RPMCI and NGOs (i.e. quarter one plants women groups (Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, VECO, Benin; Christian Mothers Sierra Leone) Association, Ghana; etc.) 2) Construction of prototype processing 2) Processing groups, NGOs (service 2) First prototype is constructed in Year 2-3 plant with women groups’experience providers) quarter 4, second in quarter 8, third in quarter 12 3) Training of involved processing groups 3) RPMIC, processing groups, specialized 3) Reports in quarter 4, 8 and 12 Year 2-3 (re. hygiene, environmental issues, NGOs and service providers packaging, quality, energy use and the like) 4) Participative monitoring of 4) Specialized NGO 4) Quarterly monitoring reports of Year 1-3 stakeholders’ satisfaction. Monitoring as stakeholders’ satisfaction. the basis of an ongoing learning and Feedback and learning system is exchange process operational 5) IFAD projects copy improved 5) IFAD cassava projects 5) Successful concept has been copied Year 3 processing concepts from year 3 onwards III) Standardize and 1) Preparation of a regional strategy 1) Partnership: RPMIC, IFAD cassava 1a) Partnership established, through a Year 1 upgrade cassava document to standardize equipment. Projects, IFAD rural enterprise projects, memorandum of understanding signed processing equipments Organization of regional planning and IITA and other important equipment after 6 months exchange event manufacturers (Centre Songhai-Benin, 1b) Regional planning and exchange COBEMAG, GRATIS-Ghana, etc.) event organized in year 1 1c) Operational regional strategy document available before the end of year 1 2) Identification of best performing 2) Partnership: RPMIC, IFAD country 2a) Partnership established, through a Year 1 processing equipment (the objective Projects, IITA and other important memorandum of understanding signed being not to prepare a comprehensive list equipment manufacturers (Centre Songhai- before the end of year 1 of all manufacturers, but to identify good Benin, COBEMAG, GRATIS-Ghana, etc.) 2b) Prototype plants promote “best prototypes of graters, presses, stoves, etc.) performing equipment” 11 3) Organize regional learning events for 3) IITA/ GRATIS, IFAD to provide 3a) At least 1 regional learning event Year 1-2 equipment manufacturers on funding. IFAD to integrate cassava strategy are organized in the region every year standardization issues into its country programme. 4) Regional forum to discuss progress and 4) RPMIC facilitates the setting up of the 4) The regional learning event monitors Annually, year 1-3 promote standardization of processing forum for a highly specialized public of and updates the standardization strategy equipment private sector entrepreneurs IV) Give access to 1) Explore the financial instruments 1) RPMIC links up with RTIMP (Ghana) 1) Inventory of existing innovative Year 2 financial products and available within each country to capitalize and learns about micro-lease; IFAD country instruments and case studies in the services the poor (learn from micro-lease and projects, collaborates with financial region available by the end of quarter 6 other instruments). Focus on market institutions conformed instruments to be used after a matching grant phase 2) Organize regional learning event on 2) RPMIC establishes regional partnership 2a) Regional learning event is Year 2 innovative financial products for small- with cassava projects, involved MFIs and organized scale and medium-size cassava other specialized actors 2b) IFAD cassava projects promote enterprises (combine with design of these innovative instruments prototypes of processing plants) 2c) Both small-scale processing groups and medium cassava enterprises V) Establish commodity 1) Develop partnerships with processors 1) RPMIC facilitates the creation of 1) National working group is created Year 1 chains for high-quality and domestic supermarkets. Establish a national working groups of private sector and designs national action plans for cassava products working group that sets up a commodity operators (Elsa Foods, Owara, Alitech, ..) value chain development in year 1 chain to bring high quality cassava products to supermarkets through the design of a national action plan 2) Semestral follow-up meetings to 2) RPMIC functions as secretariat and 2a) Every six months the action plan is Year 1-3 monitor progress and update the action animator of the working group updated plan 2b) High-quality cassava products are available in supermarkets VI) Introduce retail 1) BAFCO with the assistance of an 1) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone) and 1) Partnership between RPMIC and Year 1 packaging material at a economist (business experienced) business consultant BAFCO established to bring the Sierra large-scale in Ghana, prepares a detailed report of its approach Leone’s experience to Ghana, Benin Benin, Cameroon and and results (who, how, how expensive, and Nigeria Nigeria which type of packaging material) (as per Sierra Leone 2) Assessment of feasibility to copy the 2) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone) and 2) Assessment of feasibility to copy Year 1 example) Sierra Leone experience in other IFAD country projects experience is available before the end countries of quarter 3 12 3) Action plans are prepared and the 3) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone), 3a) National action plans are available Year 1 and 2 example copied in other countries IFAD country projects, processing groups in quarter 4 and involved SME 3b) National action plans are implemented in year 2 4) Monitor implementation, register 4) RPMIC, BAFCO-gari (Sierra Leone), 4) Monitoring and feedback mechanism Year 1-3 lessons learnt and update action plan processing groups and involved SME, operational IFAD country projects VII) Updated cassava data 1) Fidafrique to coordinate the 1) RPMIC and Fidafrique to coordinate 1) Up-to-date Regional Cassava Year 1-3 through the “Regional development of a “Regional Cassava inputs from other stakeholders. Fidafrique Information Network is operational and Cassava Information Information Network”. This should receives inputs from all stakeholders in the private sector stakeholders have access Network” provide information on prototypes, commodity chain to effectively share and cassava processing equipment, and disseminate knowledge contacts for equipment manufacturers and technical and business service providers to the cassava industry 2) Regional exchange and learning events 2) RPMIC facilitates organization of 2) Proceedings of meetings Meetings in quarter with specialized stakeholders are regional meetings and events 1, 5, 9 and 13 organized VIII) Policy dialogue and 1) Stakeholders identify issues, establish 1) RPMIC and cassava sub-sector 1) Advocacy agenda exists at the end of Year 1-3 advocacy advocacy agenda stakeholders, IFAD, NEPAD, ECCAS, year 1 ECOWAS, NEPAD Pan African Cassava 2) Stakeholders organize advocacy and Initiative communication events 13 D. Action plan for development of the High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) 9. Major challenges facing the HQCF Commodity Chain: • high price and supply volatility of raw cassava; • weak linkages between producers and processing industries; farmers cannot find a market whilst industry cannot obtain reliable supply; • expensive and non-standardised equipment (particularly driers); • high energy cost makes drying of cassava products expensive and uncompetitive; technology for high-quality sun-drying not really developed and promoted; • inconsistent quality and hygiene; lack of product standardisation; • poor packaging and labelling; • lack of product and process innovation for expanding existing markets; • weak marketing strategies (lack of sales promotion, pricing mechanisms and distribution channels); • fragmented industry too weak to lobby government on issues of general concern (e.g. energy cost, utility provision, import regulation, tariffs, taxes etc.); and • poor knowledge transfer across the region on improved technologies and market information. 10. Desirable characteristics of the HQCF Commodity Chain: • small-scale farmers are more commercially focused, i.e. through contract farming schemes that ensure a reliable supply of raw cassava to industry; • functions of each player along the commodity chain are more focused and specialised, thus improving productivity, economies of scale and efficiency (i.e. farmers do not become processors); • product quality, hygiene and packaging are upgraded; • national standards for cassava products are developed (regional standards will follow); • research on improved drying efficiency and lowering drying costs is undertaken; • research on product and process innovation for expanding markets undertaken; • research to identify new markets, pilot promotional strategies and distribution channels undertaken; • industry associations created to share knowledge benefit from joint functions (such as research, training, marketing, purchasing of bulk inputs e.g. equipment, packaging materials, etc.) and represent a strong voice to lobby government on key issues; and • regional cassava knowledge system on available technologies, service providers and market information is put in place. 11. The action plan is developed within four countries: Ghana, Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon. However, it is important to note that large disparities in levels of cassava marketing and commodity chain development exist between these countries. Therefore, the action plan can only provide a generic framework, fine-tuning will be required for its implementation in each country, including specific indicators, milestones and timeframes. 14 12. In terms of execution responsibility, it is suggested that national institutions be identified to work in partnership with international institutions such as IITA and FAO to enable transfer of capacity-building and knowledge transfer takes place not only between service providers and beneficiaries, but also between national and international institutions. 13. The objectives of this action plan are: • to set up (one or two) concrete value chains for high-quality cassava flour in each of the four countries (and, possibly, in Sierra Leone, too) through partnerships with private sector processors; • to work on HQCF drying technology to lower the cost of drying significantly (and not to reach marginal technical improvements); and • to establish a “Regional Cassava Information Network” as a learning and exchanging tool on the HQCF market segment. 15 Mis en forme : Police :24 pt, HQCF Chain Gras Nucleus farmers Mis en forme : Police :11 pt Cassava Outgrower farmers Farmers (nucleus or outgrowers) Nucleus of Semi- Processors (wet cake, grits/pellets) Technical Assistance Regulatory Bodies Mis en forme : Police :11 pt Agents Agro- Mis en forme : Police :14 pt Processors Markets Mis en forme : Police :11 pt (Food & No-Food) Food industry-bakers, confectioneries, convenience high quality foods Non food industry, plywood industry, paperboard industries 16 Table 5. Action plan for the development of the High Quality Cassava Flour What? How? Who is responsible? Indicators Time scale I) Creation of 1) Private sector stakeholder working 1) RPMIC facilitates the process. 1) Working groups Quarter 2 stakeholder group/team established in each country with Private sector stakeholders involved established working groups interested processors. Working group prepares in the production process of high- and preparation an action plan to establish the value chain. quality cassava flour (i.e. Elsa Foods, 2) Stakeholders agree of action plan RPMIC secretariat facilitates the process. Owari, Alitech, etc.) on action plan before Private sector stakeholders invest quarter 2 money/clients (willing to buy the product) 2) Research institutes, public institutions and agents could be used as service providers. They could become members of the working groups if private sector agrees. They should represent a small minority in the working team II) 1) Semestral follow-up meeting of working RPMIC and private sector RPMIC monitoring Year 1-3: every six Implementation group organized to monitor implementation stakeholders reports on progress months and monitoring and updating of the action plans made of action plan 2) RPMIC enables private sector players to put in place all part/players of the value chain and establish required links III) Linking 1) Selected farmer groups working under the 1) Farmers’ associations, private Contractual Quarter 4 farmers and national IFAD cassava programmes sensitised sector stakeholders, RPMIC, IFAD agreement among processors in the and trained in commercially oriented project production managers at parties produced by HQCF production, and linked up with involved national levels in Benin, Ghana, the end of year 1 commodity chain processors. Different approaches, including Cameroon and Nigeria outgrower schemes and contract farming, piloted and supported by providing assistance in improved agronomic practices, production planning, business management and facilitating access to credit 2) Facilitate establishment of “intermediary 2) Farmers’ associations, private Regular supply of Year 2-3 processing centres” in cassava production areas sector stakeholders, RPMIC, IFAD raw material as bulking up centres for processing dried grits project production managers at or chips national levels in Benin, Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria 17 IV) Capacity Needs for training defined in action plan. Food Research Institute (FRI), IITA Training needs Year 1-2 building for Private sector player and personnel trained in and industry defined processors and post-harvest handling and processing their staff technologies, food quality and safety, plant Business Development Service Technical training design, hygiene, water use, business (BDS) providers like EMPRETEC organised management, development of business plans (provides business training for and access to credit entrepreneurs) Business training Year 2-3 organized V) Make low- 1) Economic and technical evaluation of 1) RPMIC recruits specialized Concrete options are Year 1 cost drying existing driers and cassava peelers (in service providers defined and technical technology particular the ones already available in Nigeria) plan exists available including use of cost energy 2) Test drying systems with lower energy costs 2) Private sector processors in Pilots are established Year 2 (integrate sun-drying?) at a pilot scale collaboration with specialized and successful research institute (FRI-Ghana, IITA) 3) IFAD-cassava projects promote technology 3) IFAD cassava projects and private Systems are adopted Year 3 at a larger scale sector processors by private sector VI) Expanding 1) Carry out surveys on existing promotional 1) Commercial marketing agencies, Processors are linked Year 1-3 markets through and distribution channels; develop and pilot universities and industry up with users of improved new promotional strategies and distribution HQCF in specific product mechanisms targeting different levels of urban market segments promotion, consumers (through supermarkets, traditional distribution and markets and convenience stores) innovation Initial efforts should be focused on development of national markets. Regional trade and development of regional markets might be addressed on a second phase 2) Carry out surveys on existing products and 2) RPMIC will partner with FRI, Progress report Year 1-3 processes; develop and pilot value-added FAO and industry* products and processes to meet emerging market needs, particularly for urban consumers, including non-food VII) Quality 1) National Standards Boards to develop and National Standards Boards and Progress report Year 1 assurance and implement quality standards for HQCF and industry* (i.e. Ministry of trade in product products made with HQCF to meet product Benin) standardisation safety, quality and traceability requirements 18 VIII) Updated 1) Fidafrique to coordinate the development of 1) RPMIC and Fidafrique to 1) Up-to-date Year 1-3 cassava data a “Regional Cassava Information Network”. coordinate inputs from other regional cassava through the This should provide information on prototypes, stakeholders in the commodity chain information network “Regional cassava processing equipment, and contacts for to effectively share and disseminate is operational and Cassava equipment manufacturers, technical and knowledge private sector Information business service providers to the cassava stakeholders have Network” industry access 2) Regional exchange and learning events with 2) RPMIC facilitates organization of 2) Proceedings of Meetings in quarter 1, specialized stakeholders organized regional meetings and events meetings 5, 9 and 13 IX) Policy 1) Stakeholders identify issues and establish 1) RPMIC and cassava sub-sector 1) Advocacy agenda Year 1-3 dialogue and advocacy agenda stakeholders, IFAD, NEPAD, exists at the end of advocacy ECCAS, ECOWAS, NEPAD Pan year 1 African Cassava Initiative 2) Stakeholders organize advocacy and communication events * In all cases, the term “industry” and “processors” refers to small and medium scale commercial processing enterprises that are registered, employ external labour and operate from dedicated premises. This definition is intended to exclude micro enterprises that use family labour and where processing is often conducted on a part-time or ad- hoc basis. 19 E. Action plan for the development of the “industrial use” of cassava commodity chain 14. Major challenges faced by cassava’s industrial users: • outgrower schemes do not exist; weak linkages between producers and processing industries; farmers cannot find a market whilst industry cannot obtain reliable supply; • high price and supply volatility of raw cassava; • low yields and high production cost of fresh roots (small average farm size; difficult access to land; high cost of land); • high drying cost of chips; • inputs often not available (adapted varieties for industrial use often not available); • high cost of bulking cassava (small farm size, limited surpluses per farm); • high transport costs due to: bad road conditions, dispersed offer, complex transportation chains (tractors, pick-ups, trucks), excessive road taxes; and • factories’ difficulties: high energy costs, lack of water, financing, waste management, inadequate number of skilled labour and management capacity, need for technical assistance, high taxes, difficult access to spare parts/MTCE. 15. Desirable characteristics of cassava supply chains: • diminish costs of cassava as raw material; • increase farm size through land tenure options (involving communities); • support to the development of agro-service centres and tailored credit schemes; • supply of agro-input; • solve farm labour constraints: mechanization and skills development; • promote investments and incentives for plants and equipments; • organize supply chains for bulky goods (bulking): and – organize outgrower schemes; – nucleus farms providing 50-60% of raw materials to factories (complemented by community-based outgrower schemes, extension and input support. • provide rural financial services: – increase number of agricultural experts in financial sector; – single-digit interest rates. 16. Develop market opportunities through availability of cassava as a primary commodity: • Ethanol: strong growing markets with demand > than a billion litres in Nigeria and Ghana: – distilleries in Ghana (>30 million litres) and Nigeria (>120 million litres); – bio fuels (> 500 million litres required to comply with E10 policy); – paint in Nigeria (>20 million litres). • Starch: – quality grades: food and industrial starch; – potential use and demand (textiles, food and beverage industry, paper and plywood, oil industry, plastics and glues). 20 • Unfermented flour: – quality grades: food and industrial use, bakeries, confectionaries, plywood and glues. • Feed: – pigs, poultry, fish, ruminants, camels, horses. 17. The objective of the cassava action plan is to develop supply chains for interested industrial users. The action plan will focus on the organisation of small farmers in outgrower schemes to make cassava raw material available. 18. In 2004, IFAD financed an analysis of all operational aspects prior to establishing supply chains that will guide the RPMIC and implement this action plan. 21 Table 6. Action plan for organisation of farmers in outgrower schemes (cassava supply chains) What? How? Who is responsible? Indicators Time scale I) Establish partnership 1) Inform private sector cassava’s users RPMIC and industrial cassava’s users A memorandum of understanding between Year 1 with private sector and identify interested partners. RPMIC and an industrial cassava’s user cassava processor 2) After identification, RPMIC (fresh roots or chips) is signed in year 1 negotiates on how to organize the work and the role of all parties involved II) Working group 1) Develop a concrete action plan to 1) RPMIC facilitates and monitors 1) Action plan available at the end of year 1 year 1 established and action organize outgrowers implementation of action plan plan prepared and implemented 2) Implementation of action plan 2) RPMIC facilitates a process that 2) Semestral progress reports available Year 2-3 involves directly all stakeholders (industry, credit institutions, IFAD projects) 3) Monitoring and updating of action 3) RPMIC and stakeholders’ working 3) Semestral progress reports available Year 2-3 plan semestral planning meetings) groups III) Organization of 1) Link-up interested farmers’ 1) RPMIC, private sector stakeholders 1) Farmers’ associations sign memorandum year 1-2 supply chain for raw associations with industry supported by ongoing IFAD projects, of understanding material IITA 2) Organize farmers associations in 2) RPMIC and private sector 2) Farmers are organised in outgrower Year 2-3 outgrowers schemes; bring in the stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’ schemes and start production necessary technologies; provide associations required training 3) Skills development in organisation 3) RPMIC and private sector 3) Training sessions organised according to Year 2-3 of outgrower schemes stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’ action plan associations 4) Organize supply of certified seeds 4) IITA and IFAD cassava projects 4) Farmers receive planting material Year 1 5) Pilot initiatives to test chips’ 5) RPMIC and private sector 5) Successful adoption of chips’ equipment year 2-3 equipment stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’ associations 6) Pilot initiatives to test drying flours 6) RPMIC and private sector 6) Farmers sell high-quality cassava chips Year 2-3 and chips’ production stakeholders, IFAD projects, farmers’ associations 7) Pilot initiatives on land concession 7) RPMIC, local governments, 7) Land available through memorandum of year 2-3 and development activities traditional leaders, farmers understanding 22 IV) Policy dialogue 1) Stakeholders identify issues and 1) RPMIC and cassava sub-sector 1) Advocacy agenda exists at the end of Year 1-3 and advocacy establish advocacy agenda stakeholders, IFAD, NEPAD, ECCAS, year 1 ECOWAS, NEPAD Pan African 2) Stakeholders organize advocacy and Cassava Initiative communication events V) Updated cassava 1) Fidafrique to coordinate the 1) RPMIC and Fidafrique to coordinate 1) Up-to-date regional cassava information Year 1-3 data through the development of a Regional Cassava inputs from other stakeholders in the network is operational and private sector “Regional Cassava Information Network. This should commodity chain to effectively share stakeholders have access Information Network” provide information on prototypes, and disseminate knowledge cassava processing equipment, and contacts for equipment manufacturers and technical and business service providers to the cassava industry 2) Regional exchange and learning 2) RPMIC facilitates organization of 2) Proceedings of meetings Meetings in events with specialized stakeholders regional meetings and events quarter 1, 5, organized 9 and 13 23 ANNEX I IFAD’S ENGAGEMENT IN THE CASSAVA SUB-SECTOR 1. Since 1996, IFAD’s first-generation cassava projects in Nigeria, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon have contributed to the rapid production, expansion and yield increases with their focus on poor farmers’ access to high-yielding varieties. Meanwhile, other IFAD-financed rural development projects were involved in screening, multiplication and distribution of new cassava varieties. The achievements at production stage have been important, particularly in terms of food security. A continuous renewal of cassava varieties for food and other specific uses, with higher yields, shorter growth cycles, and better disease tolerance will remain necessary in the future. The fight against cassava mosaic disease in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Cameroon and Gabon) will remain a key factor for household food security. Since 2003, the IFAD cassava-programmes are making a partial shift towards processing and marketing support (approximately 35% of the budget is allocated to production, 65% to post-harvest aspects in the newest generation of projects). 2. In Ghana, IFAD is the only donor that is directly involved in cassava production and processing. The IFAD-funded Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme, (RTIMP): 2006-2012, USD24 million) is supporting: a) participative distribution of improved planting material; b) upgrading of traditional cassava processing; c) innovative cassava processing initiatives; d) strengthening of processing groups. The first phase of the project (1998-2005) mainly focused on the multiplication of planting material. The second phase will adopt a commodity chain approach for its post-harvest initiatives. IFAD’s Rural Enterprise Project, (REP), is involved in the cassava sub-sector through support to small-scale processing. The first phase of RTIMP has been working with private sector processors and bakers in order to establish the High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) pilots. The Ayenso starch factory is facing supply problems as no outgrower scheme exists. 3. The “Projet de développement des Racines et Tubercules”, (PDRT), is financed by IFAD and the Government of Benin for a total amount of USD20 million for 7 years (2002-2008). Its objectives in the field of cassava production are: a) to train approximately 15 000 farmers in production techniques; b) to make specific inputs available to farmers; c) to double cassava yields through distribution of improved cultivars. At processing level, the project aims to: i) organise groups of processors; and ii) upgrade processing equipment. The cassava-based ethanol industry in Benin has supply problems as no outgrower schemes exist. 4. The IFAD-funded “Projet National de développement des Racines et Tubercules”, (PNDRT), in Cameroon, effective since 2004, builds on the IFAD-funded Global Cassava Development Strategy and other IFAD R&T projects. Post-harvest and marketing are the main programme focus, comprising 37% of total costs and another 27% committed to capacity-building activities and farmers’ organizations. Marketing related sub-components include: a) preparation of R&T development action plans at community level; b) development of marketing infrastructure; c) development of a market information system and a national observatory for R&T commodity chains. 5. The IFAD-funded Root and Tuber Expansion Programme, (RTEP), in Nigeria was launched in July 2001 to capitalize on the Cassava Multiplication Programme (CMP), which had contributed to a dramatic increase of cassava production. RTEP’s key objective is to place additional emphasis on processing and marketing. In accordance with RTEP planning, the first Tri-Term Implementation Review (TIR) of the programme took place. The TIR report mentions that processing and marketing is still the weakest link in the chain of RTEP implementation. The approach of the second term will be to make storage, processing and market development components the driver of RTEP activities in the next tri-term, increasing them from 17% of total programme spending to 60%. Major efforts will be devoted to diversifying cassava-based primary products into new derivates (e.g. flour, animal feed, starch, ethanol) and markets. ANNEX II Republic of Ghana CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING REGIONAL INITIATIVE WORKSHOP NEW COCO BEACH RESORT, ACCRA, GHANA 20 - 22 MARCH 2006 AGENDA Monday, 20 March 2006 8.30-9.15 Registration 9.30-10.30 Inaugural Session Mrs. Juliana Dennis, Director of Women in Agriculture Development, chairperson Mohamed Beavogui, Director for Western and Central Africa, IFAD Message delivered on behalf of Prof. Richard Mkandawire, NEPAD Secretariat His Excellency, Fabrizio de Agostini, Ambassador of the Republic of Italy in Ghana Hon. Ernest Debrah, Minister for Food and Agriculture (MOFA), Republic of Ghana 10.30-10.50 Coffee break 11.00-11.30 Presentation of study and working proposals for a regional cassava marketing Mr. D. Nesci, initiative. Consultant 11.30-12.00 Discussion 12.00-12.30 IITA: Issues and challenges for cassava in Western-and Central Africa Mr. A. Dixon, Director 12:30-13:00 Discussion 13:00-14:15 Lunch Presentation from IFAD-sponsored programmes 14.30-14.50 Mr. Akwasi Adjei Adjekum, Deputy Director MOFA & former Coordinator RTIP, (Ghana) 14.50-15.10 Mr. Thomas Ngué Bissa, Coordinator PNDRT (Cameroon) 15.10-15.30 Mr Eric N’da Kouagou, Coordinator PDRT (Benin) 15.30-15.50 Mr. Ade Adeniji, Coordinator RTEP (Nigeria) 16.00-16.20 Coffee break 16.30-17.00 BAFCO: Gari value chain development, experience from Sierra Leone Mr. T. Muana, Director 17:00-17:45 Discussion 17.45-18.15 Preparation for the second day meeting. Republic of Ghana Tuesday, 21 March 2006 8:30-9.00 Summary of the first day and presentation on issues, challenges and Mr. F. Goossens, opportunities in the cassava sector in WCA Consultant 09.00-9:30 Applying the value-chain approach in the working groups Mr. D. Nesci, Consultant 9:30 -12:30 Working groups by commodity value chains (3) (coffee served in rooms) (High Quality Cassava Flour; Gari/traditional processing chains; Supply-lines for industry) Groups to focus on key constraints and opportunities for the development of the commodity value chains with a regional perspective 12:30-13.45 Lunch 13:45-14.30 Presentation of working group results in Plenary 14:30-15:15 Discussion 15:30-18:00 Working groups by commodity value chains resume (coffee served in rooms) Preparation of action plans for activities at regional level Wednesday, 22 March 2006 9.00-10.30 Presentation of country action plans in Plenary 10.30-10.50 Coffee break 11.00-13.00 Discussion and commitment to action plans 13.00-14.15 Lunch 14.30-15.30 Closing Session 2 ANNEX III LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (AS OF 26.04.06) CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING REGIONAL INITIATIVE WORKSHOP 20-22 MARCH 2006 NEW COCO BEACH RESORT, ACCRA (GHANA) Staff from Roots and Tubers Projects Country Contact Address Email Tel & Fax Benin Mr. Eric Tetegan 02 BP 164 email@example.com Tel. 00229 23 61 26 70 Marketing and Parakou firstname.lastname@example.org Mob. 00229 90 03 01 60 or 95 86 91 30 Processing Benin Fax. 00229 23 61 00 56 PDRT Cameroon Mr. Thomas Ngué BP 15308 email@example.com Tel. 00237 222 74 16 Bissa Yaoundé firstname.lastname@example.org Mob. 00237 991 73 95/795 55 51 (Mr. Coordinator Cameroon Ngué) PNDRT Mob. 00237 93 195 21 (Ms. Owono) Fax. 00237 222 73 25 Ms. Berthe Nanga Mefant Owono Responsible Gender PNDRT Ghana Mr. Akwasi Adjei BP 7728 email@example.com Tel. 00233 51 33 159/25 835 Adjekum, Kumasi firstname.lastname@example.org Mob. 00233 277 56 82 87 Project Coordinator Ghana Fax. 00233 51 25 835 RTIP Ghana Mr. K. Attah- PO Box 6841 email@example.com Tel. 00233 51 24 232/287 66 Antwi Kumasi firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile. 00233 2051 100 47 Project Coordinator Ghana Fax. 00233 51 28 767 REP II Ms. Irene Owiredua Eshun Assistant Nigeria Mr. Adeoye A. Federal Dept. of email@example.com Mob. 00234 80 551 78 766/80 34 73 02 Adeniji Programme Agr., Ijebu-Ife firstname.lastname@example.org 31 Coordinator RTEP PMB 2130 Tel/Fax. 00234 37 43 29 33 Ijebu-Ode Nigeria Staff from IFAD HQs PA Mr. Mohamed Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2240 Béavogui, 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3240 Director 00142 Rome Italy PA Ms. Cristiana Via del Serafico, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 5459 2306 Sparacino, 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3306 Programme 00142 Rome Manager Italy PA Mr. Mohamed Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2330 Manssouri, 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3330 Country Programme 00142 Rome Manager Italy PA Mr. Mohamed Via del Serafico, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 5459 2530 Tounessi, Country 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3530 Programme 00142 Rome Manager Italy PA Mr. Hamed Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2604 Haidara, 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3604 Country Programme 00142 Rome Manager Italy PA Mr. Léopold Sarr Via del Serafico, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 5459 2126 Country Programme 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3126 Manger 00142 Rome Italy PA Mr. Ulac Demirag Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2616 Implementation 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3616 Support Officer 00142 Rome Italy PA Mr. Hubert Boirard Via del Serafico, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 5459 06 2298 Country Programme 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3298 Manager a.i. 00142 Rome Italy PA Ms. Annabelle Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2783 Lhommeau 107 Associate 00142 Rome Professional Officer Italy PA Ms. Laura Puletti Via del Serafico, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 5459 2186 Assistant to the 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3186 Programme 00142 Rome Manager Italy Mr. Frans Krombrakenstraa email@example.com Tel. 0032 14 85 37 32 Goossens, t 19 Fax. 0032 14 85 37 32 Consultant B-2460 Kasterlee Belgium Mr. Domenico Via Laurentina, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 54 11 11 97 Nesci, 203 Mobile. 0039 335 77 091 80 Consultant Rome ES Ms. Vivianne Di Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2235 Majo 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3235 Acting Conference 00142 Rome Officer Italy ER Mr. Vincenzo Via del Serafico, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 5459 2609 Galastro 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3609 Programme 00142 Rome Manager Italy EC Ms. Geraldine Via del Serafico, email@example.com Tel. 0039 06 5459 2759 Mpouma Logmo 107 Fax. 0039 06 5459 3759 Regional 00142 Rome Information Officer Italy Mr. Fernand Tona BP 16791 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00221 824 49 94 Agbewonannou Dakar Fann Fax. 00221 825 24 00 Journalist Raceco Mr. Libasse Ndiaye BP 16791 email@example.com Tel. 00221 824 49 94 Cameraman Dakar Fann Fax. 00221 825 24 00 Raceco Mr. Bernard Otabil 11 Dorset Road otabil@africaweekmagazine Journalist Beckenham .com Africa Week Kent BR3 46A firstname.lastname@example.org Magazine London Mr. Yao Alexis Ministere de Tel. 00225 20 210 833 Haccandy l’agriculture Fax. 00225 20 21 46 18 BP V 82 Abidjan 2 Farmers Oganisations Ass. des Ms. Marie de BP 04 Tel. 033 22 32 femmes l’Ange MendouKa Bertoua pour le dév. Mbele Cameroon de President (c/o PNDRT Doumaintan Cameroon) g Bertoua AFCOP Ms. Suzanne Nké Ass. des femmes email@example.com Tel. 00237 231 55 10/237 178 4228 Vice-President contre la pauvreté de LOBO 8143 Younde (c/o PNDRT Cameroon) FONG Mr. Amoah King- PO Box MD 772 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00233 21 31 58 94 David Madina email@example.com Ms. Lydia Sasu. 00233 2 444 31 456 Accra CNOP- Mr. Victor Tekwe PO Box 7445 firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile. 00237 752 92 58 CAM Coordinator Yaounde email@example.com Tel./Fax. 00237 223 41 90 PROPAC USMEFAN Dr. Makanjuola 9, Adenuga firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00234 2 810 73 67 Olaseinde Street email@example.com Mobile. 00234 80 34 64 77 97 Arigbede Kongi Layout firstname.lastname@example.org Fax. 00234 2 810 73 67/2 810 37 20 National New Bodija om Coordinator Estate Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria Private Sector AIVC Ms. Bernadette BP 90 email@example.com Tel. 00229 97 07 44 68/90 04 37 24 ADEN Dossa Azove Fax. 00229 23 61 00 56 President Benin ALITECH- Mr. Gabriel Villa 14 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00229 21 36 02 28/95 05 74 80 Industrie Monteiro Residence des Director Palmiers Royaux Abdmey Calavi Benin AMASA Mr. Kwasi Oware PO Box 6302 email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 3000 83 Agro Director Accra Fax. 00233 21 30 65 46 Processing Co. ASI-consult Mr. Jean-Louis 2, Av. Villemaire firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0033 6 82 80 19 79/ Juillard F 75014 Paris www.asi-consult.com 0033 1 56 80 16 16 Director Fax. 0033 1 56 80 16 17 BAFCO Mr. Taplima 10, Sillah Street email@example.com Tel. 00232 76 640 103 Muana Bo firstname.lastname@example.org Sierra Leone CALTECH Mr. Christopher PO Box 6716 email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 811 372 VENTURE Quarshie Accra h S 3 CALTECH Mr. Leslie Awere 380 Kame firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0233 21 2242 52 VENTURE Kyere Nkrumah Ave. email@example.com Mobile.00233 244 36 87 69 S Adabbraka .uk Accra Cassava Mr. Boma Simeon The Cassava firstname.lastname@example.org Tel/Fax. 00234 9 673 04 87/9 222 40 Agro- Anga House boma@cassavaagroindustrie 46/9 272 27 03 Industries Executive House 32 s.com Fax. 00234 9 272 27 01 Ltd. And Chairman 351 Road off 3rd Mobile. 00234 80 33 03 10 97 Presidential Av. Res. 00234 803 3031 097 Committee Gwarinpa on Cassava Abuja CHRISTIA Ms. Susanna c/o MOFA Tel. 0244 51 20 84 N Owusu PO Box 72 MOTHER’S Akrofrom GARI Techiman Brong Ahafo Ghana COBEMAG Mr. Erasme BP 161 email@example.com Tel. 00229 23 61 08 48/97 57 22 69 Whannou Parakou Mobile. 0029 95 28 80 79 Director Benin Fax. 00229 23 61 00 58 Coopérative Béninoise de Matériel Agricole ELSA Ms. Elizabeth PO Box 7565 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. & Fax. 00233 21 71 21 87/0244 FOODS Ltd. Maldini Afriyie Accra 257 239 Director GIC AOUDI Ms. Aminatou BP 35 email@example.com Tel. 00237 938 68 61 Wanga Meiganga Cameroon (c/o PNDRT Project) NSM Dr. Christopher Nigerian Starch firstname.lastname@example.org Fax. 002341 26 30 410/26 355 85 John Nonyelum Mills Limited m Okeke Ihiala email@example.com Anambra State Nigeria Peak Mr. Ayobami Km 16 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00234 803 33 42 174 Products Oluwunmi Olubori Masaba m 00234 80 25 74 84 10 Enterprise Complex Ita-Oshin Abeokuta Lagos President’s Mr. Osei Owusu Office of the email@example.com. Tel. 00233 21 66 20 48/00233 20 201 2 Special Agyeman President gh 776 Initiative PO Box 46 Accra President’s Mr. Papa Kow Statehouse Telbartpapa@yahoo.com Tel. 0244 619 621/020 832 999 8 Special Bartels Accra Initiative Research Organisations CIAT Mr. Martin Fregene Km 17, Recta firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0057 2 44 50 000/1 650 833 66 25 Cassava Geneticist Cali-Palmira Fax. 0057 2 44 500 73 AA6713 Tel. 001 650 833 66 25 Cali Fax. 001 650 833 66 26 Colombia FRI Mr. Nanam Tay PO Box M 20 email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 560 470/244 79 58 45 Dziedzoave Accra Fax. 00233 21 777 647 Scientific Officer 4 IAR Mr. Abdulai Jalloh Njala firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00232 22 22 33 80 Director PMB 540 email@example.com Mobile. 00232 76 604 983 Freetown Fax. 00232 22 22 34 73 IITA Mr. Alfred Dixon PMB 5320 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00234 2 241 2626 Director Oyo Road Fax. 00234 2 241 222 1 Ibadan State Nigeria IITA Mr. Chuma Oyo Road email@example.com Tel. 00234 2241 2626 Ezedinma PMB 5320 Fax. 00234 2241 2221 Integrated Cassava Ibadan, Oyo Cell. 00234 080 37 141 152/00234 080 Project State 345 76 082 Nigeria IITA Ms. Adeyinka Oyo Road firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00234 2 241 2626 ext 2689/ Onabolu PMB 5320 00234 803 400 2756 Ibadan State Fax. 00234 2 241 2221 Nigeria IITA Dr. Lateef Sanni Oyo Road email@example.com Tel. 00234 2 241 2626 Oladimeji PMB 5320 firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile. 00234 080 33 46 9882 Postharvest Ibadan State Fax. 00234 2 241 2221 Specialist Nigeria NEPAD IITA Mr. Nzola Meso Chitedze email@example.com Tel. 00265 1 707 014/004 SARRNET Mahungu Research Station Fax. 00265 1 707 026 Coordinator PO Box 30258 Mobile. 00265 99 68 702 Lilongwe 3 Malawi NEPAD Mr. Augustin PO Box 1234 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0027 11 313 31 23 SECRETAR Wambo Halfway House Cell. 0027 72 326 93 74 IAT Midrand 1685 Fax. 0027 11 313 34 50 South Africa National/International Organisations FAO Rep. Mr. Dieudonne PO Box 1628 Dieudonne.koguiyagda@fao Mobile. 00233 244 31 59 51 Ghana Koguiyagda Accra .org Resident Representative o.i.c. FAO Mr. Yeboah Elsaid FAO Regional Elsaid.email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 67 5000/70 10 930 Ghana for Africa 1 Gamel Abdul Nasser Road Accra FAO Ms. Stephanie Via delle Terme Stephanie.firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0039 06 570 53 818 Rome Gallat di Caracalla, 100 Mobile. 0039 349 294 2270 Post-production Rome Systems Officer Agricultural and Food Engineering Technologies Service FIDAFRIQ Mr. Gilles c/o UNOPS email@example.com Tel. 00221 869 38 48 UE Mersadier 12524 Fax. 00221 869 39 69 Coordinator BP 15702 Dakar Fann 5 WFP Mrs. Kara UNOPS Build. firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 024 28 73 786 Ghana Djurhuus Ring Road East Programme Accra Assistant WB Ms. Esther Usman Plot 433 Yakubu email@example.com Tel. 00234 9 314 52 69 75 ext.267 Walabai Gowon Crescent Fax. 00234 9 314 52 67/8 Senior Opposite Agriculturist ECOWAS Secretariat Asokoro District PO Box 2826 Garki Abuja Service providers GRATIS Mr. Sheini Abu- PO Box CO 151 sabubakar@gratis- Tel. 00233 208 11 82 33/22 20 42 FOUNDATI Bakar Tema ghana.com 43/20 76 10 ON General Manager, Ghana Fax. 00233 22 20 43 74 Technical Unit VECO Ms. Chiaratou BP 3550 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00229 21 32 46 67/32 70 73 Oceni Cotonou Responsible Marketing High Level Representatives Gov. of The Honourable Ministry of Food email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 66 30 36/54 21 Ghana Ernest Debrah and Agriculture firstname.lastname@example.org Fax. 00233 21 66 32 50/82 45 Minister for Food PO Box M37 and Agriculture of Accra the Republic of Ghana Gov. of Mrs. Juliana Ministry for email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 66 30 36/54 21 Ghana Dennis Food and firstname.lastname@example.org Fax. 00233 21 66 32 50/82 45 Director Agriculture Women in Development Agriculture Development Gov. of Mr. Michael Egyir Ministry of Tel. 00233 21 771 777 ext 148 Ghana Regional Mobile. 00233 244 79 58 87 Corporation and Nepad Box Lt.633 Cantonments Accra Italian His Excellency Jawahrlal Nehru Ambasciata.email@example.com Tel. 00233 21 77 56 21/2 Embassy Fabrizio De Road Fax. 00233 21 777 301 Ghana Agostini Accra Ambassador of the Republic of Italy in Ghana Italian Mr. Pietro Bucci Jawahrlal Nehru Ambasciata.firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 00233 21 77 56 21/2 Embassy Private sector Road Fax. 00233 21 777 301 Ghana development fund Accra (GPSDF) 6 ANNEX IV POWERPOINTS PRESENTATIONS HELD DURING THE WORKSHOP During the workshop the following powerpoint presentations were prepared by the participants. These can be viewed in the regional website, www.fidafrique.net, coordinated by Mr. Gilles Mersadier: 1. Presentation of Study and Working Proposals for a Regional Cassava Marketing Initiative by Mr. Domenico Nesci 2. IITA: Issue and Challenges for Cassava in Western and Central Africa by Mr. Alfred Dixon 3. Cassava Processing and Marketing: Experiences from Ghana by Mr. Akwasi Adjei Adjekum 4. Atelier sur une initiative régionale pour la transformation et la commercialisation du manioc by Mr. Thomas Ngue Bissa 5. Initiative régionale pour la transformation et la commercialisation du manioc au Benin by Mr. Eric Patric Tetegan 6. Cassava Processing and Marketing in Nigeria by Mr. Ade Adejiji 7. Cassava Processing and Marketing in Sierra Leone: BAFCO’s experience by Mr. Taplima Muana 8. Cassava Processing and Marketing: Challenges for Value Addition by Mr. Frans Goossens 9. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Mr. Domenico Nesci The working group presentations are the basis of the three action plans incorporated in the main report and therefore not included in this annex.
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