Monolingualism and multilingualism in Australia and Germany by spo23891

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									      Monolingualism and
multilingualism in Australia and
           Germany
          Michael Clyne
• Non-indigenous history of Australia (since
  1788) – Tension between
• English monolingualism as symbol of
  Empire loyalism or Australian nationalism
• and multilingualism as symbol of
  multiculturalism stemming from migration.
• 19 C – more bilingual ed than 21st so far
• Media/ business incl tenders
• International– conflicts -> aggressive
           1970s pendulum swing

  assimilation policy – 7 decades (One
           (a) Multicultural policies
           (b)
  nation one language ideology)
• 1970s – pendulum swing
• (a) Multicultural policies
• (b) Pressure for national languages policy
  accepted by government (bipartisan)
• Senate inquiry 1982-84 and Policy (1987)
• English, LM, LL, multilingual service
  provision; research institute
• Remaining today: Preceded NPL - Open-ended:
• Matriculation in over 40 languages (some states
  with bonus scores)
• Schools of languages to teach them
• Govt. multilingual radio (68 langs.) and
• Multicultural TV – English sub-titled films; news
• Telephone interpreter service
• Census questions on language use.
    Top20 LOTEs     Speakers       s     Speakers   %Change      % Change
       in 2006       in 1991   in 2001    in 2006   since 1991   since 2001
    Italian                    353605      316893
1                     418801                             -24.3         -10.4

2   Greek             285702   263717      252222        -11.7          -4.4

3   Cantonese         163266   225307      244554       +49.8          +8.5

4   Arabic            162855   209372      243662       +49.6         +16.4

5   Mandarin           54430   139288      220596      +305.3         +58.4

6   Vietnamese        110185   174236      194858       +76.8         +11.8

7   Spanish            90477    93593       97998         +8.3         +4.7

8   Tag./Filipino      59109    78878       92330       +56.2         +17.1

9   German            113335    76443       75634        -33.3          -1.1
1   Hindi                       47817       70013
0                      22727                           +208.1         +46.4
1   Macedonian                  71994       67831
1                      64428                              +5.3          -5.8
1   Croatian                    69851       63615
2                      63081                              +0.8          -8.9
1   Korean                      39529       54619
3                      19756                           +176.5         +38.2
1   Turkish                     50693       53858
4                      41966                            +28.3          +6.2
1   Polish                      59056       53390
5                      66933                             -20.2          -9.6
1   Serbian                     49203       52534
6                      24336                           +115.9          +6.8
1   French                      39643       43219
7                      45496                              -5.0         +9.0
1   Indonesian                  38724       42038
8                      29803                            +41.1          +8.6
    Persian                     25238       37155
1
    Language teaching in schools
• Low time allocation
• Low participation esp. senior years
• Inadequate teacher supply and quality
• Inferior status of LOTEs /Monolingual
  mindset
• Because English is national language,
  choice of languages BUT problems
  connected with that (Policy changes)
                 Germany
• Migrant children discouraged by some schools
  from speaking L1. (Herbert Hoover School Case,
  2006)
• BUT: Some policy recommendations transcend
  monolingual habitus:
• German National Integration Plan 2006 –
  recommends promotion of multilingualism,
  acquisition of German plus maintenance of
  heritage languages with certification
• Hamburger Modell (2007) argues for 2-way
  integration
• 2005 Mikrozensus – 44.8% of all children
  6-18 have migrant background (1st, 2nd
  generation).
• No census data on languages (citizenship
  and some on birthplace) – problems:
• Minority language speakers (Kurdish,
  Chinese)
• 2nd, 3rd generation with German passports
• Ethnic Germans from Poland, Russia
• Stateless, other
• Berlin: 57,000 Tu (1988-2005), 11,500 Ru
• Multilingualism promoted through FL teaching
• 1st foreign language increasingly English in all
  Länder exc. Saarland – including Grade 3 and
  early years of primary (superseding elective
  migrant langs and langs of neighbouring
  countries and other compulsory language
  programs eg in Bavaria).
• Rationale – continuity to Hauptschule
• Weinrich plan (Eng as L3) and Eng as basis for
  multilingual studies not taken seriously.
• European schools – 50:50 modified
• Content based programs mainly Eng.
• Some language programs in languages with
  migrant populations (Sp, Tu, It, Russ, Port)
• Limited use of community resources (esp Ru)
• Exceptional: NRW 19 migrant langs in 100
  schools with/without migr. pop. as L3
• Anomaly: L2 (Yr 7) for home bckgnd, L3 (Yr 9)
• Academic language – MA, BA courses in Eng.
  (Originally intended to be bilingual)
• Humboldt fellows regret having little opportunity
  to use their German
• Mocikat et al – Plea to give more support for
  foreign academics. Students to integrate
  linguistically
• German companies – English increasingly used
  : amalgamations, foreign investors, foreign staff
• Germans tend to use English with
  speakers of other languages, thereby
  weakening German’s status (Cf. Merkel,
  Westerwelle) despite the Graddol
  prediction on English.
• 2040 – Australia multilingual because of
  migration, Germany because of SLA?
•
• Germany: Languages firmly embedded in
  curriculum
• More than one FL
• European schools (bilingual)
• Australia: Choice of main languages
• (English national language)
• Community language resources valued to
  a point
•   Multiple language examinations
•   Government Schools of Languages
•   Official multilingual media
•   Past: Pluralist change easier
•   Esp. in teaching of community languages
    to everyone.

								
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