Implementing Georgia’s Pyramid of Intervention by iwj36622


									Implementing Georgia’s
Pyramid of Intervention
Goals for Consortia
   Systematically understand the framework of
    Pyramids of Intervention at Tier I, II, and III.
   Begin to apply results of research into the
    development of system level pyramids.
    Use guiding questions to revise policies,
    practices, and procedures that prevent
    equitable education for all students.

Georgia Department of
                                                 TIER 4
                                        SPECIALLY DESIGNED
Offices of Curriculum                  INSTRUCTION/LEARNING
and Instruction and                 Targeted students participate in:
                                         -Specialized programs
Teacher/Student                     -Adapted content, methodology,
                                        or instructional delivery
Support                                 -GPS access/extension

                              TIER 3: SST DRIVEN INSTRUCTION/LEARNING
                                      Targeted students participate in:
                                          -Individual assessment
                                         -Tailored interventions to
                                           respond to their needs
                                     -Frequent formative assessments
                             -Consideration for specially designed instruction
                               only when data indicates a need (e.g. gifted or
                                        special education services)

                                                    TIER 2:
                                  NEEDS BASED INSTRUCTION/LEARNING:
                                  STANDARD INTERVENTION PROTOCOLS
                               Targeted students participate in instruction that:
                                           -Is different from Tier 1
                                  -Uses established intervention protocols
                           -Provides enhanced opportunities for extended learning
                                         -Uses flexible, small groups
                                -Includes more frequent progress monitoring
                         -Addresses needs in all developmental domains (academic,
                                    communication/language, social etc.)

                                                      TIER 1
                                All students participate in instruction that is:
                                     -In the general education classroom
                                              - Evidenced-based
                          •Guided by progress monitoring & balanced assessment
                         -Planned to address all developmental domains (academic,
                                    communication/language, social etc.)
Why should we implement the Pyramid?
Problem solving practices and response to intervention models

    By creating the time, structures, and opportunities for
     teachers to engage in inquiry, and collegial dialogue,
     and to learn and practice effective problem solving.

    By passionately focusing on collecting and analyzing
     evidence of student learning and celebrating student

    By creating opportunities for universal prevention and
     early intervention activities.

    By having high, but achievable, developmentally
     appropriate expectations for all students.
         One key question determines when, where,
                    & how to intervene.

                                                  Is it the Fish or the Water?
Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Colorado
                                                 The Prevention/Intervention Triangle

                           Intensive Intervention: Evidence-based interventions that are comprehensive,
                           coordinated, interagency supported, culturally competent, family focused, of high
                           quality, and sustain help

                                                                                         Evaluate Effects
            15%                               Early Intervention: Provide proven structured and targeted
                                              remedial academic & mental/emotional support to students
                                              placed at-risk

               able                                          Primary Prevention(School-wide): Promote academic &
           academic &                                        mental/emotional wellness for all students through:
                                                             family involvement, positive school climate, social skills,
            emotional                                        teacher training, individualized instruction, team
             learners                                        consultation, collaborative problem solving

Adapted from: Dwyer, K. & Osher, D. (2000) Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide. Washington DC: U.S. Departments of Education
and Justice, American Institutes for Research. (page 3)
    System wide expectations that must be in
    place to successfully implement the

 Strategic analyses will help identify the assets and needs specific to
    each unique learning community.
   Schools will restructure so that teams of teachers can meet
    regularly to problem solve and share instructional strategies.
   Teachers’ problem solving skills will be enhanced.
   Staff will learn what to “look for” when students are having difficulty
    and be able to collect authentic information to guide focused
   Inappropriate special education referrals will occur less frequently,
    thus limiting the possibility of disproportionality.
   Pyramid framework will support improvements in student
    achievement and reductions in behavioral transgressions.
How can the framework of Pyramid of
  Interventions improve a student's
      educational performance?

     It is designed to specifically identify solutions - the
    instructional, behavioral and social adjustments that
    lead to student success.

       It relies on evidence to support interventions.

     Teachers are supported by staff skilled in counting
    behavior and measuring student achievement (e.g.,
    DIBELS, AimsWeb, OAS, STEEP).

     Benchmarks are established that indicate current
    performance. These “signposts” monitor student work
    and demonstrate progress toward skill attainment.
How do we operationalize Tier I
and Tier II?
   Key questions to answer are:
    - Do we have scientifically based
    curricula for all students in Reading,
    ELA, and math?
    - Are school wide screenings used to
    group students for supplementary
    - How are formative assessments
    analyzed to determine student needs?
Tier I: Example
(Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. ,2005)

   Step 1: Screening

In the first month of the school year,
  students are screened to identify those
  considered “at-risk”. System must
  define what is considered “at-risk”.
Tier I Screening Practices
   Acceptable Practices: (1) The previous
    year’s state assessment scores are
    reviewed to identify any student scoring
    below the 25th percentile in reading or
    math; OR (2) An achievement test is
    administered to all children in a given
    grade, with at-risk children designated
    as those scoring below the 25th
Tier I Screening Practices
   Best Practices: (1) Every student is assessed
    using brief screening tools that demonstrate
    diagnostic utility for predicting performance
    on the reading and math state assessments
    or on the local graduation requirements; OR
    (2) Only those students who perform below
    the 25th percentile on the previous year’s
    state assessment or who perform below the
    25th percentile on a more current test are
    screened individually with tools that have
    diagnostic usefulness.
Tier I Instruction and Monitoring
   Students receive instruction in general
    education with evidence-based curricula and
    instructional strategies. The fidelity of the
    implementation is documented.

   At-risk students are monitored for 8 weeks to
    identify the subset who respond inadequately
    to general education at Tier I.
How to determine the need for
Tier II support?
   Acceptable practice: At the end of 8
    weeks, at-risk students are
    administered the screening tool or a
    brief standardized achievement test in
    the area of risk. Adequate Tier 1
    response is operationalized with a score
    above the 16th percentile.
How to determine the need for
Tier II support?
   Best Practice: At-risk students are
    assessed every week for 8 weeks in the
    area of risk using brief monitoring tools.
    Adequate Tier 1 response is
    operationalized using (a) local or
    national normative estimates for weekly
    improvement OR (b) criterion-
    referenced figures for weekly
Implementing Tier II support
   Tier 1 non-responders receive 10-week
    supplementary, diagnostic instruction.
    This additional instruction is clearly
    explained to parents documenting what
    strategies will be used, and the
    measurable short term goal.
Supplementary Tier II
   Acceptable Practice: The school team
    collaboratively problem-solve to design
    supplementary, diagnostic instruction
    tailored to the needs of the student.
    This instruction may be implemented by
    the classroom teacher, but would more
    likely be conducted by a specialist or
    aide under the supervision of the
Supplementary Tier II
   Best Practice: The Tier 1 non-responder
    participates in small group instruction
    with students who share similar
    instructional weaknesses. The group is
    taught at least 3 times per week, 30
    minutes per session, by a certified
    teacher or aide who can accurately
    implement an evidence-based protocol.
When to determine Tier II
   Acceptable Practice: At the end of 10
    weeks, at-risk students are
    administered the screening tool or brief
    standardized assessment in the area of
    risk. Adequate Tier 2 response is
    operationalized with a score above the
    25th percentile.
When to determine Tier II
   Best Practice: At-risk students are
    assessed every week for 10 weeks in
    the area of risk using brief monitoring
    tools. Adequate Tier 2 response is
    operationalized using (a) local or
    national normative estimates for weekly
 Montgomery County Public School: Example of
Tier II implementation (Kovaleski, 2004)

 •   Students at “risk” were referred for problem solving
     and progress monitoring at each grade level. At risk
     students were those that scored below 25th percentile
     on previous year’s state assessment.

 •   Using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy
      •  All K- 4th grade at-risk students were screened
      •  (Nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency)

 •   Students grouped in three groups
      •  LOW RISK
      •  SOME RISK
      •  AT RISK (10/2004)

 •   Students in the some risk and at-risk groups were given
     1 hour of focused reading in combination with their
     regular reading block. Progress monitoring during
     additional 1 hour instruction occurred every 2 weeks.
Georgia Reading First Model
   All children are assessed using the
    DIBELS instrument in fall, winter,
   Those “at risk” or “some risk” are given
    additional instruction.
   Progress monitoring occurs on a regular
Reading First: Using a staggered reading
Team   Rdg      Write    Math     Sci/     Areas    Lunch

K      8:45-    10:30-   1:35-    12:15-   12:50-   11:30-
       10:30    11:30    2:35     12:50    1:35     12:15
1      8:45-    12:00-   1:00-    2:00-    11:15-   10:30-
       10:30    1:00     2:00     2:30     12:00    11:15
2      10:30-   9:45-    8:45-    1:15-    1:40-    12:30-
       12:15    10:30    9:45     1:40     2:25     1:15
3      10:30-   9:30-    1:00-    2:00-    8:45-    12:15-
       12:15    10:30    2:00     2:30     9:30     1:00
4      12:45-   8:45-    10:20-   11:20-   9:35-    11:55-
       2:30     9:35     11:20    11:55    10:20    12:40
5      12:45-   9:45-    8:45-    11:50-   10:25-   11:10-
Implementing a Staggered
Reading Block
   After the initial grade level instruction, students move
    during the reading block to homogenously grouped
    classrooms in order to better utilize all of their trained
    staff. A student would have a designated, highly
    qualified teacher in the area of reading who could be
    a general education teacher, a special education
    teacher, or an ESOL teacher depending on the
    students needs. The teachers with the high-risk
    children have smaller groups of children during the
    reading block.
Challenges faced with
•   Progress monitoring
•   Implementation of specific
    targeted interventions
•   Time and competing
•   School-wide implementation
•   Personnel changes
•   A litigious and rule driven
•   Systemic issues
•   Political will
How is your system implementing
Tier I and Tier II?
   Do you have a screening measure in place? If
    so, where is the data maintained?
   What is the cut-point to determine those
    students that may be considered at-risk?
   How are students targeted for preventative
   How long are students provided preventative
    intervention? What determines success?
   How has the role of general education
    teachers, specialists and support staff
School Wide Screening
   Texas Primary Reading Inventory (Foorman)
   DIBELS- Oral Reading Fluency measure (Good)
   AIMSweb
   EdCheckup
   Monitoring Basic Skills Progress
   STAR
   STEEP (Witt)
   OAS
   Gray Oral Reading Test
   Testgate/Thinkgate
Examples of schools providing
Tier II support
   Extended Learning Time
   After school Programs
   EIP program
   Academic skills for Connection Class
   High School Basic Reading or Math
   Interventionist during uninterrupted 90
    minute academic block (small group
Supplementary Instruction
   It is not merely what
    is offered, but we
    must begin to
    evaluate how it is
    offered, who
    teaches it, and
    which students
    receive it.
Re-Cap on Tier 1 and Tier 2:
How do we operationalize Tier I and Tier II?

   Key questions to answer are:
    - Do we have scientifically based
    curricula for all students in Reading,
    ELA, and math?
    - Are school wide screenings used to
    group students for supplementary
    - How are formative assessments
    analyzed to determine student needs?
What is Tier 3
   This should be the school’s line of
    defense for reducing the number of
    students who are low performing or
    perhaps later referred for special
    education determination. Providing
    timely and evidence-based instructional
    strategies to at risk students can be the
    difference between those at-risk
    students successfully meeting
When is Tier 3 support necessary?

      If a student’s school-wide screening or
       progress monitoring results indicate a deficit
       in a specific area, an appropriate instructional
       intervention is implemented and progress
       within that intervention is monitored. These
       students are characterized as not making
       sufficient progress with Tier 1 and 2
       instruction, falling behind on benchmark
       skills, and who require intense, additional
       instruction to achieve grade-level
What are the components of Tier
   It consists of general education instruction
    PLUS specialized intervention that contains:
       Small group instruction
       Mastery requirements of content (relative to cut
        points identified on criterion screening measures
        and continued growth)
       Frequency of progress monitoring
       Duration of the intervention ( Nine to 12 weeks
       Frequency with which the intervention is delivered
        (Three to four intervention session per week with
        45-60 minutes per session)
       Instructor qualifications
What is this Tier 3 or SST?
   Current process for SST
      Every child that fails or is difficult to teach has
       collaboratively developed individual plan
      Problems

          Limited evidence based interventions

          Lack of baseline data in deficit area(s)

          Teams are created without expertise provided

          Limited accountability for fidelity of implementation

   Pyramid of Intervention Tier 3 Process
      More Prescriptive based on results of on-going assessment

      Fewer Choices- Materials Readied—Pre-training

      Progress monitoring embedded
Why do we have SST
   Having an SST at all public schools in
    the state of Georgia is mandated as a
    result of the 1984 Ollie Marshall court
    case (Marshall, 1984). The case came
    about due to concerns over the
    disproportionate placement of African-
    American students in special education.
The original 6 step process for SST

    Conduct a needs identification
    Conduct a student assessment as needed
    Write an intervention plan detailing how the student
     will be instructed with interventions
    Implement the plan
    Follow-up and support throughout implementation
    Conduct continuous monitoring and evaluation to
     determine if desired outcomes are occurring
                    (SBOE rule 160-4-2-.32)
What does the 6 step process
   Define the specific problem (Sallie reads 65
    words correctly with 7 errors on a fifth grade
   Review baseline data of student performance
   Write measurable goals in the deficit area
   Implement plan
   Monitor effectiveness of plan with formative
   Evaluate to determine if there is success
How must SST change?
   The current teams must adopt a problem-
    solving approach that is based on data and a
    continuing system of evaluation.
   Problems must be objectively defined,
    observed, and measured directly in the
   The data collected must be analyzed, using
    information to develop hypotheses about the
    cause of the problem and the appropriate
    selection of evidence-based strategies to
    remedy them.
Progress Monitoring at all
    Curriculum-Based Measurement
A world of CBM resources under one roof

                A service of
Progress Monitoring
How to determine if it is evidence based
                or not?

Resource: National Center on Student
 Progress Monitoring
Standards for Judging High-
Quality Progress Monitoring
   Scientific, research-based instruction includes the
    continuous progress monitoring of student
    performance across all tiers
   Teachers follow a designated procedure and schedule
    for progress monitoring and for regrouping students
    as needed
   Measures are administered frequently to inform
    instruction and curricular placement decisions
   Progress monitoring occurs in all tiers
   Progress monitoring measures are appropriate to the
    curriculum, grade level, and tier level
   Data resulting from progress monitoring is
    documented and analyzed
Standards for Judging High-
Quality Progress Monitoring
   Progress monitoring uses a standardized benchmark
    by which progress is measured and determined to be
    either sufficient or insufficient
   Teachers use progress monitoring data to evaluate
    instructional effectiveness and to be informed about
    the potential necessity for changing the instruction
   An established data-management system allows
    ready access to students’ progress monitoring data
   After progress monitoring, a graph is completed to
    display data for analysis and decision making and to
    indicate percentages of students at risk, at some risk,
    and at low risk
Standards for Judging High-
Quality Progress Monitoring
   Staff members receive training in the
    administration and interpretation of progress
    monitoring measures
   School designates reasonable cut points and
    decision rules for the level, slope, or
    percentage of mastery to help determine
    responsiveness and distinguish adequate
    from inadequate responsiveness
   Cut points are reviewed frequently and
    adjusted as necessary
   A rationale is provided for the cut points and
    decision rules
How does progress monitoring
align with Tier 3?
   The Pyramid of Interventions proposes a
    certain role for SST in the overall plan for
    teaching and learning: After all students have
    been provided quality standards based
    classroom instruction and learning in Tier 1,
    and targeted students have participated in
    needs-based strategic interventions in Tier 2,
    those students are supported by Tier 3- SST
    driven interventions based on the results of
    ongoing assessments


 CTAR/Guided Study

   Academic Study

  Voluntary Tutoring


Reflection on your SST
   Are Tier 3 intervention research-based?
   Are Tier 3 interventions different from
    the curricular materials used in Tier 1
   In addition to Tier 1 and 2 instruction,
    are students receiving Tier 3
    interventions for at least 45 minutes
    each day for nine to 12 weeks.
Key Question

 What do we do when students don’t
    Building a Professional Learning Community

                  2000-2001               2002-2003
                •Advmnt. Trng.         •Infrm. Crs. Tms.
                                                                 •Bulldog Teams
               •Common Finals          •Advmt. Handbk.

   1999-2000                   2001-2002                 2003-2004
•Progress Rprts.,           •Inst. Calendars        •Frml. Crs. Tm.Acts.
•Elect. Grd. Bks           •Bnchmrk.Asmts.                •Gud.St.
 •Vol. Tutoring               •Acad. Study              •Rstr.Lunch
•Parent Contacts            •Crs. Tm. Leads                 •ITF
                            •4th Per. Advmt.           •Math Tutoring
Professional Learning and SST
 “It is not known what types of training
  are provided for Student Support Team
  members, SST chairpersons, and
  principals in different school districts.”
(Walls, 2005)
Training and Documentation
   SST should be included in professional
    learning opportunities to enhance the process
    and the required documentation.
   The current SST Resource Manual states that
    the documentation should make the actions
    of SST “so clear that new teachers each year
    will have no difficulty determining what has
    been tried.”
                                                                                      Cherokee Count School District                                                                                   (May be used in folder)
                                                                              Student Support Team Summary of Test Scores/Grades

                        Progress            Report                Progress                        Report           1st                       Progress       Report                        Progress          Report              2nd                  End of
                        Report              Card                  Report                          Card             Semester                  Report         Card                          Report            Card                Semester             Year
                        1st 9 Wks           1st 9 Wks             2nd 9 Wks                       2nd 9 Wks        Grades                    3rd 9 Wks      3rd 9 Wks                     4th 9 Wks         4th 9 Wks           Grades               Grades




Testing Information: Attach a copy of the current year results to this paper.                                                                                                                                     SAS                        Stanine
Phase I                                                                                                                                                                  CogAT                Verbal
Cognitive Testing:_____CogAT Grade_____                                                                                                                                                     Nonverbal
Academic Testing:
_____ITBS Grade_____                                                                                                                                                                           Total
_____CRCT Grade _____
_____Other _____________Grade_____




                                                                                                                                                            Math Total

                                                                                                                                                                             Core Total
                                                                                                                                 Math Con.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sources of
                                                                                                        Word Use

                                                                                                                    Arts Total








Phase II

K-TEA (___/___/___)                               Standard                            Stanine                                                        K-BIT (___/___/___)                               Standard                 Stanine
                                                   Score                              Score                                                                                                             Score                    Score
          Mathematics                                                                                                                                               Expressive
          Reading                                                                                                                                                   Definitions
          Spelling                                                                                                                                                  Vocabulary
          Composite                                                                                                                                                 Matrices

CELF 4 Screener _________________________


                                                                                               Cherokee County School District
                                                                                       Dr. Frank R. Petruzielo, Superintendent of Schools
                                                                                                          March 2005
Student Intervention Plan- Must review
progress in relation to baseline data
                                                            Cherokee County School District
                                                              Student Intervention Plan
     Date ___/___/___ Student’s Name ___________________________________ Grade ______ School Year ____________ Teacher ___________
     School ___________________________ Area of Difficulty: __________________________________________________________________
                                                                  (List only one per page – ex. written expression, reading fluency, social skills, etc)

             Date                                                        Method of
                                    Intervention/Strategy                   Eval*                        Criteria for            Date of Review/Progress Data
            Chosen                                                       (see below)       Baseline       Progress                 (top box) / (bottom box)




                  * Method of Evaluation                     Dated Comments (Be sure to include the date for each comment)
     Classroom Tests (CT)
     Behavior Chart (BC)
     Data Collection (DC)
     Teacher Observation (TO; must be recorded)
     Work Samples (WS)
     Classwork Grades (CG)
     Homework Grades (HG)
     Parent Observation (PO; must be recorded)
     Other: _____________________________
     Other: _____________________________
Final Reflection
   Is your school using individual student data
    to determine instructional needs?

   How does SST document a student’s ability to
    progress within the curriculum?

   Are SST intervention plans created with
    specific goals, individualized interventions,
    and expected target and end date?

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