Development plan for the postal sector and postal services

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					Development plan for the postal sector
 and postal services in the Caribbean
                (2007/2008)




            November 2007


                  Universal Postal Union
    DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE
POSTAL SECTOR AND POSTAL SERVICES
         IN THE CARIBBEAN
             (2007–2008)



            November 2007
                                                   3

                                               Contents


                         REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE CARIBBEAN

                                                                                      Page



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
I. Introduction                                                                        5
II. Analysis of the postal sector in the region                                        6
III. Priority focuses of development. Priority action                                  7
 1. Activities already carried out in the Caribbean region (2005-2006)                 7
 2. New bases for regional development                                                 8
 3. First priority area : Integrated reform of the postal sector                       8
 4. Second priority area: Operational reorganization for the improvement of service    9
    quality and technological development
 5. Supporting measures                                                                10
IV. Implementation of the RDP                                                          10
V. Financing the RDP                                                                   10


POSTAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE CARIBBEAN
INTRODUCTION                                                                           11
PART ONE. ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL SITUATION IN THE CARIBBEAN                           13
I. Sector reform                                                                       13
II. Quality of service                                                                 15
A. Postal Network                                                                      16
B. Postal market                                                                       17
C. Quality of service issues                                                           18
   (Postal codes, QS monitoring, Security)
D. Service development                                                                 20
III. Technological development                                                         23
IV. Financial Services – Remittances                                                   24
V. Cost accounting – an indispensable tool                                             25
VI. Postal Marketing                                                                   26
VII. Human Resources                                                                   26
                                                4



PART TWO. REGIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR THE CARIBBEAN                                   27
I. Eight observations                                                              28
II. Priority areas for the region – 2007-2008                                      28
Area 1.    Sector reform                                                           29
Area 2.    Operational reorganization for the improvement of service quality and   29
           technological development
Area 3.    Supporting measures.                                                    29
II. Implementation of the plan                                                     29
III. Financing the plan                                                            30
IV. Communication plan                                                             30
V. RDP progress indicators                                                         31
VI. Conclusion                                                                     31



Appendices

1. UPU products and services analysis for the Caribbean
2. Private operators
3. Private financial services
4. RDP indicator table
                                                             5

                         REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE CARIBBEAN


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


I. Introduction
The commonly accepted notion of the Caribbean region comprises more than thirty island countries
as well as the Central and South American countries of Belize, French Guiana, Guyana and
Suriname.
For the purposes of UPU development cooperation, the Caribbean region of the UPU consists of 21
UPU member countries1. Caribbean countries which are not included in this list either belong to the
UPU South American region (for reasons of language) or are administrative dependencies of other
countries2.
Within this grouping of more than thirty islands and countries on the Central and South American
mainland, there are several regional organizations (e.g. the Organisation of East Caribbean States
(OECS)3, CARICOM)4. The regional organization which assembles the greatest number of countries of
the region is CARICOM, the main purposes of which are to promote economic integration and
cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and
to coordinate foreign policy. Its activities for the creation of a Caribbean Single Market and Economy,
and in particular freedom of movement of labour, capital and goods are expected to impact postal
services which will need to reinforce their regional strength in order to withstand global competition.
All countries of the region, plus the Dominican Republic, are members of the Caribbean Postal Union
(CPU), whose central objectives are to strengthen and improve postal services throughout the
Caribbean. Additionally, four countries of the region are members of the Postal Union of the
Americas, Spain and Portugal (PUASP)5.
                                                                               2
The total surface area represented by the region is 512’000 km , and in 2005 the region contained
15.589 m inhabitants.
On the basis of the 2004 Bucharest World Postal Strategy (BWPS) approved by the plenipotentiary
representatives of the UPU member countries, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the
CPU conference held in Port of Spain Trinidad in 2005, it was decided to prepare this Regional
Development Plan (RDP), the aim of which is to facilitate and ensure the development of the postal
sector in the Caribbean region.
The RDP for the Caribbean region therefore encompasses the main global (BWPS) and regional
objectives, and it is hoped that it will become a key instrument for creating a coherent and structured

1 Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica,
Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (each has a designated operator), Saint
Christopher (Saint Kitts) and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago , and
Turks and Caicos Islands.
2 a) Independent states (classified with the UPU Latin American region): Cuba, Dominican Republic;

b) French overseas departments / regions: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane (French Guiana);
c) French overseas collectivities: Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin;
d) Autonomous territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands: Sint Maarten;
e) Dependency of the United States: Virgin Islands (US) (Saint Croix, Saint John and Saint Thomas).
Note: Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands and the British Virgin Islands (along with
other non-Caribbean territories) are designated the Overseas territories of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. Together they constitute one joint membership of the UPU (4 contribution units). As such, they are included in the
UPU Caribbean region.
3 OECS members: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis,

St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
4 CARICOM members include Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas (a member of the community but not the common market),

Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands,
and the Turks and Caicos Islands have associate member status.
5 Aruba, Haïti, Netherlands Antilles and Suriname.
                                                         6

framework on which to base cooperation activities in the region, so that full use can be made of
opportunities for cooperation and for seeking investment partners in this promising sector.
The Plan consists of two main parts:
      –      a description of the principal characteristics of the postal sector in the Caribbean region
             and the main global findings resulting from experience in the field and studies conducted at
             various levels;
      –      a regional action plan for the Caribbean.
The RDP seeks to set conditions necessary for the activities recommended for the period up to 2008,
and also to prepare the ground for more far-reaching work requiring more time and resources.
All the initiatives listed under the action plan in Part Two are interlinked, and although presenting
their own characteristics, fall into two main categories:
–         Activities in which the three main players, i.e. the government, the regulator and the designated
          postal operator, intervene directly. These actions relate particularly to those connected with the
          implementation of the Integrated Postal Reform and Development Plans (IPDPs), both at the
          development stage and at the various stages of implementation of reform-oriented training
          activities;
–         Activities for which the UPU-designated operators are more directly responsible, and which,
          even if they are connected with the implementation of a sectoral development policy, are
          intended to improve the international postal network and guarantee the maintenance and
          development of the single territory. Activities in this category are connected with operational
          matters, that is, quality of service, including the full range of products and services involved in
          the proper provision of postal operations.
These activities are supplemented by supporting measures to facilitate management and operations.
These aim to develop practices and techniques to meet the challenges presented by the region in a
coordinated fashion and in line with a comprehensive view of the postal sector.
II.        Analysis of the postal sector in the region
The fact that most countries of the Caribbean region are islands means that their postal
administrations have to contend with a number of challenges which continental administrations do
not, namely relative remoteness and isolation, to which should be added their proneness to natural
disasters, which all serve to hamper their competitiveness and economic development.
The range of services offered by the Post differs from country to country. Nevertheless, the operators
all offer the basic counter services such as the letter, parcel and remittance services and door or
private letter box mail delivery.
The volume of traditional mail appears to be declining and is being replaced by advertising, business
(utility and financial statements) and tourism mail. Approximately eighty percent of international
letter-post items are destined for North America. The international express mail is established in the
majority of countries, and most offer track and trace.
The parcel post service shows no appreciable growth in some countries. The remittance service is
declining, notwithstanding the networking of some countries to provide upgraded financial services.
Development of electronic or hybrid mail is in its infancy as only one country provides this service.
The restructuring of government agencies such as printing establishments and income tax
departments has resulted in reduced postings.
The drivers for postal reform in the Caribbean are similar to the drivers of change elsewhere.
Improvement in the standard of living across the region has heralded a rise in commercial activity.
Commercial remittance service providers are expanding their reach. Integrated carriers and regional
airlines are operating in the international express market and are utilizing the local bus service for
the delivery of their items to towns and villages. The trend towards e-commerce has seen a
proliferation of new entrants in the domestic market. Some Posts have established relationships or
joint ventures with non-postal operators to improve the quality of their service.
                                                    7

Advocacy for postal reform within the Caribbean region has gained greater momentum during the last
ten years. Some Posts have restructured, implemented technological changes, formed alliances with
major operators to remain competitive, while others are challenged by their status quo, despite their
governments’ commitment to grant them operational autonomy.
On the other hand, some countries are unconvinced of the need for reform which would realize a
change in the legal status of the postal operator. It is the view of a minority that maintaining the
status quo offers the best conditions for postal development and resources.
Since 2005 a number of countries have benefited from the formulation of IPDPs while others are
contemplating the merits and demerits of this approach before taking a decision. This could be taken
to demonstrate that the authorities might not have a concept of the importance of the national postal
sector in economic development.
Some common features are summarized as follows:
1. There appears to be strong political will for postal reform in the majority of countries;
2. The majority of countries have no legal standards in the national legislation defining the country’s
   basic range of UPS services in accordance with the Universal Postal Convention or specific
   regulations stipulating the conditions of service;
3. All countries experience some form of competition in their markets;
4. The regulatory function and its associated legal provisions remain to be developed in the region
   for the most part;
5. In a minority of cases there appear to be changes in strategic focus as a consequence of personnel
   changes at the ministerial and operator level;
6. Some UPU designated operators need to acquire the institutional capacity to implement reform
   processes;
7. In the minority of cases, some countries affected by natural hazards may not be inclined to
   pursue postal reform during the planned period;
8. Strong resistance to postal reform of some stakeholders.
Given the above findings, it is vital that the various actors coordinate their efforts, particularly so as
to facilitate a progressive, coherent integration of the region into the world postal sector. This should
be carried out by prioritizing the following three policies:
        –   a physical network providing a secure, constant, monitored quality of service in line with
            international standards;
        –   a secure electronic network enabling postal items to be tracked at the various stages of the
            process – including customs and transporters - so as to reinforce control and encourage
            greater customer confidence, while contributing to the integration of international postal
            networks;
        –   A financial services network ensuring a secure and affordable electronic remittances
            service.
III.   Priority focuses of development. Priority action
1. Activities already carried out in the Caribbean region (2005-2006)
In 2005 and 2006, a number of activities were organized for the Caribbean region in the context of
strategies aimed at priority areas, namely postal sector development, improvement of quality of
service, installation of electronic infrastructure, and cost accounting.
So far as postal sector development is concerned, the IPDP was adopted as the principal cooperation
tool for arriving at a definition of a future integrated sector reform policy at national level.
                                                              8

In this connection, six countries6 have already benefited from IPDPs, and are in the process of
deploying their recommendations. It is expected that a further six will have benefited from this
initiative by the end of 2008.
Other activities undertaken within the region include the participation of a number of operators in
continuous quality of service testing, projects effected under the Quality of Service Fund and the
launching of activities aimed at the introduction of cost accounting in the region. Individual postal
operators have received assistance of varying kinds within the guidelines of the BWPS. Further detail
can be found in Part One of the report.
All activities which have been completed or which are still in progress have been included in the
action strategy of this RDP, so that due account may be taken of them when future individual
projects for the benefit of the region are being drafted.
For convenience, Caribbean administrations’ reform status and participation in UPU technological
activities are summarized at appendix 1.
2. New bases for regional development
The examination of the postal sector (Part One of this report) gave rise to proposed remedial activities
grouped under two priority areas. A third heading sets out supporting measures (management and
operational tools) for these activities.

3. First priority area: Integrated reform of the postal sector
In order to resolve issues concerning postal services in the countries of the Caribbean which could
impede the effective development of the postal sector and prevent governments from carrying out the
obligations of the UPU Acts, it is necessary to make the necessary preparations for the introduction of
integrated reform of the postal sector through the active participation of the government as well as the
regulator and the designated Universal Postal Service Operator. In line with this reasoning, the case is
made for the inclusion of the postal sector in national development plans.
Postal reform is directly related to the Bucharest World Postal Strategy (BWPS) Objective No. 47 which
sets out the main bases for most of the activities which will follow on from current projects. These
include among others: regulatory reform of the postal sector, regulation, the granting of greater
independence to postal operators and institutional strengthening of the official UPS operator, human
resource development and sourcing of external funds to finance the reform.
Considering too, that the universal postal service is central to integrated postal sector reform, then
the BWPS Objective No. 18 is directly linked to IPDP initiatives and is a fundamental element of postal
reform projects.
In this priority area, the objectives of the proposed activities might be framed as follows:
–   To define clearly the level and breadth of sectoral intervention through specifically targeted
    activities, since institutional and structural reform involve a number of features which may give
    rise to activities directly or indirectly concerned with postal reform;
–   To formulate a general framework for such intervention will make it possible to delineate the
    country’s situation regarding postal reform and define the support which the region and / or the
    UPU should provide, so that the country will receive the most appropriate assistance in support of
    its processes of reform and development of its postal services;
–   To formulate Integrated Postal Reform and Development Plans for countries where this is
    warranted, where there is no overall national plan for remodelling the sector, and where such
    assistance is desired and welcomed;
–   To actively promote postal reform and development in the countries of the Caribbean.

6 See appendix 1.
7 Objective 4: Postal reform and sustainable development. Undertake reform of the postal sector to ensure sustainable
development of postal services and anticipate technological, socio-economic, ecological and regulatory changes.
8 Objective 1: Universal postal service. Ensure the provision of a good quality, affordable universal postal service, allowing

effective communication between people around the world.
                                                    9



4. Second priority area: Operational reorganization for the improvement of service quality and
technological development
Establish a structured plan aimed at improving the quality of postal services, developing the postal
network, whilst creating the necessary conditions for operators to benefit as much as possible from
technologies which support better performance and adaptation to new needs of postal service
customers.
Under-investment in infrastructure, technology and human resources has affected a certain number
of Caribbean postal services adversely, as have physical factors such as the relative remoteness and
isolation of the countries and territories of the region and their proneness to natural disasters. Such
a situation threatens to tip a postal operator into a vicious cycle: underinvestment leading to poor
service quality, and then a reduced market share resulting in poor economic performance, as
illustrated in the following diagram.




Chart 1: The Vicious Cycle

The activities envisaged in this priority area concern the postal services and the activities of the
designated UPS operators in the region. The operational fields which were examined are set out in the
regional action plan in Part Two of this document.
The objectives of this second priority area might thus be framed as follows:
    –      to promote the necessary conditions to support optimal functioning of basic postal
           operations, namely collection, transport, sorting, and delivery;
    –      Working from technically focused quality plans, to ensure that activities are carried out
           within a structured, organized framework and can be measured, monitored and evaluated;
    –      to promote the increased use of different technical and technological tools developed by the
           UPU aimed at monitoring and improving operational management;
    –      to introduce mechanisms for the application of standards as well as postal security
           programmes guaranteeing full protection of postal items and the safety of postal staff;
    –      In order to focus and suitably structure technical activities, to ensure that these are
           integrated into a general structure for the development of activities concerning postal
           services.
                                                    10

5. Supporting measures
The RDP’s action plan sets out measures intended to support the two priority development areas.
These measures involve the application of tools enabling countries to reinforce their capabilities in
key fields in order to:
–   Provide the countries of the region with the means to develop cost accounting, in order to
    maintain improved control over operational costs;
–   Effect a feasibility study for the development of postal financial services in the region;
–   Sensitize senior management to the challenges impacting on and within the postal sector, and
    how best they might be tackled;
–   Provide training in key operational areas (eg. security, and customs procedures) as required
    within the region.
IV. Implementation of the RDP
The activities envisaged in this RDP will be implemented by the UPU in cooperation with the
Caribbean Postal Union, within the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding.
Regional projects, in which other potential partners could be involved will be formulated for activities
envisaged. These will be drawn up in close collaboration by the appropriate technical Directorates in
the International Bureau, in close collaboration with the Directorate for Development Cooperation
and the Secretariat of the CPU.


V. Financing the RDP
Activities contained in this RDP will be financed from article 17 of the UPU budget and from
contributions from different partners identified in negotiations undertaken within the framework of
the RDP.
Financing from the Quality of Service Fund could equally provide a viable and significant source of
support to the plan’s activities. In 2006, the individual countries of the Caribbean region had at their
disposal nearly two million US dollars.
However, so as to truly develop the activities set out in this plan, further research activity will be
necessary. In this connection, various awareness-raising activities are due to be undertaken with
potential donor institutions and others in order to obtain necessary financing.
                                                            11




                     POSTAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE CARIBBEAN




INTRODUCTION
The commonly accepted notion of the Caribbean region comprises more than thirty island countries
as well as the Central and South American countries of Belize, French Guiana, Guyana and
Suriname.
For the purposes of UPU development cooperation, the Caribbean region of the UPU consists of 21
UPU member countries9. Caribbean countries which are not included in this list either belong to the
UPU South American region (for reasons of language) or are administrative dependencies of other
countries10.
Within this grouping of more than thirty islands and countries on the Central and South American
mainland, there are several regional organizations (e.g. the Organisation of East Caribbean States
(OECS)11, CARICOM)12. The regional organization which assembles the greatest number of countries
of the region is CARICOM, the main purposes of which are to promote economic integration and
cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and
to coordinate foreign policy. Its activities for the creation of a Caribbean Single Market and Economy,
and in particular freedom of movement of labour, capital and goods are expected to impact postal
services which will need to reinforce their regional strength in order to withstand global competition.
All countries of the region, plus the Dominican Republic, are members of the Caribbean Postal Union
(CPU), whose central objectives are to strengthen and improve postal services throughout the
Caribbean. Additionally, four countries of the region are members of the Postal Union of the
Americas, Spain and Portugal (PUASP)13


Some economic considerations
The economies of some Caribbean countries are in transition towards service-based economies while
others depend primarily on the tourism industry which has been slated to become the leading
contributor to GDP.
The vulnerability of the wider Caribbean and in particular member states of the Organisation of East
Caribbean States (OECS) to the volatility of the international market prices for oil have many fearing

9 Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica,
Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (each has a designated operator), Saint
Christopher (Saint Kitts) and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago , and
Turks and Caicos Islands.
10 a) Independent states (classified with the UPU Latin American region): Cuba, Dominican Republic;

b) French overseas departments / regions: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane (French Guiana);
c) French overseas collectivities: Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin;
d) Autonomous territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands: Sint Maarten;
e) Dependency of the United States: Virgin Islands (US) (Saint Croix, Saint John and Saint Thomas).
Note: Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands and the British Virgin Islands (along with
other non-Caribbean territories) are designated the Overseas territories of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. Together they constitute one joint membership of the UPU (4 contribution units). As such, they are included in the
UPU Caribbean region.
11 OECS members: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis,

St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
12 CARICOM members include Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas (a member of the community but not the common market),

Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands,
and the Turks and Caicos Islands have associate member status.
13 Aruba, Haïti, Netherlands Antilles and Suriname.
                                                 12

the implementation of structural adjustments as governments are forced to allow market forces to
determine the cost of petroleum products on the market.
The postal sector’s contribution to the economies of the Caribbean region could be a vital
contribution in development, particularly in view of the key role being played by communications and
the various new information technology products.
The CARICOM Single Market (CSM) is intended to improve export opportunities and attract foreign
investment by creating a single market among participating member states. Jamaica, Barbados,
Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago formally joined the CSM on 1 January 2006.
Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines ratified the agreement in July 2006.
The CARICOM Single Economy (CSE) is scheduled to come into effect in 2008 and be fully
implemented by 2015. The CSE will look at the adoption of a common currency and common
economic policies.
North America (US and Canada) and the European Union are the Region’s principal trading partners.
Within CARICOM, every member maintains restrictions on some imports from other members or from
a specific subgroup.
Structuring principles of the PDR
The basic structuring principles of the present plan are integration and regionalization. By these
terms is meant the integration of all IB cooperation activities, with the Directorate for Development
Cooperation acting as interface between all other IB directorates and the developing countries. In-
field activities undertaken by regional advisers, restricted unions and financial institutions would
likewise be harmonized. In order to best meet regional needs, regional actors will be encouraged to
create synergies amongst themselves, whilst reinforcing and widening the scope of cooperation
activities.
The RDP for the Caribbean encompasses the main global and regional objectives of the 2004
Bucharest World Postal Strategy (BWPS), and is expected to become a key instrument for creating a
coherent and structured framework on which to base cooperation activities in the region, so that full
use can be made of opportunities for cooperation and for seeking investment partners in this sector.
The preparation and implementation of the RDP is closely linked with the application of the IB’s
Integrated Plan for Postal Reform and Development (IPDP) initiative, which has been adopted as the
main instrument of cooperation in defining a future national integrated sector reform policy. Five
countries already have already benefited from IPDPs and others are expected to do so by 2008.
This RDP also provides a framework for the implementation of many of the recommendations of an
EU-CPU project which concluded in 2005 and covered a number of the fields included in the present
plan.
Likewise, the countries that already have an IPDP will be able to incorporate planned activities into
its recommendations. For countries which do not yet have an IPDP, the most suitable mechanisms
for guaranteeing adhesion to the basic principles of the approach will be sought. This will reinforce
the principle of integrated activities and active government participation as an instigator of postal
reform.
It is envisaged that the activities set out in Part Two of this RDP will be implemented by the UPU in
cooperation with the Caribbean Postal Union, within the framework of a Memorandum of
Understanding.
                                                             13

                                                       PART ONE


PART ONE. ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL SITUATION IN THE CARIBBEAN
                                                                                             2
The total surface area represented by the Caribbean region is 512’000 km , or 0.3 % of the world’s
surfac. In 2005 the region contained 15.6 million inhabitants. Under UNDP classification, the region
contains 11 net contributor countries, 8 middle income countries, one low income country and one
least-developed country.
The Gross Domestic Product per capita (according to the latest estimates available) varies between
USD 1614 (Haiti) and USD 19’139 (Bahamas) – with a median value of USD 8’122. According to the
Association of Caribbean States1415, six countries can claim a high human development indicator
value, one a low value, with the remainder having benefited from medium level of development.
The regional contribution to the UPU budget is 16.5 units, representing some 1.4 % of the
contribution of member countries.
I. Sector reform
The 1990s saw the proliferation of foreign-based and local private postal operators throughout the
Caribbean with a notable decline in UPS operator-provided services.
With the introduction of innovative processes by some UPS operators (Government-owned statutory
corporations and departments) to maintain market share, enhance customer confidence and improve
revenues, remarkable progress has been made during the past fifteen years.
Despite the efforts of these operators, external factors continue to plague the sector as a whole. Some
of these are:
–   The slow pace of postal sector reform in some countries;
–   An undefined or inadequately defined universal postal service;
–   Undefined conditions for providing the UPS and its funding;
–   Growth in unregulated competition and potential erosion of market share;
–   Government priorities and national development plans in which the postal sector and the post are
    not taken into consideration;
–   The need to reinforce institutional capacity in some UPS operators.


As can be seen from the following table, six of the 21 administrations of the region (29 %) have been
transformed into public corporations, with the remainder still being part of a ministerial structure. As
yet, no country has appointed a postal regulator.




14 Association Of Caribbean States (ACS). The Convention Establishing the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) was signed

on 24 July 1994 in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation and concerted action
among all the countries of the Caribbean, comprising 25 Member States and three Associate Members. Eight other non-
independent Caribbean countries are eligible for associate membership.Its membership consists of:Antigua & Barbuda ,
Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados , Belize , Colombia , Costa Rica , Cuba , Dominica , Dominican Republic , El Salvador , France,
Grenada , Guatemala , Guyana , Haiti , Honduras , Jamaica , Mexico , Netherland Antilles, Nicaragua , Panama, St Kitts Nevis,
St Vincent & the Grenadines, St. Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks and Caicos and Venezuela
                                                                       14



           Postal administrations                         Postal administrations operating under a         Countries with
           transformed into public                        ministerial department                           regulatory
           corporations                                                                                    authorities
       –     Grenada         –      Surinam           –     Anguilla                 – Dominica
       –     Guyana          –      Trinidad and      –     Antigua and Barbuda*     – Jamaica
       –     Netherlands            Tobago            –     Bahamas*                 – Haiti
             Antilles and                             –     Barbados                 – Montserrat                _
             Aruba                                    –     Belize*                  – Saint Christopher
       –     Saint Vincent                            –     Bermuda                       and Nevis*
             and the                                  –     British Virgin Islands   – Saint Lucia*
             Grenadines                               – Cayman Islands               – Turks & Caicos

           * Countries which have benefited from an IPDP

      Chart 2: Structural Status of Caribbean Administrations. (Office of the Regional Adviser)

Postal reform is directly related to the Bucharest World Postal Strategy (BWPS) Objective No. 416
which sets out the main bases for most of the activities which will follow on from the current projects.
These include among others: regulatory reform of the postal sector, regulation, the granting of greater
independence to postal operators and institutional strengthening of the official UPS operator, human
resource development and sourcing of external funds to finance the reform.




                                 Presenting an IPDP

Considering too, that the universal postal service is central to the integrated postal sector reform,
then the BWPS Objective No. 117 is directly linked to IPDP initiatives and is a fundamental element of
postal reform projects.
Activities planned under this heading aim at the following:
      -     A clear definition of the level and extent of intervention through specific, clearly defined
            actions, given that institutional and structural reform is composed of multiple elements which
            may involve activities either directly related or subsidiary to postal reform;
      -     The formulation of general frameworks for action enabling the country’s postal reform
            situation to be defined will facilitate the definition of the main cooperation strategies likely to
            assist the country most effectively in its postal reform and development efforts;
      -     The development of Integrated Postal Reform and Development Plans (IPDPs) in countries
            where the existing conditions justify them, where there is no overall national plan for postal
            sector reform and where there is a willingness and desire for such assistance;



16   See footnote 7.
17   See footnote 8.
                                                             15

     -   The systematic application of a series of actions in countries, in tandem with regional
         thematic projects, in the area of postal reform and development.
Previous approaches to reform had been somewhat uneven and did not address fundamental sectoral
issues. However, the approach known as Integrated Postal Reform and Development Plan (IPDP) has
been applied since 2005. The IPDP approach consists of a plan for the country’s postal sector to be
initiated by the Government and modernization of the UPS designated operator. It incorporates a
detailed work schedule planned jointly by the main players from government departments and the
operator. To date, six postal administrations18 have benefited from this UPU initiative19.


II. Quality of service
The postal services in some CARICOM and OECS countries are characterized by under-investment,
and the need to modernize infrastructure and make more effective use of available postal technology,
as well as the need to improve human resource management and organization. Other factors which
inhibit the provision of services by the UPS operators and restrict competitiveness and economic
development include:
–    the relative remoteness and isolation of the countries and territories of the region, and their
     proneness to natural disasters;
–    inadequate air transportation;
–    insufficient knowledge of postal activities;
–    turnover;
–    changes in postal authorities;
–    need of senior and middle management expertise;
–    need of a planned approach to development;
–    social unrest and consequential security risk (in a minority of cases)
These factors result in restricted competitiveness and economic development, and in a minority of
cases social unrest and consequential security risk.
There has been a marginal decline in the number of network facilities during the past fifteen years
due to infrastructural damage occasioned by natural disasters and changes in the delivery system
which necessitated the replacement of general delivery by door and private letter box delivery.
Variations also exist in the quality of postal services offered in the Caribbean region. Some countries
deliver mail primarily through mail boxes while others offer a combination of door and box delivery or
door, box and general delivery. In the majority of cases the mode of delivery is the direct result of
the countries’ terrain or topography.
There are deficiencies with regard to the provision of statistical information on postal operations as
evidenced by Caribbean data missing in the UPU annual statistics.
There are also serious shortcomings pertinent to the main quality indicators, i.e. delivery time,
reliability, security, air conveyance and liability and widespread reports of missent and missorted
items which induce serious concerns on the part of customers.



18Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Belize, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Lucia
19Within this context, the Jamaican post is undergoing reorganization of its mail operations and has seen an increase in its
business activities. Currently, Barbados is examining the adoption of a new legal status and motto « Discover the new Post ».
Counter solutions are also being implemented to improve customer service and a communications and promotions plan is
underway to grow volumes in the fast mail market. Trinidad and Tobago has completed phase one of the postal transformation
exercise and has embarked upon phase two which should realise the development of a postal sector policy that establishes the
regulatory environment for all stakeholders, in keeping with the Government's objectives as set out in the National Vision
20/20.
                                                 16

A limited number of countries are participating in UPU quality of service continuous testing, while
others will require the necessary technical support to define and monitor quality at the national or
international level or analyse the UPU quality measurement data for improvement purposes.

Governments, the private sector and household customers transact a substantial amount of business
with private postal operators rather than with the Post.

The majority of operators manually process domestic and international mail and do not always have
sufficient daily operating capacity to meet the demand for processing mail.

Overlooking the impact on international service quality of the locally-executed elements of the postal
process would lead to major causes of shortcomings going unremedied

A. Postal Network
Post Offices
The Caribbean region included 1370 permanent post offices in 2005, that is 0.2% of the world total.
The number of post offices in the region increased from 1729 (in 1980) and 1900 (in 1990) and then
saw a reduction to the present level. For the period 2000 – 2005, the number of post offices reduced
by 3.4%, ahead of the world figure of – 0.2 % for the same period.




Workforce
Postal employees in the Caribbean totaled 7410 in 2005, representing a reduction of 2.4% compared
to the previous year. With 8090 in 1980 and 8990 in 1990, total postal staffing decreased by 1.7% in
2000 – 2005.
Access to postal services
Using the latest available data for 2005, nearly 2 % of the regional population was still without a
postal service. Approximately 47 % had to collect their mail at a postal establishment, whilst 51 %
benefited from home delivery.
                                                                            17


                                                Access to postal delivery - 2005

                           1                     50.72%                                          46.58%        1.86%

                               0%               20%               40%               60%                 80%     100%

                                Percentage of the population having mail delivered at home

                                 Percentage of the population having to collect mail from a postal
                                establishment
                                Percentage of the population without postal services



                   Chart 3: Access to Postal Delivery in the Caribbean. Source: UPU Postal Statistics, 2005

The following table sets out the situation regarding access in all regions of the world. From these two
tables it can be seen that whilst the Caribbean can claim to have fewer of its population without
postal services than the rest of the world, its provision of home delivery is less than that of most other
regions.


                                       Africa            22%                                    60%                    18%

                Latin America and Caribbean                                         83%                             12%      4%

                            Asia and Pacific                                              94%                                5%

                               Europe and CIS                                              98%

                               Arab countries                             61%                                 35%

                     Industrialized countries                                              98%

                                        Total                                      82%                              15%

                                                0%              20%               40%                 60%     80%            100%
                                                     Population having mail delivered at home
                                                     Population having to collect mail at post office
                                                     Population w ithout postal services


                   Chart 4 : Access to Postal Delivery (All regions). Source: UPU, Postal Service Statistics 2005, Berne, April
                   2007.

B. Postal market
In 2003 (the most complete year for which data were supplied) fourteen administrations reported on
their operating result. Of these, six recorded a positive result and the remainder a negative result.
Postal market
The difficulty in obtaining market data from foreign-based and UPS operators makes a clear case for
UPU market studies.
However, market studies conducted in 1999 suggest that the region’s Post has approximately 80
percent of the letter and 10 percent of the parcel segment of the market with the destination market
being North America.
                                                             18


              1999 LETTER POST MARKET SHARE                                 1999 PARCEL POST MARKET
                         (Esimated)                                                 (Estimated)

                    Private                                                                       UPS
                   operators                                                                   Operators
                     20%                                                                         10%




                                       UPS                                        Private
                                    operators                                    Operators
                                      80%                                          90%


                    Charts 5 and 6: Caribbean Operators’ letter and parcels market shares (1999 est.)

    If this letter-market situation appears reassuring, due attention must be paid to the parcels market
    share, as well as to the significant presence of FedEx, UPS and DHL throughout the region, as shown
/
    in appendix 2.
    A limited number of countries have recruited qualified professional staff to market their postal
    products and services and develop a database of their corporate and non-corporate customers.
    Given that the above figures are not only estimates, but date back some seven years, there is a
    pressing need to conduct market surveys in all countries in the region to determine the
    characteristics of the letterpost, direct mail, parcels, and postal financial services markets.


    C. Quality of service issues
    The adoption of postal codes, monitoring of international mail transmission times and the
    improvement of mail security are UPU activities aimed at improving quality of service in order to
    create conditions favourable to the development of postal services.
    Postal codes
    A systematized postal code particularly in a region of similar or identical island or place-names can
    not only simplify and speed up sorting operations nationally and internationally; it can also form the
    basis for direct mail activities as a new revenue stream.
    The CPU countries comprise a large number of small islands. Within this kaleidoscope of countries
    and territories, some common problems have been identified in the area of postal coding, in
    particular the following:
    1. the significant volume of letter-post and parcels traffic from the USA towards countries of the
       Caribbean zone which can give rise to sorting problems. Most of the international mail transits
       via Miami, where it is handled before being dispatched to the different destinations;
    2. the existence of similar island names and identical locality names within different countries in
       the same zone, plus the lack of postcode systems often result in misdirection or deliveries being
       returned to sender;
    3. small volumes of mails per country and the low population density give rise to high handling
       costs for the postal services; consequently reducing the variety of products available to clients ;
    4. some 42 % of mail is delivered through P.O. boxes, although seventeen countries have home
       delivery.
    Three main types of postal addressing and coding situation can therefore be identified in the
    Caribbean:
    1. Countries where the postcode and addressing is being developed in cooperation with the IB’s
       Postal Addressing Unit after the Caribbean Conference held in 2005 in collaboration with the
       USPS. This is the case of Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
                                                              19

     Cayman Islands, Dominican Rep., Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
     Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines and the British Virgin Islands;
2. Countries where the postcode does not exist and no effort has been developed to create a new
   addressing system. This is the case of Antigua and Barbuda, Guyana, Montserrat, Suriname and
   Trinidad and Tobago;
3. Countries whose addressing system depends on that of another country, for example USA,
   France or Great Britain.
Quality of service monitoring
As regards transmission times for mail, continuous testing of transmission times for international
priority/airmail letter-post items has been developed in order to provide postal administrations with a
simple, effective tool for measuring international quality of service. The International Bureau
undertakes worldwide quality tests each year, monitoring international links through the use of test
letters and parcels. The IB also publishes end-to-end delivery standards against which Posts can
measure their progress. Assistance is provided to Posts in implementing quality of service
improvements by sending consultants to selected countries to ensure that internationally accepted
procedures are followed and to make recommendations.
Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Kitts and Nevis took part in UPU continuous testing in 2006. There
are no comparable links. The following were the results:


Link                                                      J+5 achievement                 Average (days)
Trinidad and Tobago – Belgium                                        41.7 %                         6.8
Trinidad and Tobago – Saint Kitts and Nevis                           80 %                          4.2
Great Britain – Trinidad and Tobago                                  67.0 %                         4.9
Germany – Saint Kitts and Nevis                                      3.5 %                         14.4
Belgium – Trinidad and Tobago                                        44.5 %                         6.4
Chart 7: Continuous testing in the Caribbean 2006. Source: UPU-IB.DOT



Security
The UPU recognizes that the safety and security of the postal sector is critical to support world-wide
commerce and communication. To facilitate the development of a standard of security and best
practices among the Posts, the UPU established the Postal Security Action Group (PSAG) 20.
The Caribbean region has benefited from previous PSAG initiatives.
In recent times airport reviews were conducted in a number of countries with a view to identifying
best practices and opportunities for improving security measures and developing specialists in
security areas.
Despite PSAG’s efforts the region’s operators continue to experience mail losses, rifled and damaged
mail, delays and reduction in mail volumes all of which impact on security as a factor of quality.
These problems arise at least in part from the limited space for intra- and extra-regional mail
conveyance. At the CPU conference held in 2006 a resolution envisaging the creation of one or two
Caribbean hubs was discussed as a potential solution for this situation.
Such occurrences are frequent in a significant number of countries and contribute to loss of goodwill
and image.

20 Postal Security Action Group. The group is comprised of security experts from the 77 member countries of PSAG and is

charged with the development of global and regional security strategies to assist the world's posts in their security missions.
Through training initiatives, consulting missions and prevention programmes, the PSAG strives to protect the employees and
assets of the Posts along with safeguarding the mails from fraud, theft and misuse.
                                                               20

PSAG has also trained several postal personnel in e-MARIA21 and donated a small number of
computers to allow for systematic recording of irregularities and objective analyses.
The imposition of restrictions on border and port entries, the need for extensive monitoring of postal
items for prohibitions such as narcotics and biochemical products, the impact of money-laundering,
the need to safeguard property, customer, staff and the items entrusted to the Post are some of the
issues that impact the postal service and will need to receive greater attention in the future.
A project aimed at procuring security equipment to monitor the quality of mail operations was funded
from the QSF. There is need for greater attention to be given in this regard at the national and
regional level.


D. Service development


Letter post
Inland letter-post items have been on the increase for the past decade in the region. In 2005, the
region accounted for some 186.4 million items representing an increase of 12.9% compared with the
preceding year, and was the highest increase for that period in any of the UPU’s regions.
Nevertheless, the region accounts for only 0.04% of world traffic, which indicates only a slight
increase in comparison with 2000. During 2000 – 2005 the number of items increased 6.5%. Between
them three countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and Barbados) generated more than half of the
region’s postal traffic in 2005.
Evolution of letter-post volumes in the Caribbean region




Note : 1990=100




21The e-MARIA application is a worldwide database system used to collect and analyze international mail irregularity data.
The application allows postal security units and international operations units the ability to electronically exchange reports of
mail irregularities to combat mail loss and improve quality of service and security of the mails. E-MARIA is primarily used to
record and analyze information from Bulletins of Verification (BV’s) or Verification Notes (VN’s) so that the data can be used
identify mail loss trends and pinpoint geographic locations of security concern. The e-MARIA software is available free of
charge from the Postal Security Action Group (PSAG) and the implementation can be facilitated by regional user training from
PSAG.
                                                                21

Chart 8: Evolution of letter-post volumes in the Caribbean region. Source: UPU, Postal service statistics 2005, Berne, April 2007.




Chart 9: Evolution of domestic letter-post volumes in the Caribbean region. Source: UPU, Postal service statistics 2005, Berne,
April 2007

International letter-post – dispatch
It is a different story for the international letter post. At 53.8 million items in 2005, international
letter-post (dispatch) reduced for the second consecutive year run . This represents a fall of 3.3 %
compared to the previous year. However, during the period 2000 – 2005, traffic growth was 2.3 %, the
highest of all UPU regions for the period in question. International letter-post items represented
almost one-quarter of items sent in the region during 2005. As in the inland service, only three
countries account for more than half of international items.




Chart 10: Evolution of international letter-post volumes in the Caribbean region. Source: UPU, Postal service statistics 2005,
Berne, April 2007

Postal parcels
The focus of all operators has been primarily on international parcels up to 20 kilogrammes.
Domestic parcels have been practically non-existent in the majority of cases. With the trend towards
pay for performance, some operators are reviewing their parcel processes by providing tracking and
tracing to influence the growth of the international parcel business.
A) Postal parcels – domestic service
Postal parcels traffic has decreased constantly during the past decade: in 1990, approximately
50 000 items were dispatched in the domestic service; in 2005, this volume had shrunk to about 16
000 items, a decrease of 5.9% from 2004. During the period 2000 - 05, the average annual decrease
was 4.4% compared with positive growth over the same period for most other regions in the world.
The countries and territories of the region traditionally have quite modest parcels traffic in the
                                                                        22

domestic service, which is mainly related to their characteristics as small island economies. In 2005,
only five administrations posted domestic parcels traffic results. Only two countries, Trinidad and
Tobago and the Bahamas, accounted for over 95% of total traffic of the Caribbean in 2005.
      Graphique 9: Total number of ordinary postal parcels, domestic service (1'000 items)

                                                                                                         Average annual          Share in world
                                                                                                            variation                total

                                               1990         2000        2003        2004        2005           04-05    00-05   en 2000 en 2005

         Africa                                8'361       2'610        3'690       3'413       3'226          -5.5%    4.3%      0.1%     0.1%
         Latin America                        29'583      87'791      138'516     141'531     159'788          12.9%   12.7%      1.8%     2.7%
         Caribbean                                50          20           19          17          16          -5.9%   -4.4%      0.0%     0.0%
         Asia and Pacific                    283'169     462'433      365'048     317'162     277'590         -12.5%   -9.7%      9.7%     4.7%
         Europe and CIS                      120'131      58'474       57'943      62'516      69'255          10.8%    3.4%      1.2%     1.2%
         Arab countries                          667         867          978         982         996           1.4%    2.8%      0.0%     0.0%
         Industrialized countries          2'755'552   4'152'694    4'066'516   4'808'304   5'406'820          12.4%    5.4%     87.2%    91.4%

         Total                             3'197'514   4'764'889    4'632'711 5'333'924 5'917'691             10.9%     4.4%    100.0% 100.0%

      Source: UPU, Postal Statistics 2005, Bern, October 2006.

Chart 11: Evolution of ordinary domestic parcels volumes in the Caribbean region. Source: UPU, Postal service statistics 2005,
Berne, April 2007

B) Postal parcels – international service
In the international service, parcels traffic also decreased during the past decade, albeit less rapidly
than in the domestic service. While the region dispatched about 123 000 items in 1990, the volume
decreased to about 88 000 items in 2005. In 2005, the decrease was 4.3% compared to the previous
year. The international parcels service is offered by all the Caribbean administrations. Three
administrations (Netherlands Antilles, Jamaica and the Bahamas) were responsible for almost half of
the total traffic of the Caribbean in 2005. In this region, the share of international service in total
parcel post items dispatched increased from 71% in 1990 to almost 85% in 2005. This represents the
highest share of international dispatch among all regions of the world and underlines again the
special characteristics of the Caribbean economies.
Since the 2004 Bucharest Congress, the Parcels Group has implemented a strong strategy for the
development of international postal parcels based on the improvement of the quality of the inward
parcels services. This strategy includes remuneration between postal administrations based on a
system of bonus payment linked to parcels service features such use of track and trace for parcels
and use of an electronic internet based system for dealing with inquiries.
Given the current small share of the estimated parcels market, there is need for a market survey to
identify possible new revenue streams. The drive for improved quality of service for international
parcels will potentially open market growth opportunity for postal parcels in the Caribbean region.
      Graphique 12: Total number of ordinary postal parcels, international service - dispatch (1'000 items)


                                                                                                         Average annual          Share in world
                                                                                                            variation                total

                                               1990         2000        2003        2004        2005           04-05    00-05   en 2000 en 2005

         Africa                                  753         577          329        299         308            2.9%   -11.8%     1.6%     0.7%
         Latin America                           359         318          528        573         562           -1.9%    12.1%     0.9%     1.3%
         Caribbean                               123          93           92         92          88           -4.3%    -1.1%     0.3%     0.2%
         Asia and Pacific                      4'041       3'574        3'674      3'847       4'227            9.9%     3.4%    10.0%     9.7%
         Europe and CIS                        1'037         848          909      1'009       1'109            9.9%     5.5%     2.4%     2.5%
         Arab countries                          752         436          411        397         419            5.6%    -0.8%    1.22%    0.96%
         Industrialized countries             46'825      29'798       34'334     36'041      36'978            2.6%     4.4%    83.6%    84.6%

         Total                               53'890       35'644      40'277      42'259      43'691           3.4%     4.2%    100.0% 100.0%

      Source: UPU, Postal Statistics 2005, Bern, October 2006.

Chart 12: Evolution of ordinary international parcels (dispatch) volumes in the Caribbean region. Source: UPU, Postal service
statistics 2005, Berne, April 2007
                                                               23

EMS
Although 15 countries in the region are members of the UPU's EMS Cooperative, EMS is provided
throughout the region, often in conjunction with other operators.
The traffic originating in the Caribbean fell in 2005 from 97 000 to 80 000 (-18%). The most
significant changes were in Jamaica which increased traffic by over 700% and in Trinidad and
Tobago, whose traffic fell by 54%. The region now accounts for 0.2% of global outward EMS traffic
worldwide which grew by 7.3% in 2005.
The information available on express products around the world shows that this market is growing.
This is confirmed by the worldwide expansion of competitors' operations, notably in India, the Middle
East and Asia. This growth is faster than that of EMS and therefore the EMS market share is falling.
Using the services of an independent third-party auditor, the EMS Cooperative awards Gold, Silver
and Bronze awards to postal operators that provide an excellent EMS service for worldwide partners
in the EMS delivery network.22

III. Technological development
New information and communications technologies play a major role in the development of the postal
sector and contribute significantly to the integration of postal networks. The Caribbean region clearly
benefits from the evolution of these services, and could do further with the introduction of electronic
postal financial services. The rate of internet users in the region has grown from approximately 5.4%
of the population in 2000 to 16.2% in 2005.23
Only 38% of the countries in the Caribbean region adhere to the Telematics Cooperative and fewer
than 10% have introduced the IFS/IFS Light system24. In contrast, 76% of the countries have
introduced the IPS/IPS Light system25 and are employing it for EMS tracking. Indeed, the Region has
experienced an increase in the number of countries with tracking capabilities, from 11 in 2005 to a
planned total of 18 in 2007. Usage for tracking parcels and letters remains however very restricted,
and the IPS facility for international accounting is used by only one operator. No country is a member
of UPU*Clearing26.
Most countries have developed specific computer applications in their domestic services and
international accounts. A limited number of countries have computerized their counters and are
contemplating the development of an integrated information system.
All the countries need IT support for domestic and international operations.




22 In recent years both Barbados and Cayman have earned the gold award, Saint Lucia the silver, and Bahamas and Trinidad

and Tobago the bronze.
23 Figures calculated from statistics provided by the International Telecommunication Union.
24 The International Financial System application (IFS) is a software application that was developed by the Postal Technology

Centre, at Berne, Switzerland, to address problems often encountered with traditional money order services. IFS uses
electronic data interchange (EDI) to send money order data electronically, using sophisticated data encryption techniques to
ensure the integrity of the data. IFS is a complete management tool that responds perfectly to the needs of Posts in the
electronic transfer of money orders especially at a time when the money transfer market is becoming increasingly competitive.
It is low cost and the absence of transaction-tax enables a very fast return on investment. The goal of the IFS system is to
provide postal enterprises with reliable, secure, and timely electronic financial services, which in turn allows Posts to be more
competitive in the global marketplace. The IFS system not only handles all phases of international money processing but also
provides advanced features that facilitate international accounting.
25 The International Postal System (IPS), now in use by about 60 postal organisations worldwide, was developed by the Postal

Technology Centre at Berne, Switzerland, and is a complete suite of software capable of managing the entire mail process for
letters, registered mail, parcels and EMS. It can be adapted to the needs of any organisation and can be easily interfaced with
other applications. IPS Light is a web application, which aims to provide a “light” web interface of the PTC’s main mail logistics
product IPS. It will cover the scanning of EMS, letters and parcels items for automatic exchanges of EDI information and
tracking. IPS Light is for use by Posts with low to medium volumes and it is hoped that the installation and training costs for
these Posts will be kept to a minimum. Participants in IPS / IPS Light are indicated in the table at appendix 1.
26 UPU*Clearing allows postal operators to bill each other instantly on line for transport and delivery of international mail

items. Debtor operators can comment on, change, accept or refuse these electronic bills by means of an acceptance/refusal
function, all on a discussion platform.
                                                      24



    IV. Financial Services – Remittances
    Sixteen countries of the region (76 %) are signatories of the Postal Financial Services Agreement. All
    maintain a paper based money order transfer service and operate services based on the British postal
    order system.
    To expedite the transfer system some countries have established bilateral agreements and operate
    what is known as a fax money order transfer system where the payee receives same day notification.
    Others have partnered with non-postal money transfer operators to improve the quality of service to
    their customers.
    All flows are inbound with the USA retaining 70 percent and Canada with 30 percent share. The
    domestic money order service appears to be non-existent in the majority of cases.
    Customers have become accustomed to using banks and other operators for financial services
    contributing to a decline in the volume of money orders issued and paid per country.
    The Caribbean is a net exporter of population (32.93 per thousand – based on the World Factbook,
    2006). In 2004, as the table below indicates, total remittances received (UN), for the sixteen countries
    for which data were available, totaled at least USD 2.63 bn. In some cases, remittances received in a
    home-country can represent a significant proportion of GDP (Haiti 52.7% and Jamaica 17 % in 2005).
    The regional total is also a growth area (up 92.5 % in the period 2000 – 200627. At a regional level, an
    average of 30% of the labour force of many Caribbean islands comprises immigrants (World Bank
    Factsheet)
    It is however a fact of life that the coverage in the Caribbean by two main private financial operators
    (Western Union and Money Gram) is considerable (appendix 3). Indeed, non-postal financial operators
/
    are currently partnering with some regional postal services to provide electronic financial services.
    Most postal operators appear not to be equipped to provide electronic postal financial services due
    possibly to inadequate experience on the services available and security measures to combat money
    laundering. That said, this field merits further examination.




                                       Total                Migrant stock                              Remittances
                                    population
                                                                 (2005)                                    (2004)
                                    (thousands)

                                                     Number         Percentage         of      Total            Percentage
                                                   (thousands)            population        (millions of            of GDP
                                                                                            US dollars)


    CARIBBEAN                         15’589          371                    2.3              2’630

    Anguilla                            12             5                    41.8                 ..                   ..

    Antigua and Barbuda                 81             18                   22.4                11                    2

    Aruba                               99             24                   24.6                16                    1

    Bahamas                            323             32                    9.8                 ..                   ..

    Barbados                           270             26                    9.7               113                    4

    Belize                             270             41                   15.0                21                    2




    27   The World Bank, 2006
                                                              25


                                          Total                    Migrant stock                        Remittances
                                       population
                                                                      (2005)                              (2004)
                                       (thousands)



Bermuda                                    64                 19               29.3                ..                 ..

British Virgin Islands                     22                  8               38.3                ..                 ..

Cayman Islands                             45                 16               35.8                ..                 ..

Dominica                                   79                  5                   5.7             4                  1

Grenada                                   103                 11               10.5               23                  6

Guyana                                    751                  1                   0.1            64                  8

Haiti                                     8'528               30                   0.4           876                  22

Jamaica                                   2'651               18                   0.7          1'398                 16

Montserrat                                  5                  0                   2.5             ..                 ..

Netherlands Antilles                      183                 48               26.5                5                  0

Saint Christopher and Nevis                43                  4               10.4                4                  1

Saint Lucia                               161                  9                   5.4             4                  1

Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines                                119                 10                   8.7             3                  1

Surinam                                   449                  5                   1.2             9                  1

Trinidad and Tobago                       1'305               38                   2.9            79                  1

Turks and Caicos Islands                   26                  3               11.9                ..                 ..


Chart 13: International migrant stock in the Caribbean region. Source: International Migration 2006 (UN Publications, Sales No.
E.06XIII.6), October 2006.



V. Cost accounting – an indispensable tool
Some operators maintain financial prudence through the central government machinery while others
have a corporate form of financial system.
Cost accounting has yet to be regionally instituted as a business tool, even though this discipline lies
at the heart of the new terminal dues system to be introduced by 1 January 2014 at the latest.
There have also been calls at the regional level for each postal operator to effectively cost its services
and for the UPU to provide technical assistance in this regard.
The region’s governments and operators need to understand the cost of providing postal services and
to obtain the information required to make informed decisions to reform and transform the universal
postal service in full knowledge of real costs.
                                                  26



VI. Postal Marketing
It is difficult to obtain market data from foreign based and UPS operators.
Market studies conducted in 1999 suggest that the region’s Post has approximately 80 percent of the
letter and 10 percent of the parcel segment of the market with the destination market being North
America. As can be seen in appendix 2 the presence of DHL, TNT, FedEx and UPS throughout the
region is significant.
A limited number of countries have recruited qualified professional staff to market their postal
products and services and develop a database of their corporate and non-corporate customers. The
need to conduct market surveys in all the countries in the region to determine the characteristics of
the market is imperative.


VII. Human Resources
There is a need to develop the region’s human resource capabilities to effect modernization of the
postal operators, develop best practices, and provide new managers (Postmasters General) with
training on postal reform, regulation development and operations.
Human resources activity in 2007 – 2008 falls therefore under three headings:
–   PMGs’ training;
–   Regional training programmes;
–   Security.
PMGs’ training
Of the twenty-two Caribbean operators, some 55 % of PMGs have received no formal training, or are
new or relatively new to the job. It is expected that over the next two years three new PMGs will be
appointed. In the light of likely sectoral developments, training is essential in postal reform and
development and Strategic planning for these senior officials.
Training is essential to ensuring best practices are employed in processing international mails to
guarantee improvement in the quality of international mail operations.
There is also the need to highlight the correlation between mail and accounting documents for greater
clarity and sensitize the new Postmasters General on the impact of competition on the Post, the
objectives of the Bucharest World Postal Strategy and the concept of postal reform and development.
Regional training programmes
These would specifically address operationally-related issues such as quality of service, marketing
and customs procedures.
Security
The Postal Security Action Group (PSAG) can provide regionally based classroom training in multiple
areas of postal security based upon the needs of the region or specific administrations. For this
training to take place, the initiative lies with individual operators or with the restricted union.
                                                               27



                                                         PART TWO.


                        PART TWO. REGIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR THE CARIBBEAN
The Caribbean postal service is under great pressure to evolve and adapt to the new market. This
means that there must be a paradigm shift to providing postal products and services that are
synonymous with the times. Otherwise, Posts risk being disadvantaged by competitive products and
services.
The region has a number of specific characteristics which would have a decisive effect on actions in
the field. In preparing the strategy of action for development in the Caribbean, account would need
to be taken of the following :
–   Work in a country or countries within a relatively limited time-frame;
–   Introduce, and submit for approval, actions that can be sustained independently of any short-
    term or medium-term changes;
–   Whenever possible, implement most of the recommendations directly in the field through specific
    efforts;
–   Ensure that work carried out is in line with progress made at the national level;
–   Carry out a systematic programme to raise awareness among the authorities with regard to their
    impact on the national postal sector or operator;
–   Implement sustainable plans which can be used as an ongoing tool for consultation;
–   Review the recommendations of the EU/CPU28 project and tailor recommendations according to
    each country’s needs.
Work strategy parameters in the region can therefore be characterized as follows:
–   Prioritize universal postal service, postal reform, quality of service, postal security, financial
    services, human resource development and market development
–   Wherever possible, put in place the pre-requisites for short-term, medium-term and long-term
    recommendations made in the Integrated Postal Reform and Development Plans in which the
    operator and government have indicated their determination to carry out a comprehensive reform
    process.
–   Give consideration to the strengthening of relations within the framework of a Memorandum of
    Understanding between the UPU and CPU to ensure continuity of efforts.
Quality of service and the efficiency of the postal network (objective No. 229 of the UPU Bucharest
Strategy) constitute an essential component of any effort to modernize services and the operators.
Consequently, support for work on the operation of the service should include technical assistance to
comply with the integrated approach to reform and to ensure that results are in line with practical
market realities.
The approach should take account of the prevailing conditions in the countries of the region, the
effectiveness of actions in the field, the level of monitoring and supervision which those actions
require and the feasibility of each objective.
The focus of regional collaboration is fully in line with the BWPS, bearing in mind that the other UPU
strategy objectives for the cycle – the market, customer needs and cooperation and interaction


28 This project was carried out between 2002 and 2005, and included he following modules which bear relation to actions

proposed in Part Two of this PDR: Regulatory and Organisational, Market Analysis and Competitor Profile, Design of
Accounting Systems, Mail Security, Networking Arrangements, End to End Quality Measurement.
29 Objective 2 – Quality of service and efficiency of the postal network. Improve quality and raise the level of efficiency of the

international postal network so as to provide customers with a reliable, affordable and secure service.
                                                       28

    between stakeholders – are themes included in the reform processes planned for the countries
    through the IPDP.
    Familiarity with the market and the public’s requirements are essential factors in determining,
    specifying and financing the universal postal service and in designing an appropriate legal framework
    for the development of the sector. At the same time, if results benefiting all parties are to be
    achieved, cooperation and interaction among stakeholders is a necessary element in the reform
    process so that the causes of and reasons for change can be understood.
    The RDP additionally provides monitoring mechanisms enabling its progress to be tracked. This is
    achieved through a system of objectives, progress indicators and targets set out in tabular form at
/   appendix 4, which can be used as a quarterly RDP monitoring mechanism.


    I. Eight observations
    The analyses in Part One can be summarized in the following eight observations:
    1. With the exception of one operator, the Universal Postal Service is not clearly defined in countries’
       legislation. This does not bode well for maintaining this core service in optimum conditions;
       furthermore, an unregulated postal sector would likely jeopardize the UPS and its funding and
       hence the outlook for the designated operator. The need is for inclusion of the postal sector in
       government priorities and in national development plans.
    2. A wide range of operational issues gives rise to a general quality of service which would bear
       improvement. Problems manifest themselves at different operational levels and require action in
       several areas.
    3. Letter and parcels market information in the region is out-of-date, or simply non-existent. This
       key knowledge needs to be acquired.
    4. Whilst take-up of IPS Light in the region has been encouraging, its track-and–trace capabilities
       for letters and parcels would need further development.
    5. Of the twenty-one member countries of the Caribbean, some 53 % of PMGs have received no
       formal training, or are new or relatively new to the job. It is expected that over the next two years
       three new PMGs will be appointed. In the light of likely sectoral developments, training is
       essential in postal reform and development and strategic planning for these senior officials.
    6. In preparation for the introduction of a country-specific, cost-based terminal dues system from
       1 January 2014, competence in the accurate costing of postal services is of primordial
       importance.
    7. A large and growing financial market in remittances offers postal operators a potential new
       revenue stream.
    8. Despite PSAG’s efforts the region’s operators continue to experience problems in areas that
       impact on security as a factor of quality: mail theft, loss, rifled and damaged mail. Such
       occurrences are frequent in a significant number of countries contributing to loss of good will.


    II. Priority areas for the region – 2007-2008
    The following action plan for the Caribbean has been drawn up taking due account of:
    –   the analyses in Part One of this document, the aims and objectives of the BWPS, as well as the
        time and resources available;
    –   the Regional Development Plan drawn up by the CPU in the light of the geo-political and macro-
        economic factors such as CARICOM and the Caribbean Single Market Economy which will
        necessarily influence many activities proposed.
    The CPU RDP envisages the drafting of various plans (harmonization, strategic, CSME transportation
    plan) and it is therefore considered most appropriate for the IB to pursue four activities, for which the
                                                               29

bases have already been laid and which reflect already clearly defined needs. These fall in the areas of
Sector reform, Operational reorganization for the improvement of service, and supporting measures.


Area 1: Sector reform
Proposed action
1.1      Continue with existing IPDP efforts in the countries of the region, aimed at formulating plans
         in countries with the necessary conditions and the willingness to engage a process of this
         magnitude. Among other things, IPDPs should bring about: an adequate definition of the UPS
         and its sources of funding, the definition of a sectoral policy, the inclusion of the postal sector
         in national development plans and the formulation of the regulatory frameworks needed to
         enable the market to operate properly and to ensure the sustainable development of the UPS;
         provide appropriate training to senior management;
Area 2: Operational reorganization for the improvement of service quality
Proposed action
2.1    Provide support to CPU initiatives regarding hubbing the region’s mail from one or two
       Caribbean countries;


Area 3: Supporting measures.
Proposed action
3.1      Introduce cost accounting to the operators of the region, thus strengthening management
         capacity and preparing for the introduction of a cost-based terminal dues system on 1
         January 2014. This will be realized through a regional project aimed at creating regional
         deployment teams for the installation of Thalia computerized cost accounting system;
3.2      Address the training needs of newly appointed PMGs through training workshops in Postal
         Reform and Development (2007) and Strategic Planning (2008), in cooperation with La Poste
         (France);
It should be noted also that training in operationally-related issues will be available (as announced)
to Caribbean operators through the IB’s on-line distance-learning platform30. As regards security at
regional level, PSAG could be invited by an operator or a group of operators to provide regionally
based classroom training31 in postal security based upon specified needs, since the initiative best lies
with individual operators or with the restricted union.


II. Implementation of the plan
The activities set out in the foregoing three priority areas will be the subject of specific RDP regional
projects for 2007 - 2008, each of which will have a designated project manager in the IB program
responsible for the project’s execution. IB Directorates concerned include Finance, Operations and
Technology and Market Development, besides Development Cooperation. Some projects will have
more than one body responsible for execution, for example where an administration and / or the
Caribbean Postal Union is actively involved in the execution. In this way, it is hoped that the RDP will
contribute significantly to regional integration.
Activities set out in the various areas described above will be drafted in the form of specific actions or
regional projects. Some activities will benefit all countries in the region, whilst others will address the
needs of some countries or be strategically directed towards those countries which present the best

30 Eight courses are already available for the English speaking countries: Letter post, Parcels, Philately, EMS, Universal service

and regulation, IPDP, Quality of service and Terminal Dues. A Direct mail Course is currently under development.
31 Courses which PSAG can provide include: Introduction to The Use of the Post for the Distribution of Narcotics, Money

Laundering and Transport of Dangerous Goods, the e-MARIA Software Application, Development of Postal Security Units and
Contingency Planning, Basic Mail Theft Investigations, Airport Security Coordinators Course.
                                                             30

conditions for the success of certain objectives (for example the implementation of cost accounting or
electronic postal financial services.
DCDEV32 will continue to coordinate with the CPU and the countries of the region; close cooperation
will therefore be essential between project managers and the DCDEV program responsible for the
region, so as to ensure effective overall project implementation. In this process the regional adviser
will play a key role which will include sensitization activities concerning environmental and sectoral
challenges, promotion of postal reform and organization, assistance with the drafting of QSF and RDP
projects, carrying out and facilitation of IPDP missions, and research into obtaining finance from
non-UPU sources, amongst others.


III. Financing the plan
So far as the IB resources will permit, activities contained in this RDP will be financed through Multi-
Year Integrated projects (MIPs) from article 17 of the UPU budget as well as from contributions from
different partners identified in negotiations undertaken within the framework of the RDP.
In 2006, the countries of the Caribbean region had at their individual disposal under the Quality of
Service Fund (QSF)33, credits totalling nearly two million US dollars. This amount represents a
significant development potential for projects in the quality field. In 2006, the Caribbean region had
used 46% of its available QSF resources.
Financing from the Quality of Service Fund could thus provide a viable and significant source of
support to the plan’s activities, althought it should be noted that under QSF regulations, the
initiative for setting up projects lies with the postal operator who may or may not concur with a
regional (or sub-regional) approach.
However, so as to truly develop the activities set out in this plan, further research activity will be
necessary. In this connection, various awareness-raising activities will need to be undertaken with
potential donor institutions such as industrialized countries with interests in the region, the World
Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank and others in order to obtain necessary financing.
It should also be borne in mind that some countries, as in the past, could be in a position to finance
projects from their own resources.


IV. Communication plan
A communication plan for this RDP will be drawn up taking due account of the different actors
involved and varying objectives:
–    Program managers within the International Bureau who will be called upon to contribute to the
     realization of this plan at regional level by means of specific projects which they must formulate,
     and the activities consequently to be carried out;
–    Governments and operators which are designated to be associates of this regional tool for the
     development of the postal sector and to carry out planned activities;
–    Political and technical organizations in the region as well as international financial institutions,
     with a view to securing funding for the realization of this RDP;
–    Other potential donors at world level such as industrialized countries, and developing countries
     engaged in TCDC34 and in twinning projects.

32 Directorate for Development Cooperation of the International Bureau of the UPU.
33 The Quality of Service Fund (QSF) was created in 1999 - as part of the terminal dues system - for postal administrations of
developing countries. The QSF is currently maintained by an increase in terminal dues made by all postal administrations
(except those classified as least developed countries. Least developed countries receive an increase of 16.5% from all other
postal administrations. Other categories of countries receive, from industrialized countries, either 1% (net contributor
countries) or 8% (developing countries). QSF is to be used exclusively through projects aiming to improve quality of service.
The region has benefited from 28 QSF projects (15 completed and 13 in progress), representing over 10% of all QSF projects.
34 Technical Cooperation between Developing Countries.
                                                  31



V. RDP progress indicators
A control and evaluation system has been incorporated into the RDP, making it possible to establish
the extent to which the aims and objectives envisaged have been achieved. Similarly, these will assess
the different degrees of realization of activities and deliverables in terms of elapsed time and
individuals responsible.
The Caribbean RDP indicators have been established at two levels. At the first level, the RDP is
viewed as a tool enabling a concept to be realized. At the second level it relates to activities
undertaken within projects or other frameworks of activity.
A table setting out the general activities proposed in the RDP is attached (appendix 4).


VI. Conclusion
The RDP for the Caribbean will constitute a new framework of cooperation between the UPU and the
CPU, providing a strategy for regional postal development; this might be set forth in a UPU-CPU
Memorandum of Understanding.
This approach will also be the springboard for a new regional vision in which new responsibilities will
be vested in the various actors in the field.


Appendices

1. UPU products and services analysis for the Caribbean
2. Private operators
3. Private financial services
4. RDP indicator table
                                                                     Reform status and participation in UPU technological activities




                                        Contribution




                                                       Cooperative




                                                                                                                                                                                                     corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                       department
                                                                                                                                                              continuous




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      accounting
                                                                                                                         Agreement




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Regulatory
                                                                                                           IPS/ Light*




                                                                                                                                                                                       Ministerial
                                                                                                                                                IFS/ Light*




                                                                                                                                                                           Post-code




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   telecoms


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               authority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Operator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   separate
                                                                                                                                     Clearing
                                                        Member




                                                                      Member




                                                                                                                                                               testinga
                                                                                                                                                  STEFI**
                                                                                                             PSSG**
                                                         Telem.




                                                                               Rugby




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Public
                                                                                                    DMAB
                                           Units




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           IPDP
                                                                                       WNS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      from




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cost
                                                                       EMS




                                                                                                                                       UPU
                                                                                                                            PFS
                                                                                             IRC




                                                                                                                                                                  QS
              COUNTRY




                                            2b              -           ▲        -     ▲      -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -         ▲            ▲               -            -                          -
1             Anguilla
2             Antigua and Barbuda            1              -           ▲        -      -     -       -       ▲              -           -           -             -           -          ▲               -            -                          ▲
3             Bahamas                        1              -           ▲       ▲      ▲      -       -       ▲*             -           -           -             -         ▲            ▲               -            -                          ▲
4             Barbados                       1             ▲            ▲       ▲      ▲      -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -         ▲            ▲               -           ▲.                          -
5             Belize                         1              -           ▲       ▲       -    ▲        -       ▲*             -           -           -            ▲            -          ▲               -            -                          ▲
6             Bermuda                                      ▲            ▲        -     ▲      -               ▲             ▲                                      -         ▲            ▲
7             British Virgin Islands                        -            -       -      -     -       -         -           ▲            -           -             -         ▲            ▲               -            -                          -
8             Cayman Islands                                -           ▲       ▲       -     -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -         ▲            ▲               -            -                          -
9             Dominica                       1             ▲            ▲        -      -     -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -         ▲            ▲               -            -                          -
10            Grenada                        1              -           ▲       ▲       -     -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -         ▲              -            ▲             -                          -
11            Guyana                         1             ▲            ▲       ▲       -     -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -           -            -            ▲             -                          -
12            Haiti                        0.5             ▲            ▲        -     ▲     ▲        -         -           ▲            -           -             -         ▲              -            ▲            ▲.                          -
13            Jamaica                        1              -           ▲        -     ▲     ▲        -       ▲*             -           -           -             -         ▲              -            ▲             -                          ▲
14            Montserrat                                    -            -       -     ▲      -       -         -           ▲            -           -             -           -          ▲               -            -                          -
              Netherlands Antilles
                                                           ▲            ▲        -      -     -       -      ▲**            ▲            -           -             -         ▲              -            ▲             -                          -
15            and Aruba                      1
              Saint Christopher and
                                                           ▲            ▲       ▲       -     -       -       ▲*             -           -           -            ▲          ▲            ▲               -           ▲.                          ▲
16            Nevis                          1
17            Saint Lucia                    1             ▲            ▲       ▲      ▲      -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -            ▲          ▲            ▲               -            -                          ▲
              Saint Vincent and the
                                                            -           ▲       ▲       -     -       -       ▲*            ▲            -           -             -         ▲               -           ▲             -                          -
18            Grenadines                     1
19            Suriname                       1              -            -       -     ▲      -       -         -           ▲            -            -            -           -            -            ▲            ▲.                          -
20            Trinidad and Tobago            1              -           ▲        -      -    ▲        -       ▲*            ▲            -            -           ▲            -            -            ▲             -                          -
              Turks and Caicos
                                                            -           ▲        -     ▲      -       -        *-           ▲            -            -            -         ▲            ▲                -           -                          -
21            Islands
                TOTAL                   16.5               8           18       9      10    4       0       16            16          0            0             4        15            13              8            4          0                6      0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Appendix 1
    ▲ +50% of countries                                                                            Abbreviations
      EMS Cooperative                                                                              DMAB : Direct Mail Advisory Board                                                                    QS : Quality of Service
      IPS                                                                                          EMS : Express Mail Service                                                                           Rugby : Internet-based system for EMS Cooperative members
      PFS Agreement                                                                                IFS : International Financial System                                                                 PFS : Postal Financial Services
      UPU Clearing                                                                                 IPDP Integrated Postal Reform and Development Plan                                                   PTC : Postal Technology Centre
      Postcode                                                                                     IPS : International Postal System                                                                    WNS : WADP (-World Association for the Development of
      Public Operator                                                                              IRC : International Reply Coupons                                                                    Philately) Numbering System


    a
        Belize only participated in 2006 and Saint Lucia only in 2005. The Netherlands Antilles and Jamaica announced participation but were unable to start due to organizational issues.
    b
        Estimated for Overseas Territories of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the Caribbean
                                                                                Appendix 2


                       Private Business Courier Service Points in the Caribbean (2006)




           Pays                              DHL         TNT         Fedex        UPS

Anguilla                                       1                       1           1
Antigua and Barbuda                            2                       4           1
Aruba                                          1                       1           1
Bahamas                                        2                      11           3
Barbados                                       1                       6           1
Belize                                         1                       1           1
Curaçao                                        2           1           2
Dominican Republic                             2                      36           6
Dominica                                       1                       2           1
Grenada                                        1                       1           1
Guyana                                         3                       1           1
Haiti                                          4                       3           1
Jamaica                                        2                      16           8
Montserrat                                     1                       1           1
Netherlands Antilles                           1                       3           1
St. Kitts and Nevis                            2                       2           2
Saint Lucia                                    1                       4           1
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines               1                       5           1
Suriname                                       1                       1           1
Trinidad and Tobago                            3                       5           2
Turks and Caicos                             N/A          N/A         N/A         N/A
TOTAL                                         33           1          106          35
                                                                                            Appendix 3




WESTERN UNION. AND MONEY GRAM. PRESENCE IN THE CARIBBEAN.

Points of sale of WU and MG services are found at:
http://www.westernunion.com/info/homePage.asp and http://www.moneygram.com/

                                          Western Union                       Moneygram
                                No of offices    Counters in post   No of offices   Counters in post
                                                     offices                            offices
Anguilla                             1                  0                1                 1

Antigua and Barbuda                  3                    0              8                 0

Aruba                                1                    0              12                0

Bahamas                              6                    0              14                0

Barbados                             13                   0              14                0

Belize                               29                   0              9                 0

Bermuda                           No data            No data          No data           No data

British Virgin Islands               3                    0              2                 0

Cayman Islands                       7                    0              11                0

Dominica                             7                    0              9                 0

Dominican Republic                  100                   0             171                0

Grenada                              7                    0              18                0

Guyana                               48                   0              57                0

Haiti                               100                   0              37                0

Jamaica                             100                   0             401               68

Montserrat                           1                    0           No data           No data

Netherlands Antilles                 9                    0              49               14

Saint Christopher (St. Kitts)        2                    0              3                 0
and Nevis
Saint Lucia                          9                    0              5                 0

Saint Vincent and the                5                    0              5                 0
Grenadines
Suriname                             34                   5              13                0

Trinidad and Tobago                  51                   2              51                0

Turks and Caicos Islands             12                   0              2                 0

                    Totals :
                                    378                   7             892               83
                REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION.                                                                        CARIBBEAN
                                                                                                                      Region
                                                                                                                                   2007 -8
                                             INDICATORS                                                                Period


                      PROJECT                                                                                                    VALUE
PRIORITY AREA                          OBJECTIVES                                 DOCUMENT           TYPE OF           TARGET
                                                                                                                                 ACHIE   %
AND ACTIVIY                                                                                         INDICATOR         VALUE OF
                                                                                                                                 VED
                                                                                                                     INDICATOR
A. POSTAL         IPDP                 –   Deliver IPDP document to            DCDEV PROJECT      IPDP report sent       9
SECTOR REFORM                              Government                                                 to Govt
                                       –   Awareness-raising among                                   Countries          22
                                           governments and operators                                 informed
B. QUALITY   OF   Hubbing the          –   Hubbing the region’s mail           ON CPU DEMAND      Request received       1
SERVICE           region’s mail from       from one or two Caribbean                                 from CPU
                  one or two               countries
IMPROVEMENT
                  Caribbean
                  countries
C. COST           Cost accounting      –   Installation in two pilot           LA POSTE / DFI /      Countries           2
                                                                               DCDEV PROJECT
ACCOUNTING        (through Thalia          countries, with necessary
                  computerized cost        training
                  accounting                                                                       Organized for        22
                                       –   Regional cost accounting
                  system)                                                                            2008 for
                                           workshop
                                                                                                    countries…
                                       –   Installation of software in
                                                                                                  S/ware supplied
                                           countries of the region
                                                                                                  and installed to      22
                                                                                                     countries




                                                                                                                                             Appendix 4
D. HUMAN          PMGs’ training       –   PMG Training courses held           DCDEV PROJECT      Training course        2
RESOURCES         workshops                                                                       2007 and 2008
                                             o   Postal Reform           and
TRAINING
                                                 Dvelopment
                                             o   Strategic Planning