2. Scientific Research Innovation in Egypt

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					        Higher Education & Scientific
             Research in Egypt
                “The Future”
                                                 Ministry of Higher Education
                                                    And Scientific Research




2. Scientific Research& Innovation
               in Egypt

           Sherif Eskandarany, Ahmed B. Khairy
               Higher Education & Scientific
                    Research in Egypt
                       “The Future”
                                               Ministry of Higher Education
                                                  And Scientific Research




Mission & Vision
    A leading role in knowledge society.
      Excellence and ability to compete.
         A base for creativity and innovation.
           Lead for national development.




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         Higher Education & Scientific
              Research in Egypt
                 “The Future”
                                         Ministry of Higher Education
                                            And Scientific Research




    Scientific Research System




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                          Higher Education & Scientific
                               Research in Egypt
                                  “The Future”
                                                                   Ministry of Higher Education
                                                                       And Scientific Research


 Elements of Scientific Research System in Egypt
                                                            No. of Research Centers
                        Ministry
                                                                   & Institutes
Ministry of Higher Education (universities)                  19 (public + Azhar) + 13
                                                               private universities
Ministry of Scientific Research                                         13
Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation                              29
Ministry of Work and Water Resources                                    29
Ministry of Health and Population                                       28
Ministry of Petroleum                                                   25
Ministries of Foreign Trade & Industry – Electricity &
                                                                24 (per ministry)
Energy – Transportation & Civic Aviation
Ministry of Investment                                                 19
Ministries of Finance – Labor – Foreign Affairs – Culture
                                                               10-12 (per ministry)
– social affairs – justice – Suez Canal Association

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                          Higher Education & Scientific
                               Research in Egypt
                                  “The Future”
                                                                   Ministry of Higher Education
                                                                      And Scientific Research
                 Ministry of Scientific Research
                                                       Supreme Council for Research
Academy for Scientific Research                        Centers & Institutes
& Technology
                                                       National Research Center
Mubarak City for scientific
Research & Applied Technology                          National Association for remote
                                                       sensor-ship & Space Sciences
National Institute for marine &
Fishing sciences                                       National Center for Measurement

                                                       National Institute for astrological
Center for metals research                             & Geophysical Research

Tudor Belharz Institute for                            Institute of Petroleum Research
Research
                                                       Institute of Ophthalmologic
Electronics Research Institute                         Research

      Technical & technological Research Fund for Consultations & Studies
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        Higher Education & Scientific
             Research in Egypt
                “The Future”
                                        Ministry of Higher Education
                                           And Scientific Research




Scientific Research Indicators




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                     Higher Education & Scientific
                          Research in Egypt
                             “The Future”
                                                       Ministry of Higher Education
                                                          And Scientific Research
     Percentage of assigned budget for Scientific
          research against National Income
    1981-1982     1993-1994   1996-1997    2002-2003     2006-2007
     0.30%         0.48%        0.63%        0. 9%           0. 9%
          1.00%
          0.90%
          0.80%
          0.70%
          0.60%
          0.50%
          0.40%
          0.30%
          0.20%
          0.10%
          0.00%
                   1981-1982 1993-1994 1996-1997 2002-2003
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                           Higher Education & Scientific
                                Research in Egypt
                                   “The Future”
                                                                    Ministry of Higher Education
                                                                        And Scientific Research


  Percentage of Scientists* for each million citizen
  Poor Countries      Developing Countries      Developed Countries             Egypt
    Less than 10                800                      3300                    1200
  3500

  3000

  2500

  2000

  1500

  1000

    500
        0
                  Poor          Developing         Developed               Egypt
               Countries         Countries          Countries
* Scientists are PhD holders & Experts working in Scientific Research
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               Higher Education & Scientific
                    Research in Egypt
                       “The Future”
                                               Ministry of Higher Education
                                                  And Scientific Research

       Scientific Research Strategic Plan
I.     A national strategic plan for scientific and
       technological research.
II.    A fund dedicated for supporting scientific
       and technological research.
III.   Fostering innovations and inventions.
IV.    Developing & restructuring research
       institutes and centers.
V.     Using ICT to maximize return on scientific
       research system.
VI.    Scientific research institutions quality
       assurance and performance appraisal.
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                  Higher Education & Scientific
                       Research in Egypt
                          “The Future”
                                                  Ministry of Higher Education
                                                     And Scientific Research

I. A national strategic plan for scientific and
   technological research.
Facts:
• First policy document: “technological policy” (1981-1984)
  issued during communal national perspective.
• Second policy document: “technological policy to serve
  variable changes” (1991-1993) issued during economic
  reform period.
• Third policy document: renovation of technological policy in
  Egypt within the scope of national project for comprehensive
  technological development (1998-2001) issued during free
  trade stage.
• Fourth policy document: scientific research and
  technological advancement (September 2003) issued for the
  annual conference of the academy of science& technology.

  10                                                          2/10/2011
                Higher Education & Scientific
                     Research in Egypt
                        “The Future”
                                                Ministry of Higher Education
                                                   And Scientific Research

I. A national strategic plan for scientific and
   technological research. (Cont.)
Mechanisms required for achieving the assigned goals:
• A national Conference on scientific research and
   technology with the participation of science &
   technology as well as service and production sectors
   that is to reach a strategic vision, implementation
   plans and mechanisms of action needed to create a
   fertile environment for achieving the assigned
   strategic objectives                 (September 2005)
• Formulating a national committee for evaluation,
   monitoring and review for following up with the
   national conference findings in the form of projects
   and programs.
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                Higher Education & Scientific
                     Research in Egypt
                        “The Future”
                                                Ministry of Higher Education
                                                   And Scientific Research

II. A fund dedicated for supporting scientific
   and technological research.
Facts:
• Insufficiency of funding for scientific research,
  creations & innovations.
• Private sector contribution to scientific research (does
  not exceed 10%).
• Lack of mechanisms relating scientific research to
  service & production sectors.
• Scarcity & inefficiency in research and technological
  advancement units in service and production units.
• Percentage of scientists & experts in scientific research
  and technological advancement is relatively below
  average in development sectors.
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               Higher Education & Scientific
                    Research in Egypt
                       “The Future”
                                               Ministry of Higher Education
                                                  And Scientific Research


II. A fund dedicated for supporting scientific
     and technological research.
Requirements & Mechanisms
• A preliminary work plan has been developed for
  establishing the fund needed:         August 2004.
• Agenda for action plan has been disseminated
  among stakeholders & beneficiary groups for
  discussion:                         December 2004.
• A proposed presidential decree has been issued for
  establishing the fund. January 2006


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                  Higher Education & Scientific
                       Research in Egypt
                          “The Future”
                                                  Ministry of Higher Education
                                                     And Scientific Research


III. Fostering innovations and inventions.
Facts:
•        Lack of creative capabilities (education-
         Media-culture…)
•        Deficiency in investments that foster
         inventions and creations in service and
         production institutions.
•        Scarcity in understanding intellectual
         property rights and international
         agreements.

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     Higher Education & Scientific
          Research in Egypt
             “The Future”
                                     Ministry of Higher Education
                                        And Scientific Research




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                        Higher Education & Scientific
                             Research in Egypt
                                “The Future”
                                                           Ministry of Higher Education
                                                              And Scientific Research

III. Fostering innovations and inventions.
Requirements & Mechanisms:
1.        urging educational, cultural and intellectual institutions to
          disseminate intellectual property rights protection and national
          support for creative thinking.
2.        Motivating competitions in the field of individual and team
          creativity.
3.        Supporting corporations’ ability to integrate advanced
          technology.
4.        Participation of educational institutions with service and
          production sectors in transferring advanced technology.
5.        Supporting formulation of intellectual property rights
          legislations.
6.        Enhancing technological and scientific capabilities in scientific
          research and technological advancement institutions.


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                       Higher Education & Scientific
                            Research in Egypt
                               “The Future”
                                                         Ministry of Higher Education
                                                            And Scientific Research

III. Fostering innovations and inventions (Cont.)
Requirements & Mechanisms:
7.        developing electronic databases about technological, social
          and economic markets.
8.        Preparing the second part of implementation agenda for
          intellectual property rights (IPR) legislative law
                                                        (December 2004)
9.        Establishing the supreme council for coordination between
          agencies concerned with IPR to follow up with its application
          on the national level.                        (December 2004)
10.       Developing the national network for supporting creation and
          invention (finishing up with the first stage (December 2005)
11.       Completion of needed infra structure in the field of advanced
          technology research (Genetic engineering, Nano technology
          and new matters, remote sensoring and space sciences,
          renewable energy, Laser sciences)

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     Higher Education & Scientific
          Research in Egypt
             “The Future”
                                     Ministry of Higher Education
                                        And Scientific Research




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     Higher Education & Scientific
          Research in Egypt
             “The Future”
                                     Ministry of Higher Education
                                        And Scientific Research




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               Higher Education & Scientific
                    Research in Egypt
                       “The Future”
                                               Ministry of Higher Education
                                                  And Scientific Research

IV. Developing & restructuring research
     institutes and centers.
Facts:
1.   Incompatibility of current laws and legislations to
     the tasks assigned to research centers and
     institutes.
2.   Bureaucracy of administrative systems.
3.   Lack of strategic planning.
4.   Inconsistency of the number of researchers and
     assistant technical and administrative staff.
5.   The inefficient use for research resources in
     developing community.


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     Higher Education & Scientific
          Research in Egypt
             “The Future”
                                     Ministry of Higher Education
                                        And Scientific Research




21                                               2/10/2011
               Higher Education & Scientific
                    Research in Egypt
                       “The Future”
                                               Ministry of Higher Education
                                                  And Scientific Research

IV. Developing & restructuring research institutes and
     centers.
Requirements & Mechanisms:
1. Updating legislations and regulatory laws to raise
     performance standards and to serve needed
     restructuring.
2. Reforming occupational structure for academic
     and research personnel.
3. Preparation of a strategic plan for each center,
     institute of research association.
4. Development of human resources in the field of
     scientific and technological administration.

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                        Higher Education & Scientific
                             Research in Egypt
                                “The Future”
                                                            Ministry of Higher Education
                                                                And Scientific Research

                             Blooming Biotech
                                                                 1991
     South Korea                                                 2002
           China

            India

           Brazil

     South Africa

           Cuba

           Egypt

                    0   50    100   150 200   250   300   350




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                      Higher Education & Scientific
                           Research in Egypt
                              “The Future”
                                                       Ministry of Higher Education
                                                          And Scientific Research

V. Using ICT to maximize return on scientific
     research system.
Facts:
•        The national network for scientific and technological
         information (1981).
•        Provision of masters and doctorate theses in the field of
         science and technology (more than 70 thousand theses).
•        Digital library that encompasses Egyptian periodicals in the
         field of science and technology since 1930 (of about 140
         thousand entry )
•        Memberships in international databases in the field of science,
         technology, social and administrative sciences. (more than
         5500 periodical).
•        Weakness of available informatics at research centers and
         institutes (facilities, software, networks, trained human
         resources…)

    24                                                             2/10/2011
                      Higher Education & Scientific
                           Research in Egypt
                              “The Future”
                                                        Ministry of Higher Education
                                                           And Scientific Research

Using ICT to maximize return on scientific
    research system.
Requirements & priorities:
•        Networking of all research centers on a national level.
•        Enhancement of e-management systems in all relevant
         institutions.
•        Training leaderships and researchers in the filed of information
         and communication.
•        Upgrading the capacity of national information network and
         increasing data transfer capacity among research centers and
         institutes.
•        Widening the scope of interdisciplinary agreement and
         communicating with national information network and other
         Arabic and English knowledge resources to provide
         information content base in science and technology.


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               Higher Education & Scientific
                    Research in Egypt
                       “The Future”
                                               Ministry of Higher Education
                                                  And Scientific Research


       Currently implemented projects
1.   Development of competencies in the field of
     advanced technology.
2.   Some projects funded by beneficiary agencies.
3.   Knowledge and experience transfer through
     Egyptians abroad project (TOKTEN).
4.   Scientific and technological cooperation programs
     with U.S.A., Europe, China and India .
5.   Integrating scientific and technological culture
     with Egyptian society common culture.
6.   Technological development legislations.


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