Egypt Power Point Assignment Overview 6th Grade Social Studies By Ann Bowen Standards Standard 6.2. Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush. Purpose Students were to research and create a PowerPoint Presentation on the development of Egyptian Civilization. Required topics include: The impact of geography on the development of Egypt Religious beliefs and burial practices The Social Pyramid/Daily Life Important people and rulers The development of civilization/government A summary of Egyptian achievements Free choice items Students needed to include graphics to enhance their presentati0n. Project Summary Students were given the assignment parameters, rubric and time to research their topics. Research consisted on time in class with the text, reference materials and time in the Ibrary to research online. Students were shown sample projects to set the standard for excellence. Projects were submitted online via Moodle or on a flash drive. Students presented their projects in class. Ancient Egypt By: Jeffrey A. Kramer, Jr. Period 4 December 3, 2008 Geography Egypt has one of the world’s best geographical features. This feature is the Nile River one of the largest rivers. The Nile River is were civilization was formed. It provided supplies for the settlers. The Nile Delta provided a fertile piece of land for farming. The fertile land was a result of the often flooding of the river. The flooding a also caused silt to cover the bank. In earlier times the Nile was covered in marsh and swamp. Nile River Early Civilization The early civilization was split into parts Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. The civilizations were started by wealthy farmers. They created kingdoms by joining with other wealthy merchants. So the kingdoms became bigger and stronger. Soon the small rulers became pharaohs. Map of Civilization The Two Kingdoms Lower Egypt The lower kingdom is located north-west of the Nile delta. The capital was called Pe. They used the red crown to symbolize the pharaoh. Upper Egypt The upper kingdom was located on the west bank of the Nile. The Capital was named Nekhen.They use the white crown to symbolize the pharaoh. Egyptian Crowns To the left is the upper kingdom’s white crown. To the right is the lower kingdom’s red crown. They are both used to symbolize being the pharaoh. Pharaoh The pharaoh has many jobs and responsibilities. There were many different details and myths that go behind a pharaoh. As you flip through the next few pages you will learn more. Pharaoh’s jobs The pharaoh wasn’t just the ruler of the kingdom. They were also the head of the government. They control the army. They decide on taxes. They are also judges of the people. They were also the high priest of the worship of the gods. The myth of the pharaohs The pharaoh was thought to be the god, Horus. The Egyptians believed that Horus the son of Osiris was born on earth to rule. They held high religious believe of the pharaohs. Meaning of the pharaoh The word pharaoh has not only religious background, but also a word meaning. The word pharaoh is comes from the word “per-aa” which means “great house”. The word derived from a Latin word. Who was a pharaoh The pharaoh was usually a man, but when push come to shove there was a women. The pharaoh didn’t have to be old. There were a few young rulers. The pharaoh usually was a single ruler, but there was two rulers at times. With two there was usually a dominant ruler. So there wasn’t a equal ruling. Social Order The social order was just like you see it. The Pharaoh was at the top and slaves at the bottom. It also show which group populated the area the most. There were more slaves than scribes. Since there is only one pharaoh he is on the top. Egyptian Social Pyramid Religion The Egyptians worshiped more than one god. They had over twenty gods. Each god had a different job. Some of the gods were married to one and another. They gods had stories about thee interaction with other gods. Some of the gods were married. The Egyptians did all there religious practices through the pharaoh. Burial Practices The preparation for the burial took seventy days. Many people were involved in the preparation. The ceremony when they put the mummy in the tombs it was extravagant. The family hired professional mourners. The priest were involved in the process. There were servants and maids to help. The died were faired across the river. In the tomb they buried the persons favorite items and religious tools. Middle Kingdom Dynasty XII ruled The middle During the Middle kingdom kingdom. The kingdom started period they restored all of 1991 B.C and ended Egypt's wealth. They 1788B.C. conquered Nubia. Palestine and Syria trade was promoted at that time. Architecture, literature, and other arts flourished at this time. The New Kingdom The new kingdom was ruled by During these times the kingdom Dynasty XVIII. The new developed a permanent army. kingdom started in 1554B.C. They became an empire. The kingdom ended in Established it territory and 1054B.C. conquered Kush and Nubia. They gathered more recourses such as slaves, copper, gold, ivory, and ebony. work Men’s job Women’s job Men’s jobs varied from how Women’s jobs were very much the wealthy you are. Most rich same. Most women were men were priest or scribes. house wives. But there were a Some men were soldiers in the few jobs a women could hold. army. While other men were There titles would be merchants and craft men. “Supervisor of cloth” or Most men were farmers “Supervisor of wigs”. Still though. they could not hold positions like men. Daily Life Food Drink The Egyptians had a small The main drink in Egypt was variety of food. There main beer. The had wine and milk dish is bread, but you didn’t for the upper class. The want to eat to much of this children had watered down because they mixed sand in it. beer. They had alcohol They had fruits and because it killed all the germs. vegetables. Also cheese was eaten. For the upper class there were geese and fish. Daily Life Hair Clothes The hair style was pretty simple. The women and the girls wore Common folk wore their hair robes and dresses. The older short. Some people worn wigs men wore skirts from waist to both men and women. For the knee. For the young boys they young boys they had a shaved had no clothes on. On some head except for a braided lock occasions they wore skirts to. to one side. The young girls wore pig tails to each side. Achievements The Egyptians had many achievements. There’s a long list. Here is a few Obelisk, Cartouche, pyramids, mummification, gods, language, calendar, number system, papyrus, laws, court, and Book of Dead. One of the achievements is the flat roofed house. They made there own brick by mixing straw and mud. The purpose of the flat roofed house was to watch activities. The doors were three feet off the ground to keep out dust. To reach the doors they went up ramps. You had to go outside and go up an ramp to reach another level. Some people had anywhere from 25-30 rooms. Important People Some important people are Thutmose III, Akhenaten, Hatshepsut, Ramesses the Great, Tutankhamen, and Cleopatra VII. These are some of the important pharaohs. Some of the pharaoh’s are famous for richness, being a female, religious reasons, and for being war heroes. Ancient Egypt Geography The Nile River is also known as the gift of Egypt. Their civilization began there. 2/3 of Egypt’s fertile was located in the Nile Delta. Early Civilization (two kingdoms) The two kingdoms were called Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. To be protected from invaders, the villages of Egypt grew. The wealthy farmers became village leaders. The strong leaders grew to have control over several villages. When 3200 BC came, the villages had grown, came together and formed two kingdoms. Having a lot of Egyptians turned out to be a great advantage. Pharaoh Pharaohs were rulers of Egypt, also a king and a god. The people believed that pharaohs come to earth to direct and control Egypt while the gods were at rest. Pharaohs took big responsibility of dangers such as the crops didn’t grow or a disease struck. The people also demanded that the pharaoh would make trade profitable and to prevent wars. The Pharaoh menes combined the white crown (from upper Egypt) and the red crown (from lower Egypt) as a symbol of his rule of Egypt as one whole kingdom. Social Order A Pharaoh was a ruler of Egypt as a god. Nobles were officials and priests helped run the government and with the temples. Scribes and Craftspeople wrote and produced goods. Most people were farmers, servants, or slaves Pharaoh Nobles Scribes and Craftspeople Farmers, Servants, and Slaves Religion and Burial Practices The Egyptians strongly believed in gods, here are a few: Re, sun god; Osiris, god of the underworld; Isis, goddess of magic; Horus, sky god; Thoth, god of wisdom; Geb, earth god; Hathor, god of music; Seth, god of the desert; Anubis, god of embalming; Ma’at, goddess of justice and Bastet, god of cats. The Egyptians also believed that after you die, you must go in the process of mummification. They even had jar called canopic jars to hold a certain part of the body. Hapy is the baboon headed god who holds and protects the lungs. Imsety is the human headed god who holds and protects the liver. Duamutef is the jackal headed god who holds and protects the stomach. Qebehsenuef is the falcon headed god who holds and protects the intestines. In the process of mummification, you first have to take the body would be taken to a tent called the “ibw”, the place of purification. There, the body would be thoroughly washed in a solution of natron (a naturally occurring compound of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate). After being washed, the body would go to the tent called the “per nefer”. Now the mummification would really start. The internal organs (viscera) would were removed, dried, rinsed, bandaged and put into the canopic jars they belonged in. Once you were done with removing and preserving, the dry natron would be mounded on the corpse and left to dehydrate for some forty days. After the hydration, the stuffing would begin and the dried remaining parts would be saved for burial and body captivity would be re-stuffed and packed with clean natron, resin soaked bandages, and various amounts of sweet smelling aromas. The brain cavity was filled with linen or resin, the openings in the skull packed and artificial eyes often added. The whole body would be covered in resin but cosmetics were sometimes added to give the life-like appearance. The body was the bandaged up, this process took about fifteen days. Egyptian Achievements One of the inventions the Egyptians made was the obelisk. The obelisk was said that after your death, (if you did not own one) you would be forgotten and not known. The cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a horizontal line on the bottom indicating that the text that is enclosed is a royal name. Flat roofed homes were big and made out of sun- dried bricks. The bricks were made out of mud and straw. Egyptians often sat on there roofs to watch the sunset or to catch fresh air. Most pyramids were tombs for pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle kingdom. Mummification is the system to taking care of the dead ant to let them live in peace in the after life. Egyptians strongly believed in unique gods and goddesses. Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphs as written language. The Egyptians also invented the solar calendar (365 days) and Egyptian calendar (360 days). Papyrus is a thick paper like material that was made from the papyrus plant. The Book of the Dead contained the conception of the afterlife, hymns, spells, and the instructions to pass the obstacles in the after life. Irrigation was the most successful way to control water. The number system (including fractions) was a great advantage for the Egyptians because they used the number system to measure, counting, etc. The Middle Kingdom Since there was more than one civilization, bureaucracy wasn’t very effective. Religion was controlled by the government, regular people that had the right to reserve for royalty alone. They could use spells to receive the royal Pyramid text on the walls of their own coffin or their tomb. The New Kingdom The new kingdom began in 1570 - 1070 BC. Ahmose reestablished the borders, goals, and government of the Middle kingdom and its land reclamation program. Ahmose controlled the balance of power between the nomarchs and himself with the support of the military. The military was then rewarded in thanks of their support. In the new kingdom the women’s importance is illustrated by the high titles and positions of the royal wives mother. Food Jewelry Food gets cooked in ovens or open fires. For Every person in Egypt wore flavoring for bread, some people sesame seeds, rings, amulets, earrings, honey, fruit, butter, or herbs. Food was either armlets, bracelets, anklets, baked, stewed, boiled, fried, grilled, or roasted. or some type of jewelry. Beer was the most popular beverage. Beer was made out of barley, The Egyptians used jars, bowls, pans, ladles, sieves, and whisks to store food and as utensils. Work and Daily Hair Girls usually had pigtails or a ponytail. Boys shaved their heads or put their hair in a Marriage ponytail to the side, top, or back. Girls get married around Boys also left their hair to be the age 12, boys marry a bald. few years older. Important People In Egypt, people made a lot of differences and changes. Some important people are Cleopatra and Ramesses. Cleopatra the VII was queen of Egypt from 51 to 30 B.C.E. She fought with Mark Anthony, ruler of Rome, and became a strong leader. According to legend she died of a bite by an asp to avoid being captured by Octavian. Cleopatra lived from 69 to 30 B.C.E. Another person is Ramesses the III. He ruled during the rest of the Mediterranean World was at flux. Ramesses then died and was buried in the Valley of the Kings. Summary I still feel the same about Egypt; Egyptian life and culture is amazing in many ways. The culture has developed and improved so much that I am still amazed by the art work it has brought to us, and our minds. There are so many facts to learn and share with others. If there were anything I could tell someone, it would be to study Egypt because Egypt is important and interesting. Those facts may come in handy in a various amount of ways. My favorite part of my research was learning about the mummification process. The reason why that part was most interesting was because the details and steps interest me. Those facts will probably stick with me forever because I am blissful about that subject. The worst part about my research was, well nothing. This topic interests me so nothing is really wrong while doing my research.
Pages to are hidden for
"Egypt Power Point Assignment Overview"Please download to view full document