Ancient Egypt Mr. Scherman'sCore by plu17302

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									Ancient Egypt

Mr. Scherman’s Core
 Egyptian geography

A report by Kieran Baack, Will
Wrensen, Quinn Burnett, Tally
 Swensen, and Adrian Rufo
             Egypt-Geography
• Crops
   – The Egyptians had very abundant crops
   – Egyptians grew: wheat, barley, beans, peas, lentils,
     onions, lettuce, cucumbers, and numerous fruits,
     including melons.
   – Egypt got very little rain, so they took almost all of
     their water from the Nile river, which flooded a lot.
     Sometimes they used Shadufs, which were like see-
     saws, with a bucket on one end and a weight on the
     other. You would fill the bucket with water, and then
     the weight would pull it up out of the water.
             Egypt-Geography
• Domestic Animals
   – Ancient Egyptians kept donkeys, oxen, cattle, sheep,
     goats, and some bees, to make honey.
• Climate
   – Egypt was 90% desert
   – Most of the population lived in/near the delta of the
     Nile or the Oases of the West River.
• Landforms/Bodies of Water
   – Egypt touched or included the Mediterranean Sea,
     the Red Sea, the Dead Sea, and the Nile River.
                 Egyptian Jobs
•   Crafts
    –   Stone workers- used quartz, silica, like the Greeks,
        They made jars, statues, they also used a hammer
        and chisel
    –   Made glass beads and pots
•   Different Jobs
    –   Basket making, builders, house building, carpentry,
        stone working, craftsmen, tomb painter, doctor,
        mummifying, acrobats, dancers, and musicians for
        festivals, and pharaoh.
         Egyptian Jobs (cont.)
• Specific Jobs
  – Mummification- the brain was removed through the
    nose, the organs were removed, and put into special
    jars. This was done to remove all the moisture from
    the body, so the body would not rot.
  – Tomb Builders- were called to leave their village to go
    work for the king in the tombs
  – Doctors- were the best doctors in all of the
    civilizations
          Egyptian Jobs (cont.)
  – Pharaoh- the Pharaoh was like a president, but was
    believed to be a god, the youngest one was about 12
    years old
  – Pyramid Builders- these people made the pyramids
    out of large blocks of stone, usually slaves did this
    work
• Facts
  – Usually, people were employed with the state
  – You could trade extra food for luxuries or house hold
    items
        Egypt- Government
• Pyramids
  - First pyramid 2,630 B.C.E
  - Built for king Khufu
  - Great pyramid has been cut away reveal the
    interior
  - Largest pyramid built in Giza
          Egypt-Government
• Money
  - No money
  - When money was made: deben, copper,
    silver, gold, units
  - Traded (calculated values)
         Egypt-Government
• Waste System
  - Bathrooms in homes
  - Waste dumped into canals
        Egypt-Government
• Defense (Army)
 - army made of volunteers
 - pharaoh was the head of army
         Egypt-Government
• Egypt’s Divisions
  - lower and upper Egypt united about
  2920 B.C
  - Government was organized under the
  King, then two viziers, then the governors
  of the 42 nomes (districts) and village
  headman
         Egypt-Government
• Officials
  - Many officials worked for central
  government
  - They included invizers who oversaw
  justice and public works. Also in charge of
  tax collection
  - officials under invizers
         Egypt-Government
• Laws and rules
  - farmers were told what to grow
  - pharaoh told what to do
  - Bureaucrats-public happenings
         Egypt-Government
• Kings
  - Kings were the oldest offspring of chief
  queen
  - If chief queen had no children, kings
  were off spring to lesser queen
         Egypt- Government
• King, Pharaoh
  - The king of Egypt was called pharaoh after
    1350 B.C
  - Had absolute power
  - In change of government and spiritual duties
           Egypt-Government
• Transportation
  -   Walking
  -   Wading threw water
  -   Boats
  -   Carrying chairs
  -   Sledges, chariots
         Egypt-Government
• Pyramids
  - Worked in deserts making pyramids
  - Made culture like zombies, cats, and their
    people
  - Art on wall in pyramids
  - Used knifes to carve
  - Hammers, arrows, to hunt and scarp
      Egypt- Family and Society
• Men, Women and Children
  – Powerful men had more than one wife.
  – Regular men had one wife.
  – Women were allowed to own land.
  – 10% of land belonged to women.
  – Royal women were usually priestesses.
  – Royal women could act as regents.
  – Women weren’t taught to read or write.
  – Women were allowed to claim property if there was a divorce.
  –  The throne often passed through females.
  – Some women rulers led troops into battles.
  – When children were small they only played and slept most of the
    time.
  – Wealthy family boys learned how to read before going to school.
F
                               Family & Society

• Slaves
    – When the King died someone killed his servants and buried them
      around him because the Egyptians felt like the servants could still
      serve him in the after life.
• Education
    – Very few people could read or write
    – Only the smartest would learn to read or write.
• Housing
    –   Houses were made from brick with Nile River mud.
    –   Straws and pebbles were used to strengthen mud.
    –   Houses were left in the sun to dry.
    –   Wealthy families had more than two rooms and a pool.
    –   Houses had many vases and jewelry for decoration.
    –   Temples were built from stone.
    –   Important people had big houses with gardens and court yards.
    –   Houses were enclosed by high walls with a door facing north, they
        had that because there was an advantage to the Prevailing breeze.
                            Family & Society

• Social Classes
   – At the top of the social class is: Pharaoh, then priests, then
     scribes, craftsmen, and at the bottom, farmers.
   – One special part about being rich is that only they could be
     mummified.
• Family Life
   – At home people ate mostly bread, beer, vegetables, and dried
     out fish.
• Fashion
   – Man wore pleated linen, loin cloths, and kilts.
   – Women wore shawls, and ankle length dresses, reed or leather
     sandals may be worn outside.
   – Both men and women wore jewelry, eye paint and perfume.
   – Children would wear nothing.
   – Young girl’s hair was in long thick braids.
   – Young boys had shaved heads.
   – Men’s hair was short, and their ears were visible.
             Egypt Culture
• Writing system
  -hieroglyphics
  -It’s picture writing
  -Western alphabet is possibly derived from
  Egyptian hieroglyphs
• Egyptian religion and art.
  – Influenced Syria-Palestine
             Egypt Culture
• Egyptian houses
  – Builders tool’s which include a square mallet
    plumb line , dowel peg and plaster’s
    smoothing trowel they are made of wood and
    copper, for this iron is almost unknown
  – Basically a house consists of a main central
    room with smaller rooms
  – Not a lot of wood. But there would be a layer
    of bricks. Large tiles of mud, plants ceiling
    beams. Lots of lumber was imported
             Egypt Culture
• The Nile
  – The Nile river produced sedentary
    agriculture.
  – Domesticated crops and animals were raised.
  – The Nile River floods and makes very fertile
    and rich soil.
             Egypt Culture
• Pyramids
  – 200,000 people took part in the construction
    of each pyramid.
  – The towns grew beside the pyramids.
             Egypt Culture
• Writing system
    - hieroglyphics
    -the Western alphabet derived possibly
  from Egyptian hieroglyphs.
   - It`s picture writing made from a plant
• Egyptian religion and art
  – influenced Syria- Palestine
             Egypt Culture
• Egyptian houses
  – Inakhataten houses are very similar
  – Basically a house consists of a main central
   room with smaller rooms
  – Builders tool’s which include a square
   mallet, plumb line , dowel peg, and plaster’s
   smoothing tool made of wood.
  – copper is almost unknown
             Egypt culture
• The Nile River
  – The Nile River produced sedentary
    agriculture.
  – Domesticated crops and animals were
    raised.
  – The Nile River floods and makes very fertile
    and rich soil.
             Egypt Culture
• Pyramids
  – 200,000 people took part in the Construction
   of pyramids
  – The towns grew beside the pyramids to
   maintain the complex
             Egypt Culture
• Writing system
  -hieroglyphics
  -It’s picture writing
  -Western alphabet is possibly derived from
  Egyptian hieroglyphs
• Egyptian religion and art.
  – Influenced Syria-Palestine
             Egypt Culture
• Egyptian houses
  – Builders tool’s which include a square mallet
    plumb line , dowel peg and plaster’s
    smoothing trowel they are made of wood and
    copper, for this iron is almost unknown
  – Basically a house consists of a main central
    room with smaller rooms
  – Not a lot of wood. But there would be a layer
    of bricks. Large tiles of mud, plants ceiling
    beams. Lots of lumber was imported
             Egypt Culture
• The Nile
  – The Nile river produced sedentary
    agriculture.
  – Domesticated crops and animals were raised.
  – The Nile River floods and makes very fertile
    and rich soil.
             Egypt Culture
• Pyramids
  – 200,000 people took part in the construction
    of each pyramid.
  – The towns grew beside the pyramids.
                       Egypt-Culture
•   Medicine
     -Garlic and Juniper berries used for medicine
     -Egyptians had great medical skill
     -Egyptians believed diseases came from wormlike creatures inside body
•   Tombs
    -Royal tombs guarded by sphinx
    -Obelisks covered with symbols to guard tomb
    -Body turned in to a mummy, by putting salt on it and removing the organs
    to preserve
    -Removed organs taken out and sprinkled with salt to dry out
    -4 organs put in jar
    -Taken to after life where judged oasis decided fate. Bad turned into
    demons. Good lived with oasis
                    Egypt-Culture
• Houses and Farming
  –   Most work done by hand, such as farming
  –   Used animals to farm
  –   Houses made by bricks that are sundried
  –   Lived in peace, not war
• Gods
  –   Horus god of heaven, pharaoh was a god in human form
  –   Isis god of women
  –   Hathor goddess of love
  –   Temples owned a lot of land
  –   Ordinary Egyptians never went in temples
                   Egypt-Culture
• Pharaoh
  –   Everyone served him and followed him
  –   Everything belonged to pharaoh
  –   People believed pharaoh was sun of the sun god
  –   Pharaoh main living leader
• Religon
  – The Egyptians believed that if body was destroyed the spirit was
    to

								
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