Pilot Project in EGYPT CAIRO by plu17302


Rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture
              Pilot Project in EGYPT
                         The REHABIMED project extends all along the
                  Mediterranean area. Due to efficiency and organisation reasons
                  it has been chosen four implication levels which on one hand
                  allow to study in depth certain actions at sub regional level and
                  on the other hand grant a global incidence, increasing the
                  actions’ realistic and catalytic effect.

                  The Project Global objective
                        Basically, the preservation of the historical and cultural
                  identity of traditional architecture shared by the different
                  Mediterranean nations, and the contribution to a common
                  strategy so as to create a solid space of coexistence and
                  knowledge in which environmental, economical and social life
                  conditions of a vast spectrum of the population will be
                  improved in the mid term This objective implies the increase of
                  traditional architecture rehabilitation as a strategic factor within
                  the    sustainable    and    respectful    development     of   the
                                                               Mediterranean area.

                  The definition of traditional architecture adopted in the
                        The Project is interested with current and inhabited
                  architecture, essentially civil and domestic one, which is the
                  fruit of a pre-industrial tradition transmitted from one
                  generation to another. An architecture, which was always built
                  by artisans and masons, rarely by architects and specialists.
                  Today, this architecture is a fundamental expression of the
                  culture of every community and its relation with natural
6 countries that constitute the REHABIMED Consortium
Spain, France, Cyprus, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco
4 localities, distributed geographically in the less favoured sub
regions of the Mediterranean area will be the experimentation
poles, thanks to the participation of representants of all the
Mediterranean     countries     in    the    pilot    operations

     Lefkara (Cyprus), Cairo (Egypt), Tunisia (Tunisia) and
Marrakech (Morocco)

   Cairo has been chosen to execute a pilot Project which
interested with current and inhabited architecture, essentially
civil and domestic one, which is the fruit of a pre-industrial
tradition transmitted from one generation to another, and for
conservation traditional architecture throw a rehabilitation
project aiming developing and upgrading traditional craft.
    luigi mayer, principal
square in ground cairo, with
  Murad Bey’s palace ( the
   qaramidan, 1801. color
 lithograph, 23.2 × 31.3 cm
    Rare books and special
                               Cairo :
    collections library the
   American . university in    Ibn-Khaldun wrote:
             cairo                     (…. He who has never seen Cairo has not known the
                               glory of Islam, for it is the capital city of the earth, the garden
                               of the world, the assemblage of nations, the birthplace of
                               humanity, sanctuary of Islam, seat of monarchy looming with
                               places and lawns, full of flourishing khanqahs and schools,
                               shining with its scientists, and th nile banks are paradise-like
                               (…..). Still, we speak of the country and how advanced it in
                                                                        civilization and riches.).

                             Pilot Project in Cairo
                               Pilot project is located in historical Cairo as it keeps a lot of
                             traditional urban tissues in spit of degradation, decay and
                             neglecting for several decades. The exposed to losses in many
                             of its traditional urban tissues and historical buildings. An
                             organize buildings and urban areas speeded all over historical

                                And located in Northern Medieval District: called AI-
                             Gamaliyyah. This area was enclosed within the royal Fatimid
                             city of al-Qahirah (Latin: Cairo), walled with mud brick in(
                             969AC) . The l.1km2 area was enlarged twice, and made
                             available to the general populace by Salah al-Din in 1171, when
                             many royal functions were transferred to the Citadel. A dense
                             mix of religious and domestic monuments from Mamluk (1250-
                             1516 AC) and Ottoman (1517-1805 AC) periods is here. Shops
                             and markets have always figured highly in this heavily
                             populated and relatively poor section of Cairo, where urban
                             redevelopment is slow and sometimes unsympathetic. The
                             overriding impression is of a rapidly expanding ... population
                             within a restricted medieval infrastructure with limited modern

Northern Medieval District
                Historical Cairo General Problems:
                   Since the 90's of the last Century restoration and
                rehabilitation specialist determine the general problems which w
                affect the restoration and rehabilitation project and should b
                       considered. Those problems could be summarized as follow
                   •    The problem of the ground water which lead to humidity
                        in the buildings through capillary action and affecting
                        the durability of structure elements, plastering and ATC.
                        Also, the settlement of the soil which affects the
Azhar street
                        stability of the structure causing the damage of the
                   •    The problem of traffic causing vibrations and pollution
                        affecting deterioration of building materials.
                   •    The neglecting of maintenance for long periods due to
                        social and political issues.
                   •    Unsuitable usage of the historical and traditional
                        buildings due to social and economical issues.
                   •    Many of the buildings including urban areas facing
                        deterioration and demolishing.
   Cairo           •    The Spreading of unorganized residential buildings
                        within the urban fabric.

                The government only gives attention recently for only the
                monuments not for the urban traditional architecture.

Ghoria street
  Nineteenth- century rood
                                   Site chosen:-
 construction in and around
the historic city . dotted lines      The process of chosen the convenient site by limitations as;
    indicate une xecuted           Represents traditional Caireen architecture, Includes workshops
 progects. Author’s drawing
     after J. abu-lughod           for traditional crafts, hasn't any connections with projects
                                   executed or prepared, Easy to deal with inhabitance and their
                                   true need for upgrading, Ability to deal with governmental
                                                                             administrative sectors.

                                   The site was chosen is called Wekalet Ahmed El- Khateep
                                                                                   recently named
                                   El- Magraby and located in historical Cairo. The Wekaleh was
                                   constructed in the Eighteen Century where the Ottoman
                                   architecture features appears. It was built by Ahmad Elkhateeb
                                   as it appears on the maps of the French Military mission in
                                   Egypt. It is located in khan Abo Takiya Street, Gamalia district.

Wekalet Ahmed El- Khateep
A visual study and condition of

building around the Wekaleh
                                Description of the building:

  The building consists of
two stories where the
workshops on ground floor
and residential flats on the
first floor. Several uses
found for the Wekaleh,
commercial in the front
shops opening on the Khan
Abo       Takiya      Street.
Traditional crafts and
small industrial workshops
are located around the
open court in the middle of
the building and part of the
first floor with a separated

                                        ground floor plan at Wekaleh

                                        Firest floor plan at Wekaleh
                               The residential

 The residential uses are at
the first floor consists of         stair
two flats with a separate
stair case leading to              court
another entrance direct to
the street.                      workshops

  The façade in hewn lime           wall
stone for the ground floor
while the first floor was
constructed by fire break
coated with lime plaster.
The main entrance located
on the eastern façade and
leading to a vaulted
entrance (Dehllez) which
opens on the court of the
Wekaleh surrounded with
workshops.       And       a
staircase leads to the first
floor where some of the
workshops are located.
The     second     entrance
located at the southern
façade leading to staircase
where two residential flats
are located.
   The Wekaleh consists
of two floors of 9.72m
height in total. The first
floor height is 3.62 m, the
second floor is 5.20m, and
at the top comes a brick
parapet with 0.9m. The
Wekaleh        has      two

- The northern façade
    - The eastern façades

                               - The northern façade

                                   The eastern façades
       at Wekaleh court

       at Wekaleh court

       at Wekaleh court
Work shops and Crafts:
  The Wekaleh include four major small industrial and
traditional crafts work shops.

    1- Metal turnery workshop.

       •   This workshop industrialize spare parts of another
           machines used for manufacturing golden, silver
           and brace jewelry.
       •   This workshop distribute its products all over the
           zone for all shops which working in manufacturing
           jewelry. This kind of product is very important to
           that kind of manufacturing.
       •   The developing of the lathe workshop is suitable
           from the economical point of view for the existence
           of suitable market around its area with no
           transportation. Three workers with moderate level
           of profession are working in the metal lathe and
           they live outside historical Cairo at Beaulaq and

    2- Metal wash and painting workshop:

       •   This work shop uses comical materials for washing
           and painting (brass – aluminum) products.
       •   This kind of traditional crafts is very important for
           Egyptian markets especially in the surrounding
           zone which deal with jewelry products.
       •   Three workers with moderate level of profession
           are working in this craft and they live inside the
           Wekhala at the residential area in the first floor.

    3- Work shop for manufacturing brushes:
       • This work shop manufacturing tissues brushes from
          old clothes for polishing metal products.
       • This kind of traditional crafts is very important for
          Egyptian markets especially in the studying zone
          which deal with jewelry products.
       • Six workers with moderate level of profession are
          working in this craft and they live outside the
          Wekhala at Gamalia and Manshiet Naser.

    4- Hand made brass decorated lathe products work
       • This work shop manufacturing brass lathe
          products, and located near the market for
          traditional products (khan elkhalily).
       • Two workers live outside historic Cairo working in
          this traditional craft.
Deterioration aspects of El-Wekaleh
Deterioration features of the northern and eastern facades:

       Vertical and inclined cracks on the first floor façade's


       Worn of the façade's stones and cantilevers.

       Lime paints on top of stones.

       Falling of portions of the first floor and roof plaster


       Usage of red bricks in some part of the facades.

       The separation of paints finishing from the walls.

       The vanishing of gypsum cornices from the facades.

       Accumulation of dirt and dust on top of the facades.

       Appearance of disjointing at the walls' corners.

       Unaesthetic finishing material choices.
Bad condition of opening(doors and windows):

          o Loss of frames, wooden leaves, accessories and


          o Total loss of inner wooden panels

          o Some opening is covered with wooden or metal


          o Appearance of cracks and worn in all woods.

          o High percentage of humidity in the woods.

          o Some wood are affected by insects.

          o Bad condition of the painted surfaces.

          o Wrong restoration of some doors and windows.
Deterioration features of the courtyard and workshops:
      Deviation and inclement in some walls.

      Unaesthetic finishing material choices.

      Plaster finishes on top of some craved stones.

      Appearance of vertical and inclined cracks with

      different lengths and widths in the first floor's wall.

      Semi-total deterioration of flooring and ceiling.

      Separation and fallen of plaster finishes from the walls.

      Bad condition of wooden ceiling, doors, and windows.

      Appearance of rust on top of metal doors and windows.

      The absence of paint finishes on the first floor courtyard


      The worn and missing of some stone cornices and

      craved stones.
Deterioration features of the residential floor:
       Appearance of vertical and inclined cracks with

       different lengths and widths in some walls.

       Deviation and inclement in some walls.

       Separation and fallen of plaster finishes from the walls.

       Bad condition of lime painted surfaces.

       Total deterioration of the ceiling

       Bad condition of doors and windows, as describe in the

       façade deterioration.

       Bad condition of wooden paints.
   Deterioration features of the residential staircase:

       Worn of the residential stoned staircase.

       Appearance of disjointing at the staircase walls' corners,
       and the appearance of vertical and inclined cracks with
       different lengths and widths.

       Deviation and inclement in some walls.

       The separation of plaster finishing from the walls.

       Bad condition of lime paints.

   Deterioration features of the roof:

       Accumulation of dirt and dust at the top of the roofs.

       Worn of the flooring's Maasarany tiles and the missing
       of some of it.

       The unevenness of the parapet.

   General deterioration features in the El-Wekaleh:

    The building has a bad situation of conservation because of
the lack of maintenance work for long time and for the absence
its real owner, where the inhabitance didn’t pay any rental fees
any body, although they pay legally for using services (electric
water supply).generally the building needs consolidation for som
of the construction elements (bearing walls – wooden ceilings
          also rehabilitation and renewal of infra structure services

All of this traditional crafts work shops need revitalization
and rehabilitation for (machinery, tools and services) besid
                           the restoration work for the Wekale

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