# Lesson Plan- The Building of Stonehenge

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```					                                                  Lesson Plan- The Building of Stonehenge

Goals and objectives:
Social Studies: Ancient cultures awareness and use of technology in architecture.
AZ Standards: 1SS-E9. Describe the … characteristics of the ancient civilizations and their contributions to later civilizations with emphasis on:
PO 5. … the cultural and scientific contributions, including the building of monuments.

Science: Simple Machines (lever 1st class, pulley, wheel & axle, inclined plane)
History of Science and Engineering
NSES 3.5 Understand that science and technology have advanced through the contributions of many different people, different cultures and at different times
throughout history.
NSES 4.1 Realize that science and technology have been used for a long time.
AZ Standards: 2SC-F1. Recognize that scientific contributions have been made by all kinds of people everywhere in the world.
PO 1. Describe how people and cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to scientific knowledge
AZ Standards: 1SC-F2. Construct models that illustrate simple concepts and compare those models to what they represent.
NSES 4.3 Realize that the history of science reveals that the scientists and engineers of high achievement are considered to be among the most valued
contributors of any culture

Math: Measurement / Parts of a Circle /Finding the diameter, radius and circumference of a circle.
AZ Standards: Strand 4: Geometry and Measurement
Concept 1: Geometric Properties
Analyze the attributes and properties of 2- and 3- dimensional shapes and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships.
PO 8.           Identify the diameter, radius, and circumference of a circle or sphere.
AZ Standards: Units of Measure
Concept 4: Geometric Standards
Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements.
PO 11.          Determine the actual measure of objects using a scale drawing or map.

Student Objectives:
The students of a 6th grade multi-ability classroom will:
construct a model of Stonehenge using bricks, PVC pipe, string and rulers within 3 hours
compare their model of Stonehenge to photos taken of the actual site and record 3 differences
use four simple machines (1st class levers, pulleys, wheel & axles, inclined planes) to create model
explain in 4 sequential drawings how ancient man was able to create a structure like Stonehenge
identify correctly the diameter, radius, and circumference of a circle used for the model
measure distances accurately to the ½” in the construction of the model
demonstrate cooperative ability as he works with a team by having less than two confrontations

Instructional Approach:
Cooperative Learning Teams will be utilized for this activity for the following reasons:
-    students need to understand the type of cooperation and teamwork it must have taken for ancients to build Stonehenge
-    students need to recognize the strengths of their fellow classmates
-    students need to realize the importance of each and every job and duty in a society
-    students need to focus on the value of recognition and compliments to accomplish a task
-    students need to gain confidence by persisting in a challenging task until its completion

Procedure and Content:
Materials:
76 bricks
30 PVC rollers
30 pieces of twine (24”)
pattern of Stonehenge layout
jobs assignment chart
rulers
tools to use as levers
chalk

Time Approximately: 3 hours

Job Descriptions:
Engineers (design the layout of the build)
Quarrymen (load the bricks onto the rollers using only levers and a piece of twine)
Log rollers (two per team whose job it was to quickly move the PVC "logs" from the back of the moving brick to the front), pullers (pulled the twine in team
with the log rollers)
On-site lifters (who stood the bricks using only levers and twine and arranged the structure. They also were available when a team dropped a brick and
required a lifter to help.)
Traffic coordinator (to keep 31 kids plus bricks and rollers moving in and out of one door to travel the 60 feet necessary to reach the build site).

Students are told that they are to build a model of Stonehenge in under 3 hours using only the tools available.
It is modeled that a minimum of 2 students must lift each brick.
No brick may be carried unless it is already within 12” of the Stonehenge building circle.
Students may use no hands or other devices except for those that are provided.
The Engineers first begin by laying out the site on the sidewalk.
Each student is to do ONLY his/her own job.

A student who had recently broken his arm was placed in the job as Traffic Controller.
Photographic examples were available to a student who had a difficult time understanding his job description.
Exceptional learners (gifted) were asked to assist in the layout of the site (using a string and chalk to create a compass)

Integration of Technology:
Ancient cultures awareness and use of technology in architecture.
AZ Standards: 1SS-E9. Describe the … characteristics of the ancient civilizations and their contributions to later civilizations with emphasis on:
PO 5. … the cultural and scientific contributions, including the building of monuments.
Before beginning this project, students were asked to do a Google.com or AskJeeves.com search in order to find photographic evidence of Stonehenge. These photos were
incorporated into a Hyperstudio slide show along with photos of the class at work on the project.

Assessment:
Students will prove mastery of the objectives by:
- completing construction on a model of Stonehenge using bricks, PVC pipe, string and rulers within 3 hours
- record 3 differences between their model and photos taken of the actual site
- showing the teacher their abilities to use four simple machines (1st class levers, pulleys, wheel & axles, inclined planes) to create model
- drawings 4 sequential pictures that show how ancient man was able to create a structure like Stonehenge
- identifying for the teacher the diameter, radius, and circumference of the circle used for the model
- measure distances accurately to the ½” in the construction of the model
- demonstrating cooperative ability by having less than two confrontations or disagreements with his team in the 3 hour work time

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