DOCUMENTS ON EAST TIMOR MASSACRE FROM PEACENET AND ASSOCIATED by plu17302

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									                                   DOCUMENTS ON EAST TIMOR MASSACRE
                                 FROM PEACENET AND ASSOCIATED NETWORKS

                                                             Volume 10: February 8 - 29, 1992
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                                                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT ON INDONESIA FOR 1991........................................................................4
   SECTION 1. RESPECT FOR THE INTEGRITY OF THE PERSON ....................................................................................................... 5
   INCLUDING FREEDOM FROM:............................................................................................................................................................. 5
   SECTION 2 . RESPECT FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES...................................................................................................................................... 7
   INCLUDING:............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
   SECTION 3. RESPECT FOR POLITICAL RIGHTS: THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT............. 8
   SECTION 4. GOVERNMENTAL ATTITUDE REGARDING INTERNATIONAL AND NONGOVERNMENTAL
        INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS.................................................................................... 9
   SECTION 5. DISCRIMINATION BASED ON RACE, SEX, RELIGION, LANGUAGE, OR SOCIAL STATUS ............................... 9
   SECTION 6. WORKER RIGHTS................................................................................................................................................................ 9
TRANSCRIPT OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY CONFERENCE (DECEMBER 9, 1991) .......................................................................11
   AMY GOODMAN .................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
   ALLAN NAIRN......................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
   ANTONIO PAIS........................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
   JOSÉ LUIS GUTERRES ............................................................................................................................................................................ 14
   BENEDICT ANDERSON.......................................................................................................................................................................... 15
INDONESIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ALI ALATAS AROUND THE WORLD ......................................................................................17
ALATAS, IN LONDON, RULES OUT EAST TIMOR VOTE (UPI)........................................................................................................... 17
   FACE TO FACE BETWEEN ALATAS AND JOLLIFFE....................................................................................................................... 17
   JOURNALISTS BY INVITATION ONLY (INDEPENDENT).............................................................................................................. 18
ALATAS, IN BRUSSELS, SHOCKED BY AMNESTY REPORT (REUTER)............................................................................................. 18
ALATAS TO VISIT JAPAN TO EXPLAIN MASSACRE (KYODO) ......................................................................................................... 18
   LETTER TO ALATAS (FREE EAST TIMOR JAPAN COALITION).................................................................................................. 18
   WATANABE: AID NOT AFFECTED BY MASSACRE (REUTER) ................................................................................................... 19
   ALATAS MEETS DIET MEMBERS FORUM ON EAST TIMOR ...................................................................................................... 19
   KILLINGS WON’T END JAKARTA AID, ENVOY TOLD (JAPAN TIMES)...................................................................................... 19
   ALATAS VISIT SPARKS DEBATE ON CONTINUED AID FOR INDONESIA (IPS) ....................................................................... 20
ALATAS ARRIVES IN WASHINGTON (AFP) ............................................................................................................................................ 20
   CALL TO DEMONSTRATE.................................................................................................................................................................... 20
   ALATAS DC PRESS CONFERENCE (UPI)............................................................................................................................................ 20
   AFP ACCOUNT ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
   THE INDONESIAN COVER-UP (BOSTON GLOBE EDITORIAL)..................................................................................................... 21
ALATAS IN CANADA................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
   CANADA MAINTAINING SANCTIONS? (REUTER)........................................................................................................................ 21
ALATAS IN PARIS (AFP).............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
ALATAS IN THE HAGUE (AFP) .................................................................................................................................................................. 22
   ALATAS: BAN ON FOREIGN JOURNALISTS A ‘TEMPORARY’ MEASURE (IPS)...................................................................... 22
   INDONESIA ‘COMMITTED TO JUSTICE’ (REUTER)...................................................................................................................... 23
GOINGS ON ABOUT CANADA.................................................................................................................................................................23
CANADA TO CONTINUE AID SUSPENSION (UPI)................................................................................................................................. 23
FARAWAY BLOODSHED LEAVES A STAIN ON CANADA (GIBBONS).............................................................................................. 23
Page 2.                                                                                      East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992.


CANADA CONSIDERS LIFTING SANCTIONS (OTTAWA CITIZEN).................................................................................................. 24
   OTTAWA PONDERS EASING SANCTIONS ON INDONESIA (MONTREAL GAZETTE).............................................................. 24
   MACDOUGALL MAY LIFT INDONESIAN SANCTIONS (TORONTO STAR)............................................................................... 25
ACTION ALERT ON INDONESIAN COMMISSION OF INQUIRY (ETAN/CANADA) ....................................................................... 25
U.N. ENVOY AMOS WAKO’S MISSION TO TIMOR.............................................................................................................................26
   WAKO ARRIVAL REMARKS................................................................................................................................................................. 26
   HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST MEETS UN SPECIAL EMISSARY...................................................................................................... 26
   AS LONG AS IT’S NOT INVESTIGATIVE (EDITOR) ......................................................................................................................... 26
   U.N. SPECIAL ENVOY NOT TO PROBE EAST TIM OR SHOOTING, SAYS ALATAS .................................................................. 26
   INDONESIA TO ALLOW U.N. ENVOY VISIT EAST TIMOR ............................................................................................................ 26
   ALATAS: WAKO CAN VISIT TIM OR................................................................................................................................................... 27
   U.N. SPECIAL ENVOY TO MEET SUHARTO ON FRIDAY............................................................................................................... 27
   U.N. ENVOY TO MEET INDONESIAN PRES. SUHARTO ................................................................................................................. 27
   WAKO MEETS WITH MURDIONO ...................................................................................................................................................... 27
   WAKO ARRIVES IN DILI (AFP)............................................................................................................................................................. 28
   WAKO MEETS CARRASCALAO........................................................................................................................................................... 28
   UN ENVOY VISITS MASSACRE SITE, ENDS TIMOR TRIP.............................................................................................................. 28
   SUHARTO TELLS OTHERS NOT TO IMPOSE THEIR VALUES ...................................................................................................... 28
   FORCING FOREIGN VALUES ON OTHER COUNTRIES VIOLATES HUMAN RIGHTS: SUHARTO........................................ 29
   WAKO: INDONESIA READY TO TRY SOLDIERS OVER TIMOR DEATHS................................................................................... 29
   SUHARTO: SOLDIERS TO BE PROSECUTED ..................................................................................................................................... 29
   U.N. ENVOY ENDS ITS SIX-DAY FACT-FINDING TRIP .................................................................................................................. 29
   WAKO ENDS INDONESIAN VISIT (RADIO AUSTRALIA) ................................................................................................................. 29
   SECURITY OPERATIONS IN DILI DURING WAKO VISIT (EDITOR) ............................................................................................ 30
   WAKO: I WOULD LIKE TO HAVE STAYED A LONG TIME (EDITOR)......................................................................................... 30
   TEMPO ON WAKO’S DILI VISIT .......................................................................................................................................................... 31
   JAKARTA WANTS TO CLOSE THE CHAPTER ON MASSACRE (IPS).......................................................................................... 31
PREPARING FOR THE PEACE BOAT ........................................................................................................................................................32
PROPOSAL: MISSION “PEACE IN TIMOR” .............................................................................................................................................. 32
   1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE SITUATION............................................................................................................................................ 32
   2. STRATEGY............................................................................................................................................................................................ 32
   3. BRIEF DESCRIPTION.......................................................................................................................................................................... 32
   4. PURPOSE............................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
   5. DATE: 27TH FEBRUARY 1992........................................................................................................................................................... 32
   ANNEX 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
   INDONESIA READIES FORCE FOR PORTUGUESE ARRIVAL........................................................................................................ 33
   ‘ARMADA’ TO STOP PEA CE SHIP?..................................................................................................................................................... 33
   PEACE MISSION COULD FAIL FOR LACK OF FUNDS (IPS) .......................................................................................................... 33
   WAR SHIPS TO HEAD OFF PEACE ENVOY........................................................................................................................................ 33
   MORE SHIP ACTIONS IN SOUTH PACIFIC........................................................................................................................................ 34
   OZ GOV’T WARY OF PEACE SHIP....................................................................................................................................................... 34
   ROW THE BOAT ASHORE? ................................................................................................................................................................... 34
   DELEGATION FROM BROWN UNIVERSITY ON BOARD THE “LUSITANIA EXPRESSO”....................................................... 34
   INDONESIAN NAVY ON LOOKOUT (AFP) ........................................................................................................................................ 34
   SCORES ARRESTED IN TIMOR (JAKARTA POST)........................................................................................................................... 35
   PRESS RELEASE ON U.S. PARTICIPATION IN PEACE SHIP ........................................................................................................... 35
   SECURITY OFFICIALS PREPARED TO FACE PORTUGUESE SHIP (JAKARTA POST).............................................................. 35
   INDONESIA BANS PEACE SHIP (DPA) ................................................................................................................................................ 35
   TIMOR SEA MILITARY EXERCISES.................................................................................................................................................... 36
   ONTARIO STUDENT JOINS PEACE SHIP........................................................................................................................................... 36
   CANADIAN GOVERNMENT WARNS AGAINST PEACE SHIP ....................................................................................................... 36
   PEACE SHIP DEFIES INDONESIA!........................................................................................................................................................ 36
   SINK PEACE SHIP, SAY JAKARTA MP’S (AGE)................................................................................................................................ 36
   INDONESIAN MILITARY THREATENS TO PREVENT LANDING (REUTER) ............................................................................ 37
   AUSTRALIAN UNIONS: PROTECT PEACE BOAT! (REUTER) ...................................................................................................... 37
   EANES TO JOIN PEACE SHIP................................................................................................................................................................ 37
   PEACE SHIP DEAD IN WATER (UPI)................................................................................................................................................... 37
   EAST TIMOR PEACE VOYAGE CALLED OFF (JAPAN TIMES)....................................................................................................... 37
   PEACE-BOAT MISSION NOT CALLED OFF (TAPOL)...................................................................................................................... 38
   PEACE SHIP BACK ON COURSE (REUTER, UPI) .............................................................................................................................. 38
   FRETILIN WARNS INDONESIA ON SHIP (REUTER) ....................................................................................................................... 38
   PEACE SHIP PINUP (REUTER)............................................................................................................................................................. 38
TRIALS OF CIVILIANS.................................................................................................................................................................................39
RUSHED ‘JUSTICE’........................................................................................................................................................................................ 39
TIMORESE FACE DEATH (REUTER)......................................................................................................................................................... 39
IMPENDING TRIALS OF TIMORESE (ACFOA) ....................................................................................................................................... 39
   SITUATION OF EAST TIMORESE DETAINEES IN JAKARTA AND DILI..................................................................................... 39
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992.                                                                                                                                        Page 3.

   ACTION ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
AUSSIE FM: RELEASE TIMORESE! ............................................................................................................................................................ 40
LAWYERS BARRED FROM QUESTIONING OF EAST TIMORESE DETAINEES (UPI) ..................................................................... 40
LAWYER CALLS FOR DILI DETAINEES TO BE RELEASED (J.POST).................................................................................................. 40
TIMORESE ‘SPY’ TRIALS............................................................................................................................................................................. 40
TRIALS OF 13 NEAR (DPA).......................................................................................................................................................................... 40
STOP THE SUBVERSION TRIALS, RELEASE ALL EAST TIMORESE POLITICAL PRISONERS! (TAPOL)..................................... 40
   PLEASE TAKE THE FOLLOWING ACTION:....................................................................................................................................... 41
EAST TIMOR TRIALS TO START............................................................................................................................................................... 41
TIMORESE PRISONER RELEASES (AFP)................................................................................................................................................... 41
BANDUNG STUDENTS RELEASED (AFP) ................................................................................................................................................ 41
BIG DILI TRIALS SOON (REUTER)............................................................................................................................................................. 41
TRIALS OF MILITARY OFFICERS .............................................................................................................................................................42
SOEHARTO PROMISES PUNISHMENT (AFP).......................................................................................................................................... 42
E.C. URGES MILITARY TRIALS (REUTER)............................................................................................................................................... 42
MILITARY COUNCIL DECISIONS (REUTER)........................................................................................................................................... 42
MILITARY COUNCIL REPORT (FULL TEXT).......................................................................................................................................... 42
ARMY PUNISHES OFFICERS (REUTER).................................................................................................................................................... 43
PUNISHMENT STINGS ARMY (REUTER)................................................................................................................................................. 44
US APPLAUDS PUNISHMENT .................................................................................................................................................................... 44
PUNISHMENTS SATISFY DUTCH, UK ...................................................................................................................................................... 44
JAPAN PRAISES INDONESIAN MEASURES (JAPAN TIMES) ............................................................................................................... 44
   JAPAN LAUDS PUNISHMENT (REUTER) ......................................................................................................................................... 44
U.N. HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION MEETS IN GENEVA.................................................................................................................45
PORTUGAL ESPOUSES EAST TIMOR’S CAUSE (GUARDIAN) ............................................................................................................ 45
CLASH AT U.N. HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION (AFP) ....................................................................................................................... 45
BLAMING THE VICTIMS: JURISTS CRITICISE INDONESIA’S RESPONSE......................................................................................... 45
   ICJ LAMBASTES INDON. (AFP)............................................................................................................................................................ 46
JAPAN UNDER INCREASING CRITICISM IN U.N. (ETNA)................................................................................................................... 46
AUSTRALIAN DIPLOMATS LOSE THEIR COOL (ETNA) ...................................................................................................................... 46
ALLEGED COLLABORATOR OF INDONESIAN SECURITY FORCES ATTENDS UNHRC (HORTA) ............................................. 47
CANADA BACKS INDONESIA AT UNHRC (SOUTHAM)...................................................................................................................... 47
JOURNALISTS BARRED FROM TIMOR..................................................................................................................................................47
   ASIA WATCH BLACKLISTED (FEER).................................................................................................................................................. 47
   MARK OF DISPLEASURE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 47
PETER S. GOODMAN EXPULSION AND ARTICLES .............................................................................................................................. 48
   U.S. JOURNALIST FORCED TO LEAVE EAST TIMOR (AP/AFP) ................................................................................................... 48
   REUTER..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 48
   DPA ON GOODMAN EXPULSION....................................................................................................................................................... 48
   EAST TIMORESE DEFY TERROR TACTICS IN THE FIGHT TO BE FREE (GOODMAN, TELEGRAPH).................................. 48
   EAST TIMOR TENSE, ARMY GETS TOUGH (GOODMAN, NEWSDAY) ........................................................................................ 49
   GOVERNMENT TO CURB JOURNALISTS ENTERING INDONESIA AS TOURISTS (JAKARTA POST)................................... 49
   EXPECTING SHIP, TIMOR CLOSED TO JOURNALISTS (AFP)....................................................................................................... 49
   REUTER:.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
U.S. SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE HEARING...........................................................................................................50
ASIA WATCH SENATE TESTIMONY......................................................................................................................................................... 50
   EXECUTIONS AFTER NOV. 12.............................................................................................................................................................. 50
   ARRESTS AND TRIALS SINCE NOVEMBER 12 ................................................................................................................................. 51
   HOW CAN THE U.S. HELP?.................................................................................................................................................................... 51
       COMMENT ON ASIA WATCH STATEMENT BY C. BUDIARD JO , TAPOL.: ................................................................................................... 52
   ALLAN NAIRN’S TESTIMONY............................................................................................................................................................. 52
   U.S. SENATE HEARING ON TIMOR (AFP) ......................................................................................................................................... 52
   U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT AND SENATE HEARING (IPS) ............................................................................................................ 52
ASSORTED ARTICLES IN CHRONOLO GICAL ORDER.....................................................................................................................53
ABILIO ARAUJO PRESS CONFERENCE IN LISBON................................................................................................................................ 53
   FRETILIN APPEALS IN LISBON FOR A WIDENING OF THE NATIONALIST CONVERGENCE............................................... 53
   CRITICISM OF PARTS OF THE RESISTANCE.................................................................................................................................... 53
   HELICOPTERS AND ARMOURED CARS HUNT FOR XANANA ................................................................................................... 53
SUDOMO: GOVERNMENT WILL ISSUE REGULATION ABOUT NGO’S............................................................................................ 53
WOLF AND HALL SAY INDONESIAN AID COULD BE CUT OFF UNLESS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES CEASE .......................... 54
Page 4.                                                                                 East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992.


AUSTRALIAN ATTACHÉ: TERRITORIAL OPERATIONS GOOD FOR THE EAST TIMORESE (SUARA PEM BARUAN).......... 54
INDONESIAN GENOCIDE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE QUINCENTENNIAL OF COLUMBUS’ VOYAGE.................................... 54
AUSSIE TV ON TIMOR ................................................................................................................................................................................. 55
   8 FEB 1992. ABC-TV NEWS SYDNEY. CRAIG MCMURTRIE........................................................................................................... 55
   9 FEB 1992 . SBS-TV NEWS CANBERRA. ALAN SUNDERLAND .................................................................................................... 55
   9 FEB 1992 ABC-TV NEWS CANBERRA, BRENDA CONROY......................................................................................................... 55
ACEH: INDONESIA’S FORGOTTEN TERROR (INDEPENDENT).......................................................................................................... 55
   COMMISSION OF INQUIRY NEEDED FOR ACEH (ASIA WATCH)............................................................................................... 56
JERRY BROWN & PERTAMINA (LBO)...................................................................................................................................................... 56
   INDONESIAN CONNECTION................................................................................................................................................................ 56
OPPOSITION DOUBTS UK GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT TO AID CONDITIONS (FINANCIAL TIMES) .............................. 57
“WINDS OF CHANGE” IN THE AIR, SAYS GUERRILLA EXILE (IPS)................................................................................................... 57
TIGHT MONEY HITS INVESTMENT (REUTER)...................................................................................................................................... 58
E.C. TWELVE STATEMENT ......................................................................................................................................................................... 58
INTERNATIONAL EAST TIMOR SOLIDARITY MEETING ................................................................................................................... 58
   PRESS RELEASE, 17 FEBRUARY 1992. ISSUED IN GENEVA............................................................................................................ 58
   REPORT OF EAST TIMOR ACTION NETWORK - U.S...................................................................................................................... 58
ANGER OVER SALE OF NAVY VESSEL TO INDONESIA (UK INDEPENDENT)................................................................................ 59
TORIES DEFEND INDONESIA ON KILLINGS (LETTER TO LONDON TIMES).................................................................................. 59
GAO REPORT ON TIMOR MASSACRE RELEASED ................................................................................................................................ 60
MORE KILLINGS IN EAST TIMOR (ASA)................................................................................................................................................ 60
   EAST TIMOR UPDATE........................................................................................................................................................................... 60
INDONESIAN INVESTMENT DISINCENTIVES (REUTER)..................................................................................................................... 60
MORE DETAILS ON THE SITUATION IN EAST TIMOR AFTER 12 NOVEMBER MASSACRE (CNRM)...................................... 61
OECF (JAPAN) FUNDS SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN TIMOR ...................................................................................................................... 61
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY (BETHELEHEM, PA) CONFERENCE MARCH 3............................................................................................... 61
   THE HIDDEN GENOCIDE OF EAST TIMOR: EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF THE MASSACRE............................................... 61
PROVIDENCE, RI PUBLIC MEETING MARCH 13 ................................................................................................................................... 61
   WITNESS TO SLAUGHTER: A REPORT ON THE SILENT GENOCIDE IN EAST TIMOR ........................................................... 61
DA COSTA, SYAFEI REM ARKS (REUTER)............................................................................................................................................... 61
   DA COSTA COMMENTS (AFP) ............................................................................................................................................................ 62
   BRIG. GEN THEO SYAFEI: I WILL HUNT THEM DOWN (TEMPO) ............................................................................................... 62
DUTCH COLUMNIST HITS OUT AT SUHARTO (NRC HANDELSBLAD) ......................................................................................... 62
LOS ANGELES INDONESIA BUSINESS PROMOTION AND DEMONSTRATION.............................................................................. 63
   EAST TIMOR ACTION NETWORK TO PROTEST AT INDONESIAN BUSINESS FORUM ......................................................... 63
   REPORT ON DEMONSTRATION AT INDONESIA TRADE/TOURISM PROMOTION IN LOS ANGELES............................... 64
INDONESIA NETS $2.4BN FOR TOURISM IN 1991 ................................................................................................................................. 64
THE MOOD IN DILI (REUTER) ................................................................................................................................................................... 64
CHIEF MINISTER OF N.T. (AUSTRALIA) ATTACKED OVER DILI VIDEO (AGE)............................................................................ 65
   BOYCOTT NORTHERN TERRITORY GOVERNMENT! BOYCOTT DARWIN! BOYCOTT KAKADU! ................................... 65
IPB APPEAL FOR PEACE AND JUSTICE................................................................................................................................................... 65
TIMORESE FLUNKY FOR JAKARTA (RRI, BBC).................................................................................................................................... 66
BOB MUNTZ SPEAKS IN JAPAN (JAPAN TIMES) ................................................................................................................................. 66
   EYEWITNESS TO DILI ATTACK RAPS JAKARTA............................................................................................................................ 66
THE WAR NO LONGER FORGOTTEN (DARWIN REFUGEES, REUTER)........................................................................................... 66
BISHOP BELO INTERVIEW IN INDONESIAN PRESS (AFP) ................................................................................................................... 67
EAST WHAT? (WASHINGTON POST EDITORIAL)................................................................................................................................ 67
IRIAN JAYA FAMINE (REUTER)................................................................................................................................................................ 67



 U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT                                              national identity and to accommodate ethnic,                           President Soeharto and the military wield
                                                                    religious, linguistic, and geographical                             predominant political power; opposition
HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT ON                                              diversities, while fostering cohesion, internal                     groups exist but in fact have no real chance
   INDONESIA FOR 1991                                               security, and development. The Soeharto                             to obtain power. Since the mid-1960’s, after
                                                                    Government actively promotes allegiance to                          an abortive coup backed by the Communist
February 9, 1992                                                    “Pancasila,” five broad, guiding principles of                      Party, retired and active-duty military
   Indonesia is the fifth most populous                             national life: belief in one supreme God, a                         officers and civilian technocrats have
country in the world and the largest in                             just and civilized humanity, Indonesian                             exercised centralized executive authority
Southeast Asia. Since independence,                                 national unity, democracy, and social justice.                      under President Soeharto’s leadership. The
Indonesian leaders have sought to create a                                                                                              partly elected, partly appointed Parliament
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 5

(DPR) considers but does not initiate             an advance report on December 26 (see             have acknowledged privately that excessive
legislation, although it has the constitutional   Section 1.a.).                                    force was sometimes employed by their
right to do so. The people’s consultative            While the DPR held several well-publi-         troops, the Government has denied a pattern
assembly (MPR)–consisting of 500                  cized hearings on freedom of the press and        of abuse, and no charges have been brought
appointed members and the 500 DPR                 on the restricted civil rights of some of         against members of the security forces in
members–meets every 5 years to approve            Indonesia’s prominent dissidents, the hear-       connection with the civilian deaths.
guidelines for government policy and to elect     ings failed to reduce abuses in these areas.          In East Timor, where a shift from secu-
the President and Vice President.                 The DPR remained subordinate to the ex-           rity operations to civic action projects by
    The armed forces (ABRI)–which include         ecutive and the right of citizens to change       the armed forces had brought about a gradual
the military services and the police–number       their government remained significantly           reduction in human rights abuses, the
about 445,000. The army constitutes about         restricted. Official and informal discrimi-       situation deteriorated sharply beginning in
half of the armed forces and focuses mainly       nation against ethnic Chinese persisted.          October. On October 28, shortly after a
on internal security. Under a “dual function”     Indonesian workers were less hesitant about       proposed visit by Portuguese parliamentari-
concept, many military officers serve in the      exercising their right to strike, especially to   ans was canceled, a clash between youths for
civilian bureaucracy at all levels and in         demand compliance with minimum wage               and against integration with Indonesia
Parliament. The military continued op-            standards. The Government continued its           resulted in the deaths of two youths, one
erations against separatist groups in East        generous policy toward Indochinese refu-          from each faction. After a memorial service
Timor and Irian Jaya, although at reduced         gees, allowed foreign parliamentary groups        for the anti-integration youth on November
levels, and intensified operations in the         to visit East Timor, and released several         12 in Dili, a procession formed to go to the
special district of Aceh. Security forces were    long-time political prisoners. It also granted    cemetery where he had been buried. Some
responsible for numerous human rights             the International Committee of the Red            demonstrators carried flags of the Fretilin
abuses, including killings and torture of         Cross (ICRC) access to prisoners in Aceh          guerrilla group and chanted anti-Indonesia
civilians.                                        and to imprisoned Muslim extremists.              slogans. During the course of the march to
    Although Indonesia’s mixed economy                                                              the cemetery an army major was stabbed.
involves the state in nearly all sectors, gov-    SECTION 1. RESPECT FOR THE                        After the procession reached the cemetery,
ernment policies are expanding the role and       INTEGRITY OF THE PERSON                           security forces opened fire on the crowd,
freedom of the private sector. Ongoing de-                                                          killing and wounding scores of civilians.
regulation efforts helped the economy to          INCLUDING FREEDOM FROM:                           There is no evidence that the use of such
continue its strong expansion in 1990, when       a. Political and Other Extrajudicial Killing      deadly force was justified. In addition, the
Indonesia’s inflation-adjusted gross domestic        Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of people         acknowledged 19 killed were buried in un-
product (GDP) grew between 7.0 and 7.5            have died in the special district of Aceh since   marked graves and, for 12 days after the
percent. Non-oil export growth slowed due         mid-1989 as a result of a struggle between        incident, the army denied the ICRC access to
to softening prices for Indonesia’s major         separatist rebels and government troops.          the military hospital to which the dead and
non-oil commodities, but exports of               The casualties, whose numbers have so far         wounded had been taken.
manufactured goods remained strong. The           been impossible to establish with precision,          Within a week, President Soeharto ap-
economy’s growth was expected to diminish         have included police and army troops as well      pointed senior government officials to a na-
in 1991, but still to maintain a real GDP         as rebel forces. A significant number of those    tional commission to investigate the incident,
growth rate of between 5 and 6 percent.           killed in 1991, however, appear to have been      the first such commission in Indonesian
Despite substantial increases in real incomes     civilians. During the first 6 months of 1991,     history. The commission spent more than 2
and in the standard of living of most             dozens of bodies were found along                 weeks investigating in East Timor. In a
Indonesians in the past 20 years, the coun-       roadsides, in market places, and in rivers.       preliminary report presented on December
try is poor, there is significant unemploy-       The military and other government leaders         26, the commission concluded that “about”
ment, and wide disparities in wealth exist.       have claimed that rebel forces, which are         50 had been killed and acknowledged some
Corruption and influence peddling are en-         called GPK (Security Disturbing Gangs) by         eyewitness reports that the total was over
demic and distort growth and economic op-         the Government and Aceh Merdeka (Free             100. The commission said that more than the
portunity.                                        Aceh) by their supporters, were responsible       previous official figure of 91 were wounded.
    Insurgent sentiment and activity in Aceh      for these deaths. However, the ability of the     The report went on to state that “the acts of
led to the deaths of hundreds of civilians,       rebel forces to inflict significant civilian      a number of armed forces members exceeded
dozens of subversion trials in which the          casualties was severely limited in 1991 since,    the bounds of appropriateness,” and called
rights of the defendants were limited, and        by the military’s own assessment, most of         for legal measures to be taken against all
numerous credible reports of torture at the       the armed rebel elements had been eliminated      those suspected of violating Indonesian law.
hands of the police and military. Abuses in       or rendered ineffective. In fact, there are           Two days after the issuance of the report,
Irian Jaya also continued, although at a re-      credible reports of a pattern of abuse against    President Soeharto ordered that the military
duced rate from past years. In East Timor,        the civilian population of Aceh by security       commanders in East Timor and the larger
security forces opened fire on November 12        forces. Human rights groups have charged          region which includes East Timor be re-
on a demonstration protesting Indonesian          the security forces with serious violations of    lieved. He also ordered the Army Chief of
rule over East Timor at the Santa Cruz            human rights in their anti-insurgency cam-        Staff to form an “honorary council” to in-
cemetery in the capital of Dili. The demon-       paign in Aceh, especially during the first half   vestigate how security forces handled the
stration followed a memorial service for a        of 1991. These include summary executions         incident.
Timorese killed on October 28 during a clash      of suspected Aceh Merdeka supporters–                 In Irian Jaya, a leader of the banned Free
between Timorese for and against integration      part of an effort to intimidate or eliminate      Papua Organization (OPM), Malkianus
with Indonesia. Available evidence indicates      potential rebel sympathizers–as well as the       Salosa, was found dead in the jungle 3 weeks
the violence employed by security forces on       incitement of villagers to summarily kill         after allegedly escaping from a military
November 12 was clearly disproportionate          suspected guerrillas. Substantiation of in-       prison. Salosa was convicted in March of
to the situation. Many believe the death toll     dividual cases is often lacking, and rebel        involvement in a 1988 attack on transmi-
was far higher than the officially                forces doubtless have caused some civilian        grants in Irian Jaya and sentenced to life in
acknowledged number of 19. A national             deaths, but government forces clearly appear      prison. Salosa was buried on the spot by the
investigatory commission was appointed to         responsible for the majority of these civilian    military, allegedly with his family’s ap-
examine the incident. The commission issued       deaths. While some military commanders
Page 6                                                         East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

proval. There reportedly was no autopsy or      trial for periods of up to several months on     these abuses continue unchecked. The
independent observation of the body.            suspicion of subversive activity or              Government supports programs to improve
b. Disappearance                                knowledge thereof, and up to 100 more were       legal awareness, training, and research.
                                                believed to still be in custody at year’s end.   Conviction is virtually automatic in cases
   Security forces periodically took persons    People were detained in East Timor for days      involving Indonesia’s broad 1963 antisub-
for interrogation, usually without notifica-    or weeks and subsequently released without       version law. Advocacy or actions in support
tion to families, resulting in at least their   charges. Application of a 1987 presidential      of secession or creation of an Islamic state,
temporary disappearance. This was espe-         decree on remission of prison terms leaves       criticism of Pancasila, and smuggling are
cially true in Aceh, where people would         uncertain the status of some prisoners,          classified as subversive offenses subject to a
sometimes disappear for months after being      including several reportedly still in jail       maximum penalty of death. Although the
taken into police custody.                      despite apparent expiration of their             Government does not provide data on the
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or         sentences. Two convicted members of the          number of persons serving subversion sen-
   Degrading Treatment or Punishment            banned Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI)        tences, the best informed estimates suggest a
   The use of torture to extract information    were released in July, several years after       total of more than 500. This figure includes
from criminal suspects or witnesses is pro-     their sentences were supposed to have            persons sentenced for involvement in the
hibited under the Indonesia Criminal            expired.                                         1965 Communist coup attempt, alleged
Procedures Code (KUHAP). Nonetheless,               The Agency for Coordination of               Muslim extremists, and those convicted of
credible reports of torture and mistreatment,   Assistance for the Consolidation of National     subversion in connection with separatist
including rape, of criminal suspects,           Security (BAKORSTANAS) operates out-             activities in Aceh, East Timor, and Irian
detainees, and prisoners were frequent. This    side the KUHAP and has wide discretion to        Jaya, some of whom advocated or employed
was especially true in Aceh, where there        detain and interrogate persons thought to        violence. In August the Government reduced
were numerous credible reports of               threaten national security. Indonesian law       the sentences of and released four persons
systematic torture of suspected rebel sym-      does not provide for the right to judicial       convicted of subversion, including three
pathizers while in military or police cus-      review of such actions or for the right to       Muslims accused of delivering inflammatory
tody.                                           protection or legal aid for the detainees.       sermons in connection with the Tanjung
   Police often resort to physical abuse,       Their cases are rarely if ever publicized.       Priok riots of 1984.
even in minor incidents, and prison condi-      e. Denial of Fair Public Trial                       More than 30 subversion trials were
tions in Indonesia tend to be harsh. Pretrial                                                    conducted in 1991, the majority of them in
                                                    A quadripartite judiciary of general, re-
maltreatment to obtain confessions is re-                                                        Sumatra, where more than two dozen people
                                                ligious, military, and administrative courts
portedly common. The practice in Medan of                                                        were tried in connection with separatist
                                                exists below the Supreme Court. The right of
“shooting to wound” criminal suspects al-                                                        activities in Aceh. All were found guilty and
                                                appeal from District Court to High Court to
legedly attempting to escape capture, and                                                        received sentences of up to 20 years in
                                                Supreme Court exists in all four systems of
efforts by police in Jakarta to cope with in-                                                    prison. Although the fact that public trials
                                                justice. The Supreme Court, with a current
creasingly brutal crimes raised concerns                                                         were held represented an improvement over
                                                backlog of some 17,000 cases, does not
about excessive use of force against sus-                                                        an earlier situation in which accused Aceh
                                                consider factual aspects of a case, only the
pects. In August, for example, credible press                                                    separatists were held without trial, the pro-
                                                lower courts’ application of law. Initial
reports indicate that 17 suspects were shot                                                      ceedings were in many cases seriously
                                                judgments are rarely reversed in the appeals
by police in metropolitan Jakarta, 8 of                                                          flawed. There are credible reports that many
                                                process, although sentences are sometimes
whom died from their wounds. Nine other                                                          of the defendants had been tortured to elicit
                                                increased or reduced. A three-judge panel
criminal suspects were reportedly killed by                                                      confessions, were arrested without warrants,
                                                conducts most trials, poses questions, hears
mobs who caught the suspects in the act of                                                       and were not clearly told the crimes with
                                                evidence, decides guilt or innocence, and
committing a crime.                                                                              which they were charged. Some of the
                                                assesses punishment. The judiciary is not
   Officials have publicly acknowledged and                                                      defendants were unable to select their
                                                independent. While judges receive guidance
condemned police brutality and harsh prison                                                      defense counsel freely, as guaranteed under
                                                from the Supreme Court on legal matters,
conditions and occasionally instigate                                                            KUHAP. The LBH, for example, had re-
                                                they are civil servants employed by the ex-
disciplinary action, including transfer,                                                         ceived powers of attorney from the families
                                                ecutive branch. The Supreme Court cannot
dismissal, trial, and sentencing to prison                                                       of 13 of the defendants asking for represen-
                                                annul laws passed by Parliament. Most
terms. However, there were no known in-                                                          tation but was prevented by the authorities
                                                court sessions are open to the public, and
stances in 1991 of officials being punished                                                      from doing so in all but one case. When other
                                                most defendants have access to counsel
for mistreatment of political prisoners or                                                       attorneys were found to represent them,
                                                although such access is sometimes signifi-
detainees.                                                                                       they often met their clients on the day of the
                                                cantly delayed. Destitute defendants can
d. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile                                                         trial, and therefore had inadequate time to
                                                obtain private legal help, such as that pro-     prepare a defense.
   While the KUHAP contains protections         vided by the Legal Aid Institute (LBH).
against arbitrary arrest and detention and      Courts also can provide a limited amount of      f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy,
specifies the right of prisoners to legal       aid for those unable to afford legal assis-          Family, Home, or Correspondence
counsel and notification of family, these       tance, but in practice such aid is limited to        Judicial warrants for searches are required
safeguards are often disregarded in practice.   defendants facing charges carrying sentences     except for cases involving suspected
Detainees in cases of alleged subversion may    of 5 years or more. The State must ensure le-    subversion, economic crimes, and corrup-
be held up to a year without charges.           gal assistance in capital cases.                 tion. However, forced or surreptitious entry
Security agencies detain and arrest persons,        Corruption permeates the Indonesian le-      by security agencies reportedly occurs
including students and intellectuals, to in-    gal system. In civil and criminal cases, the     regularly. Security agencies intimidate by
timidate them and inhibit activities judged     payment of bribes can influence decisions,       conducting surveillance of persons and
undesirable. Legal mechanisms for redress of    prosecution, conviction, and sentencing. The     residences, and they are believed to monitor
such actions are inadequate. The number of      use in trials of forced confessions and          selectively local and international telephone
persons detained without trial is unknown,      limitations on the presentation of defense       calls without legal restraint. Correspondence
but in the Special District of Aceh the         evidence are reportedly common. The              generally is not monitored. Government
Government during the year released more        Government has occasionally taken action         security officials monitor the movements
than 600 people who had been held without       against flagrant offenders, but by and large     and activities of former members of the
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 7

Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and its         The power of the Government to revoke a              While academic freedom is provided for in
front organizations, especially persons the      newspaper’s SIUPP was the topic of a par-         law, constraints exist on the activities of
Government believes were involved in the         liamentary hearing in June. Editors who           scholars. They sometimes refrain from pro-
abortive 1965 Communist-backed coup. The         testified protested that the Minister of          ducing materials which they believe might
Government stated in late 1990 that this         Information has revoked SIUPP’s in the past       provoke government displeasure. Publishers
latter group then totaled 1,410,333 people.      without giving the offending publications an      are often unwilling to accept manuscripts
These persons and sometimes their relatives      adequate chance to defend themselves. They        dealing with controversial issues, and those
are subject to surveillance, required check-     also protested punishing an entire                that do sometimes find works banned long
ins, and arbitrary actions by officials,         organization for the alleged sins of one or       after they have been published. For example,
including removal from government                several individuals. The Minister later told      an Indonesian translation of a Japanese
employment and threats of removal from           Parliament he had no intention of modifying       scholar’s work on Indonesia was banned in
such employment.                                 his control over the SIUPP. A newspaper           September, a year after its publication, be-
                                                 editor whose newspaper lost its SIUPP in          cause the Government felt it discredited
SECTION 2 . RESPECT FOR CIVIL                    1990 for publishing a poll which was judged       President Soeharto. This was one of at least
LIBERTIES                                        insulting to the Prophet Muhammad was             15 books the Government banned in 1991.
                                                 sentenced in April to 5 years in prison, later    b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and
INCLUDING:                                       reduced by 6 months, on criminal charges of          Association
a. Freedom of Speech and Press                   insulting a religion.
                                                                                                      All organizations must have government
                                                     The Government occasionally censors
   Significant restrictions on freedom of                                                          permission to hold regional and national
                                                 publications and continues the practices of
speech and press exist. Government agencies                                                        meetings. Local jurisdictions often require
                                                 telephoning editors to suppress stories and
exercise broad discretionary authority in                                                          prior approval for smaller gatherings as well.
                                                 censoring foreign periodicals. An article
applying laws concerning the rights of                                                             While obtaining such approvals is fairly
                                                 about East Timorese workers in Java that
persons, and effective judicial review is                                                          automatic, authorities occasionally withhold
                                                 was to appear in the prominent news
lacking. Public statements or publications                                                         permission. The Indonesian Lawyers
                                                 weekly TEMPO, for example, was censored
which criticize the Government or are per-                                                         Association, for example, was unable to get
                                                 in early September at the insistence of
ceived as critical of Pancasila, top leaders,                                                      government permission to hold its national
                                                 military officers who came to the magazine’s
their families, or particular religious and                                                        meeting. Meetings of nongovernmental
                                                 offices.
ethnic groups are often harshly punished.                                                          organizations are sometimes subject to
                                                     The Government closely regulates access
For example, a young Moslem intellectual,                                                          substantial official efforts to produce
                                                 to Indonesia by visiting and resident foreign
M.H. Ainun Nadjib, was banned by                                                                   specific outcomes. Student gatherings have
                                                 correspondents and occasionally reminds the
authorities in central Java from holding                                                           often been the target of disapprovals, and
                                                 latter of its prerogative to deny requests for
lectures in the province apparently because                                                        ostensible political activity at universities
                                                 visa extensions. The Australian Broadcasting
of comments he made during a public dis-                                                           remains forbidden under the “Campus Life
                                                 Corporation, for example, was allowed to
cussion about the effectiveness of a gov-                                                          Normalization” (NKK) law of 1978. The
                                                 reopen a bureau in Jakarta after a lengthy
ernment-run civics course on Pancasila.                                                            Government also banned political cam-
                                                 break caused by controversy over Australian
Earlier in the year, two students were de-                                                         paigning from university campuses in con-
                                                 media coverage of Indonesia. The
tained and others questioned for their part in                                                     nection with the 1992 parliamentary elec-
                                                 importation of foreign publications and
distributing a “land for the people” calendar                                                      tions.
                                                 video tapes, which must be reviewed by
that contained caricatures of President                                                               The 1985 Social Organizations (ORMAS)
                                                 government censors, requires a permit.
Soeharto, his wife, and other government                                                           Law requires all organizations, including
                                                 Importers usually avoid foreign materials
officials.                                                                                         recognized religions and associations, to
                                                 critical of the Government or dealing with
   The Government operates the nationwide                                                          adhere to Pancasila. This provision, which
                                                 topics considered sensitive, such as human
television network. Private television com-                                                        limits political activity, is widely understood
                                                 rights. Foreign periodicals and newspapers,
panies broadcasting in Jakarta and Surabaya                                                        as prohibiting groups which seek to make
                                                 readily available in Indonesia, are subject to
expanded to other areas, and a private edu-                                                        Indonesia an Islamic state. The law
                                                 censorship prior to distribution. The
cational channel began operating nationally.                                                       empowers the Government to disband any
                                                 International Herald Tribune was allowed to
Some 537 private radio broadcasting com-                                                           organization it believes to be acting against
                                                 resume distribution in March after a 4-
panies exist in Indonesia in addition to the                                                       Pancasila and requires prior government
                                                 month hiatus caused by a 1990 article critical
Government’s national radio network.                                                               approval for any organization’s acceptance
                                                 of the business dealings of members of the
Private television and radio stations, which                                                       of funds from foreign donors. Government
                                                 President’s family. When the Government
have considerable programming latitude, are                                                        attitudes towards human rights groups
                                                 expressed outrage at the article, the
subject to official scrutiny and are required                                                      varied. Jakarta police in August entered a
                                                 newspaper’s Indonesian distributor ceased
to use government-provided news programs.                                                          private home without a warrant and broke
                                                 distribution.
Private radio stations frequently supplement                                                       up a gathering of members of the dissident
                                                     The risk of official sanctions and informal
such news programs with their own reports.                                                         group known as the Petition of 50. The
                                                 government instructions generally influence
Foreign television and radio broadcasts are                                                        meetings had been held weekly in the same
                                                 the media to avoid or exercise great caution
accessible to those who can afford the                                                             home for nearly 11 years without prior
                                                 in disseminating views of government critics.
technology.                                                                                        incidents. At the same time, three new dis-
                                                 However, coverage of opposition views
   The print media are largely privately                                                           cussion groups concerned with promoting
                                                 conveyed to the Parliament in July during a
owned. Officials state that the press is                                                           democracy and human rights were formed
                                                 meeting with the Petition of 50 dissident
“free” but also “responsible.” It is expected                                                      and operated without government interfer-
                                                 group was extensive. Lack of clear guidelines
to support national development and stabil-                                                        ence.
                                                 on what is permissible has generated a
ity, be educational, and uphold professional                                                       c. Freedom of Religion
                                                 significant degree of self-censorship both in
standards. The Government limits the num-
                                                 public speaking and in the press. However,           The Constitution recognizes and provides
ber of newspaper licenses, the amount of
                                                 as in 1990, the limits of government              for religious freedom for Islam, Christianity,
advertising, and the number of pages, and
                                                 tolerance were regularly tested in 1991 in        Buddhism, and Hinduism, and permits
exercises strong control over the press
                                                 published editorials, opinion pieces,             practice of the mystical, animistic beliefs of
through its control of publishing permits,
                                                 cartoons, and public statements.                  “Aliran Kepercayaan.” Although the
known by their Indonesian acronym, SIUPP.
Page 8                                                            East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

population is overwhelmingly Muslim, the          above. Indonesians practicing the recognized      international decision on how to resolve their
practice and teachings of the other rec-          religions maintain active links with              situation. Indonesia also continued its
ognized faiths are respected. The Catholic        coreligionists inside and outside Indonesia       cooperation with the U.N. High
Church, for example, operates widely in East      and travel abroad for religious gatherings.       Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and
Timor, but the activities of some of its          The Government permits a set number of            the ICRC on the return of residents of Irian
clergy are carefully monitored by security        pilgrims to make the hajj annually.               Jaya who had fled to Papua New Guinea
forces concerned with their political sym-        d. Freedom of Movement Within the                 during separatist violence in the eastern
pathies. Various restrictions on religious            Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and      portion of the province.
activity nonetheless exist. According to of-          Repatriation
ficial statistics, nearly 400 “misleading re-                                                       SECTION 3. RESPECT FOR
                                                      Restrictions on freedom of movement
ligious cults” are banned, including some                                                           POLITICAL RIGHTS: THE RIGHT OF
                                                  exist. Permits to seek work in a new location
Islamic groups considered heretical. Existing                                                       CITIZENS TO CHANGE THEIR
                                                  are required in certain areas, primarily to
bans affect many thousands of adherents,
                                                  control further population movement to            GOVERNMENT
and new bannings by national or local
                                                  crowded cities. Previously some ethnic                Parliament, political organizations, and
authorities occur periodically. Ten of the
                                                  Chinese encountered legal and bureaucratic        the general public have only limited ability
books banned by the Government in 1991
                                                  obstacles to obtaining citizenship, although      to influence government decisions, and citi-
concerned religious topics.
                                                  the Government’s stated policy was to en-         zens cannot change the system of govern-
    Although banned, several thousand
                                                  courage them to apply. In connection with         ment or its leadership. President Soeharto
Jehovah’s Witnesses are believed to practice
                                                  the 1990 renewal of diplomatic ties between       and a small group of active duty and retired
in Jakarta alone. Adherents are periodically
                                                  Indonesia and China, officials announced          military officers and civilian officials exercise
detained and their religious materials
                                                  that stateless Chinese–currently estimated to     governmental authority. The military has
confiscated. A 1963 ban on the Baha’i faith
                                                  number 300,000–must adopt the citizenship         responsibility under a “dual function”
continues in force. The private practice of
                                                  of one country or the other and that              doctrine for national defense and security
banned religions is often tolerated, although
                                                  Indonesia’s procedures would be simplified        plus sociopolitical affairs. The military is
authorities periodically harass adherents or
                                                  and shortened. Restrictions on travel to          predominant in the political and security
pressure them to convert to the recognized
                                                  China were lifted by the Government in            fields. The Constitution provides Parliament
faiths. Because the first tenet of Pancasila is
                                                  August.                                           a mechanism to call the President to account
belief in a supreme being, atheism is for-
                                                      Government officials acknowledged that        in extraordinary circumstances.
bidden. The legal requirement to adhere to
                                                  some 17,000 Indonesians are under an abso-            The Parliament considers bills presented
Pancasila extends to all religious and secular
                                                  lute foreign travel ban. Included in this group   to it by government departments and agen-
organizations.
                                                  are former political prisoners and                cies but does not draft laws on its own, al-
    The Government strongly opposes
                                                  government critics such as some members of        though it has the constitutional right to do
Muslim groups which advocate establishing
                                                  the Petition of 50. Officials also ac-            so. The Government seeks to resolve po-
an Islamic state or acknowledging only
                                                  knowledged that a second list exists of per-      tential parliamentary concerns before bills
Islamic law, both of which are outlawed.
                                                  sons whose permission to travel is decided        are officially presented. Parliament makes
Over 300 and possibly many more alleged
                                                  only when they apply for an exit permit.          technical and (occasionally) substantive al-
Muslim extremists are estimated to be
                                                  Some critics, however, are free to travel         terations to bills it reviews. Through con-
serving prison terms on subversion charges.
                                                  abroad, and a person prohibited at one time       sultations and hearings with ministers and
Visiting Muslim fundamentalist teachers
                                                  may be permitted to travel subsequently.          other executive branch officials, press
have been particularly susceptible to depor-
                                                  Students wishing and able to do so can gen-       statements, and field trips, Parliament is
tation.
                                                  erally go abroad for study. Restrictions exist    contributing more actively to the content and
    There is no legal bar to conversion be-
                                                  on movement by Indonesian and foreign             execution of government policy than
tween faiths, and conversions occur.
                                                  citizens to and within parts of Irian Jaya.       previously. This was especially true in
However, proselytizing between the recog-
                                                  Security checks affecting transportation and      1991, when debates over “openness,” press
nized religions or in areas heavily dominated
                                                  travel in Aceh occurred sporadically in early     control, land tenure, travel restrictions, and
by one recognized religion or another is
                                                  1991, and permission was required to visit        the role of Parliament itself were given wide
considered potentially disruptive and is
                                                  certain districts considered sensitive for se-    publicity. Nonetheless, Parliament remains
discouraged. Foreign missionary activities
                                                  curity reasons. Curfews were sometimes in         clearly subordinate to the executive branch.
are relatively unimpeded. In recent years,
                                                  force in connection with military operations          Only three political organizations are
however, some foreign missionaries have had
                                                  in parts of East Timor and Aceh. Family vis-      allowed by law. GOLKAR, a government-
difficulty renewing visas or residence
                                                  its back to East Timor by East Timorese           sponsored organization of diverse functional
permits–a few on unspecified “security
                                                  now living in Australia continued. Former         groups, dominates. Two small political par-
grounds.” Laws and decrees from the 1970’s
                                                  political detainees, including those associated   ties–the United Development Party (PPP)
do not allow foreign missionaries to spend
                                                  with the abortive 1965 coup, must notify          and the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI)–
more than 10 years in Indonesia, with
                                                  authorities of their movements and may not        also operate. By law they embrace Pancasila.
extensions to 15 in exceptional circum-
                                                  change their place of residence without           They are not considered opposition parties
stances only. With rare exceptions, en-
                                                  official permission.                              and seldom espouse policies much different
forcement of this policy does not discrimi-
                                                      Indonesia continued its generous attitude     from those of the Government. The leaders
nate by sect or nationality. Exceptions to the
                                                  regarding Indochinese asylum seekers. It has      of all these organizations are approved, if
10-year rule have been granted to foreign
                                                  granted first asylum to over 123,000              not chosen, by the Government, and their
religious workers since late 1987 in the
                                                  Indochinese asylum seekers since 1975, and        activities are closely scrutinized and often
remote areas of Irian Jaya and Kalimantan
                                                  the population of its Galang Island facility      guided by government authorities.
and, more recently, in other parts of the
                                                  was about 20,000 through most of 1991.            GOLKAR maintains close institutional links
country. The Government says it intends
                                                  Galang’s Cambodian population was about           with the armed forces and KORPRI, the
over time to reduce the number of foreign
                                                  1,750. Indonesia considers the Cambodians         nonunion association to which all civil
missionaries in order to encourage
                                                  illegal entrants rather than asylum seekers.      servants automatically belong. Civil servants
employment of Indonesians. Foreign mis-
                                                  Nevertheless, Cambodians have been al-            may join either of the political parties with
sionary work is subject to the funding
                                                  lowed to remain in Indonesia, pending an          official permission, but most are members of
stipulations of the ORMAS law discussed
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                   Page 9

GOLKAR. Former members of the PKI and               biased. The prospects for a Portuguese visit      groups work actively to advance women’s
some other banned parties may not run for           were unclear at year’s end. The U.N. Special      legal, economic, social, and political rights
office or be active politically.                    Rapporteur for Torture visited Jakarta and        and acknowledge some success in gaining
   General elections for Parliament and for         East Timor in November, but a workshop on         official cognizance of their concerns.
provincial and district assemblies are held         human rights jointly sponsored by the                Violence against women is an acknowl-
every 5 years. GOLKAR won 73 percent of             Government and the United Nations was             edged though inadequately documented
the national vote in the 1987 elections. New        postponed at the latter’s initiative in           problem. The Government has recognized
elections are scheduled to be held in June          December.                                         domestic violence as a problem in Indonesian
1992. All adult citizens are eligible to vote,                                                        society and provides some counseling, as do
except active-duty members of the armed             SECTION 5. DISCRIMINATION                         several private organizations. However,
forces, convicted criminals serving prison          BASED ON RACE, SEX, RELIGION,                     cultural, social, psychological, and other
sentences, and 36,345 former PKI members.           LANGUAGE, OR SOCIAL STATUS                        factors inhibit reporting of such abuse and
Voters may choose by secret ballot between                                                            recourse by victims to counseling and legal
the three approved political organizations,             Indonesians exhibit considerable tolerance    protection.
who field candidate lists in each electoral         for ethnic, racial, and major religious
district. Those lists must be screened by           differences, with the important exception of      SECTION 6. WORKER RIGHTS
BAKORSTANAS (see Section 1.d. above),               official and informal discrimination against
                                                    ethnic Chinese. Since 1959 noncitizen ethnic      a. The Right of Association
which determines whether candidates were
involved in the abortive 1965 Communist             Chinese have been denied the right to run             Private sector workers, including those in
coup or adhere to other banned ideologies.          businesses in rural Indonesia. Regulations        export-processing zones, are free to form or
Critics charge these screenings are                 prohibit the operation of all-Chinese schools     join unions without previous authorization,
unconstitutional, since there is no way to          for ethnic Chinese citizens, formation of         but in order to bargain on behalf of
appeal the results, and note that they can be       exclusively Chinese cultural groups or trade      employees a union must meet the require-
used to eliminate government critics from           associations, and public display of Chinese       ments for legal recognition and register with
Parliament.                                         characters. Chinese-language publications,        the Ministry of Manpower. The re-
                                                    with the exception of one officially              quirements for legal recognition are repre-
SECTION 4. GOVERNMENTAL                             sanctioned daily newspaper, can neither be        sentation in at least 20 of the 27 provinces,
ATTITUDE REGARDING                                  imported nor produced domestically. Private       branch offices in at least 100 districts, and
                                                    instruction in Chinese is discouraged but         1,000 local units at plant level. The unions
INTERNATIONAL AND NON-                              takes place to a limited extent. No laws          draw up their own constitutions and rules
GOVERNMENTAL INVESTIGATION                          prohibit speaking Chinese, but the                and elect their representatives while under
OF ALLEGED VIOLATIONS OF                            Government lays heavy stress on the               close government scrutiny and subject to
HUMAN RIGHTS                                        learning and use of the national language,        government approval prior to registration.
                                                    Bahasa Indonesia.                                 Less than 6 percent of the estimated 78-
   The Government generally ignores calls               Many people of Chinese ancestry have          million-member work force is organized. The
by domestic human rights groups and ac-             nonetheless been successful in business and       All Indonesia Workers Union (SPSI), which
tivists for investigations of alleged human         the professions, and the enforcement of re-       groups together private sector workers, is
rights incidents. While various domestic or-        strictions is often haphazard. Some ethnic        the only recognized intersectoral trade union
ganizations and persons interested in human         Chinese have enjoyed particular government        body. In 1990 the SPSI reorganized into 13
rights operate energetically, the Government        favor. Social and religious groups exist which    autonomous divisions, covering broad
discourages public human rights activities.         are, in effect, all-Chinese and not proscribed.   industrial sectors and specialized institutes.
Some human rights activists have                    Jakarta authorities have ended the practice of    It has about 10,000 local units at the plant
complained of government harassment.                marking local identification cards to indicate    level and claims over 3 million members,
   The Government considers outside in-             Chinese ethnicity. However, 1991 saw a rise       although only about 900,000 actually pay
vestigations of alleged human rights viola-         in anti-Chinese feeling in many quarters of       dues.
tions to be interference in its internal affairs.   Indonesian society, particularly against the          In November 1990, a number of human
Amnesty International, for example, is              affluent Chinese.                                 rights campaigners created the Setia Kawan
banned from Indonesia. Nonetheless, the                 Under the law, and as President Soeharto      (Solidarity) free trade union, alleging that the
Government granted the ICRC access to               and other officials periodically affirm,          SPSI had failed to defend worker interests
political prisoners arrested in connection          women are equal to and have the same rights,      adequately. While the Coordinating Minister
with the insurgency in Aceh and to jailed           obligations, and opportunities as men. Some       for Political and Security Affairs initially
Muslim extremists. Under a 1985 agreement,          Indonesian women enjoy a high degree of           stated that the Government would not
the ICRC is authorized by the Government            economic and social freedom and occupy            approve the new trade union when it sought
to visit persons held for security reasons in       important mid-level positions in the civil        to register because to do so would violate the
East Timor. Nonetheless, the ICRC                   service, educational institutions, labor          Government’s single-trade union policy, he
experienced significant delays in gaining           organizations, the military, the professions,     later indicated that the Government would
access to those wounded or imprisoned in            and private business. Although women              tolerate the new organization if it did not do
the November 12 East Timor incident, and in         constitute one quarter of the civil service,      anything illegal. The Government has made
getting permission to revisit prisoners in          they occupy only a small fraction of the          no formal move to ban Setia Kawan.
Aceh first seen in July. The ICRC annually          service’s top posts. Women make up about          However, the Setia Kawan is not able to
visits and interviews the prisoners convicted       40 percent of the overall work force, with        function as a labor union since it does not
of participation in the abortive, Communist-        the majority in the rural sector. Despite legal   meet the requirement for legal recognition
backed coup in 1965.                                guarantees of equal treatment, women              referred to above. Setia Kawan organizers
   Various foreign parliamentary groups             seldom receive equal pay for equal work and       have been harassed, and in June Secretary
visited trouble spots such as Aceh and East         disproportionately experience illiteracy,         General Saut Aritonang reported he was
Timor, although a November visit by                 poor health, and nutrition. Traditional atti-     abducted by armed men and detained for
Portuguese parliamentarians to East Timor           tudes which limit women’s aspirations, ac-        several days. Prior to this incident,
was canceled at the last minute because of a        tivities, and status undercut state policy in     Aritonang had indicated he would be going to
dispute over the inclusion of a foreign jour-       some areas. Several voluntary, private            Geneva to bring Setia Kawan’s case before
nalist the Indonesian Government considered
Page 10                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

the International Labor Organization (ILO)        Manpower and prior notice regarding the          appealed to the courts, in practice it is rarely
during the ILO’s annual International Labor       intent to strike. Most disputes are settled      done.
Conference at which the Indonesian Minister       through negotiation and consensus, due in           Indonesia has for many years been the
of Manpower would be president of the             part at least to fear of police and employer     subject of complaints in the ILO regarding
conference. The Indonesian Government has         retaliation. In 1991 there was a significant     the ban on organizing public sector unions,
denied responsibility for Aritonang’s disap-      increase in the number of strikes, especially    insufficient protection against antiunion
pearance, and Aritonang has not publicly          on the part of workers demanding employer        discrimination, restrictions on the registra-
speculated on the identity of his abductors.      compliance with the legal minimum wage. In       tion of trade unions and collective bargaining,
    Prior to the 1990 SPSI National Congress,     a number of instances, the military or police    and the exercise of the right to strike. The
the Joint Secretariat of Industrial Unions        were called to the scene of the strike. The      ILO Conference in June again regretted that
carried out certain limited trade union           nature of military and police involvement at     Indonesian law was still not in conformity
functions which excluded collective               work stoppage sites has been varied. Most        with the requirements of ILO Convention
bargaining. At the 1990 Congress, however,        often the security forces have limited           98, which Indonesia has ratified.
a number of its principal leaders rejoined the    themselves to protecting property and            b. The Right to Organize and Bargain
SPSI and, while the Joint Secretariat             preventing violence, although there have            Collectively
continues to exist in name, it is not a func-     been reports of conscious attempts to
                                                                                                      Collective bargaining is provided for by
tioning organization.                             intimidate strikers. Their mere presence has
                                                                                                   law, but only registered trade unions can
    In 1990 the Teachers’ Association             no doubt had a dampening effect on the
                                                                                                   engage in it. The Ministry of Manpower
(PGRI) was allowed to register as a trade         willingness of workers to pursue strike or
                                                                                                   vigorously promotes collective bargaining as
union with exclusive jurisdiction for this        other protest activity. However, there have
                                                                                                   an instrument of industrial relations in
sector. The PGRI, which consists of 1.3           also been reports that military officers have
                                                                                                   accordance with Pancasila. The overwhelm-
million teachers, including teachers in re-       attempted to mediate at strike sites and
                                                                                                   ing majority of the SPSI’s collective bar-
ligious, private, and public schools, has rep-    worked to settle disputes to which they
                                                                                                   gaining agreements are negotiated and
resentation in all 27 provinces. It has not,      were called.
                                                                                                   concluded bilaterally with employers. Once
however, attempted to bargain over wages              The largest strike, involving approxi-
                                                                                                   notified that 25 employees have joined a
and working conditions, preferring its tra-       mately 12,000 workers engaged in the
                                                                                                   registered union, the employer is under an
ditional role of working with the                 manufacture of automobile tires in the in-
                                                                                                   obligation to bargain. As a transitional stage
Government to pursue the interests of its         dustrial area west of Jakarta, prompted the
                                                                                                   to encourage collective bargaining, regula-
members. Some PGRI officials are employ-          Minister of Political Affairs and Security to
                                                                                                   tions require that every company which has
ees of the Ministry of Education.                 charge that “would-be heroes” and other
                                                                                                   25 or more employees must issue company
    State enterprise employees and civil ser-     unnamed parties were behind the recent
                                                                                                   regulations defining the terms and conditions
vants, including public school teachers, must     strikes. On several occasions the Minister of
                                                                                                   of employment. Before a company can
belong to KORPRI, a nonunion association          Manpower stated the strikes were the result
                                                                                                   register or renew its company regulations, it
whose Central Development Council is              of workers’ increasing awareness of their
                                                                                                   must demonstrate that it has consulted with
chaired by the Minister of Home Affairs. In       legal rights. During the first 11 months of
                                                                                                   a committee consisting of employer and
1990, for the first time, a KORPRI subunit        1991, there were 112 officially recorded
                                                                                                   employee representatives, in the absence of
successfully negotiated four collective           strikes compared to 45 for all of 1990. Most
                                                                                                   a union. Of the approximately 10,000 SPSI
bargaining agreements with the state-owned        of these strikes were wildcat and so
                                                                                                   units, only about half have collective bar-
coal company.                                     technically illegal, but there were no reports
                                                                                                   gaining agreements. The degree to which
    The Government and employers have             of strike leaders or workers being prosecuted
                                                                                                   these agreements are freely negotiated be-
considerable influence over SPSI affairs; a       for conducting them. Many strikes occur
                                                                                                   tween unions and management without
retired military lieutenant colonel and           suddenly and without prior attempts to
                                                                                                   government interference varies. By regula-
GOLKAR district chairman with some prior          resolve problems and may not be included in
                                                                                                   tion, negotiations are to be concluded within
union experience is chairman of the largest       official statistics. There have been a few
                                                                                                   30 days. If not, the matter is submitted to
provincial branch of the SPSI, primarily due      reports of employer retaliation against strike
                                                                                                   the Ministry of Manpower for mediation
to government backing. The Minister of            leaders, but this seems to be the exception
                                                                                                   and arbitration. In practice, most
Manpower is a member of the SPSI                  and not the rule. Most strikes are settled
                                                                                                   negotiations are concluded within the 30-day
Consultative Council. SPSI officials are          relatively quickly and all workers return to
                                                                                                   period. Agreements are for 2 years and can
pressured to join GOLKAR, and GOLKAR              work.
                                                                                                   be extended for 1 more.
members dominate the SPSI leadership.                 Strike outcomes varied. In some cases
                                                                                                      Labor law applies equally in export
Several SPSI leaders are in the DPR and are       employers have quickly complied with
                                                                                                   processing zones. While some companies in
members of the GOLKAR faction.                    worker demands that salaries be increased to
                                                                                                   these zones have SPSI units, none have ne-
    Under the ORMAS law (see Section              the legal minimum wage. Others have been
                                                                                                   gotiated collective bargaining agreements.
2.b.), government approval is needed for          less successful with workers returning to
                                                                                                   Regulations expressly forbid employers
meetings outside union headquarters.              work with only partial gains or none at all.
                                                                                                   prejudging or harassing employees because
Permission is routinely given. A union may        In practice there are no clear, established
                                                                                                   of union membership, and employees are
be dissolved if the Government believes it is     procedures regarding the settlement of
                                                                                                   urged to report harassment to the
acting against Pancasila. There are no laws or    disputes. If the parties cannot settle the
                                                                                                   Government. The SPSI claims that some
regulations laying out the procedures for the     matter, it is usually submitted to the
                                                                                                   employers discriminate against its members
dissolution of a union, and there have been       Ministry of Manpower’s Mediation and
                                                                                                   and those wishing to form SPSI units.
no cases of union dissolution. The SPSI is        Conciliation Service. If the parties do not
                                                                                                      Many strikes and protests take place in
free to maintain international contacts.          accept the mediator’s decision, the mediator
                                                                                                   support of fired union officials. Charges of
    While Pancasila principles call for labor-    or either party may submit the matter to tri-
                                                                                                   antiunion discrimination are handled by the
management differences to be settled by           partite (government, employers, employees)
                                                                                                   administrative tribunals. Many union mem-
consensus, all organized workers, with the        administrative tribunals or to arbitration.
                                                                                                   bers believe that the tribunals generally side
exception of civil servants, have a legal right   The Minister of Manpower may nullify the
                                                                                                   with the employer. Because of this per-
to strike. However, before a strike can occur     decisions of administrative tribunals on legal
                                                                                                   ceived partiality, many workers reject or
in the private sector, the law requires           or national interest grounds. Although
                                                                                                   avoid the process and present their disputes
intensive mediation by the Ministry of            technically the Minister’s decisions may be
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                             Page 11

before the Parliament and other agencies.         a 24-hour rest period each week. Regulations
Workers can organize without restriction in a     allow employers to deviate from the normal             TRANSCRIPT OF
private enterprise, even if it is designated      work hours upon request to the Minister of
vital by the Government, subject to the rec-      Manpower with the agreement of the                   CORNELL UNIVERSITY
ognition procedures discussed above. If the       employees. In the absence of a national                 CONFERENCE
State has a partial interest, the enterprise is   minimum wage, minimum wages are                            (DECEMBER 9, 1991)
considered to be in the public service do-        established by regional wage councils
main, but this does not legally limit organ-      working under the supervision of the              Narrator: Our panel discussion will start
izing. There are a significant number of          National Wage Council. This is a quadri-            with Amy Goodman, who is correspon-
government/private joint enterprises which        partite body consisting of representatives          dent for WBAI Pacifica Radio in New York
have labor unions and which bargain collec-       from labor, management, government, and             and who was present in East Timor at the
tively.                                           universities. It also establishes a basic needs     massacre.
c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory            figure for each province–a monetary amount
    Labor                                         considered sufficient to enable a single          AMY GOODMAN
                                                  worker or family to meet the basic needs of
    Forced labor is prohibited by law.                                                                  Why don’t I start by giving you an eye-
                                                  nutrition, clothing, and shelter. The
However, in 1990 credible reports asserted                                                          witness account of what actually happened
                                                  minimum wage rates constantly lag far
that military and civilian officials in Irian                                                       on the morning of November 12. It was a
                                                  behind the basic needs figures and fall short
Jaya cooperate with Jakarta-based timber                                                            Tuesday morning. I along with Alan Nairn
                                                  of providing a decent standard of living.
companies to compel Asmat tribespeople to                                                           survived a massacre, and we are here to tell
                                                     Observance of minimum wage and other
cut down trees and transport them down-                                                             you about it. It was early in the morning,
                                                  laws regulating benefits and labor standards
stream to waiting ships, and that the                                                               around 7:00, and there was a mass at the
                                                  varies from sector to sector and from region
Government resettlement program raises                                                              Motael Church, a Catholic church in Dili. It
                                                  to region. Employer violations of these
serious questions of informed consent. There                                                        was a mass commemorating the funeral two
                                                  guarantees are considered to be fairly com-
are also documented reports of labor                                                                weeks earlier of a young man named
                                                  mon and often the subject of strikes and
contractors in Jakarta selling girls as do-                                                         Sebastiao Gomes, who had been killed when
                                                  employee protests. Government supervision
mestic servants or to brothels near planta-                                                         soldiers surrounded the Church and shot into
                                                  and enforcement have been weak or nonex-
tions, and of men sold as agricultural work-                                                        it. We arrived a few hours after that and
                                                  istent. In May 1989, the Manpower
ers. The Government responded that it was                                                           attended the funeral, and covered it the day
                                                  Minister issued regulations giving ministry
investigating the allegations. The                                                                  after. On that day, two weeks before the
                                                  officials a legal basis to carry out periodic
Government did not release the results of                                                           massacre, about a thousand people went
                                                  inspections and providing for fines or im-
this investigation, however, in 1990 or 1991.                                                       from the funeral, along with the body of
                                                  prisonment for employers who do not com-
d. Minimum Age for Employment of                  ply. In March 1990, spurred on by an              Gomes, up to the cemetery, chanting slogans
    Children                                      Asian-American Free Labor Institute/SPSI          like “Viva, Sebastiao” and “Viva, East
    Child labor continues to be a major           minimum wage compliance project, which            Timor,” went into the cemetery and buried
problem. The Ministry of Manpower ac-             showed that 50 to 70 percent of employers         Sebastiao Gomes. They then went home.
knowledges that there is a class of children      in three targeted areas in Jakarta were paying        Two weeks later, on November 12, this
under age 14 who, for socioeconomic rea-          less than the minimum wages, the                  was a commemoration. They had a mass,
sons, must work and notes that the child          Manpower Minister began to prosecute              and they retraced the steps of the proces-
labor laws, which provide detailed safe-          some employers for violating minimum wage         sion. Only this time, there were more peo-
guards, have not been fully enforced.             regulations in order to set an example.           ple. There were not just a thousand people.
    Employers are supposed to report in de-          Both law and regulations provide for           It started out about fifteen hundred people
tail on every child employed, and the             minimum standards of industrial health and        in front of the church after the mass. Young
Ministry of Manpower is supposed to carry         safety. In the more profitable and largely        men and women unfurled banners – that was
out periodic inspections. Employers not           Western-operated oil sector, safety and           different from two weeks earlier – and those
complying with the law and regulations are        health programs function reasonably well.         banners said things like “Indonesia, why you
legally subject to fines of $65 and/or up to 3    However, safety and health programs in the        shoot our church” and “Portugal, we are
months in jail for each infraction, but the       country’s over 100,000 large, registered          your responsibility.” And they walked up
Government still relies on persuasion and         companies in the non-oil sector are still         and wound through the streets of Dili. As
teaching employers rather than penalizing         hampered by the limited number of qualified       they walked, many people joined them,
them. The Ministry of Manpower continues          inspectors from the Ministry of Manpower          thousands of people: girls in their Catholic
to admit that employer compliance with the        (less than 1,300), the slowness with which        school uniforms, little children who were
regulations is inadequate (less than 50 per-      the firms establish the required plant-safety     five and six years old, coming from their
cent of companies employing children have         committees, the need for more and better          homes, people from their work places, and
registered), and that it still lacks enough       training of government inspectors and plant-      old women in Timorese garb, traditional long
qualified inspectors to carry out inspections.    safety personnel, and the lack of employee        costumes. They joined this procession and
Observers claim that over 2 million children      appreciation for sound health and safety          went up to the cemetery, just like two
under the age of 14 are working half- to full-    practices. A National Health and Safety           weeks earlier.
time, mostly in family-run businesses in the      Council, an advisory body established under           The difference came at the cemetery.
informal sector and at agricultural sites,        the Ministry of Manpower, was created in          There, the young girls that you saw in the
where enforcement is difficult. Efforts to        1990 to oversee the enforcement efforts of        film were carrying flowers to put on
control child labor focus primarily on            over 6,000 company safety committees.             Sebastiao Gomes’ grave. Some people had
instituting educational programs for working      Workers are obligated to report hazardous         gone into the cemetery, and there were still
children.                                         working conditions, and employers are             thousands outside it. Along this road to the
                                                  prevented by law from retaliating against         cemetery, there were two high walls on
e. Acceptable Conditions of Work                                                                    either side: on this side, the Santa Cruz
                                                  those who do, but in practice enforcement is
    The law establishes 7-hour workdays and       weak.                                             cemetery where he was buried, on this side
40-hour workweeks, with one-half hour of                                                            the military cemetery. The people were
rest for each 4 hours of work. It provides for                                                      trapped by these two walls except for an
Page 12                                                            East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

opening in the cemetery, of the people’s           they were screaming at us. But they decided       to bury you in.” This was the atmosphere in
cemetery’s wall, that people could go              not to execute us. They turned to an older        which this demonstration and procession
through. I was standing there and interview-       Timorese man that they had dragged over,          took place. The Bishop said the common
ing people - this was the end of the proces-       and they started beating him into the sewer       line of the Indonesian soldiers to the people
sion and people were about to go home.             next to us. And every time he picked up his       of Timor, said over and over again, is “If you
That is, until a truck, carrying about fifty       head, they took their rifle butts and they        speak, we will kill your family to the
soldiers came in this direction and blocked        smashed it down on his skull. And every           seventh generation.”
off this route. Then from the other direction,     time he picked it up again, they would take          I’ll end by saying that last week,
which was where the procession had come            their black boots and crush it down.              Indonesia banned me and Alan from return-
from, hundreds of soldiers marched up in               At that point, a jeep pulled up and we        ing to the country, to Indonesia, or East
formation, holding their M 16’s, about ten         were able to get into it. Despite the fact that   Timor. If Indonesia wants to cut back on the
across. Marching, slowly, together, and            Alan was covered with blood and we were           negative publicity which stemmed from this
everyone is over here. There is a collective       badly beaten, we were extremely lucky.            event, then they should stop the killing and
gasp that goes up. It is quiet, and people         Because, everywhere around us were dead           the tensions and the tortures that have con-
start to step back. Could it be that they were     Timorese. The soldiers had moved into that        tinued beyond the November 12 massacre.
actually going to fire? I still couldn’t believe   crowd, and were continuing to pick off the        And finally, they should abide by the 1975
that.                                              people who were left standing. They were          and 1976 UN Security council resolutions
    At that point Alan said – we were about        then surrounding the cemetery, and we heard       calling for Indonesia to withdraw from East
at the front of where these people were –          continued shots. We got in the truck. The         Timor without delay.
“Why don’t we right to the front.” And with        person in the jeep carried the old man into       Narrator: Thank you, Amy. We turn now to
my headphones, and my tape recorder, and           the jeep, and we started driving off to the          Allan Nairn, who’s role has already been
my mike out like a flag, and Alan with a           hospital. A little ways down the road, a             described. Allan is a writer with The New
camera above his head, he said, “They’re           young Timorese man hailed the jeep down.             Yorker magazine.
unlikely to do something rash in front of          It stopped, and dozens more Timorese
Western observers.” Clearly, we were               jumped into this jeep. Dozens inside the          ALLAN NAIRN
documenting the situation. So we came              windows, climbing on the roof, climbing on
forward and stood between the Timorese             the back, hanging onto the spare wheel.               Thank you. On November 12 we sur-
people and the soldiers as they marched up.        People were falling off, and others were          vived the massacre carried out with US
Well, we were wrong. The soldiers came up          climbing on because the soldiers were sur-        weapons and we survived a crime. Standing
here, without missing a beat. The first rows       rounding the area and executing everyone          there, and after a few seconds, lying there on
spread out in a line, in front of the people,      inside. Everyone was trying to get out.           the road as they were beating us with those
about twelve to fifteen of them, picked up             We went to the hospital where we saw a        M16s it was very clear that we were at the
their weapons, their M16s, and started firing      boy with a gunshot in his back, another boy       scene of a crime. All around us people were
into the crowd without missing a beat. Not a       being operated on, people laying on the           falling. Just walking up the street with these
warning, no provocation, everyone just             floor. The carnage was there, it was at the       people a few minutes before, I’d been talking
stepping back and trying to get out of the         cemetery, it was everywhere, and we con-          to many of them. There was one young man
gun fire, which was impossible.                    tinued to hear gunshots. We were then able        who said, “They don’t respect our church;
    At that point – we were standing right         to go to two hiding places and to decide          they don’t respect our freedom of religion,
here, on the corner – another group of sol-        what to do. Fortunately, there were two           and that’s why we’re marching.” And he
diers came and grabbed my microphone,              planes out of the country that day, at 1:00       mentioned that he thought he might die that
which I had held out, and they shook it in         and at 1:30, and we were able to get onto the     day, but he was prepared to. And I don’t
my face, as if to say, “This is what we don’t      last plane.                                       know how many of the people that I spoke
want.” Then they pulled me forward, pulled             As we left, the soldiers were breaking into   to on that march died in the street because it
me to the ground and started beating me with       houses, and rounding more people up. Yet          was very hard to keep track of individuals–
rifle butts, kicking me and punching me in         this, amazingly enough for this description,      the soldiers were just pouring round after
the face. Alan was right behind me with his        is not unusual for East Timor. What is            round of automatic fire into this crowd of
camera, and got a shot of the soldiers             unusual is that Western observers were there      people. The people had been standing still;
shooting into the crowd, until he was hit. As      to witness it. There was a TV camera man,         the march was over. The soldiers when they
he was being beaten, he was able to throw          as you saw in the film, from Yorkshire TV,        opened fire were about as far from the crowd
himself over me, and so I sustained much           who was in the cemetery, and he filmed the        as I am from the front row here and the
less severe injuries. Alan, on top of me, was      people running in terror, tripping over the       soldiers stretched out across the road would
getting beaten very, very hard. They               ones who were wounded. When the soldiers          have reached from, say, a few yards to the
fractured his skull, and they kept beating         came at him, he buried the videotape in the       right of this table here to a few yards to the
him. He was drenched in blood, and they            cemetery. He came back in the dead of night,      left. And actually the crowd, the space that
kept beating him.                                  dug it up, and got it out of the country. And     the crowd of people took up was probably
    We were right behind the line of fire. At      that’s what you were able to see.                 about the size of this audience. And now
this point, they had stripped us of every-             We had spent two weeks before this day,       just imagine in front of you, standing behind
thing. I had no tape recorder, microphone,         and already the people were suffering from a      me, two or three or four or five hundred
headphones. They had taken everything of           level of intimidation that was as high as it      other troops, all of them with M16s, who
Alan’s, including his passport. And all we         had been in 1975. They were expecting the         would simply raise the rifles and point them
could say, as they had us on the ground, was       Portuguese delegation to come to investigate      at you and open fire, and keep firing for
“We are from America, America. The same            the human rights situation, and so were the       from 5 to 10 minutes: that’s what happened
place where those M16s come from. We are           soldiers. How they prepared the people,           to the Timorese that day. And, its something
from America.” They kicked me in the               they went from village to village. We have        that’s... it’s completely indescribable. It’s as
stomach, and I said it again. I showed my          the names of soldiers and we have dates of        if hell opened up and suddenly appeared
passport, the only thing I had left, they          village meetings where they met with eve-         right there on that street outside the
threw it back, and we just said, “America,         ryone and said, “If you speak to the              cemetery. People were falling everywhere,
America” as others joined in. Then they took       Portuguese delegation, we will kill you after     you heard the pop of the automatic fire,
the M16s and put them to our head, and             they leave, and we have dug the mass graves       with smoke in the air. There was some
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                            Page 13

crying out, but mainly it was a fairly quiet         If you look at the Nuremberg principles,     resolution which has been passed, a sense-
scene. All you really heard at first was the     which were developed in the trials of the        of-the-Senate resolution, which calls for the
gunfire as the street was getting wet with       Nazis after World War II, they make it clear     same thing. In the US House, Congressman
blood. And they didn’t stop: the soldiers        that those who can be punished for crimes        Wolf of Virginia, Congressman Porter of
just kept on firing. At one point they had a     against humanity, which are defined as mass      Ohio, Congressman Downey of New York
hard time advancing down the street because      killing and torture for political purposes,      are going to be pushing for a cut-off of US
it was just clotted with bodies, and so they     include not just the principals, meaning         aid to Indonesia, but none of this has
had to step around and leap over the bodies      those who pulled the trigger; not just those     happened yet. As of now the killings
to shoot in the back the people who were         Indonesian troops who were standing there        continue, as of now the US arming of the
still running away.                              with there M16s, pouring their fire into the     Indonesians continues. And unless
    Now the Indonesian government has said       crowd, but also, as the Nuremberg principles     Americans take action, and unless Americans
that this is something that requires further     put it, accomplices, be they politicians or      decide this is going to stop, more people will
investigation and they’ve appointed a            statesmen. And that is the role that the         probably die today, and more people will
commission to do so. The U.S. State              government of the United States, among           probably die tomorrow. It’s that simple, it’s
Department has also said that this is some-      other governments, has played in the killings    that clear, and it’s that blunt, and it’s a
thing that requires further investigation, and   of East Timor. And simply as a human             matter of simple human decency now for
they are waiting for the results of              being, simply as an American, someone who        people in this country to take action and
Indonesia’s investigation before they will       happened to have survived this latest            bring this slaughter to an end.
discuss any action on what happened. Well,       massacre, only the latest of many, I just        Narrator: Thank you. Now we will proceed
you don’t need much of an investigation to       have to say that it has to stop. That any           to the remarks of Dr. Antonio Pais who is
see what happened. This was as simple as it      American citizen who knows what has                 the Press Consul to the Portuguese
gets: this is as simple as an interaction be-    happened here, who has any basic respect            Embassy to the United Nations, and
tween people can get. You had cold-blooded,      for the rule of law, for very simple rules of       follow that with a talk by Mr. Jose
face to face murder of dozens upon dozens        decency, has to demand that it stops.               Guterres and Ben Anderson at the end,
upon dozens of people. The US government             Right now, even as we’re meeting here,          and then discussion. I’ll turn my micro-
responded to this by condemning the              it’s 8:20 in the evening, that means it’s 9:20      phone over to Dr. Pais.
massacre. They condemned it by saying that       in the morning in Dili, in East Timor, right
the amount of force that the army used was       now the army is most likely sweeping             ANTONIO PAIS
clearly disproportionate to whatever threat      through the streets, continuing the roundups
the army faced. Well the only threat the         of Timorese. Just this morning I spoke to           Thank you very much. I’d like to con-
army faced was the fact that these people        someone who was in direct contact with           gratulate you now first of all for making this
were speaking, that these people were            Dili, who was getting the word that the as-      event possible here. Unfortunately, the mo-
engaging in public assembly, the fact that       sassinations and the torture continue. A         tive that made possible this gathering here
these people were engaging in politics,          couple of weeks ago they took a group of         was a very sad and unfortunate one. A loss
something which is prohibited in East            young people out of Dili and brought them        of more than one hundred innocent lives was
Timor. But the State Department said in the      to an Indonesian military base, and as they      necessary to make the world finally face and
next breath that they were not going to cut      were torturing them they were taunting           pay attention to one of the most outrageous
back the US military or economic aid to          them, saying, “You see, the world hasn’t         cases of human rights violations of our
Indonesia.                                       responded, the United States hasn’t re-          times, and one that has lasted for sixteen
    Now, as many of you probably know,           sponded. You are all alone, you are our          years now. East Timor is a non-self
the original invasion of East Timor was          captives, you are at our mercy.” Well, what      governing territory for which Portugal has
launched on December 7, 1975, about a day        they were saying wasn’t entirely true, in fact   special responsibilities as the administrating
and a half after President Ford and Henry        there has been an international response.        power recognized by the relevant resolutions
Kissinger met with Suharto of Indonesia.         This massacre has gotten more attention          of the General Assembly and the Security
Immediately after the invasion, the following    than anything in the history of East Timor.      Council.
year, the US doubled its military aid. After     It’s become a major national issue in               Throughout the years, Portugal has con-
that, year after year, as verified reports of    Australia, in Portugal, it’s become an im-       stantly denounced the human rights viola-
massacres and a policy of forced starvation      portant issue in Canada, in England,             tions in East Timor carried out since the
came in, the US increased its aid to             throughout the European community and            military invasion carried out by Indonesia
Indonesia. What this amounts to, in any, I       Japan; in the United States its gotten more      took place in 1975. This situation has been
think, objective assessment of the facts, is     press attention than East Timor ever has         characterized by systematic practice of ex-
that the United States sees what Indonesia is    before, even though it’s not nearly the at-      tra-judicial executions, torture, and ill-
doing in East Timor and they decide that         tention it should have gotten. But still in a    treatment, disappearances, arbitrary arrests,
what Indonesia is doing in East Timor is         sense those Indonesian torturers were right,     and political imprisonment, to name just a
consistent enough with US objectives to          because the world has yet to take action.        few of the most blatant violations of basic
renew the military aid. If this were a do-       The United States is continuing its aid; the     human rights and fundamental human free-
mestic crime, this would be an indictable        United Nations has not acted through the         doms. Although our assessment of the seri-
offense. The United States is in an objective    security council or any other body; nations      ousness of the situations was supported by
sense acting as an accomplice to Indonesia. if   like Portugal which have called for interna-     numerous reports from reliable and inde-
you provide a gun to someone who robs a          tional action have not taken any action          pendent sources, the denials and the cam-
convenience store, and the clerk dies in the     themselves in the United Nations, in the         paign of misinformation carried out by
robbery, you can be charged as an accom-         third committee or in the security council.      Indonesia, in its attempt to close the terri-
plice. If you provide a gun to someone           Action is possible now; there’s a growing        tory to the outside world, led some members
who’s murdered before, and they go out and       international climate of pressure and opinion    of the international community to admit that
murder again, and you provide them with          which makes possible a change in US policy.      Portugal was perhaps exaggerating a bit in its
another gun, and another gun and another         Just three days ago 52 members of the US         accusations. Sadly enough, the recent events
gun, you’re clearly an accomplice to that        Senate released a letter they had sent to        have come to demonstrate in a tragic manner
crime.                                           President Bush calling on him to push for        that our assessment of the situation was
                                                 self- determination for East Timor. There’s a    well- founded.
Page 14                                                            East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

   Now, what can we do? What could and             convert the indispensable investigation into a    for your people. And I think that this is true
should Portugal do to remedy this situation?       mockery.                                          also for my Indonesian brothers, perhaps
A year ago, the United Nations Security                On the other hand, Portugal, which is a       some of them are here, and I’m not
Council adopted a dozen resolutions to force       member of the European Community, which           Indonesian but what I’m fighting for is
Iraq out of Kuwait. To implement these             achieved a major diplomatic victory last          freedom for my country and freedom for my
resolutions, the US and the members states         week when the twelve foreign ministers            people. Indonesian history shows us......to
moved more than a quarter of a million             unanimously approved a declaration for the        the war, progress, when those Indonesian
troops into the Middle East, making the            first time, condemning Indonesia for its          nationalists first fought the Netherlands,
launching of a devastating war in the name of      brutality and calling for a thorough, credible    they gave to the.......countries some kind of
the United Nations. We all know the                investigation by impartial and independent        hope and example. President Sukarno is one
outcome of the war: Iraq was finally forced        experts. At the same time, it warns               of the best images, that today is....lost by
out of Kuwait. Ladies and gentlemen,               Indonesia that the twelve will review their       the Indonesian people.
between 1975 and 1982, the United Nations          cooperation with Jakarta in light of the re-          We in East Timor....also, when we look to
adopted no fewer than ten resolutions calling      sponse of the Indonesian authorities.             Indonesian history, admire Indonesian
for the immediate withdrawal of Indonesian         Finally, the twelve members of the EEC            history and their people. And I want to
troops from East Timor and for the people          stress their support for a just, comprehen-       make clear, again, that we are not against the
of East Timor to exercise their right of self-     sive and internationally acceptable settle-       Indonesians. We are fighting a system that
determination. The United States and the           ment of the issue. This was a major diplo-        brought to the Indonesian people also many
world community did not send one single            matic breakthrough, that Portugal will cer-       sufferings. I don’t know how many people
soldier to implement the UN resolutions.           tainly follow up during the next six months,      died in ‘64 [sic] when this government came
The world didn’t move a finger. And                starting January first when it holds the ro-      to power. I don’t know how many
Portugal, as we are all aware, is no big           tating presidency of the EEC.                     Indonesians are still in prison. I don’t know
power. We have no big fleet or a large air             Ladies and Gentlemen, our diplomatic          how many former political prisoners that do
force that could be sent to rescue the             efforts are being made mainly in Australia,       not have any right to free access to [the]
Timorese people. Portugal is a small               Japan, Canada, and, of course, the United         labor market and even their families, [their]
country.                                           States. As we all know, both houses of            children, do not have the right to education
   So, the answer lies in the international        Congress have passed several weeks ago a          like all the [other] Indonesian citizens.
community. Only the international com-             resolution condemning Indonesia and sug-          That’s why the question of the invasion of
munity, with its pressure, can make                gesting that assistance to Jakarta should be      East Timor is also, I think, that when we
Indonesia play within the limits of interna-       reviewed. But a lot more has to be done,          talk about this we must look also to those
tional law. All we can do at the national – I      since the congressional protests have so far      Indonesian people that are still fighting,
mean Portuguese – level is to carry a              fallen on deaf ears in the White House. And,      struggling, for democracy in their own
stronger diplomatic campaign throughout the        let’s face it, ladies and gentlemen, the United   country. And for the young generation in
world, especially with our friends and allies,     States is the key that can bring a solution to    Indonesia that I have met some years ago
reminding them of their moral obligations,         East Timor. And when the President of the         and have met during these years in Europe
reminding them that there can be no double         United States is calling for a new world order    and in the US, have all the respect and my
standards in world affairs, that what is good      based on the generally accepted principles of     sympathy to these courageous students that
for Kuwait or Namibia or for Western Sahara        freedom, human rights and self-                   with many difficulties they are fighting also
has to be good for East Timor too.                 determination, we don’t understand that           a regime that’s in my opinion, I could be
   The world has changed dramatically              these principles do not apply to East Timor.      wrong, I think that this is the regime most
during the past decade. Everywhere we are          All we are asking the United States and the       brutal and the most repressive that now ex-
witnessing rapid changes brought about by          international community is to give Timor a        ists in this world today. I could be wrong,
growing and irreversible aspirations to see        chance. Give them a chance to exercise their      but this is my opinion. And what they are
those rights and freedoms effectively rec-         right of self-determination. That’s all. Thank    doing in East Timor goes beyond all imagi-
ognized and observed. The evolution taking         you.                                              nation. We have been suffering this kind of
place in Europe, Southern Africa and other         Narrator: Thank you. The next speaker is          massacres since ‘75. Unhappy [sic] at that
regions around the world is tending towards            Mr. Jose Guterres who is the Fretilin         time, no cameraman was present, and also
the establishment of more democratic forms             Representative to the U.N. We’re very         the Indonesian soldiers, they did or they
of government. It is also pointing to the rec-         fortunate that Jose could be here with us     came to kill, first in October, in the border
ognition of the paramount importance for               today and give us the point of view of the    area, they killed five Australians, New
the international community to preventing              independence movement. Thank you.             Zealand and British journalists. Later, on the
and to suppressing any acts of aggression                                                            7th December they killed also an Australian
against its smaller and weaker members. And        JOSÉ LUIS GUTERRES                                journalist........and that’s why, one of the
also to fight against human rights abuses and                                                        reasons why many, after the Indonesian
to uphold the right of the peoples to self-de-         I thank you for this opportunity. Fretilin    invasion, not so much news we receive from
termination. Well, if this is the general trend,   is a political party created in ‘74 and our       the international press.
why should East Timor be the exception?            main objective is to create a democratic and          As you all know, that unhappily, the
   As I said before, there is a diplomatic ef-     independent East Timor. I think that some         American administration during these years
fort that has been carried out. Portugal is        here might ask why such a small country,          did not pay any attention at all to the human
now putting some pressure at the United            with a small population, has the courage to       rights situation, to the East Timorese fight
Nations level, asking that a UN sponsored          face one of the largest and powerful coun-        for freedom and independence. The Carter
Commission of Inquiry be sent to East              tries in Southeast Asia, Indonesia. I think       administration gave all the support that
Timor as soon as possible to conduct an            that if any of you present here, if your          Indonesia needed in their fight against
impartial, thorough and internationally ac-        country is invaded by another neighbor, if        Fretilin forces. In ‘79 the war in East Timor
ceptable investigation into what has occurred      you see your family, relatives, friends as-       was practically in a stalemate. Fretilin re-
there. We deny Indonesia any legitimacy to         sassinated by the invaders, by the occupa-        sistance was able to force Indonesian troops
conduct such an inquiry. The commission            tion forces, I think that none of you will        to be only in the coastal areas. At that time
appoint by the government of Jakarta will          refuse to stand up and say “no” to those          many Timorese were in the Fretilin-con-
                                                   killings and have the courage to do something     trolled areas. But with American support:
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                 Page 15

...... anti-guerrilla aircraft, and other weapons   that we are looking for East Timor is a multi-   to was being violated by the Indonesian
from other Western countries, we faced              party system, with free market economy,          government. In effect, what Kissinger told
many bombardments, many attacks, aerial             and we would like very much to have in the       the Indonesians was, “Well, go ahead and do
bombardments, neighborhood bombard-                 future good relations with our neighbors,        it, but make sure it’s over quickly.” The first
ments, and so the majority of our forces and        including Indonesia. And we would like to        point is direct implication of the
the majority of our people were obliged to          also, I would like to appeal to all of you to    Kissinger/Ford regime in this initial gross
surrender to Indonesia troops inside the oc-        do what you can, at least encourage a            violation of the Timorese people’s right to
cupation areas. And since then, the guerril-        dialogue, encourage a peaceful solution for      determine their future.
las’ tactics have been changing. At that time       East Timor. Help also the Indonesian                 The second thing I would like to mention
we need to face, to defend a large population       democratic movement, and for the United          is that a small place like East Timor, up
in our areas, and the guerrillas were not able      States citizens, I think that what you can do    against an enormous country like Indonesia
to be mobile and move freely. And today the         is write to your members of Congress and to      with lots of friends in the outside for various
situation has changed, and the guerrillas in        your President to say, to raise your com-        reasons, had one thing going for it, at least
East Timor now are still effective and              plaints, and to at least say that you don’t      initially, and that was the widespread
waiting for the hour to initiate again the          want that these massacres continue in East       sympathy promoted in the outside world. It
armed resistance.                                   Timor and you want, like for everybody           was very important for East Timorese peo-
     But for some years, since three years ago      else, a peaceful solution and [to] give a        ple to have access to the outside world. Up
we have been relying on the international           chance to [the] East Timorese, a chance for      until 1983, the United Nations General
community to help bring a peaceful solution         democracy. Thank you.                            Assembly every year passed a resolution
for Timor. We have proposed several times           Professor Benedict Anderson is Aaron             condemning Indonesia’s invasion and re-
to the Indonesian government to have nego-             Binenkorb Professor of International          quiring withdrawal or asking for withdrawal
tiations without any preconditions. In ‘83             Studies at Cornell University. He has         from East Timor. This was always ignored,
we did have a meeting with the Indonesian              testified before Congress as a recognized     of course, by Indonesia. The important
commander in East Timor, Colonel                       expert on Indonesia and East Timor.           point about this is that as long as the United
Purwanto, and it was possible to arrange a                                                           Nations was handling the issue, as long as
cease-fire for one month, but it [was] broken       BENEDICT ANDERSON                                there were debates every year, as long as the
by the Indonesian army initiative [sic]. And           What I want to do in the time available is    Security Council heard the issue, East Timor
we feel that Indonesian military are not yet        not to speak about Indonesia so much as the      was visible internationally. And here is the
prepared to initiate a frank discussion and         United States, which has had an enormous         second crucial role of the United States. The
dialogue with what they call, what the              responsibility over the years for the            key role was played from 1976 on by now
military call the East Timorese, their own          catastrophes and tragedies that have hap-        Senator Patrick Moynihan who was then the
“brothers.” But the image that we have seen,        pened in East Timor. When I say the United       US Representative to the United Nations. In
I think that nobody will kill their brother like    States, I don’t mean American citizens, ob-      his memoirs, he boasts of the fact that he
what they did and what we saw.                      viously. I don’t even really mean the            worked extremely hard from 1976 on to
     And what we are looking for today, is,         Congress. What I mean is a series of ad-         break down bit by bit, using all the various
under the auspices of the United Nations,           ministrations, starting with President Ford      muscles that the United States has available
we can have a referendum for East Timor,            up through President Bush. I would just like     to it, to chip pieces away from the support
that can give the people of East Timor a            to highlight four things which will illustrate   that East Timor and other places in the
chance to decide for themselves, under in-          four separate aspects of the deep White          world that were in trouble like this had, so
ternational supervision, what they really           House complicity in what has happened in         that gradually the support for East Timor
want. If they want integration with                 East Timor, and then I would like to give a      whittled down little by little by little until it
Indonesia, that’s OK, I will be happy in            brief description of what I think are the rea-   passed off the annual agenda in 1983. That
Jakarta or some place in Indonesia. If they         sons for this complicity. Then I would like      meant that the United States had a central
want independence, please let the people of         to conclude with a couple of remarks about       role in removing East Timor from interna-
East Timor decide and be independent.               why I think the present situation in fact has    tional visibility. Senator Patrick Moynihan,
     But sometimes... I talked many years ago       changed rather substantially from what it        in his own memoirs, of course on instruc-
with [an] Indonesian scientist and he told me       was, say, 10 years ago or even 5 years ago.      tions from the White House, played this
about the government arguments that they               First, direct American complicity has al-     role. So that’s the second thing. The US has
were sent to East Timor to help the                 ready been alluded to in the initial invasion.   played a central role in silencing from the
Timorese because Timor is very poor, and            Alan Nairn brought this up, and he was ab-       world information on East Timor.
.......they want to help. But the reality is not    solutely right to do so. The fact is that when       Thirdly, in the early years of the inva-
this. East Timor is rich in oil and natural gas.    President Ford and Henry Kissinger arrived       sion, the Indonesians had a great deal of
That’s why a democratic country like                in Jakarta just prior the invasion, the          difficulty, as Jose Guterres has said. In fact,
Australia forgets about it’s principles and         Administration was fully informed of what        the United States State Department con-
signs this Timor Gap Treaty. But I’m                the Indonesians planned to do. More impor-       ceded in the end of 1977 that – that’s about
happy also to say that the Portuguese               tantly, they were fully informed that 90% of     eighteen months after the invasion – that not
government has a mission applying to the            the weapons that were going to be used in        more than one third of the population of
International Court of Justice and I hope           the invasion of East Timor were provided by      East Timor was actually under Indonesian
some decision will come as soon as possible.        the United States. They were also fully          control. Two thirds were still under the
     One thing that you can ask is what is          aware of the fact that those weapons had         control of the resistance. Well, this seemed a
Fretilin? Are we left, center, or Communist         been given to Indonesia under the 1958           very intolerable situation to military
or Marxist, or what ideology we have? I can         bilateral US/Indonesia agreement on one          commanders in Jakarta, and they needed
say to you that Fretilin does not have any          condition, which prohibited the use of these     help. What they needed was something that
ideology. we are just a resistance movement,        weapons for external purposes. What              would do two things. One thing was to bring
and we have a political problem that                happened in effect was not only that the         the population of East Timor under the
indicates [sic] us to struggle by all means to      United States winked at the use of American      government’s control. The only way that
find a peaceful solution and fight until a          weapons, they also winked at the invasion,       could be done was to force people out of the
referendum, internationally supervised, can         and they winked at the fact that an              mountainous interior of East Timor into the
be held in East Timor. The political system         agreement they themselves had been party         plains near the cities where they could be
Page 16                                                           East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

put under direct military control in settle-      William Keagan, and some other diplomats.         especially when Indonesian military
ment camps. The only way that could be            Keagan reported in September of 1978 that         personnel were saying, “You better watch
done was by driving them out of the hills.        all the ambassadors were deeply shocked by        out. There’s going to be a communist state in
Here, the United States played its third          the conditions that they saw: starvation, et-     East Timor, and it’s going to be spying on
crucial role, because it began to ship in the     cetera, etcetera. Something had to be done.       what the nuclear submarines and so forth
fall of 1976 what Jose Guterres has men-          However, it turned out that nothing, in fact,     do.” And finally, the last thing I suppose
tioned, OV-10 Broncos, an aircraft which          was done. Internal State Department docu-         that has to be mentioned is that the
was specially designed in the Vietnam War         ments show that it was not until June 1979,       Indonesian government was quite moderate
period for close-up counter- insurgence op-       after nine months of being deeply shocked         in OPEC after 1973, and, in that sense, also
erations. These aircraft have heavy fire-         by these conditions, that actually even a         earned American gratitude at the time of the
power, operate very close to the ground, and      proposal for providing humanitarian aid to        enormous increase in oil prices.
can be used very effectively in destroying        the population of East Timor took place.              My question is, has the situation changed
crops, and in terrorizing rural populations. It   There’s only one simple reason for that,          in any substantive way? I would say that, in
was the OB10s more than anything else that        which was, that the Indonesian government         some respects, yes. First of all, the nuclear
started to make people flee the mountains         said, “We don’t want aid coming in now. We        submarine issue and the passage through the
and the hill-sides out of hunger and starva-      have to get control of the situation.” “All       Timorese Straits is no longer very serious,
tion and fear, and to go down to the plains,      right. If that’s the way you feel about it, we    given that the Cold War has come to an end.
where they were put into enormous reset-          won’t do anything.” So that’s four crucial        Being terrified of communism is obviously
tlement camps.                                    things, and that is complicity in the initial     no longer an issue; what would be justified in
    The interesting thing about this, which       invasion, complicity in removing East Timor       those days is much more difficult to justify
gives you again an idea of how the White          as an issue internationally, complicity in the    now. The United States actually had to
House operated – this was the late Ford,          counter-insurgency campaigns that produced        respond to the Tiananmen Massacre, and, as
early Carter administration – was that the        these extraordinary losses of life, and           you probably saw this morning in the
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the       complicity in withholding humanitarian aid        Washington Post, the editorial on East
Far East, in fact, informed Congress that the     when it could have been delivered. Very           Timor actually calls East Timor Indonesia’s
United States was so deeply shocked at            important.                                        Tiananmen. It is also true that the example
what Indonesia was doing in East Timor that           Now, the reasons for this, I think, every-    of Kuwait which has been mentioned by
they had decided to suspend delivery of           one already should be pretty clear about, but     some people is very visible, but we also
weapons to Indonesia to express the deep          I’ll just quickly mention them. First, the fact   know that the Baltic States, which were
concern of the White House. This was told         that this is an enormous, resource- rich          forty years under Soviet domination, have
to Congress. Of course it turned out to be a      country, Indonesia, which sits astride the        recently achieved their independence, after a
flat lie. Benjamin Rafkin[?] subsequently         international waters between the Pacific and      longer time than East Timor. We know that
proved that throughout the period of the so-      the Indian Oceans, and one of the crucial         Slovenia and Croatia are very likely to have
called suspension of weapons because of           channels between the Indian and Pacific           at least some form of autonomy and
deep shock, OB10 Broncos were going               Oceans runs through Timorese territory. It is     independence, the Ukraine and so forth.
through non-stop. Furthermore, even more          a deep-water channel, and the Indonesian          That is, the world today is much more open
absurdly, it turns out that the Indonesian        government made a secret agreement with           and ready to reject the kind of Machiavellian
government had never been informed that           the United States government permitting           big-powerism of the past few years, much
these arms had been suspended. For good           United States nuclear submarines to pass          more ready I think to look at the democratic
reason, for they had been going on all the        through these waters without surfacing.           process and the rights of even small peoples
time.                                             Normally under another country’s waters,          not to be tormented by large neighbors.
    So, the point is that here is another major   nuclear submarines have to surface. The               It is also true that the United States in
element in US complicity. It is in this period    United States asked Indonesia if it would be      fact has never de jure accepted East Timor’s
that the enormous population losses in East       all right if they did that because there would    incorporation into Indonesia. It has only
Timor took place. People died by the tens of      be Soviet satellites watching. Second, there’s    accepted de facto, unlike the shameful
thousands from starvation and from diseases       the oil resources and the business                example of Australia which has accepted de
that are associated with that, sitting in         opportunities which the government has            jure only for the reason that it wants to
camps with no means of livelihood, deprived       made very much available to American              carve up East Timor’s oil resources with the
of the land in which they had lived and so        businesses. Third, Indonesia’s President          Indonesian government. The fact that the
forth, as well as the usual killing, executions   Suharto earned enormous gratitude in              United States even now has only accepted
and so forth. Nobody, not even the                Washington because in 1965 he managed to          de facto incorporation means that a position
Indonesian foreign minister, not this one but     destroy the three million-strong communist        is there if the United States wishes to use it.
the one before, who (se nephew) I think is        party in Indonesia in a campaign which            It is possible to say that “Look, we never
living maybe here, in fact said, that in his      resulted in certainly a half a million people     said you could legally invade; we just said,
estimation, probably 150,000 people had           being massacred, not in East Timor but in         ‘what can we do?’ and, if the situation
died, which is between a fourth and a third       Indonesia, thereby, as it were, rescuing the      changes, we could change our policy.”
of the population. The former Vice President      biggest country in Southeast Asia from the            One last thing has changed, and what you
of Indonesia, Adam Malik, once said that          communist threat, at a time when the US           saw in the video is a very good example of
“Well, 50,000, 80,000, so what?” in public.       was having grave difficulties in Indochina,       this. If you look at the people who were in
Now that, again, is American complicity. If       without a single drop of American blood           that video you’ll see that most of them are
it hadn’t been for these OB10 Broncos and         being shed. So they earned gratitude there. It    kids of sixteen, seventeen. Those kids
the associated counter- insurgency                is also to be said, that East Timor is very       probably weren’t even born when Indonesia
campaigns, these people wouldn’t have died.       unlucky in the moment of declaring its in-        made its invasion. They are not people who
    The last thing I want to mention is that      dependence at the end of 1975, because that       remember what happened in 1974, 1975;
when the situation became extremely grave,        was the year in which the countries of            these are people who have grown up under
in 1978, the American ambassador, then            Indochina moved into communist hands and          Indonesian rule. The Indonesian government
Ambassador Edward Masters finally went,           the United States was humiliated in Vietnam.      has been saying for years, “The old people,
three years after the invasion, to East Timor     Therefore, it was very unlikely at that time      the guys who were there before under the
with a reporter from the New York Times,          to challenge or to restrain Indonesia,            Portuguese – hopeless! But we are going to
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                  Page 17

do a lot for the young people; we are going                                                           FACE TO FACE BETWEEN ALATAS
to Indonesianize them; they will become our           INDONESIAN FOREIGN                              AND JOLLIFFE
brothers” and so forth. What has happened
in the last few weeks, if not long before, is it      MINISTER ALI ALATAS                             Publico, Lisbon. Date 7 February 1992.
is absolutely clear that this policy has been a        AROUND THE WORLD                               Original language Portuguese. Byline: Joao
complete failure. Those children, born under                                                          Bosco Jardim. Slightly abridged.
Indonesian rule, are fighting Indonesian rule,                                                        Note: The original conversation took place
in the same way that fifty years ago, sixty        ALATAS, IN LONDON, RULES                           in English.
years ago, young Indonesians being given a
good education by Dutch colonial                   OUT EAST TIMOR VOTE (UPI)                              Vetoed by Jakarta in the lead-up to the
                                                                                                      visit to East Timor by a parliamentary dele-
governments also felt the call of nationalism,     UPI. 5 February 1992. Abridged.                    gation last November, Australian journalist
and began a nationalist movement against
                                                   Comment: A later report from Brussels has          Jill Jolliffe felt the full force of the anger of
Dutch rule, which, after bitter fighting
                                                   Alatas saying that army men have been              the Indonesian authorities. Jolliffe, Portugal
between 1945 and 1949, produced an
                                                   sentenced. This was presumably a mis-quote,        correspondent for The Sunday Times, was in
independent Indonesia. I think it is very
                                                   unless he felt he was being so heavily             London on 5 February and the paper natu-
important that the United States understand
                                                   pressed on this question that he consulted         rally put her name forward for the press
this. It is even more important that young
                                                   Jakarta, and was told to change his tune.          conference of Indonesian Foreign Minister
Indonesians understand this. The thing that
                                                                                                      Ali Alatas, to wind up his one- day visit to
brought their country independence in 1945,            Indonesian foreign minister, Ali Alatas,       the UK. The request was not well received;
exactly the same processes, are going to pro-      dogged on a European tour by questions             the Indonesian embassy struck The Sunday
duce a free East Timor.                            about the East Timor killings, Wednesday           Times from the list and extended an invi-
                                                   insisted the territory’s residents favour          tation to The Guardian which chose as its
                                                   Jakarta’s rule but ruled out any vote to find      representative ... Jill Jolliffe.
                                                   out. Alatas also acknowledged he knew of no            Also prevented from attending the Alatas
                                                   member of the military who were criminally         press conference – as were all Portuguese
                                                   charged in the November killings, despite the      journalists with the exception of the RTP
                                                   arrest of 56 civilian protestors but said          (TV) journalist, Rodrigues dos Santos who
                                                   probes were not yet complete.                      was authorised to attend but without any
                                                       “I don’t know the exact answer to all          equipment – Joao Bosco Jardim, Publico
                                                   these questions,” Alatas told reporters ask-       correspondent, managed to record the fol-
                                                   ing what action were planned against the           lowing dialogue between the journalist and
                                                   troops who fired on demonstrators on Nov.          the foreign minister.
                                                   12.                                                JJ: Mr Minister, I have already been pro-
                                                       Flatly ruling out a plebiscite, he said:           hibited on other occasions. This morning I
                                                   “Why should we do that? It’s a small mi-               was prevented from entering the
                                                   nority (favouring independent).”                       Indonesian embassy. I would like to
                                                       He acknowledged 56 civilians were facing           speak with you.
                                                   trial because they participated in or backed
                                                   the Nov. 12 demonstration, including four          AA: What about?
                                                   who have “proudly confessed” to the                JJ: I would like to ask for a review of my
                                                   serious crime of subversion. But he had no             case. I am an accredited journalist working
                                                   information on how many troops or officers             for The Sunday Times and The Guardian
                                                   faced criminal penalties. “There is a civilian         and was named to cover this press
                                                   court and the attorney-general is taking the           conference. I think it would be very good
                                                   civilian side of the story, and there are              if we could break this impasse which
                                                   military courts and military procedures take           exists between Portugal and Indonesia and
                                                   care of that. Both have started. One is a little       calmly discuss the prohibition against me.
                                                   bit faster perhaps, but that doesn’t mean to       AA: It is one thing to talk about your pro-
                                                   say that you can jump to conclusions that              hibition. To talk about breaking the im-
                                                   only (civilians) will be brought to trial.”            passe seems to be asking rather much.
                                                       “What we have been facing is this con-             Are you negotiating in the name of
                                                   tinuing effort by Portugal and by certain              Portugal?
                                                   groups which call themselves Fretilin, a           JJ: Of course not.
                                                   handful of political adventurers, living in
                                                                                                      AA: OK. (He smiles to journalists nearby.)
                                                   Portugal and elsewhere, on borrowed pass-
                                                   ports, on borrowed time, claiming that they        JJ: I am a journalist. I am here to do of a job
                                                   represent the true view of what the East               of work.
                                                   Timorese people want,” he said. “How long          AA: OK (smiling as he walks in the direction
                                                   should we entertain the demands of this                of the front door of the hotel where the
                                                   small unrepresentative group? How long                 press conference had just been held).
                                                   should we allow a malicious, persistent            JJ: Would it be possible to discuss this be-
                                                   campaign to be waged against Indonesia?”               fore you leave?
                                                   [AFP adds: Alatas is scheduled to return to        AA: Yes, but... (continuing to walk. The
                                                   Europe in late February to visit other EC              presence of a number of foreign journal-
                                                   capitals, including Rome, Madrid, Paris and            ists near the minister created a commo-
                                                   The Hague, before travelling to                        tion, prompting members of his staff to
                                                   Washington.]                                           intervene).
Page 18                                                             East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

JJ: I would like to discuss that [less dra-           under different circumstances. But if you            “(We are) concerned that one government
    matic] case.                                      don’t think it’s important enough....            and one certain country...insist in their anti-
AA: Very well. We each know the other’s             AA: OK, but perhaps I won’t have the time,         Indonesian campaign with deliberate
    position. Right?                                  unfortunately... (Here the dialogue was          misrepresentation and exaggeration,” Alatas
                                                      interrupted by other journalists who were        said.
JJ: I don’t think so. I believe that you will
                                                      witnessing the dialogue.)                            Portugal had been “playing the role of
    not objectively consider by situation. I
                                                                                                       white angel round the world (and) depicting
    am a professional journalist accredited by
                                                    JOURNALISTS BY                                     Indonesia as a black devil,” he said.
    The Sunday Times and The Guardian.
                                                                                                           Despite saying the military was far from
AA: I never said you weren’t an authentic           INVITATION ONLY (INDEPENDENT)
                                                                                                       free of blame, Alatas denied claims that the
    journalist.                                     The Independent. 19 February 1992. News            Dili procession had been peaceful.
JJ: Yes, you did.                                   item on Media Page, edited by Maggie                   “Contrary to press reports of a peaceful
AA: No. But you took part in a campaign.            Brown. Reproduced in full.                         procession...there were elements of provo-
    You are a crusader.                                 If word of a recent run-in with British        cation and premeditated agitation,” he said.
JJ: I think there’s a contradiction. I report       journalists has crossed the Atlantic, the              He said the government was satisfied
    what I see.                                     Indonesian Foreign Minister, Ali Alatas, can       with the results of the inquiry and would
                                                    expect a bumpy ride when he addresses              now take action against all those responsible.
AA: Have you been to Indonesia recently?                                                                   Alatas said soldiers involved would be
                                                    American reporters at the National Press
JJ: Unfortunately, you haven’t allowed me           Club in Washington tomorrow.                       tried by a military council and civilians
    to go to Indonesia. Please allow me to              He visited London recently on a fence-         would be brought to justice in accordance
    go....                                          mending tour after the Indonesian army             with the law.
AA: If you haven’t been to Indonesia, you           massacred up to 200 people at a peaceful               London-based Amnesty has urged U.N.
    shouldn’t speak with such authorities           demonstration in East Timor in November.           Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali to
    about the country....                               Mr Alatas called a press conference, but       order a report by the Commission on Human
JJ: I argued with your predecessor, Dr.             reporters from The Sunday Times, The               Rights.
    Mochtar, that I would be able to cover          Guardian and The Sunday Telegraph were
    events much more fully if I were able to        refused places. Television cameras were also        ALATAS TO VISIT JAPAN TO
    get to know more about Indonesia.               banned. The reason given was shortage of
                                                    space, but the Indonesians made it clear that       EXPLAIN MASSACRE (KYODO)
AA: OK. That’s your opinion. And I have
    the right to doubt your opinion, based on       their objection about The Sunday Times was            JAKARTA, FEB. 14 KYODO - INDONE-
    what you have written over the years.           its choice of representative, Jill Jolliffe – an   SIA’S FOREIGN MINISTER ALI ALATAS
                                                    authority on East Timor who is banned from         WILL LEAVE FOR JAPAN ON SUNDAY
JJ: You never said so before....                    Indonesia.                                         BEFORE PROCEEDING TO THE UNITED
AA: No, but I have read all of your columns.            At the press conference, every journalist      STATES AND EUROPE TO DISCUSS ISSUES
JJ: You have read all of my columns?                who asked a question was photographed.             SURROUNDING THE NOVEMBER 12 EAST
AA: Yes.                                            When Mr Alatas emerged he was ap-                  TIMOR SHOOTING INCIDENT,
                                                    proached by Ms Jolliffe, who asked why             DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAID FRIDAY.
JJ: Then, you should know that I have cited
                                                    she had been denied space in the half-empty           IN JAPAN, ALATAS IS SCHEDULED TO
    your own sources. I interviewed Dr.
                                                    conference room. Mr Alatas became heated           MEET WITH HIGH GOVERNMENT OFFI-
    Mochtar in Luanda. I interviewed your
                                                    and accused her of being a “crusader.” The         CIALS AND DIET MEMBERS ON
    representatives in Geneva. [.....] In general
                                                    Sunday Times sent a complaint to Mr Alatas         MONDAY, THE SOURCES SAID.
    you have refused to speak to me.
                                                    but has received no reply.                            MORE THAN ONE THIRD OF JAPAN’S
AA: Me?
                                                                                                       DIET MEMBERS HAVE PETITIONED
JJ: Today is certainly the first time.                ALATAS, IN BRUSSELS,                             THEIR GOVERNMENT TO HALT AID TO
AA: I have never refused. But you suggested                                                            INDONESIA IN THE WAKE OF THE
    [referred to?] an agreement between                   SHOCKED BY                                   SHOOTING INCIDENT BY INDONESIAN
    Portugal and Indonesia.                          AMNESTY REPORT (REUTER)                           TROOPS THAT WIT NESSES SAID LEFT
JJ: Yes, an agreement which precluded the                                                              AT LEAST 100 PEOPLE DEAD.
                                                       Reuter, Brussels, Brian Love, Feb 7 -              JAPAN HAS BEEN INDONESIA’S
    vetoing of journalists. [This refers to the
                                                    Indonesia said on Friday it was shocked that       SINGLE LARGEST AID DONOR. IN
    Terms of Reference agreed by Indonesia
                                                    the human rights group Amnesty                     JANUARY, KOJI KAKIZAWA JAPAN’S
    and Portugal, establishing arrangements
                                                    International had attacked its inquiry into a      PARLIAMENTARY VICE FOREIGN
    for the parliamentary mission to East
                                                    massacre in East Timor last November,              MINISTER SAID IN JAKARTA THAT
    Timor.]
                                                    when troops shot dead scores of civilians          JAPAN WOULD CONTINUE TO PROVIDE
AA: It certainly did not do that.                   during a procession.                               AID DESPITE THE KILLINGS, IN ORDER
JJ: I have the text.                                   “It’s a sweeping rejection of everything        TO CONTRIBUTE TO INDONESIA’S
AA: But that isn’t the text.                        we’ve been trying to do,” Indonesian Foreign       CONTINUED ECONOMIC DE-
JJ: I have the other texts too. (The minister       Minister Ali Alatas said.                          VELOPMENT.
    and the journalist are now both speaking           “We are deeply disappointed,” he told a
    at once.)                                       news conference in Brussels, his last stop in      LETTER TO ALATAS (FREE EAST
                                                    a tour of Europe.                                  TIMOR JAPAN COALITION)
AA: Just see how you are [acting]. This is a           Alatas said the incident was a tragic event
    challenge to me. I was the one who ne-          and he wanted to put the record straight.          [The following letter was sent by Free East
    gotiated that text. I challenge you to in-      Unfair reports and accusations implied that        Timor Japan Coalition to Alatas during his
    terview the Portuguese, now or whenever         Jakarta condoned the military’s violence and       stay in Tokyo.]
    you like, and see if they deny the truth of     had done little to find the culprits, he said.                                February 17, 1992
    what I am saying.                                  He accused Portugal of backing a smear
JJ: That makes no sense. Why should I do                                                               Dear Mr. Ali Alatas,
                                                    campaign.
    that? I would prefer to speak with you
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 19

    Free East Timor Japan Coalition hereby         official development assistance, making it       KILLINGS WON’T END JAKARTA
wishes to convey its deep concern about the        the biggest aid donor to the country.            AID, ENVOY TOLD (JAPAN TIMES)
present situation of East Timor and the fate           In December, more than 260 members of
of the people of East Timor particularly af-       the 764-strong parliament, from both ruling      Japan Times, Feb. 18, 1992, Full text.
ter the Santa Cruz massacre.                       and opposition parties, urged Prime                 Japan will not change its policy of eco-
    Free East Timor Japan Coalition has            Minister Kiichi Miyazawa to halt the eco-        nomic aid to Jakarta despite last November’s
demanded your government to return the             nomic aid.                                       bloodshed in East Timor, Foreign Minister
dead bodies to their families and to make              Alatas said countries including Japan        Michio Watanabe Monday told Ali Alatas,
public the names of the victims of the mas-        should not link economic aid to human            Indonesia’s visiting foreign minister.
sacre. These demands have not been fulfilled       rights. “If economic aid came to a halt, it is      Measures taken by the Indonesian gov-
yet at all. We have not heard anything about       the people in East Timor who would suffer        ernment in the wake of last November’s
the 90 people believed to have been missing        the most.”                                       mass shootings by soldiers in East Timor, a
after the massacre. President Soeharto                 Watanabe urged Indonesia to conduct fair     former Portuguese colony annexed by
ordered Commander-in-Chief Try Sutrisno            trials of demonstrators and soldiers, saying     Jakarta in 1976, were appropriate, Watanabe
to find out whereabouts of these 90 people,        that they should be treated equally. “That is    noted.
but in our knowledge nothing seems to have         what the international community pays great         He urged Jakarta to follow through on
been done since the order.                         attention to,” he said.                          promised actions and added that both civil-
    In terms of respect for the fundamental            Alatas said his government would punish      ians and soldiers involved in the incident
rights of the people of East Timor, the re-        both civilians and military personnel who        should be punished in a balanced way, ac-
sponse of your government this time was            violated its domestic laws.                      cording to a Foreign Ministry official who
totally unsatisfactory. Your government has            Alatas criticised the Western media for      briefed reporters.
not responded at all to the legitimate aspi-       comparing the Dili incident with the Chinese        Indonesia will try all those who violated
ration of the people of East Timor, and is         military crackdown in June 1989 on student       laws in connection with the shootings,
still not ready to hear what the people of         protesters.                                      Alatas told Watanabe, indicating soldiers
East Timor wishes to say through an inter-             “The Tiananmen Square incident hap-          held responsible for the bloodshed will stand
nationally recognized procedure. Instead           pened under government guidance but the          before a military tribunal.
your government is vigorously persecuting          East Timor incident did not,” he said.              The process will be quicker for civilians
those against Indonesian rule there, including         He criticised a planned visit to East        than for soldiers, he said, asking the inter-
those who were involved only in non-violent        Timor by a shipload of protesters as a pro-      national community to wait until all legal
activities.                                        vocative act which would raise tensions.         proceedings are completed.
    The most of the participants in the                The Indonesian foreign minister plans to        While about 50 civilians who took part in
November 12 demonstration were teenagers           visit the United States, Canada, France, the     the demonstration that triggered the
or in their twenties. After your govern-           Netherlands and Spain to counter interna-        shootings have already been arrested, no
ment’s long efforts to win their hearts and        tional criticism over the East Timor incident.   actions have been taken against the soldiers,
minds by development projects and so-                                                               except for relieving two military officers in
called “territorial operation” by the ABRI,        ALATAS MEETS DIET MEMBERS                        charge of the province of their posts,
all these young Timorese emerged as na-            FORUM ON EAST TIMOR                              according to ministry officials.
tionalists. And it is certain that the Santa       By Aki Matsuno, Free East Timor Japan               Alatas is visiting Japan as part of an in-
Cruz massacre lost Indonesia this new gen-         Coalition.                                       ternational tour to explain Jakarta’s position
eration. We believe that this situation won’t                                                       on the East Timor case. He will leave Tokyo
cease to exist unless your government                 In the evening of Feb. 17, Monday,            today for the United States and Canada, and
promises a fundamental settlement of the           Alatas had a meeting with some members of        will visit Europe later.
problem.                                           the Diet Members Forum on East Timor, at            The shootings took place Nov. 12 in Dili,
    Now Portugal has formally submitted the        a room of prestigious Imperial Hotel. The        capital of East Timor. Indonesian authorities
proposal to the United Nations Secretary-          lobby of the hotel was heavily guarded by        originally said that only 19 independence
General to include East Timorese represen-         plain cloth policemen. The meeting was ar-       activists were killed, but later announced
tatives in negotiations mediated by the            ranged by Japanese Foreign Ministry on re-       that more than 50 had died. Initial foreign
Secretary-General. We urge your government         quest of Alatas.                                 press reports said over 100 were killed.
to positively respond to this proposal in             The meeting lasted for two hours and             Faced with international criticism over the
order to bring about permanent peace to East       Alatas impressively and energetically ex-        shootings, the Indonesian government took
Timor.                                             plained about measures taken by the              the rare step of acknowledging military
                                Yours sincerely,   Indonesian government. He said that now 56       responsibility, the officials said.
              Free East Timor Japan Coalition      civilians were detained in connection with          In talks with Watanabe, Alatas criticized
                                                   the incident and that the final report by the    some Western nations for linking economic
WATANABE: AID NOT AFFECTED                         government-appointed commission will be          aid with human rights issues, saying sus-
BY MASSACRE (REUTER)                               submitted within a few days. He also said        pension of aid will not help the people of
                                                   that responsible military men would be tried     East Timor and might cause nationalistic
   Reuter, Tokyo, Feb 17 - Foreign Minister        according to military law and that the result
Michio Watanabe said on Monday the                                                                  reactions in Indonesia.
                                                   of these trials will be made public.                In a meeting with some Japanese and
military massacre in East Timor would not             Rep. Satsuki Eda, secretary of the Forum,
affect Japan’s aid to Indonesia, despite                                                            Indonesian reporters earlier in the day,
                                                   asked Alatas to positively respond to the        Alatas disclosed that a government-ap-
disagreement in the Japanese parliament.           Portuguese proposal for negotiations to
   “As our country evaluates...the measures                                                         pointed commission would submit a final
                                                   include East Timorese. Alatas said Indonesia     report of its investigations into the shootings
taken by Indonesia (after the incident), there     would respond positively to it.
will be no change in our aid policy,”                                                               “in a few days.”
                                                      After the meeting, journalists were              He reportedly described the incident as
Watanabe told visiting Indonesian Foreign          waiting on the corridor and there was a in-
Minister Ali Alatas.                                                                                “tragic and regrettable.”
                                                   stant press conference there for about 40
   Japan provided 235 billion yen (1.9 bil-        minutes.
lion dollars) in economic aid to Indonesia last
year, including 170 billion yen (1.3 billion) in
Page 20                                                            East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992


ALATAS VISIT SPARKS DEBATE ON                      in forcing the Indonesian government to              The Indonesian foreign minister held
CONTINUED AID FOR INDONESIA                        consider granting independence to the East        meetings Tuesday with human rights organ-
                                                   Timorese, they point out.                         isations Asia Watch and Amnesty
(IPS)                                                  But despite lofty speeches in interna-        International as well as U.S. senators and
    Tokyo, Feb. 21 (IPS/Suvendrini Kakuchi)        tional platforms that extol democracy and         congressmen. He was to talk to State
– The visit of Indonesian foreign minister Ali     human rights, the Japanese government ap-         Department officials Wednesday.
Alatas to Tokyo this week has revived fresh        pears to be convinced that development as-           Alatas’ visit coincides with the arrival of
calls for Japan to use its substantial devel-      sistance should not be directly linked to the     a four-member parliamentary delegation
opment aid to Jakarta as leverage in solving       promotion of human rights. And some de-           from Portugal which will meet with
the East Timor issue.                              velopment aid and economic experts here           Congress members and government officials
    Tokyo was the first stop of Alatas’ tour       support this view.                                over the next three days.
of major capitals this month to explain that           “The government was right not to cut             Also, the U.S. Senate Committee on
Jakarta is taking firm action on the killings of   ODA to Indonesia. It was a tough choice           Foreign Relations is to hold a hearing Friday
East Timorese demonstrators by Indonesian          given western pressure on Jakarta but in the      on East Timor and U.S. policy toward
army troops last November.                         long run, it is best that the situation remains   Indonesia with testimony from Assistant
    After the international uproar over the        calm in Indonesia for the benefit of the          Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific
incident, Jakarta has set up a high-powered        majority,” said development economist             Affairs Richard Solomon.
commission headed by a supreme court               Nobuyuki Takeshita.
judge to investigate the shootings.                    President Suharto is widely admired by        CALL TO DEMONSTRATE
    The commission’s preliminary findings,         many Japanese who cite Indonesia’s rapid             Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas is
released in late December, faulting the troops     development under his rule.                       coming to Washington to convince
for overreacting and placing the death toll at         Some economic experts here are openly         Americans that his government’s killing in
50 with 90 missing have satisfied most of          critical of western nations which support         East Timor is not something we should be
Indonesia’s aid donors, including Japan.           pro-democracy activists in third world            concerned about.
    Human and civil rights activists have          countries.                                           But we are concerned.
remarked that Tokyo was chosen as Alatas’              “Do you really think that the Chinese            He will speak to the press and the public
first stop because it is considered one of the     students in Tiananmen Square would have           in DC on Thursday.
easier targets to convince. They say Alatas        lasted long even if they succeeded in bringing       We will be there. Join us.
left having satisfactorily convinced Japanese      down the government?” asked Takeshita.                Protest Ali Alatas’ visit to the U.S.
government officials of Jakarta’s sincerity.           Another viewpoint that is prevalent here
    “Japanese commitment to protecting             is that the East Timor issue is a European           Thurs. February 20. 11:30 to 1:00.
human rights is far weaker than in the West.       dilemma and that Japan should therefore not          National Press Building, 14th & F Streets
Alatas probably found his trip to Tokyo a          be expected to respond in the same way as         NW, Washington, DC.
party in comparison to what he has to face         the west.                                            Sponsored by The Basics, PO Box
in Washington and Europe,” said an                     East Timor was a Portuguese colony until      57365, Washington, DC 20036, and the East
Indonesian expert who declined to be named.        1974 when a coup in Lisbon forced Portugal        Timor Action Network / U.S.
    Alatas flew on to Washington Wednesday         to abandon it. the resulting civil war was        Report: About two dozen people gathered
with only a tame admonition from the               used by Indonesia, which had taken over the       with signs and leaflets. Although the lunch-
Japanese government.                               formerly Dutch-controlled western part of         eon/press conference was on the third floor,
    Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe urged         Timor island, to move in its troops. East         they were visible and audible to all who at-
Jakarta to “follow through on promised ac-         Timor was formally annexed in 1976 as an          tended, and raised awareness of attendees
tion,” adding that both civilians and soldiers     Indonesian province.                              and passers-by alike to the crimes of Alatas’
involved in the incident “be punished in a             A Japanese government policy that fa-         government.
balanced way,” said a foreign ministry             vours economic prosperity over human
official.                                          needs is not unacceptable to mainstream           ALATAS DC PRESS CONFERENCE
    “The Japanese government is only inter-        Japanese who have seen this policy followed       (UPI)
ested in expanding its economic leverage. a        in post-war Japan, analysts say.                     UPI, Washington, Feb 20 - Indonesia’s
cut in aid for the sake of human rights is             Japan’s economic success is the result of     foreign minister Thursday denounced
inconceivable to the high-ups because it will      putting the development of the country            “myths and misrepresentations” about his
hurt trade with Indonesia,” said James             ahead of the needs of the people, the ana-        government and specifically a 1991 massacre
Coehlo, professor of Portuguese studies at         lysts say. This view is now firmly en-            in East Timor where soldiers killed scores of
Tokyo’s Sophia university.                         trenched in the country’s foreign policy,         people during a demonstration.
    A call for the Japanese government to          they say.                                            “We were just as shocked that the inci-
take a clear-cut stand on the East Timor                                                             dent occurred as everyone else,” Alatas told
shootings has been gaining ground recently.               ALATAS ARRIVES IN                          a small gathering of Washington reporters
    Several Japanese MPs have joined roman                                                           and editors. “Something went terribly wrong
Catholic, human and civil rights groups in                WASHINGTON (AFP)                           with the demonstration.”
criticising the government for “resorting to                                                            Attacks on the government for the attack
                                                      AFP, Washington, Feb 18 - Indonesian
quietly pressing violators to reform rather                                                          “will not only prove to be counterproduc-
                                                   Foreign Minister Ali Alatas arrived here
than taking punitive action.”                                                                        tive, they will only prolong the agony, ten-
                                                   Tuesday on a mission to explain his gov-
    They say this policy has been applied by                                                         sions and frustrations in the East Timor re-
                                                   ernment’s position on the army massacre of
the government to countries with close eco-                                                          gion.”
                                                   civilians in East Timor in November.
nomic ties to Japan like Indonesia, china and                                                           Alatas’ account was sharply questioned
                                                      Alatas arrived from Japan for the three-
Burma.                                                                                               by Allan Nairn, a free-lance reporter for The
                                                   day visit and he is later to go on to United
    Japanese assistance, amounting to 1.8                                                            New Yorker magazine, who was attacked by
                                                   Nations headquarters in New York, Canada
billion dollars in official development aid                                                          Indonesian troops as he watched the military
                                                   and several European capitals, Indonesian
(ODA), is indispensable to Indonesia, politi-                                                        response to the demonstration.
                                                   embassy officials said.
cal analysts and civil rights activists say. A
cut in aid would therefore be very effective
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                            Page 21

    Nairn said the soldiers marched in file,       “They are obviously hoping that another        accuracy, but because the people of East
with their rifles displayed, then opened fire   incident will occur to win over international     Timor continue to be arrested, tortured and
in unison on the advancing crowd.               support,” Alatas said.                            intimidated in the aftermath of the cemetery
    “It’s your recording against our record-       The Indonesian foreign minister said that      killings. Catholic priests have been prime
ing,” the minister said.                        he would go to New York Friday to meet            targets of the repression. Timorese say their
    When another reporter raised questions      with U.N. Secretary General Boutros               only protection from Indonesia’s army of
about a 1975 attack on Australian journal-      Boutros-Ghali and discuss the findings of         occupation is the outside world - particu-
ists, Alatas shot back: “These are misrep-      the U.N. special envoy Amos Wako.                 larly the US government.
resentations that have hounded us for years.       He is then due to travel to Canada and            Political and economic pressure on the
The incidents have been exaggerated.”           several European countries including France,      Suharto regime can save individual lives in
Constant repetition of such information, he     the Netherlands and Spain. He has already         Timor - a nation that was invaded and an-
said, has given validity to the charges of      visited Tokyo, London and Brussels.               nexed in 1975 in the same way that Kuwait
human rights violations, he said.                                                                 was invaded and annexed by Saddam
    “East Timor has suffered the same fate,”    THE INDONESIAN COVER-UP                           Hussein. To save Timor as a nation, the US
he said.                                        (BOSTON GLOBE EDITORIAL)                          should work for a UN-supervised referen-
    Alatas said the soldiers attempted to re-   Friday, 21 February 1992                          dum on Timorese self- determination.
store order and their actions did not repre-
sent a government policy designed to limit or      There was macabre irony in the location
                                                of the press briefing Indonesia’s foreign                 ALATAS IN CANADA
thwart dissent.
    He also criticised critics he said were     minister, Ali Alatas, gave yesterday at the       Report by the East Timor Alert Network
comparing the East Timor attack with the        National Press Club. Alatas has been touring
                                                nations that donate $5 billion in international       Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas
Chinese government’s assault on political
                                                aid yearly to Indonesia, trying to control the    was in Ottawa yesterday, 24 February, to
protesters in Tiananmen Square in 1989,
                                                damage his government did to itself by            meet with Canadian External Affairs
where hundreds were killed or wounded by
                                                covering up a November massacre of                Minister Barbara McDougall. McDougall
soldiers clearing the square.
                                                unarmed civilians on East Timor. He met           was clearly looking for an excuse to restore
    “Unfortunately, these kinds of tragic
                                                selected journalists in the First Amendment       suspended Canadian aid to Indonesia, but
events have happened, even in developing
                                                Room.                                             was challenged on this by both major op-
countries,” he said, comparing the attack
                                                   The irony is macabre because journalists       position parties.
with the deaths of four students at Kent
                                                were banned from East Timor for many                  Alatas was originally scheduled to appear
State University in Ohio in 1971 during an
                                                years, so that they could not report on           before the House of Commons
anti- war protest.
                                                Indonesia’s genocidal liquidation of between      Subcommittee on Human Rights, but this
    Alatas said he was touring world capitals
                                                100,000 and 200,000 Timorese. The                 was downgraded to an informal meeting in a
“to give clarifications and to give explana-
                                                November slaughter of 100 or more                 Conservative MP’s office at the last minute.
tions” for the attack, and to assure world
                                                Timorese mourners at a cemetery became a          Two days before the visit, reporters could
leaders the tragedy did not represent gov-
                                                diplomatic problem for the Suharto regime         get no details of his itinerary.
ernment policy.
                                                because Western reporters and photogra-               Monday morning, External Affairs ann-
AFP ACCOUNT                                     phers witnessed the unprovoked, cold-             ounced that it would be holding a news con-
   AFP, Washington, Feb 20 - Indonesian         blooded murders perpetrated by Indonesian         ference with Alatas and McDougall, shortly
Foreign minister Ali Alatas Thursday de-        troops.                                           before a scheduled news conference by Allan
fended Jakarta’s handling of the inquiry into      Some of the journalists present were           Nairn at Parliament. Nairn was taken across
the November massacre of civilians in East      brutally beaten and threatened with death.        town by Liberal MP David Kilgour and
Timor and said most foreign governments         Their notebooks were seized, and many             confronted Alatas, prompting MacDougall
had accepted it.                                Timorese whose names were found in the            to complain that he should be at his own
   Alatas, who met Thursday with Vice           notebooks were later arrested, interrogated,      news conference. She also signalled her
President Dan Quayle and Secretary of State     tortured, and charged with subversion             support for the Indonesian line by referring
James Baker, said that the findings of the      (which can carry a death penalty under            to the Timorese charged with subversion as
National Commission of Inquiry had been         Indonesian law).                                  the “perpetrators” of violence on Nov. 12.
“evenly received by most governments.”             Alatas is in Washington to convince leg-           New Democrat MP Svend Robinson
   But he admitted that there remained          islators, human rights groups and the press       raised East Timor in question period.
widespread skepticism particularly among        that a report of the massacre issued by his           Both Indonesian Consulates in Canada
human rights groups that the Indonesian         government’s Commission of Inquiry should         were the site of vigils for East Timor at the
government was telling the entire truth and     absolve Indonesia of any further blame or         same time Alatas was in Ottawa. In
would punish any member of the military         responsibility. Amnesty International found       Toronto, 15-20 protesters laid flowers and a
found to have acted illegally.                  the Indonesian inquiry “fatally flawed” and       Timorese flag in front of a cross representing
   “We deeply regret the fact the one gov-      decried its findings as “unacceptable.”           the grave of Sebastiao Gomes, and two
ernment in particular (Portugal), some non-        Amnesty said: “The Commission of               women threw blood on the doors of the con-
government organisations and certain sec-       Inquiry gave undue credence to military ac-       sulate after the group was refused entry.
tions of the international media persist in     counts of the incident while ignoring or          One of these is still being in jail and will
disparaging the efforts we have undertaken,”    misconstruing independent evidence, in-           appear in court tomorrow.
Alatas said.                                    cluding eyewitness testimony, which con-              A blood pouring also took place at the
   Alatas also warned that a Portuguese         tradicts the official version. Such evidence      Indonesian Consulate in Vancouver, and
“peace boat” carrying more than 100 stu-        suggests that the actions of the security         received excellent media coverage.
dents and journalists which is sailing toward   forces were not a spontaneous reaction to a
                                                riotous mob, but a planned military opera-        CANADA MAINTAINING
East Timor to lay wreaths in memory of
those killed would be committing “an act of     tion, conducted according to normal military      SANCTIONS? (REUTER)
provocation.”                                   procedures.”                                         Ottawa, Feb 24 - Canada said on Monday
                                                   The Indonesian cover-up must be rejected       that it will maintain its aid embargo against
                                                - not merely in the interest of historical        Indonesia despite Jakarta’s progress in
Page 22                                                        East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

clarifying the circumstances of a massacre of   in Dili, capital of the former Portuguese        cident entered the province under false
200 East Timorese in November.                  colony of East Timor.                            pretences.
   Ottawa will not resume aid until it hears       Van den Broek told Alatas his govern-             Indonesian armed forces commander, Try
Indonesia’s final official account and a        ment had been shocked by the massacre but        Sutrisno, also told a parliamentary
United Nations report on the massacre,          appreciated the way the Indonesian               committee last week that the journalists had
External Affairs Minister Barbara               Government had subsequently handled the          allowed themselves willingly or unwillingly
McDougall said after meeting Indonesian         affair. However, he continued to keep a          to be used by “anti-government elements.”
Foreign Minister Ali Alatas.                    careful eye on the behaviour of the Jakarta          The foreign press had also come under
   Canada is the only country that maintains    authorities, the spokesman said.                 fire for what the authorities in Jakarta said
aid sanctions against Indonesia, which             The Dutch minister asked his Indonesian       were biased accounts of the incident in
depends heavily on foreign donors.              counterpart for details of how many had          which at least 50 people died.
   “(Indonesia) is very clearly attempting to   died, the progress being made by the inquiry         Minister Alatas told journalists that he
come to grips with the situation,”              and the government’s plans concerning            was not yet fully informed, but said he is
McDougall told a news conference.               development of East Timor.                       sure that the measure was only for “the time
   She said an interim report on the massacre      Meanwhile, Pronk told journalists after       being.”
was “evidence of the commitment of the          his talks with Alatas that the Dili massacre         What was needed, he said, were condi-
Indonesian government to ensure the perpe-      must be the last incident of its kind.           tions both inside and outside of the country
trators will be brought to justice.”               If the human rights situation did not im-     that were “conducive” to allowing the gov-
   Indonesia is seen as a test case for         prove, the Economic Community would              ernment to take the steps which it deemed
Canada’s move to put greater emphasis on        revise its policy toward Indonesia, Pronk        necessary to put the province back on the
human rights in its foreign policy.             warned, adding however that Alatas was one       right foot.
   Legislation under study in Parliament        of a group there who genuinely wanted to             During his one-day trip, the Indonesian
would grant the government powers to im-        improve human rights.                            foreign minister also held discussions with
pose prompt and effective economic sanc-           On Thursday Alatas was to meet Dutch          the Dutch government during which he
tions against states abusing their citizens’    Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers before leaving       stressed that the “incident” was not an “act”
rights.                                         for Madrid.                                      ordered by the government nor was it re-
See the Canadian section below for more            In Lisbon, meanwhile, the Portuguese          flective of the policy of the government or of
details about Canada’s threatened reversal      Government expressed its desire to continue      the armed forces.
of sanctions against Indonesia, and what        negotiations with Indonesia on East Timor,           “The incident was a tragedy and a serious
people are doing to stop it.                    which Jakarta annexed in 1976.                   setback to all the efforts of the Indonesian
                                                   The foreign ministry said the Portuguese      government to bring harmony and progress
                                                authorities considered recent statements         to East-Timor,” he said at the subsequent
      ALATAS IN PARIS (AFP)                     made in Paris by Alatas that the United          press conference.
                                                Nations secretary general had not received           The foreign minister also denied that
   AFP, Paris, Feb 25 - Indonesian Foreign
                                                any Portuguese proposal to resume the ne-        Indonesian troops fired at a “peaceful”
Minister Ali Alatas arrived here Tuesday for
                                                gotiations “can only be a misunderstanding.”     demonstration in Dili. according to him, “a
talks with his French counterpart Roland
                                                   A formal proposal by Portugal was put         small group of agitators turned into a dis-
Dumas on the East Timor question, officials
                                                forward on January 24 to Secretary General       orderly and destructive demonstration.”
said.
                                                Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the foreign ministry          The Indonesian minister noted that his
   Alatas kicked off his diplomatic offensive
                                                said, for talks to take place under U.N.         government had since taken swift measures
in the first week of February when he visited
                                                auspices without preconditions, and to in-       to address the situation, including the setting
London, Brussels and Geneva.
                                                clude Timorese participation.                    up of a national commission of enquiry.
   The second, current round of his tour
                                                                                                 “This commission has used very clear and
took him to the United States, where he         ALATAS: BAN ON FOREIGN                           often blunt language in apportioning the
visited Washington and the United Nations
in New York, and Canada, which suspended        JOURNALISTS A ‘TEMPORARY’                        blame where blame should be put,” said
                                                MEASURE (IPS)                                    Alatas.
aid negotiations with Indonesia following the
                                                                                                     Among the commission’s recommenda-
massacre.                                          The Hague, Feb 27 – The ban on foreign        tions is that action should be taken against
   After Paris, Alatas is expected to visit     journalists from entering East-Timor is just a   all those who were involved in the
Bonn, The Hague, Madrid and Rome, ac-           “temporary” measure being taken while            November shooting, once it is proven that
cording to diplomatic sources in Jakarta.       government took the necessary steps to           they violated the law. “They should be
   Alatas, who will have a working lunch        restore order to the province, Indonesia’s       brought to trial in accordance with he rule of
Tuesday with Alain Vievien, the secretary of    foreign minister said here Thursday.             law,” Alatas said.
state of foreign affairs, is also expected to      Speaking at a press conference, foreign           As Alatas spoke, it was announced in
discuss the Cambodian situation.                minister Ali Alatas also stressed that the       Jakarta that a military court had found six
                                                massacre in the East-Timorese capital on         senior officers guilty of “violating the law.”
 ALATAS IN THE HAGUE (AFP)                      November 12 was a “regrettable incident”         among them was the commander of the op-
                                                and stressed that his government had never       erational command of East-Timor, major-
   The Hague, Feb 27- Indonesian Foreign        condoned the act.                                general Sintong Panjaitan.
Minister Ali Alatas arrived here Wednesday         Alatas was on a one-day visit to the              President Tni Suharto dismissed Panjaitan
on a two-day visit and held talks with Dutch    Netherlands to “clarify” the events of last      and a whole list of officers shortly after the
Foreign Minister Hans van den Broek and         November in which army troops shot dead          massacre. “president Suharto also instructed
Development Cooperation Minister Jan            more than 50 people.                             the attorney general to initiate legal actions
Pronk centering on the East Timor question.        The ban on visits by journalists to the       and proceedings against all those suspected
   Alatas is touring European capitals to       former Portuguese colony was announced           of having violated the law,” Alatas added.
explain what his government has done and        Wednesday by the Indonesian authorities in           “The commander of the armed forces has
intends to do concerning a massacre carried     Jakarta. the authorities charged that foreign    been ordered to search for those listed as
out by the Indonesian army on November 12       journalists who were present during the in-      missing and to clarify the discrepancy in the
                                                                                                 numbers of casualties,” the foreign minister
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                          Page 23

stressed. According to the army nineteen         Timor, which, he said was “necessary as a
demonstrators were killed and fifty are          temporary move.”                                   GOINGS ON ABOUT
missing.                                            He added: “To put into motion our
    Additionally, Alatas said his government     measures (in East Timor) we need a period              CANADA
had agreed to the proposal by the United         of calm and need to ensure tensions are not
Nations to invite Amos Wako, a specialist in     heightened.”
human rights, to Indonesia to get                   He repeated his government’s opposition     CANADA TO CONTINUE AID
“clarification” on the incident.                 to the planned visit to Dili next week by a       SUSPENSION (UPI)
    Alatas attacked Portugal, some non-gov-      Portuguese ship full of students who want
ernmental organisations as well as people he     to lay a wreath at the cemetery where the     UPI. 6 Feb 1992. Dateline: Jakarta.
described as “political agitators abroad” who    massacre took place.                          Abridged.
had criticised the work of the commission.                                                         Canada said Thursday it would continue
Their attitude, he said, was “very irre-                                                       its suspension of aid to Indonesia despite
sponsible.”                                                                                    accepting the findings of a recently released
    The “incident” as he terms it, has been                                                    government report into the East Timor mas-
condemned by Holland, Denmark, Great-                                                          sacre three months ago.
Britain, Canada and several other western                                                          Canadian ambassador to Jakarta, Ingrid
countries. The Dutch government suspended                                                      Hall, said the suspension of aid would not be
its development aid cooperation with                                                           reviewed by Ottawa for at least another two
Indonesia immediately after the massacre.                                                      weeks when foreign ministers of both
    Turning to the question of the Lusitania                                                   countries are expected to discuss the issue.
Expresse, a ship which is to shortly due set                                                       After a meeting with Rudini, the
sail to East-Timor, minister Alatas urged the                                                  Indonesian interior minister, Hall said the
organisers to cancel their plans. The or-                                                      Canadian government was still very con-
ganisers have planned what they call a peace                                                   cerned with the human rights situation in
mission to Dili during which they intend to                                                    Indonesia.
lay flowers on the graves of the victims of                                                        Commenting on a government inquiry
the massacre.                                                                                  into the affair, Hall said the final report was
    In Alatas’ opinion, the objective of the                                                   acceptable though Canada wanted those re-
voyage of the Lusitania Expresse is                                                            sponsible for the massacre to be brought to
“provocative in nature” and not at all hu-                                                     justice.
manitarian, but rather “politically moti-                                                          Indonesian foreign minister, Ali Alatas is
vated.”                                                                                        receiving much the same message as he cur-
    “It will only aggravate tensions in East-                                                  rently tours Western Europe in an attempt
Timor. We cannot allow or tolerate that                                                        to revive aid to his country.
ships with passengers on board violate our
national laws and international regulations,”                                                    FARAWAY BLOODSHED
he said.                                                                                       LEAVES A STAIN ON CANADA
                                                                                                               (GIBBONS)
INDONESIA ‘COMMITTED TO
JUSTICE’ (REUTER)                                                                              The Globe and Mail, Toronto, Canada. 10
    Reuter, The Hague, Feb 27 - Indonesia is                                                   February 1992. Op-ed feature.
firmly committed to seeing justice done over                                                   Comment: a letter from Li-liene Gibbons will
the army massacre of civilians on East Timor                                                   be presented at the UN Human Rights
last year, Foreign Minister Ali Alatas said                                                    Commission hearings in Geneva.
on Thursday.                                                                                      The killing of dozens of Timorese funeral
    “Our government actions show the seri-                                                     marchers by Indonesian troops led to a $30
ousness and firmness with which (it) intends                                                   million cut in aid by Ottawa, but more
to proceed,” Alatas told journalists in the                                                    pressure is needed against the regime, argues
Netherlands.                                                                                   a Vancouver student whose brother was
    “The incident should not have taken                                                        among the victims...
place. (It) was a serious setback to our ef-
                                                                                               By Li-liene Gibbons, Vancouver
forts to find a solution to the East Timor
question in general,” Alatas said.                                                                As a 21-year old Canadian university
    Alatas, currently on a world tour, met top                                                 student, I hardly have a professional interest
Dutch officials to discuss the East Timor                                                      in what is going on in far-off East Timor, but
killings and development aid.                                                                  I certainly have a personal one – last fall, my
    A Dutch foreign ministry spokeswoman                                                       brother died there.
said the Netherlands was “shocked over the                                                        Kamal was 20 and on his way home to
Dili incident but values the manner in which                                                   Malaysia during a break from his university
the Indonesian government has approached                                                       studies in Australia. An active supporter of
the affair.”                                                                                   human- rights causes, he stopped in the
    The Netherlands last month resumed its                                                     Timorese capital of Dili to investigate first-
220 million dollars a year in development aid                                                  hand the abuses the people have suffered
to Indonesia, which it had suspended after                                                     since their country was annexed by
the killings. Most major donors, including                                                     Indonesia in 1975.
Japan, also said they would maintain aid.                                                         Then, on Nov. 12, Indonesian troops
    Alatas defended Indonesia’s action on                                                      opened fire on a Timorese crowd mourning
Wednesday in banning journalists from East                                                     the death of an independence sympathizer.
Page 24                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

Exactly how many died is the subject of          as patient as Warouw (the former com-              number of dead at only 50 and called it a
great debate, but my brother was among           mander).” Last month, Gen. Try Sutrisno,           “spontaneous reaction (by) the security per-
them. His body was found half a kilometre        commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed         sonnel to defend themselves.” It said the
from the site of the massacre. How it got        forces, endorsed their policy towards East         incident “does not reflect the policy of the
there has yet to be explained.                   Timor by saying “we will annihilate all            government or of the armed forces.”
    Also in need of an explanation is            separatist elements that taint the dignity of          Two generals have been replaced but no
Indonesia’s response to this outrageous          Indonesia.”                                        charges have been laid. The report does not
slaughter. How much humanity does it take            Canada’s dignity is tainted in a more          contain any recommendations to prevent
to realize that the murder of innocent people    genuine way by our relations with Indonesia.       similar violence by the army in the future.
is a blatant violation of human rights?          This has been called part of a “bridge-                Alatas is touring Western capitals to de-
    Canada is to be commended for respond-       building” policy with the Association of           fend the commission’s findings. “What is
ing to the bloodshed by suspending $30           South-East Asian Nations.                          important is for people and governments
million of its aid to Indonesia. Canada’s            The advocating of human rights by              abroad to evaluate the (Indonesian) gov-
judgment – that the Indonesian government        Indonesia’s major aid donors is not enough,        ernment’s response, to judge us by what we
is “guilty of human-rights violations” in East   as the loss of at least 200,000 East Timorese      are doing to overcome the incident,” he said.
Timor – was not only right under in-             since 1975. Indonesia continues to deny                According to Amnesty International, the
ternational law, but also was long overdue.      such organizations as Amnesty International        mandate and methods of the commission
For the first time since the murderous           access into East Timor; it also refuses to         were “fatally flawed and its findings are
Suharto regime came into being in 1965,          allow an internationally supervised                unacceptable.” Since the incident, more than
there has been international outrage at a        investigation of the Nov. 12 shooting.             60 Timorese have been imprisoned in
massacre committed by the Indonesian                 Yet Canada continues to support the re-        connection with the incident, and some or all
army.                                            gime with $50 million in development as-           may be prisoners of conscience, Amnesty
    Indonesia’s response – an inquiry into its   sistance [sic]. Why does Ottawa not push           says.
own crimes – is completely unacceptable.         for at least an international inquiry? When            Allan Nairn, a writer for New Yorker
According to the UN ECOSOC’s principles          will the world endorse the UN Charter ar-          magazine who witnessed the massacre, said
for inquiring into such atrocities, members      ticles that call for “respect for the principles   Monday the interim report is a “lie” and
“must be chosen for their recognized im-         of equal rights and self-determination of          McDougall “is letting herself be deceived or
partiality, competence and independence as       peoples”? The lives of the East Timorese are       is knowingly overlooking the facts.”
individuals. In particular they shall be inde-   in our hands.                                          Nairn, who this month testified before the
pendent of any institution, agency or person     Li-liene Gibbons is an arts student at the         United Nations Commission on Human
that many be the subject of an inquiry.”         University of British Columbia with a special      Rights in Geneva, said it is Indonesian gov-
    The commission is chaired by M.              interest in Asian affairs.                         ernment policy to crack down on anyone
Djaelani, who is a former general, a retired                                                        who engages in free speech and public as-
member of the Indonesian Supreme Court                                                              sembly.
and in his prime a commander of the infa-              CANADA CONSIDERS                                 Nairn said Alatas is on a “damage-control
mous Red Beret unit involved in numerous               LIFTING SANCTIONS                            tour because the world has condemned the
atrocities in East Timor.                                    (OTTAWA CITIZEN)                       massacre.” Suspension of aid by donor
    The results, published on Dec. 27, deal in                                                      countries would pressure Indonesia to with-
military hearsay, half- truths and ab-           By Louise Crosby, Citizen foreign affairs          draw from East Timor, which it has occu-
stractions. The basic premises of the report     writer, 25 Feb. 1992, front page.                  pied since 1975, he said.
– that the killings were an isolated incident       Canada may soon lift sanctions imposed              Indonesia receives about $46 million a
where soldiers “without any command con-         on Indonesia when troops from that country         year in direct government-to- government
trol” were “exercising self-defence” due to      killed dozens of people in East Timor last         assistance, making it Canada’s second-largest
the “provocative savagery” of the East           November, External Affairs Minister                recipient of bilateral aid. That assistance was
Timorese – entirely contradict the evidence      Barbara McDougall said Monday.                     left intact when Canada imposed aid
of the Timorese and five foreign journalists        Following a meeting with Indonesian             sanctions.
who witnessed the Indonesian soldiers firing     Foreign Minister Ali Alatas, McDougall said
on the crowd without provocation and in a                                                           OTTAWA PONDERS EASING
                                                 Canada is encouraged by Indonesia’s efforts
highly disciplined manner.                       to “come to grips with the situation” by           SANCTIONS ON INDONES IA
    In an attempt to appease the international   setting up an inquiry into the killings.           (MONTREAL GAZETTE)
community, the commission managed to find           The inquiry commission’s interim report         Warren Caragata, 25 February 1992.
it had “strong enough reason to believe that     “is evidence of the commitment of the              Canadian Press
the number of dead is around 50.” President      Indonesian government to ensure that the
Suharto replaced two senior generals in                                                             Comment: McDougall now says that there is
                                                 perpetrators among the military and civilians
command of East Timor as a sop to major                                                             not a pattern of human rights abuses in East
                                                 will be brought to justice, she told reporters.
aid donors.                                                                                         Timor – a far cry from December, when she
                                                    “There has been considerable progress in
    As a result, the East Timorese are being                                                        condemned not only the massacre, but also
                                                 the attitude of the government of Indonesia.
abandoned by world governments. The                                                                 the ongoing human rights situation.
                                                 I can see a time when we would alter the
United States and Australia have welcomed        policy we have taken regarding aid. We’ll be           OTTAWA – Canada is leaning towards
the report; Canada is accepting the results,     looking for the follow- through on the             lifting sanctions against Indonesia, applied
but quietly.                                     interim report.”                                   last year after a massacre in East Timor,
    Meanwhile, Indonesia is intensifying its        On Nov. 12, up to 150 unarmed, pro-in-          External Affairs Minister Barbara
barbarous and illegal regime in East Timor.      dependence demonstrators were killed by            McDougall said yesterday after meeting for
President Suharto has ordered that all who       Indonesian troops in Dili, the capital of East     more than an hour with Indonesian Foreign
took part in the funeral procession be tried     Timor. Following protest by human rights           Minster Ali Alatas.
under Indonesia’s anti-subversion laws,          groups, Canada suspended $30 million in                “I can see a time when we would alter the
which carry the death penalty.                   proposed aid projects to Indonesia.                policy we have taken regarding aid,”
    Gen. Theo Syafei, the new commander in          The interim report by Indonesia’s gov-          McDougall said.
East Timor, has issued a warning: “I am not      ernment-appointed commission put the
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 25

   The Canadian government suspended              mourners, which according to witnesses,
three new aid projects worth about $30            claimed more than 100 lives.
                                                                                                        ACTION ALERT ON
million but did not touch the bulk of its aid         Alatas has indicated only 19 people died       INDONESIAN COMMISSION
effort, worth $46 million this year.              and said soldiers were forced to fire in self-      OF INQUIRY (ETAN/CANADA)
   McDougall accepted assurances from             defence.
Alatas that Indonesia aims to bring to justice        “I would hope there would come a time –       From Li-liene Gibbons, East Timor Alert
those involved when soldiers opened fire on       if things work out like I expect them to –        Network, 104-2120 West 44th Street,
3,500 mourners at a funeral in the East           that we would alter this policy,” McDougall       Vancouver BC, V6M 2G2. March 1, 1992.
Timor capital of Dili. More than 100 people       said following the meeting.                       Dear friends,
were killed.                                          She said she believes the Indonesian
   “There has been considerable progress,”        government has made “considerable progress           This is a very important time for the East
McDougall said. “We believe that the gov-         in attitude.”                                     Timorese. External Affairs is quietly ac-
ernment of Indonesia is very strongly at-             “We have no reason to believe the gov-        cepting the recent results of the Indonesian
tempting to come to grips with the situ-          ernment will not live up to its commitment        inquiry into the Dili massacre. East Timor’s
ation.”                                           and I would hope that we will be able to          future is in the hands of the international
   She said she does not necessarily agree        achieve a normal relationship in this area.”      community. The situation is the worst it’s
with an assessment by Amnesty                         In the House of Commons, under ques-          been since 1983, when the generals instigated
International, a human-rights group, that the     tioning from NDP External Affairs critic          a crackdown in response to a cease-fire and
massacre was part of a pattern of human-          Svend Robinson, McDougall said the gov-           talks between the resistance and the local
rights abuses in East Timor.                      ernment does not necessarily accept an            Indonesian commander.
   Canadian officials point out that Canada       Amnesty International report on the Nov.             Elaine Briere received a phone call on Jan.
has taken sterner measures than most              12 massacre.                                      15 from a student in Dili saying ‘help us,
countries and has left sanctions on longer.           Amnesty reported the government-ap-           please help us. There are very many persons
   But opposition critics said McDougall          pointed National Commission of Inquiry            being killed and many still being jailed.’
should get even tougher in supporting the         was “fatally flawed and unacceptable” and            The Indonesian inquiry results must not
rights of the East Timor people.                  that the government in Jakarta has continued      be accepted for the following reasons:
   MP Christine Stewart, the Liberal Party’s      to execute and wrongfully imprison                1) The massacre of Nov. 12 was not an
associate critic for human rights, said           opponents of in East Timor while pretend-            isolated incident. Since the Indonesian
virtually all aid to Indonesia should be          ing to investigate the shootings.                    occupation began in 1975 human rights
cancelled. Only projects that actually help           After the news conference, American              groups have documented a persistent
reduce poverty should be continued.               writer Allan Nairn said: “I am a survivor of         pattern of such massacres, arbitrary ar-
   Allan Nairn, a correspondent for the New       the massacre ... and the Indonesian report is        rests, torture and disappearances of at
Yorker magazine who witnessed the                 a lie. It seems Minister McDougall is either         least 200,000 Timorese. The attack by
November massacre, said Indonesia is so           letting herself be deceived or is knowingly          the Indonesian military was highly or-
dependent on foreign aid that it would            overlooking the facts.”                              ganized, not a spontaneous one from low-
change its East Timor policy in the face of           The Liberals also said they cannot un-           level officers as the report suggests.
concerted Western protest.                        derstand how McDougall is making her              2) Indonesia has no jurisdiction in East
   East Timor, at the eastern edge of the         judgment.                                            Timor, and no authority to try anyone in
Indonesian archipelago, was invaded by                “Nothing has changed over there. How             East Timor. But President Suharto has
Indonesia in 1975. An independence                can she say she doesn’t agree with Amnesty           ordered that all who took part in the fu-
movement has fought the Indonesian army           International when we’ve got proof from              neral procession be tried under
for years.                                        eyewitnesses?” said Liberal human rights             Indonesia’s anti- subversion laws which
   Alatas said the purpose of his tour of         critic Beryl Gaffney.                                carry the death penalty.
foreign capitals is to explain Indonesia’s            Alatas told a news conference the mas-        3) Under the UN Economic and Social
actions since last November’s killings in Dili.   sacre was “essentially a tragedy.”                   Council’s guidelines for inquiring into
   He said he hopes foreign governments               But he said there was a lot of exaggeration      atrocities of this nature, the chosen
will take a “more balanced” view of the           and anti-Indonesian campaigning under way            members “shall be independent of any
situation.                                        by opponents who are trying to discredit his         institution, agency or person that may be
                                                  government.                                          the subject of the inquiry.” According to
MACDOUGALL MAY LIFT                                   Demonstrators staged a silent vigil out-         Michael Leifer of the London School of
INDONESIAN SANCTIONS                              side the Indonesian consulate in downtown            Economics, “within Indonesia, there are
(TORONTO STAR)                                    Toronto yesterday top protest human rights           no effective independent institutions.”
                                                  violations in East Timor, The Star’s Cal          4) The head of the inquiry, M. Djaelani, is a
25 February 1992. By Tim Harper                   Millar reports.                                      former general, a member in retirement of
   OTTAWA – External Affairs Minister                 Members of the East Timor Alert                  the Indonesian Supreme Court, in his
Barbara McDougall signalled yesterday             Network and ACT for Disarmament organ-               prime a commander of the infamous Red
she’s prepared to restore aid to Indonesia,       ized the demonstration.                              Beret unit involved in numerous atrocities
less than four months after its troops mas-       See page 22 (Alatas visit to Ottawa), and            in East Timor.
sacred a group of mourners at a funeral in        page 49 (Canada supports Indonesia in the
occupied East Timor.                                                                                5) Gen. Try Sutrisno, the commander in
                                                  U.N. Human Rights Commission).                       chief of the Indonesian armed forces, in
   McDougall made the comments after a
90-minute meeting here with Indonesian                                                                 December endorsed the Indonesian policy
Foreign Minister Ali Alatas, on a tour of                                                              towards East Timor by saying “we will
Western capitals his critics have dismissed                                                            annihilate all separatist elements that taint
as a “public relations tour.”                                                                          the dignity of Indonesia.” (International
   Canada suspended $30 million in prom-                                                               Herald Tribune)
ised funding for new projects in Indonesia                                                          6) Indonesia does not respect human rights
last December to protest the shooting of the                                                           and still refuses to sign United Nations
                                                                                                       conventions on human rights. It refuses to
Page 26                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

  allow an internationally supervised             Indonesia to follow through UN efforts to        as, according to Editor’s sources, Belo left
  investigation into the massacre and             investigate the Santa Cruz massacre in Dili,     for Jakarta over the weekend.
  situation in East Timor. It continues to        East Timor on 12 November 1991.                     In any case Wako will meet the whole
  deny international human rights organi-            Princen who is chair of the Indonesian        KPN team who will tell him the results of
  zations like Amnesty International access       League for the Defence of Human Rights           their inquiry, as they told them to President
  into East Timor and Indonesia.                  (LPHAM), also met the UN emissary as a           Suharto at the end of last year.
  Please write to: The Hon. Barbara               member of Infight, the Indonesian Front for         The results of Wako’s visit will provide
MacDougall Minister of External Affairs           Human Rights.                                    the basis for the UN Secretary-General to
House of Commons Ottawa, ON. K1A 0A6                 During the talks, Princen said it was es-     formulate the next move for reaching a so-
                                   Thank you,     sential for the names of the casualties who      lution to the East Timor question. For
                              Li-lien Gibbons     died during the massacre to be made public.      Indonesia, the Wako visit is like a two-edged
                                                  He also raised the issue of compensation for     sword in its efforts to restore Indonesia
                                                  those who had lost relatives during the          diplomacy which plummetted because of the
      U.N. ENVOY AMOS                             massacre or who had been themselves in-          Dili incident. Will it be for the better or not?
                                                  jured. He impressed upon Wako the need for
      WAKO’S MISSION                              international protection for human rights        U.N. SPECIAL ENVOY NOT TO
          TO TIMOR                                organisations in Indonesia which had come        PROBE EAST TIMOR SHOOTING,
                                                  under increasing pressure from the authori-      SAYS ALATAS
                                                  ties for their activities in connection with
WAKO ARRIVAL REMARKS                              human rights abuses in East Timor.                  JAKARTA, Feb 10 (AFP) - Indonesian
                                                     Princen also handed Wako a document on        Foreign Minister Ali Alatas said here
   Reuter, Jakarta, Jonathan Thatcher, Feb 9                                                       Monday that a visiting personal envoy of
- A special United Nations envoy arrived in       the human rights
                                                                                                   U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-
Jakarta on Sunday to discuss Indonesia’s                                                           Ghali was not investigating the November
response to the killing of civilians by its       AS LONG AS IT’S NOT
                                                  INVESTIGATIVE (EDITOR)                           massacre in East Timor.
soldiers in East Timor three months ago.                                                              “His coming here is not of an investiga-
   “My mission is really consultative, one        Editor. 15 February 1992. Abridged.              tive nature... The main thing is, it is clari-
which seeks clarification, one which seeks to                                                      fication not investigation and I know the
                                                      The eyes of the world are again turned on
be informed on what is happening, what is                                                          difference,” Alatas told journalists after
                                                  Indonesia because of the scheduled visit of
being done by the government on issues                                                             meeting the special envoy, Kenyan Attorney
                                                  Kenya’s attorney-general, Amos Wako, the
relating to the incident on 12th November,”                                                        General Amos Wako.
                                                  UN’s Special Rapporteur on summary and
Amos Wako told reporters on arrival at                                                                Wako, who arrived here Sunday saying he
                                                  arbitrary executions.
Jakarta airport where he was given a low-                                                          was seeking clarification on the Dili
                                                      The task entrusted to Mr Wako is impor-
key welcome.                                                                                       shooting, declined to talk to the press after
                                                  tant because of the discord between the UN
   He will meet government and military                                                            the meeting with Alatas.
                                                  and Indonesia. Such a visit was first raised
officials, starting with foreign minister Ali                                                         Alatas also said that Wako had asked to
                                                  last year by former UN Secretary-General
Alatas on Monday morning and will also go                                                          go to Dili, East Timor, where the shooting
                                                  Perez de Cuellar but Indonesia felt it had
to East Timor during his visit, expected to                                                        occurred, “and in principle, we have no
                                                  been ‘side-stepped’ because de Cuellar used
last about a week.                                                                                 objection.” A date has yet to be agreed for
                                                  his personal authority rather than going
   Wako said he would meet anyone who                                                              the visit, he added.
                                                  through official procedures. Indonesia also
could tell him about the incident.                                                                    Indonesian troops fired into a crowd at a
                                                  rejected an ‘investigation team,’ the term
   “Indonesia has undertaken that whoever                                                          cemetery in Dili on November 12, killing
                                                  used at the time by de Cuellar. “We will
sees me...will not in any way be victimised.”                                                      some 50 people according to the official toll.
                                                  receive an emissary of the UN but not for
                                                  investigation,” said Foreign Minister Ali        Other sources have said more than 100 died.
   UPI, Jakarta, Sukino Harisumarto, Feb 9 -                                                          While in Jakarta, Wako is also scheduled
                                                  Alatas at the time.
Wako expressed the hope he would be                                                                to meet with Indonesian Attorney General
                                                      This is now the formula agreed by the
permitted to go to East Timor during his                                                           Singgih, head of a National Commission of
                                                  two sides. Being called a ‘personal emissary’
stay in Indonesia.                                                                                 Investigation which was set up to probe the
                                                  highlights a diplomatic rather than an
   Wako, who is Kenya’s attorney general,                                                          massacre, Minister of State Secretary
                                                  investigative role. These difficult consulta-
attempted to put Indonesian authorities,                                                           Murdiono and Coordinating Minister of
                                                  tions are reflected in the secrecy surrounding
nervous that the visit could represent a U.N.                                                      Defence and Political Affairs Sudomo,
                                                  Wako’s visit. Up to late last week, Wako’s
inquiry, at ease Sunday by stressing that he                                                       Alatas said.
                                                  itinerary was not being made public. The
was not part of an inquiry.                                                                           Other meetings with non governmental
                                                  UN announcement simply said he would
   “I don’t think my visit is in any way an                                                        officials were still being arranged, he added.
                                                  meet government officials, members of the
interference in the internal affairs of                                                               Indonesian troops invaded the former
                                                  national inquiry commission (KPN) and
Indonesia,” he said. “I wouldn’t be here                                                           Portuguese colony of East Timor in 1975.
                                                  others linked to the Dili incident.
without an invitation from the government                                                          Lisbon severed diplomatic ties with Jakarta
                                                      Wako and his team can meet anyone they
of Indonesia.”                                                                                     shortly afterward. Jakarta unilaterally de-
                                                  want, said Benny Murdani, Foreign Minister
   Wako, accompanied by two other U.N.                                                             clared East Timor its 27th province in 1976,
                                                  ad interim. “If they ask, we will consider it,
officials, would not elaborate on his itinerary                                                    a move both the United Nations and
                                                  as long as it’s not for investigation,” said
during his Indonesian visit.                                                                       Portugal have refused to recognize.
                                                  Minister/Secretary of State Moerdiono.
HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST MEETS                           Many circles doubt the value of the UN       INDONESIA TO ALLOW U.N. ENVOY
                                                  team visiting Dili. “Their appearance there
UN SPECIAL EMISSARY                                                                                VISIT EAST TIMOR
                                                  would lead to reactions,” said Clementino
TAPOL report, 12 February 1992                    dos Reis Amaral, a member of the KPN.               JAKARTA, Feb 10, Reuter - Indonesia
   The foremost Indonesian human rights           What if Wako wants to meet Bishop Belo?          said on Monday it would allow a United
activist, J.C. Princen, today met Amos            “He can be called to Jakarta,” replied           Nations special envoy to visit East Timor
Wako, the special emissary of the UN              Amaral. That may have been the way chosen        where soldiers shot scores of civilians three
Secretary- General who is currently in                                                             months ago.
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                         Page 27

   “He said it wouldn’t be a complete visit         Two senior army officers were dismissed,   COMMISSION WILL SOON RELEASE
without going to East Timor,” Indonesian        but no soldiers were punished for the          ITS FINAL REPORT, MURDIONO SAID.
Foreign Minister Ali Alatas told reporters.     killings.                                        HE SAID THE FULL REPORT WILL
“We have no objections and are looking for          Indonesian troops intervened in East       SUPPORT THE PRELIMINARY
the best time for the visit.”                   Timor during a civil war in 1975 and annexed   FINDINGS THAT 50 PEOPLE WERE
   Alatas was speaking after meeting            the former Portuguese colony in 1976.          KILLED AND ANOTHER 90 WENT
Kenyan Attorney General Amos Wako, the                                                         MISSING IN THE INCIDENT.
personal representative of U.N. Secretary-      U.N. SPECIAL ENVOY TO MEET                       THE REPORT CONTRADICTS
General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who arrived      SUHARTO ON FRIDAY                              EYEWITNESSES AND OTHER
in Jakarta on Sunday.                              JAKARTA, Feb 11 (AFP) - A special           INDEPENDENT SOURCES WHICH
   An international outcry followed the         envoy of the U.N. Secretary-General will       CLAIM THAT THE DEATH TOLL
November 12 shooting of civilians mourning      meet President Suharto Friday to seek          EXCEEDED 100 WHEN GOVERNMENT
the death of a separatist in the East Timor     clarification on the November army shooting    TROOPS OPENED FIRE ON A
capital Dili. An official inquiry said 50       of civilians in East Timor, State Secretary    FUNERAL PROCESSION IN DILI.
people were killed though local witnesses       Murdiono said Tuesday.                           THE COMMISSION SAID SOLDIERS
say the toll was much higher.                      The envoy, Kenyan Attorney-General          ENGAGED IN “EXCESSIVE
   On his arrival, Wako said he would meet      Amos Wako, will also deliver a message         SHOOTING” AFTER BEING
anyone who could tell him about the inci-       from President Daniel arap Moi when he         PROVOKED. WITNESSES, HOWEVER,
dent.                                           meets with Suharto, from Dili, Murdiono        SAID MILITARY PERSONNEL OPENED
   Only civilians have been charged over the    said.                                          FIRE WITHOUT CAUSE.
shootings though an official inquiry put           U.N. chief Boutros Boutros-Ghali’s en-        AFTER HIS MEETING WITH
much of the blame on the military.              voy is to leave Wednesday for East Timor,      MURDIONO ON TUESDAY, WAKO
   Alatas said Indonesia would bring those      where he will stay overnight, Indonesian       ALSO SPOKE WITH ATTORNEY
who broke the law to court and a special        Foreign Minister Ali Alatas earlier told re-   GENERAL SINGGIH REGARDING THE
military council would deal with soldiers.      porters at his office.                         SHOOTINGS.
   “The November 12 incident did not re-           Murdiono said Wako had examined the
flect our government’s policy. It was a trag-   preliminary government report on the              AFP, Jakarta, Feb 11 - A special envoy
edy which we all regretted,” he said.           November 12 military shooting which con-       of the U.N. Secretary-General will meet
   The United Nations does not recognise        cluded that some 50 people were killed.        President Suharto Friday to seek clarification
Indonesian rule in East Timor.                     Other sources, including witnesses, have    on the November army shooting of civilians
   Indonesia invaded the territory in 1975      said the death toll was up to 115.             in East Timor, State Secretary Murdiono
shortly after the former Portuguese colonial       The visiting envoy met with members of      said Tuesday.
rulers withdrew.                                the government’s probe team and with              The envoy, Kenyan Attorney-General
                                                Alatas on Monday.                              Amos Wako, will also deliver a message
ALATAS: WAKO CAN VIS IT TIMOR                                                                  from President Daniel arap Moi when he
   JAKARTA, Indonesia (AP, Feb. 10) –           U.N. ENVOY TO MEET INDONESIAN                  meets with Suharto, from Dili, Murdiono
Foreign Minister Ali Alatas told a special      PRES. SUHARTO                                  said.
United Nations envoy Monday that he                                                               U.N. chief Boutros Boutros-Ghali’s en-
would be allowed to visit East Timor to in-       JAKARTA (FEB. 11) KYODO - A                  voy is to leave Wednesday for East Timor,
vestigate the shooting deaths of demonstra-     UNITED NATIONS’ ENVOY WILL                     where he will stay overnight, Indonesian
tors by Indonesian troops last November.        MEET WITH PRESIDENT SUHARTO                    Foreign Minister Ali Alatas earlier told re-
   Kenyan Attorney General Amos Wako            FRIDAY TO DISCUSS THE SHOOTING                 porters at his office.
arrived in Indonesia Sunday, at the request     INCIDENT INVOLVING                                Murdiono said Wako had examined the
of U.N. Secretary General Boutros Ghali, to     GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN EAST                      preliminary government report on the
gather information on the shooting of un-       TIMOR LAST YEAR, SECRETARY OF                  November 12 military shooting which con-
armed Timorese protesting Jakarta’s 16-         STATE MURDIONO SAID TUESDAY.                   cluded that some 50 people were killed.
year-old occupation of East Timor.                AMOS WAKO, WHO IS ALSO                          The visiting envoy met with members of
   While a national commission maintains        KENYA’S ATTORNEY GENERAL, MET                  the government’s probe team and with
that about 50 people were killed and about      WITH MURDIONO DURING THE DAY                   Alatas on Monday.
90 were still missing, foreign witnesses and    TO DISCUSS THE KILLING OF AN
human rights groups have placed the death       ESTIMATED 50 PEOPLE BY                         WAKO MEETS WITH MURDIONO
toll as high as 200.                            GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN EAST
                                                TIMOR LAST NOVEMBER 12.                           Kyodo, Jakarta, Feb 11 - Amos Wako
   After a two-hour meeting with Wako,                                                         met with Murdiono during the day to dis-
Alatas told reporters that Wako had said he       MURDIONO TOLD REPORTERS
                                                SUHARTO WILL TALK WITH THE                     cuss the killing of an estimated 50 people by
intended to make a trip to Dili, East Timor’s                                                  government troops in East Timor last
provincial capital.                             SPECIAL ENVOY SENT BY U.N.
                                                SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROS                      November 12.
   “Of course we will allow it,” Alatas said.                                                     Wako leaves for Dili on Wednesday.
“We will arrange the time of the visit.”        BOUTROS GHALI AFTER HE
                                                RETURNS FROM EAST TIMOR’S                      Murdiono said Wako has already examined a
   Wako is expected to meet with top                                                           preliminary report drafted by a special
Indonesian officials, who have said they        CAPITAL OF DILI, WHERE THE
                                                INCIDENT OCCURRED.                             government commission set up to investigate
welcomed his visit but would reject any                                                        the incident. The commission will soon
plans for an international commission to in-      WAKO LEAVES FOR DILI ON
                                                WEDNESDAY. MURDIONO SAID                       release its final report, Murdiono said.
vestigate the shootings.                                                                          He said the full report will support the
   Amnesty International has accused the        WAKO HAS ALREADY EXAMINED A
                                                PRELIMINARY REPORT DRAFTED BY                  preliminary findings that 50 people were
Indonesian government of conducting a bi-                                                      killed and another 90 went missing in the
ased investigation and of committing further    A SPECIAL GOVERNMENT
                                                COMMISSION SET UP TO                           incident.
human rights violations.                                                                          After his meeting with Murdiono on
                                                INVESTIGATE THE INCIDENT. THE
                                                                                               Tuesday, Wako also spoke with Attorney
                                                                                               General Singgih regarding the shootings.
Page 28                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992


WAKO ARRIVES IN DILI (AFP)                        formation than the official commission re-       national criticism of an army massacre in
                                                  port has provided.                               East Timor three months ago amounted to a
   JAKARTA, Feb 12 (AFP) - United                    “During the talks, I briefed him on the       violation of Indonesia’s rights.
Nations special envoy Amos Wako arrived           prospective government program in handling          “No country should impose its values (on
in Dili, East Timor, Wednesday, to seek           East Timor after the November 12 incident,”      another country)...it is not in accordance
clarification of the November shooting in         Carrascalao was quoted as saying.                with the values they themselves glorify,” he
which at least 50 people were killed.                Wako also met Catholic Bishop Carlos          said in a speech while accepting the cre-
   Wako, a personal envoy of U.N.                 Ximenes Belo but the newspaper did not           dentials of the new Dutch ambassador to
Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali,          report on their talks.                           Indonesia.
flew from here in a special airplane and                                                              “If it is forced, it is itself the same as de-
landed in Dili in the afternoon in rough          UN ENVOY VISITS MASSACRE SITE,                   nying human rights and the sovereignty of
weather, sources in Dili contacted by tele-       ENDS TIMOR TRIP                                  the country.”
phone told AFP.
                                                     DILI, East Timor, Feb 13, Reuter - A             The Netherlands, which colonised what
   A commercial aircraft of the domestic
                                                  United Nations special envoy ended a mis-        was then known as the East Indies for about
airliner Merpati Nusantara airlines, also
                                                  sion to East Timor on Thursday after visit-      350 years until 1945, has been among the
scheduled to land Wednesday afternoon
                                                  ing a cemetery where Indonesian soldiers         most vocal critics of the military shooting of
circled Dili airport several times in the storm
                                                  shot scores of people three months ago.          civilians in East Timor last November.
before the pilot abandoned his attempt and
                                                     Plainclothes security men kept watch at          It threatened to cut aid to Indonesia fol-
returned to the resort island of Bali,
                                                  the airport and other sensitive areas of the     lowing the shooting, which the government
passengers said from Denpasar.
                                                  Eat Timor capital Dili as the envoy, Kenyan      says left 50 people dead. Witnesses say the
   Among passengers on the Merpati flight
                                                  Attorney General Amos Wako, toured the           soldiers killed more than 100.
were several military officers and scores of
                                                  city, witnesses said.                               In a clear reference to the Dutch, Suharto
journalists from Jakarta, they said.
                                                     An international outcry followed the          said: “As a country born out of a war for
   Wako, who is also Kenya’s attorney gen-
                                                  November 12 shooting of civilians mourning       independence after expelling colonialism
eral, arrived in Indonesia on Sunday seeking
                                                  the death of a separatist in Dili.               which has taken away its rights for hundreds
clarification on the November 12 shooting in
                                                     An official inquiry said 50 people were       of years, we are upholding freedom and self-
Dili and the steps taken by the government
                                                  killed though other sources put the toll at      respect.
here since.
                                                  more than 100 and said the shooting was             “We are determined to build up our own
   He has already met in Jakarta with
                                                  unprovoked.                                      power and to develop in the direction that
Foreign Minister Ali Alatas, State Secretary
                                                     On arrival for his two-day visit, Wako        we consider is right for us,” he said.
Minister Murdiono, Attorney General
                                                  said he would see anyone who could tell him         “But we are also aware of the importance
Singgih, Coordinating Minister of Political
                                                  about the incident.                              of cooperation and assistance from other
and Security Affairs Sudomo and members
                                                     On Thursday he met East Timor                 nations to accelerate the development of the
of a national commission of investigation set
                                                  Governor Mario Viegas Carrascalao and            country, without sacrificing our basic
up by President Suharto to probe the
                                                  Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo, the influential      principles as a sovereign state.”
shooting.
                                                  prelate of the predominantly Roman                  Suharto made his comments as a United
   In its preliminary report, the commission
                                                  Catholic territory.                              Nations special envoy ended a mission to
said that troops, acting without command,
                                                     He also drove in an army bus with eastern     East Timor after visiting a cemetery in the
had shot into demonstrators at a cemetery in
                                                  Indonesian military commander Major              capital Dili where the shootings took place
Dili, killing about 50 people. Other sources
                                                  General Herman Mantiri along the route to        on November 12.
said the death toll could have topped 100.
                                                  Santa Cruz cemetery taken by the mourners           Kenyan Attorney General Amos Wako
   The sources in Dili said Wako is sched-
                                                  before the soldiers opened fire.                 earlier on Thursday met East Timor
uled to meet with East Timor Governor
                                                     Wako, the personal representative of          Governor Mario Viegas Carrascalao and
Mario Viegas Carrascalao on Thursday and
                                                  U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-          Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo, the influential
with Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos
                                                  Ghali, did not get off the bus at the ceme-      prelate of the predominantly Roman
Ximenes Belo later in the day.
                                                  tery.                                            Catholic territory.
   Press reports here said the U.N. envoy
                                                     The United Nations does not recognise            He also drove in an army bus with eastern
will also be meeting East Timor Military
                                                  Indonesia’s annexation of East Timor in          Indonesian military commander Major
Operational Commander Brigadier General
                                                  1976. Indonesian troops invaded the terri-       General Herman Mantiri along the route to
Theo Syafei before flying back to Jakarta
                                                  tory in 1975 after the departure of its          Santa Cruz cemetery taken by the mourners
late Thursday.
                                                  Portuguese colonial rulers and have stayed       before the soldiers opened fire.
WAKO MEETS CARRASCALAO                            on since then to fight separatists.                 Wako, the personal representative of
                                                     Governor Carrascalao told reporters           U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-
   Kyodo, Jakarta, Feb 13 - Amos Wako                                                              Ghali, did not get off the bus at the ceme-
held talks with the governor of East Timor        Wako’s visit was aimed at seeking clarifi-
                                                  cation of the official report and not to carry   tery.
to discuss the killings there last November.                                                          The United Nations does not recognise
   Accompanied by two U.N. officials, he          out a separate investigation.
                                                     Carrascalao also said government action       Indonesia’s annexation of East Timor in
held a two-hour talk with Jakarta-appointed                                                        1976. Indonesian troops invaded the terri-
East Timor governor Mario Carrascalao on          must taken against those found guilty.
                                                     “The law should be applied to every-          tory in 1975 after the departure of its
what measures the Indonesian government                                                            Portuguese colonial rulers and have stayed
has taken over the killings.                      one...and that includes the military,” he
                                                  added.                                           on since then to fight separatists.
   The talks were also attended by Udayana                                                            Indonesia gets about five billion dollars a
Military Commander Maj. Gen. H.B.L.                  Only civilians have been charged over the
                                                  shootings.                                       year in aid from industrial countries, most of
Mantiri, who oversees Bali and East Timor,                                                         whom have condemned the East Timor
as well as a member of a government inquiry                                                        shootings.
                                                  SUHARTO TELLS OTHERS NOT TO
commission Hadi Wayarabi, who is also a                                                               They have largely been placated by the
Foreign Ministry official.                        IMPOSE THEIR VALUES
                                                                                                   government report into the incident, though
   Carrascalao said that in the talks Wako          JAKARTA, Feb 13, Reuter - President            Indonesian soldiers have yet to be charged
put questions because he wanted more in-          Suharto on Thursday said continued inter-        with the shootings.
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                Page 29

   Governor Carrascalao told reporters            injustice which will itself turn into a seed for   all involved in the November 12 shootings in
Wako’s visit was aimed at seeking clarifi-        global unrest,” said Suharto, leader of the        East Timor, including soldiers, United
cation of the official report and not to carry    world’s fourth most populous nation with           Nations envoy Amos Wako said here
out a separate investigation.                     over 150 million inhabitants.                      Friday.
                                                                                                         “The president was very clear. (He) said
FORCING FOREIGN VALUES ON                         WAKO: INDONESIA READY TO TRY                       that all found guilty would be prosecuted,”
OTHER COUNTRIES VIOLATES                          SOLDIERS OVER TIMOR DEATHS                         Wako told reporters at the end of his trip.
HUMAN RIGHTS: SUHARTO                             By Jonathan Thatcher                                   He said his meeting with Suharto was
    JAKARTA, Feb 13 (AFP) - Indonesian                                                               “very informative and authoritative regarding
                                                      JAKARTA, Feb 14, Reuter - Indonesia            the steps that the government has already
President Suharto hit out Thursday at             has promised to prosecute anyone, including
countries which attempted to impose their                                                            taken in relation to the Dili incident.”
                                                  soldiers, involved in the massacre of civilians        Suharto is determined “those who gave
values on other countries, claiming it was a      in East Timor last November, a special
violation of human rights.                                                                           the orders to shoot and those who actually
                                                  United Nations representative said on              carried out the shooting would be prose-
    He made his comments at the palace here       Friday.
when receiving the credentials of new Dutch                                                          cuted,” Wako said.
                                                      “It was made very clear that...anybody
Ambassador, Robert Dudley van Roijen.             who infringed regulations relating to the          U.N. ENVOY ENDS ITS SIX-DAY
    The Netherlands has threatened to cut aid     shooting and so on, even if it was the mili-
to Jakarta after Indonesian troops shot dead                                                         FACT-FINDING TRIP
                                                  tary, would be prosecuted,” Amos Wako
50 people at a memorial ceremony in Dili,         told reporters after meeting President                 JAKARTA (FEB. 14) DPA - A United
East Timor, in November. Other sources            Suharto.                                           Nations envoy ended a six-day mission to
said the death toll probably topped 100.              Wako, Kenya’s attorney-general, spent          Indonesia Friday to discuss an incident in
    Indonesia and other member states of the      six days in Indonesia discussing the               East Timor in which some 50 people were
Association of South-East Asian Nations           November 12 shooting by soldiers of                killed when troops fired on demonstrators.
(ASEAN) – Brunei, Malaysia, the                   mourners in the East Timor capital of Dili.            Amos Wako, the Kenya attorney general,
Philippines, Singapore and Thailand – have            Witnesses say at least 100 people died.        said he was satisfied with his talks and
been trying to thwart efforts by their main       The government has put the death toll at 50.       would report to U.N. Secretary General
western donors and trading partners to link           “My discussions with him (Suharto)             Boutros Ghali.
aid and trade with human rights issues.           were very informative and authoritative re-            Wako said he was in Indonesia to clarify
    Suharto said: “There is not a single nation   garding the steps the government has already       details of the incident at Dili on November
obliged to apply values of life which it          taken in relation to the Dili incident and         12. He also wanted to discover what steps
cannot understand and are incompatible with       what its intentions are,” he said.                 the government had taken to investigate the
its own fundamental values. If they are               More than 50 East Timorese face trial          shootings.
imposed, it would be equal to negating hu-        over the incident. But diplomats are con-              Wako held talks with President Suharto
man rights itself and the fundamental rights      cerned that no soldiers, blamed in an official     and Foreign Minister Ali Alatas. On a two-
of a sovereign state.”                            report for their role in the shooting, had yet     day trip to Dili earlier in the week, he met
    He said Indonesia recognized that there       been prosecuted.                                   East Timor governor Mario Viegas
were fundamental rights which were uni-               A special military council investigating       Carrascalao, Catholic bishop Carlos Ximenes
versal in nature and cited human rights,          the army’s role has still to complete its          Belo, military leaders as well as private
democracy and freedom.                            work.                                              citizens.
    However, he said those values, if they            “My mission was not investigative...My             The envoy also held discussions with a
originated from abroad, would only be able        mission was to clarify some of the issues. I       national commission which has been set up
to grow healthily in another country if they      think I have enough information on which to        to investigate the incident. In Dili, he visited
incorporated local values.                        go on,” Wako said.                                 14 people still being treated in hospital for
    “In this world which is increasingly be-          He expects to give his report and rec-         their injuries.
coming unified, the importance of the             ommendations to U.N. Secretary-General
meaning of mutual understanding and mutual                                                           WAKO ENDS INDONESIAN VISIT
                                                  Boutros Boutros-Ghali next week.                   (RADIO AUSTRALIA)
respect between countries is increasingly             The U.N. still does not recognise Jakarta
felt,” Suharto said.                              rule in East Timor which it invaded in 1975        14 Feb 1992. 10:00 UTC Radio Australia
    Suharto said Indonesia was determined to      shortly after the Portuguese colonial admin-       International Report (English)
develop itself by its own means. “But we          istrators left.                                       UN Special Envoy Amos Wako has just
also are aware of the importance of coop-             Wako said he spoke to a wide range of          ended a mission to Indonesia to gather in-
eration and aid from other countries in ac-       people from government and the military as         formation on last November’s massacre in
celerating the development, without sacri-        well as civilians.                                 the East Timorese capital, Dili. Mr Wako
ficing the fundamental principles of a sov-           During a two-day visit to East Timor, at       said he’s been assured that troops found to
ereign country.”                                  the eastern end of the Indonesian archipel-        have been involved in the killings will be
    The president last month unveiled a draft     ago, he met the 14 East Timorese still in          prosecuted. This report from Ian MacIntosh
state budget for the upcoming fiscal year         hospital with injuries from the November           in Jakarta:
which begins in April in which the role of        shooting.                                             Mr Wako, who began his final day here
foreign aid in development was drastically            Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas         by meeting with President Suharto, says the
reduced. Instead Indonesia will rely more on      told the news conference that he expects to        Indonesian leader has been very clear that all
internal revenues generated from tax and          continue his trip to North America and             found to have been involved in the Dili
exports.                                          Europe this weekend to explain Indonesia’s         bloodshed would be prosecuted. He told
    The future of the world was the respon-       position over the incident.                        reporters that he’d specifically asked his
sibility of all nations. One country or group                                                        host, “What about the military?,” and has
of nations, no matter how powerful, would         SUHARTO: SOLDIERS TO BE                            been told that Indonesia, as a society which
not be able to govern the world alone,            PROSECUTED                                         obeys the laws, has set up a military council
Suharto said.
                                                     Kyodo, Jakarta, Feb 14 - Indonesian             of honour to probe armed forces involve-
    “A world regulated by a single country or
                                                  President Suharto has promised to prosecute        ment in the massacre. Based on the council’s
group of countries only, would give rise to
Page 30                                                           East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

findings, the envoy quoted President Suharto      SECURITY OPERATIONS IN DILI                        Amos Wako asked for private meetings
as saying those who either gave the orders to     DURING WAKO VISIT (EDITOR)                         without the presence of anyone from the
shoot or actually carried out the shooting                                                           Indonesian side. In fact, during the meeting
would be prosecuted, and he, the president,       Editor. 22 February 1992. Original lan-            with Bishop Belo in the company of two
was determined that would happen.                 guage: Indonesian. These are extracts from         senior church officials, several Indonesian
    The final reports of both the national        a two-page article reporting on the visit to       officials were told to leave.
commission which enquired into the killings,      Dili of Amos Wako, the UN Secretary-                  During the one-and-a-half hour meeting,
and the military council currently in session     General’s special emissary:                        when the conversation was held in
are still awaited, but they’re understood to         This was the first visit to East Timor of a     Portuguese and Latin, the Bishop presented
be generating strong opposition from those        senior UN official since integration. It was       photographs of the Santa Cruz incident. “It
in the military and elsewhere who believe         the most eagerly awaited part of his visit to      was a secret meeting. This was an investi-
Indonesia’s probe of the Dili massacre has        Indonesia.                                         gation, not just asking for clarifications,” said
already gone too far.                                This would be the ‘core’ that would de-         one source. Is that so?
    Today Mr Wako, who is the Attorney            termine the results of the Wako visit. But,           Clementino denied that. “We left because
General of Kenya, was at pains to point out       some circles feared that it would be used to       we respected their request.” Carrascalao also
that despite the low key public posture he        stage a demonstration, as happened during          denied that anything secretive had happened
and his four-person support team have             the visit of another UN official, Professor        during his meeting with the Wako team.
adopted since their arrival here last weekend,    Kooijmans. This is why, said Brig. Gen.            Wako said: “I wanted to talk calmly. I felt
they’ve been able to meet with a range of         Theo Syafei, commander of Kolakops                 disturbed by the presence of those others.”
government and military officers, as well as,     (operational command), “the armed forces
in his words, “citizens of Indonesia,” and a      didn’t want to be caught napping and didn’t        WAKO: I WOULD LIKE TO HAVE
wide cross section of Non Government              want to take the slightest risk.”                  STAYED A LONG TIME (EDITOR)
Organisations that had asked to see him. He          Therefore, already for several days before      Editor. 22 February 1992. Original lan-
would not go into detail, however, about          the visit, security forces blanketed the entire    guage: Indonesian. Extracts only.
those meetings.                                   city. Around half a dozen Hino trucks, each
    The envoy said he’d also discussed a          carrying fully-armed anti-riot troops with         Q: Are you satisfied?
range of issues, among them the question of       shields drove through the streets every day.       A: I only had five days here, whilst the KPN
prosecutions of military personnel and oth-       “We were on full alert, day and night.                has worked for several months. Naturally,
ers involved; identification of those dead and    Intelligence units were also on full alert,”          the Indonesian government has obtained
missing after the November 12 killings; the       said a Dili police officer.                           satisfactory results from those
number, location and identity of bodies, and         From crack of dawn on the day of                   investigations.
questions relating to the general reha-           Wako’s arrival, row upon row of troops             Q: Isn’t a visit of only five days too short?
bilitation and development of East Timor.         were spread right across the grassy fields
    Mr Wako was asked whether he had                                                                 A: Yes, as a matter of fact, I’d like to have
                                                  and in between the trees surrounding
managed to obtain information which dif-                                                                been here much longer. But it wasn’t my
                                                  Comoro airport. “We were there at the ready
fered from that provided by his Indonesian                                                              task to carry out an investigation so I
                                                  from five in the morning,” one of the soldiers
Government hosts, such as on the number of                                                              didn’t need a long time. If it had been an
                                                  later told Editor. Even when there was a
people who died in the Dili carnage. He                                                                 investigation (like the KPN for instance),
                                                  heavy downpour, the troops remained in
replied that the death toll was an issue still                                                          I would have needed months.
                                                  place awaiting the arrival of Wako’s plane
needing clarification. The envoy added that       that afternoon.                                    Q: If it was not your task to conduct an in-
the identification of those missing, some of         As a result, no incident occurred, though a        vestigation, why did you meet separately
whom he said had died, was another matter         number of youths in several villages had              with Bishop Belo, Father Ricardo and
discussed at length during his visit.             been making plans to stage a demonstration            Father Antonio, without Indonesian of-
    Mr Wako, who returned to Jakarta from         to greet Wako. But before the plans could             ficials being present?
Dili late yesterday after a 24 hour visit to      actually go ahead, the security apparatus got      A: I wanted to have a calm discussion. I felt
the East Timorese capital, confirmed that         wind of them and a number of arrests were             disturbed by their presence. I’m only
he’d met there with Provincial Governor           made.                                                 joking. Sometimes on a mission like this, I
Mario Carrascalao, Roman Catholic Bishop             One leading figure who was captured                need to speak as the special emissary of
Carlos Belo and senior military officers.         because he was suspected of heading these             the UN Secretary General, the only one.
He’d retraced the route of the fateful pro-       preparations was Jacob Fernandes, Santa               Indeed, I had some people to accompany
cession from Dili’s Motael Church to the          Cruz village chief. Brig. Gen Theo Syafei             me, to help me. But when certain things
Santa Cruz Cemetery, where the killings           confirmed that these attempts to hold a               happen and there are things of a special
occurred, and talked with some of the mas-        demonstration and the arrests did indeed              nature that I must discuss with certain
sacre victims, still in hospital 3 months after   take place.                                           people, then I have to do this. It’s part of
the incident.                                        Nevertheless, another “incident” did oc-           my task.
    But on the details of his findings in Dili,   cur. When they left Jakarta, the six members
as well as from his various Jakarta meetings,                                                        Q: Did you think it was adequate to inspect
                                                  of the UN team were escorted by two
Mr Wako would not be drawn. He said he                                                                  the location of the incident from inside a
                                                  members of the national investigation
planned to forward his report to the UN Sec.                                                            bus?
                                                  commission (KPN), Hadi W. Alhadar and
General, Mr Boutros-Ghali next week,              Clementino dos Reis Amaral. During their           A: Even though I was in a bus, I kept my
telling reporters that, following his visits to   transit in Bali, the regional military com-           eyes wide open. I don’t think there is all
Jakarta and Dili, he was in a position to         mander, Major- General Mantiri, joined the            that much difference between going to
compile a comprehensive assessment,               group. For the entire visit (in Dili), along the      that place on foot or in a bus. I was quite
containing both his opinions and rec-             route from Motael Church to Santa Cruz and            satisfied.
ommendations. He would not, however,              also during the inspection visit to Wira           Q: What was your aim in coming to
indicate what follow-up action Dr. Boutros-       Husada Hospital, the whole group was pre-             Indonesia?
Ghali might decide upon.                          sent.                                              A: First to meet and consult with the
                                                     But during separate meetings with                  Indonesian government. Second to seek
                                                  Governor Carrascalao and Bishop Belo,
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                 Page 31

   clarifications about the Dili incident.         including the Governor, had expressed res-         Suharto, only saying that the Indonesian
   Third, to discover what is being done to        ervations that the visit might lead to trouble.    leader had told him of the steps Jakarta is
   resolve the 12 November 1991 incident.             The Wako group met very few people in           taking.
   These are the three most important things       Dili. They met the Governor and Bishop                When a howl of protest rose worldwide
   from my visit this time.                        Belo alone, in private. All the others in the      after the massacre, Jakarta immediately
Q: Have you achieved these objectives?             group, including KPN member Hadi                   pulled out the top two generals in charge of
                                                   Wayarabi and Major- General Mantiri, were          the Indonesian army in East Timor and set
A: I think so. I think I have the necessary        kept waiting outside.                              up a high-powered commission headed by a
   information for further steps. I will draw         The group drove along the route taken by        supreme court judge to investigate the inci-
   together everything I have to report to the     the demonstration from Motael Church to            dent.
   Secretary General. The next step is up to       Santa Cruz Cemetery. But they did not get             The commission’s preliminary finding
   him. I don’t know whether he will want          down from the coach in which they were             issued in late December, faulting the troops
   to take it to an international forum or not.    travelling. Tempo has been told by military        for overreacting and placing the death toll at
   I must leave it to his judgment.                sources that there was no ban on their get-        about 50 people with 90 more missing –
                                                   ting out of the coach and inspecting the lo-       either dead or in hiding – has satisfied most
TEMPO ON WAKO’S DILI VISIT                         cation of the incident.                            of Indonesia’s aid donor countries.
Tempo. 22 February 1992. Original lan-                Wako did not bother himself much about             Analysts say that Jakarta wants to close
guage Indonesian. These are extracts from a        this. “I kept my eyes open.” At Motael, the        the chapter on the Dili incident because it is
four-column report about the visit to Dili of      coach stopped for only three minutes, then         hosting the non-aligned movement (NAM)
Amos Wako, the special emissary of the UN          drove at 30 kms an hour to the cemetery.           summit later this year. Jakarta officials fear
Secretary-General.                                 They stopped there for only five minutes.          that the East Timor issue could be exploited
                                                      Then the group went to the Wira Husada          by some member states to discredit the
[Comment: Note that the military doctor in
                                                   Military Hospital where Wako spoke to              Indonesian government.
Dili still sticks by the army’s earlier casualty
                                                   some victims still being treated. [Tempo              Foreign secretary Ali Alatas has been
figure of 19. Taken together with Syafei’s
                                                   publishes a photo showing Wako talking to a        touring world capitals this month to assure
remarks in his Tempo interview - see
                                                   patient in bed; an army officer is standing        that Jakarta will take action against the er-
separate posting - the army shows clear
                                                   nearby.]                                           rant soldiers and is implementing measures
signs of opposing the Suharto/KPN cover-
                                                      Wako also spoke to Major Dr. Sofyan             “to restore peace and ensure the safety” of
up. Does this mean Suharto will face prob-
                                                   Malik, commander of the medical detach-            East Timor’s 750,000 people, including “a
lems keeping his promise that officers who
                                                   ment in East Timor, about the number of            full review” of its policies in East Timor.
ordered the troops to open fire will be
                                                   casualties. The major told him that nineteen          SInce the massacre, three countries have
brought to justice?]
                                                   died, 13 at the place of the incident and the      suspended their aid programmes to
   The most interesting part of Wako’s visit       remainder in hospital.                             Indonesia – Canada, Denmark and the
(to Indonesia) was the trip to Dili which             These are the figures according to the old      Netherlands. the United States, Japan and
lasted only a day. When he landed on               version, before the KPN published its              others waited for the results of the official
Wednesday afternoon, there was a heavy             findings. According to Major Malik, the            inquiry and have pronounced themselves
downpour in Dili. It would appear that the         victims were transported in army trucks.           satisfied with it.
public were not interested in the Wako visit.      “There were five or six,” he told Wako.               Foreign aid totals some five billion dollars
“They were not interested in Wako, all they           Seeing that Wako was so meticulous,             a year and accounts for about a fifth of
were talking about was the Portuguese ship,”       some people wonder whether this can still          Indonesia’s development budget.
said Brig. Gen. Theo Syafei.                       be said to be seeking clarifications. But             But Alatas’ assurances have struck a
   Apart from the question of the ship, the        Wako himself says that this is what he was         hollow ring. to date no action has been taken
security forces took extra measures. The           doing. “If this were an investigation mission,     against the soldiers directly involved in the
Wako group was heavily guarded; in con-            I would have to stay here for months.”             shootings while more than 50 East Timorese
trast, hardly any security measures were                                                              students are under investigation in Java and
taken when the UN’s special rapporteur,            JAKARTA WANTS TO CLOSE THE                         Bali for dissident activities.
Professor Kooijmans, visited Dili last             CHAPTER ON MASSACRE (IPS)                             Another 32 in Dili have been detained for
November.                                                                                             taking part in the demonstration, according
                                                       Kuala Lumpur, Feb. 20 (IPS/S Sivam) –
   It is evident that Brig-Gen. Theo Syafei                                                           to attorney-general Singgih. Three were re-
                                                   Indonesia is hoping that a United Nations
did not want to be caught napping.                                                                    cently sentenced to seven to nine-year
                                                   special envoy will redeem its international
Throughout the Wako itinerary, Theo never                                                             prison terms. The maximum penalty for
                                                   image, badly tarnished after an Indonesian
stayed with the group. He controlled the                                                              subversion is death.
                                                   army massacre of East Timorese protesters
group from a distance, always in civilian                                                                The ‘Indonesian human rights campaign’
                                                   last November.
dress. During Wako’s meeting with                                                                     has protested the haste with which the
                                                       Jakarta seemed close to finally gaining
Governor Carrascalao, Theo made a tour of                                                             Timorese are being tried and sentenced. The
                                                   international acceptance of its annexation of
the town. Sometimes, he went ahead of the                                                             human rights group has charged that two of
                                                   tiny East Timor when soldiers fired into a
group, inspecting the situation.                                                                      the trials lasted only a day each.
                                                   crowd of demonstrators in the predomi-
   On Wednesday afternoon, drenched by                                                                   Since January, Indonesian troops –part of
                                                   nantly Christian former Portuguese colony
the rain, the commander went to watch a                                                               the 10,000-strong contingent in East Timor –
                                                   last Nov. 12.
football match between kampungs. “I                                                                   have moved against jungle units of the
                                                       Amos Wako, special envoy of U.N.
wanted to see whether this was indeed just a                                                          Fretilin, the East Timorese guerrilla sepa-
                                                   Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali,
football match,” Theo told Tempo.                                                                     ratist movement, capturing an undetermined
                                                   spent all of last week in Indonesia seeking
   Moreover, Theo slept that night in the                                                             number, including the group’s second-in-
                                                   clarification of the killings. His itinerary in-
room next to Wako’s in Hotel Mahkota.                                                                 command, Jose da Costa.
                                                   cluded a trip to the East Timor capital of
   The results were satisfactory. Theo                                                                   Rebel leader Xanana Gusmao is still at
                                                   Dili where the massacre took place. Wako is
seems to have passed his first test with fly-                                                         large while a prominent lieutenant who is
                                                   attorney-general of Kenya as well as an in-
ing colours. There were no disturbances                                                               now Fretilin’s chief spokesman, Jose
                                                   ternational authority on human rights.
during the Wako visit even though some,                                                               Ramos-Horta, is now Lisbon-based after
                                                       Wako was non-committal when he spoke
                                                   to journalists after meeting president             escaping to Australia.
Page 32                                                         East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

   Portugal invaded the eastern half of Timor                                                    3. BRIEF DESCRIPTION
island in 1642. the Dutch-controlled western        PREPARING FOR THE                                Trip to Timor by sea with the participa-
half went to Indonesia upon independence.
   An abrupt Portuguese withdrawal in 1974             PEACE BOAT                                tion of 100 persons, including, among others,
                                                                                                 students from Portugal, other EEC countries,
after a coup in Lisbon brought an end to
                                                                                                 USA, Japan, China, Australia,
colonialism in East Timor but the political
instability that followed led to civil war.           PROPOSAL: MISSION                          Czechoslovakia. Some national and inter-
                                                                                                 national personalities will also be invited.
   Indonesia, saying it feared the spawning            “PEACE IN TIMOR”                          This mission also welcomes the Media par-
of a “Cuba at our back door,” moved its
                                                                                                 ticipation.
troops into East Timor in December 1975. it     1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE
said it did so “at the request” of some         SITUATION                                        4. PURPOSE
Timorese groups. East Timor was formally                                                           To lay a wreath of flowers at the Santa
annexed the following year as an Indonesian     1.1. The media war - The Santa Cruz mas-
                                                                                                 Cruz cemetery
province.                                          sacre assumed an unprecedented signifi-
   Since then, Portugal has been spearhead-        cance in the recent history of Timor. The     5. DATE: 27TH FEBRUARY 1992
ing an international campaign to negotiate a       testimony that reached the international         This mission will take place during the
solution to the East Timor issue in the            community through television images           last week of the World Conference for
united nations and bring pressure on               brought up a tragedy that many people         Human Rights, promoted by the UN in
Indonesia to respect human rights in East          ignored or tried to forget. Once more it      Geneva.
Timor.                                             became clear that a television image is
   Although Fretilin has been fighting the         much more powerful than a thousand            ANNEX 1
Indonesian army since the annexation,              words.
Jakarta officials say East Timor has been                                                        1. Brief description
                                                1.2. The Indonesian vulnerability - Never in         Voyage to East Timor by sea departing
pacified.                                          recent history was the international pres-    from Australia of an international group of
   Indonesia had hoped that the planned            sure on Indonesia so strongly felt as it is   students and personalities. Accompaniment
simultaneous visits last November of               today. We must make the best of this          by the Media
Portuguese parliamentarians and U.N. en-           temporary vulnerability and that is pre-
voys to assess the situation in East Timor                                                       2. Purpose
                                                   cisely what we’re doing. This demands a
would lead to U.N. recognition of Indonesian                                                         To make a plea for Human Rights through
                                                   constant pressure through the creation of
sovereignty over East Timor.                                                                     the symbolic gesture of laying a wreath of
                                                   political, diplomatic and, above all, media
   But the Portuguese mission fell through at                                                    flowers at the Santa Cruz cemetery (the
                                                   facts.
the last minute. a team from the U.N.                                                            place where 80 people, mainly students,
Human Rights Commission did visit Dili last     1.3. A different world -With the systematic      were massacred in 12.11.91).
November and some 1,500 protesters were            fall of dictatorships and the increasing
gathering to march to the hotel where the          intolerance towards the Human Rights          3. Organization
team was staying when the soldiers shot at         violations the world cannot continue to           Peace in Timor Commission with the
them.                                              ignore cases like Timor. Also, with the       support of students’ associations, important
                                                   fall of communism some fears have van-        personalities and the Media.
                                                   ished, making the new world order less        4. Students’ participation
                                                   favourable to Indonesia.                          Although the risk is minimal, the stu-
                                                1.4. An opportune intervention - The             dents’ participation is voluntary and their
                                                   Greenpeace movement, The Live Aid             own responsibility. All expenses, including
                                                   concerts, the Amnesty International, the      trip from country of origin, lodging, feeding
                                                   Chinese and Czechoslovak student move-        and return trip, will be supported by the or-
                                                   ments, the plight for the Amazonian           ganization. The departure to Australia com-
                                                   Indians are examples that show the world      prehends two phases:
                                                   is again receptive to new forms of media          A. Meeting of all the participants in
                                                   intervention. To spread any message or               Lisbon, with arrival on the 23rd of
                                                   win any cause everyone must keep this in             February. The participants from the
                                                   mind.                                                Far East are dispensed of this phase.
                                                1.5. National mobilization - Like the inter-        B. Departure to Australia on the 24th in
                                                   national community, Portugal was never              a direct flight.
                                                   so sensitive and receptive to the issue of
                                                   Timor. Students’ initiatives have been        5. Trip Australia-Timor
                                                   particularly important in this area.             Departure: 26th of February from Port
                                                                                                 Darwin. Duration: 2 to 5 days. Climate:
                                                2. STRATEGY                                      warm and moist. Equipment: light clothing,
                                                                                                 sleeping bag, rain-coat and a warm piece.
                                                1. Create an event of great media impact.
                                                                                                 6. Total duration of the Mission Peace in
                                                2. Center the intervention on the value of          Timor
                                                   Peace and Dialogue, for the defense of
                                                                                                    A duration of 5 to 10 days is expected.
                                                   Human Rights.
                                                                                                 7. If you want to join this initiative, you
                                                3. Create a situation that puts an end to in-       should:
                                                   activity and hastens the course of the
                                                   events.                                          A. Immediately contact the organization
                                                                                                       to:
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                             Page 33

       Rua da Prata, 185 - 2o., 1100 Lisbon,       in 1975 after the withdrawal of the former      which “places the mission in a very special
   Portugal tel.: 351-1-3479348/9, fax: 351-       Portuguese colonial rulers.                     and delicate position,” noted analyst
   1-3476518 The following information is                                                          Antonio Pinto Leite, Monday.
   required: Name, Age, Address,                   ‘ARMADA’ TO STOP PEACE SHIP?                        Indonesia warned last week that it would
   Telephone number, Schoolhouse, Course,             Reuter, Jakarta, Feb 15 - Indonesia has      send its navy to intercept the ship. However
   Organization you represent, Nationality.        ordered its navy to guard East Timor against    on Monday Portuguese media reported that
   If you have any specific abilities or           the arrival of a Portuguese ship carrying       Indonesia had softened its stance and will
   knowledge that might be useful for this         mourners to mark November’s army                allow the ship to dock in Dili “provided she
   mission you should refer them as well.          massacre.                                       obeys Indonesian emigration and maritime
   This information should be confirmed by            The daily Kompas reported that East          transport laws.”
   fax or mail, mentioning the acceptance of       Timor military commander Brigadier General          Its passengers “must be subject to inter-
   this conditions included in this annex 1.       Theo Syafei had set up a special task force     national regulations,” Indonesian army
   B. Any visa required for either Australia       in the Timor Sea to keep the ship away from     spokesman General Nurhadi Purwosaputro
       or Portugal should be arranged by you.      the former Portuguese colony.                   told journalists here.
                                                      Asked what the military would do when            But the peace mission organisers have
8. Last (but not least)                            the ship arrived, Syafei said: “I love peace.   already said that according to law and a
   The success of this mission depends on          But I love sovereignty and freedom more...I     resolution of the united nations security
your participation and it’s international dif-     would try to deal with them softly, if it did   council, “the territorial waters of Timor are
fusion. Spread the news of this mission. See       not work, I would handle it just like the ap-   Portuguese.”
you soon.                                          paratus of a sovereign country should do.”          In 1975 the U.N. recognised Portugal as
                                                      The task force involved police, immigra-     the administering power over Timor until a
INDONESIA READIES FORCE FOR                        tion officials and the navy, Kompas said.       referendum is held on independence for the
PORTUGUESE ARRIVAL                                 The frigate KRI Halim Perdana Kusuma            former colony. Ihe U.N. also urged
                                                   arrived in the territory on Wednesday.          Indonesian withdrawal.
    JAKARTA, Feb 11, Reuter - East
                                                      “That was the first ship. The second, the        Pinto Leite said Monday: “the ‘Lusitania
Timor’s military commander has assigned a
                                                   third and the fourth will follow,” Syafei was   Express’ will not bring liberty to Timor, but
special task force to deal with the impending
                                                   quoted as saying.                               it will be one step more in isolating
arrival of a Portuguese ship to mark the
                                                      The Lusitania Expresso set sail from         Indonesia and embarrassing the United
massacre of civilians there by Indonesian
                                                   Lisbon last month, planning to dock at the      States, Australia and the other countries for
soldiers three months ago.
                                                   northern Australian city of Darwin to pick      supporting Indonesia.
    “We have set up a special task force to
                                                   up more than 100 students and journalists           “It will also fix Timor on the agenda of
safeguard the people’s sovereignty and state
                                                   from all over the world before proceeding to    international conscience,” he added.
from being undermined and provoked by the
arrival of the Portuguese ship,” the Jawa Pos      Dili.
                                                      Intelligence officers said the Portuguese    WAR SHIPS TO HEAD OFF PEACE
daily quoted Brigadier-General Theo Syafei
as saying.                                         ship had reached Djibouti in the Horn of        ENVOY
    It will comprise police and immigration        Africa and was expected to arrive in            From jashcraft Tue Feb 18
officials.                                         Indonesia in about two weeks.
                                                                                                       Indonesian military has said it will not
    The Lusitania Expresso set sail last                                                           hesitate to use force when a Portuguese ship
                                                   PEACE MISSION COULD FAIL FOR
month from Lisbon for the former                                                                   comes into East Timor this next week. They
Portuguese territory to mark the November          LACK OF FUNDS (IPS)
                                                                                                   are bringing an international group of more
12 shooting in the capital Dili when wit-             Lisbon, Feb. 17 (ips) – A bid to bring       than 100 journalists and students to lay
nesses say soldiers killed more than 100           world attention to human rights abuses in       wreaths in a service for East Timor’s
people. The government says 50 died.               Indonesian occupied East Timor could            November massacre victims.
    The ship will first dock at Darwin,            founder through lack of funds, organisers           The peace envoy has already departed the
Australia, to pick up more than 100 students       said here Monday.                               port of Djibouti on the eastern coast of
and journalists and sail to Dili at the end of        The ship ‘Lusitania Express’ was booked      Africa on its way to Indonesia. Meanwhile,
February where they plan to lay flowers at a       to bring human rights activists to East Timor   the Indonesian government has sent war
cemetery.                                          later this month. its passengers planned to     ships to intercept the peace ship and make
    The newspaper said three people had            lay floral tributes on the site where           sure that they do not illegally enter East
been arrested in Dili on charges of setting up     Indonesian troops killed dozens of Timorese     Timor.
a committee to welcome the ship.                   protesters last November.                           The Indonesian officials in East Timor
    State secretary Murdiono told reporters           But organisers from the Lisbon magazine      have arrested at least three people for alleg-
in Jakarta that the ship must have permis-         ‘Students’ Forum’ said Monday the mission       edly setting up a committee to welcome the
sion to enter Indonesian waters.                   was in danger of foundering from lack of        envoy.
    “They should not look for trouble...If         financial support. Only one-third of the one        November 12, 1991 the Indonesian army
they want to be good tourists, fine,” he said.     million U.S. dollars needed to complete the     opened fire on the Dili cemetery in East
    Diplomats say they doubt Indonesia             protest trip has been raised so far.            Timor killing and wounding over 200 un-
would give permission and Dili residents              Amnesty International estimated that         armed citizens.
said the ship’s arrival could well trigger fresh   over 100 people were killed in last                 More than 50 East Timorese are awaiting
violence.                                          November’s massacre, when Indonesian            trial for the massacre. But no soldiers have
    A special envoy of the United Nations          troops opened fire on pro-independence          been blamed in an official report for their
Secretary-General will fly to East Timor on        demonstrators in a cemetery in the Timorese     role in the shooting. Supposedly a special
Wednesday for a two-day visit to seek fur-         capital of Dili. Some 210,000 Timorese have     military council is continuing an in-
ther information on the incident which led to      been killed since Indonesia annexed the         vestigation into the army’s role.
an international outcry against Indonesia and      former Portuguese colony in 1975.                   President Suharto of Indonesia said
its human rights record in East Timor.                Among the passengers booked for the          Thursday that the continuing international
    The U.N. does not recognise Jakarta’s          voyage is Isabel Soares, daughter of            criticism of the army massacre in East Timor
rule in East Timor which Indonesia invaded         Portuguese president Mario Soares, a fact       was a violation of Indonesia’s rights.
Page 34                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

   Suharto said: “As a country born out of a     mission” to East Timor if its activities          other universities, including the University
war for independence after expelling colo-       endangered its relations with Indonesia.          of California at Berkeley.
nialism which has taken away its rights for         The ship, the Lusitania Expresso, plans           “We are going to demonstrate the support
hundreds of years, we are upholding freedom      to anchor at the Australian port city of          from the people of the United States, in
and self-respect.                                Darwin before leaving for East Timor on           general, and from Brown University, in
   “We are determined to build up our own        Feb. 27.                                          particular, to the cause of East Timor’s
power and to develop in the direction that          “The Dili issue is starting to calm down       people” said David Targan to the newspaper
we consider is right for us,” he said.           now and there is no longer any need for it to     “The Portuguese American,” adding that,
   “But we are also aware of the importance      be discussed further,” he said.                   with this demonstration of solidarity, the
of cooperation and assistance from other                                                           group intends to apply some pressure on
nations to accelerate the development of the     ROW THE BOAT ASHORE?                              Indonesia to settle the Timorese problem.
country, without sacrificing our basic               AFP, Lisbon, Feb 19 - A Portuguese               The group will soon depart for Darwin,
principles as a sovereign state.”                “peace ship” bound for Indonesian-held East       Australia, where it will meet with around
   “No country should impose its values (on      Timor is currently in the Indian Ocean and is     100 students from 23 countries to partici-
another country)...it is not in accordance       due to reach Darwin, northern Australia,          pate in the solidarity pilgrimage for the vic-
with the values they themselves glorify,”        early next month, organisers have said here.      tims of November 12 Santa Cruz cemetery
   The Indonesian government apparently              The Lusitania Expresso, which left here       massacre. They will lay crowns of flowers at
feels that the East Timorese, who wish basic     on January 23, will take on about 100 peace       the cemetery in Dili.
freedoms and self determination, are a threat    protesters and journalists in Darwin before          A group of students and professors from
to their national security.                      sailing for Dili, capital of East Timor.          Brown University, led by David Targan, re-
   The native Timorese have no rights of             The Indonesian military has warned it         cently formed the “East Timor Action
free speech or assembly and have been oc-        will treat the ship as it does fishing vessels    Network,” an organization that is developing
cupied by Indonesia since annexation in          that illegally trespass in its waters.            activities with the objective of alerting
1975. East Timor is 1,250 miles east of              “The (Portuguese) boat will be driven         American public opinion to the question of
Jakarta.                                         back by our routine patrolling ships as we        East Timor. On March 13 this group will
   Global corporations such as Freeport          do to foreign boats stealing fish,” the daily     organize a forum about East Timor which
Moran have substantial mining interests in       Jawa Pos newspaper quoted Chief of                will include journalists Allan Nairn, from the
Indonesia while the United States supplies       Eastern Indonesian Armada Vice Admiral            “New Yorker” magazine, and Amy
the military of Indonesia.                       Tanto Kuswanto as saying.                         Goodman, correspondent of the national
                                                     The Indonesian military last week set up      radio network “National Public Radio” [sic,
MORE SHIP ACTIONS IN SOUTH                       a marine task force in East Timor to watch        actually Pacifica/WBAI], who are eyewit-
PACIFIC                                          the sea around the former Portuguese col-         nesses to the Dili massacre. The two jour-
Reprinted from Peace News, March 1992. By        ony.                                              nalists will testify next Friday in a public
Peter D. Jones                                       Earlier, Brigadier General Syafei said the    hearings in the [U.S.] Congress [actually, the
                                                 military had detained several people              hearing was delayed until February 27 or
    On 22 January the ferry Lusitania            including the head of Santa Cruz village, near    later] which will also hear delegation of
Express left Lisbon, carrying a group of 50      Dili, for allegedly trying to form a welcoming    representatives of the Portuguese Republic
students and 50 journalists from 19 coun-        committee for the Portuguese ship.                General Assembly, who are coming to
tries, for a one-month journey to Dili, the          Portuguese Premier Anibal Cavaco Silva,       Washington expressly for that event.”
capital of East Timor.                           whose country is still recognized by the
    Those on board will try to lay a wreath of   U.N. as responsible for the administration of     INDONESIAN NAVY ON LOOKOUT
flowers at the cemetery where Indonesian         East Timor, has said the “peace ship” is not      (AFP)
troops opened fire on a crowd taking part in     a Lisbon diplomatic initiative.                   AFP. 21 Feb 1992. Dateline: Banda Aceh.
a funeral procession, killing over 100 people        But he was quoted by the Forum
(Peace News, December 1991 and February                                                               AFP, Banda Aceh, Feb 21 - Indonesian
                                                 Estudante student review as saying the in-
1992).                                                                                             Navy vessels are patrolling waters off the
                                                 itiative was “generous and positive” and
    The Indonesian authorities have not been                                                       Malacca Strait in the Indian Ocean to look
                                                 “could help the cause of the Timor people.”
contacted for authorisation, while the organ-                                                      out for a Portuguese “peace boat,” military
isers – the magazine Student Forum – said        DELEGATION FROM BROWN                             sources here said Friday.
the initiative was a peaceful one, “aimed at                                                          Seven ships were sent from the Sabang
                                                 UNIVERSITY ON BOARD THE
maintaining the issue of East Timor on the                                                         naval base, on Sabang island off the north-
international agenda.”                           “LUSITANIA EXPRESSO”                              ernmost tip of Sumatra, and are now on
    Another less publicised boat trip is         From “The Portuguese American,”                   round-the-clock patrols in the Indian Ocean
planned from Australia to Bougainville           Providence, Rhode Island. Feb. 19. Original:      north of Sumatra, the sources said.
where the Papua New Guinea government            Portuguese. Reproduced in full. Translated           They are on the lookout for the Lusitania
continues to maintain a semi-blockade of the     and commented by Jose’ Basto.                     Express.
island after a two-year standoff between                                                              The sources said that Indonesian
                                                 Comment: “Lusitania” is an archaic name
separatists and the Port Moresby central                                                           authorities believed the boat might try to
                                                 of Portugal - it was the name of the first
government. It is estimated that around 500                                                        dock at Sabang port to take in some drinking
                                                 Portuguese tribe that fought back the Roman
people in Bougainville have died during this                                                       water later Friday or on Saturday.
                                                 empire.
period, and although food and medicine now                                                            But the ship might instead head straight
seems to be trickling through, the Australia        A group of professors and students from        for Darwin, Australia, they added.
boat will be taking clothing as a priority.      Brown University, Providence, Rhode                  There is a large East Timorese community
                                                 Island, will soon participate in the solidarity   in Darwin, and Australia has been in the
OZ GOV’T WARY OF PEACE SHIP                      trip towards the people of East Timor, on         forefront of the international outcry over the
   UPI, Jakarta, Feb 18 - The Australia am-      board the “Lusitania Expresso.”                   Dili massacre.
bassador to Indonesia said Tuesday the              The group, organized by the Dean David            The navy boats sent out from Sabang in-
Australian government would take strong          Targan, professor of Astronomy at Brown           clude frigates, a destroyer and patrol vessels,
action against a Portuguese ship on a “peace     University, will also include students from       the sources said.
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                            Page 35


SCORES ARRESTED IN TIMOR                         Singaporean national studying at Brown, will     countries and had allowed a special UN en-
(JAKARTA POST)                                   also be going.                                   voy to visit Dili to check the credibility of
                                                    On March 13, 1992 at 7 pm, Brown will         the findings by a national inquiry team
Jakarta Post, 21 Feb. Items abbreviated.         host a forum to discuss recent events in East    (KPN).
   The military in East Timor, sensing the       Timor. Allan Nairn of the New Yorker, Amy           The official said sources close to Portugal
potential trouble that the visit of the          Goodman of Pacifica Radio, Professor             had revealed that the ship also carried three
Portuguese peace boat could create, has set      Benedict Anderson of Cornell University,         East Timorese students who had been
up a special task force. Scores of East          and U.S. Representative Ronald Machtley          trained in Libya, specialising in terrorism,
Timorese have been arrested in the past two      will address the audience. Portugal will send    and a Lisbon-based Australian journalist, Jill
weeks for holding clandestine meetings to        one or more diplomats, and Indonesian            Jolive (sic) who was very much against
welcome the mission.                             officials have expressed interest but have not   Indonesia.
   The Indonesian government has accused         confirmed.                                          The government rejected Jolive’s inclu-
the mission of attempting to keep the               Contact David M. Targan, (401) 863-           sion in the visit by Portugal’s legislators to
November 12 issue alive. Australian am-          2314 before Saturday, February 29 or             East Timor last September on the grounds
bassador, Philip Flood said his country can-     Carolina Matos at (401) 274-4390 thereaf-        that she was a supporter of the Fretilin, the
not stop the boat from making a stop in          ter.                                             East Timorese separatist group. The visit
Darwin as it is an international port, al-                                                        was postponed following Jakarta’s refusal.
though it could disrupt Australia’s relations    SECURITY OFFICIALS PREPARED
with Indonesia. Flood said Australia would       TO FACE PORTUGUESE SHIP                          INDONESIA BANS PEACE SHIP
take steps if members of the mission in-         (JAKARTA POST)                                   (DPA)
dulged in illegal activities in Darwin which                                                         DPA, Jakarta, Feb 25 - Indonesia
                                                 24 Feb 1992. Reproduced in full.
could endanger Indonesia. “Australia will not                                                     Tuesday rejected a planned visit of the
sacrifice its good relations with Indonesia         Tens of thousands of troops in East           Portuguese-chartered ferry boat, the
because of some obscure activities,” he said.    Timor have tightened security measures in        Lusitania Expresso, to Dili, East Timor, by
                                                 the province as the date of a planned visit by   the end of this month or early in March.
PRESS RELEASE ON U.S. PARTICI-                   a Portuguese ship carrying East Timorese            “The Indonesian government declares the
PATION IN PEACE SHIP                             dissidents to Dili, scheduled at the end of      territorial waters of Indonesia closed to the
                                                 this month, approaches.                          vessel, and in accordance with its sovereign
February 24, 1992                                   Thousands of police and security offi-        rights and for the sake of public order will
   On March 3, 1992, five American citizens      cials, commanded by East Timor police chief      enforce the applicable national and
will join over 100 students from over 30         Col. Ishak Kodijat, have been conducting         international laws if the group of people on
countries on a Peace Mission to East Timor       exercises to quickly dispel any possible         board the ship persist in this voyage,” a
(Paz em Timor).                                  public disturbances in the province, the         foreign ministry statement said.
   After boarding the Portuguese-registered      Jakarta Post correspondent, Yacob Herin,            The statement said the objective of the
ship Lusitania Expresso in Darwin,               reported from Dili yesterday.                    voyage was provocative in nature. “It is not
Australia, the students intend to land in East      A security official told the Post that        at all humanitarian but politically motivated
Timor in order to lay a wreath of flowers in     many East Timorese people from all 13            and designed to instigate confrontation, ag-
Santa Cruz cemetery, in Dili, the capital of     districts in the province had planned to go to   gravate tension, induce divisiveness and
East Timor.                                      Dili on the day the Portuguese ferry,            incite disturbance in East Timor.”
   The Santa Cruz cemetery is the site of the    Lusitania, arrives in the sea-port of the           Theo Syafei, military commander of the
November 12, 1991 massacre of up to 200          province’s capital.                              former Portuguese colony said the visit was
East Timorese civilians by Indonesian               The official said the motive of the people    not anymore timely after the Dili incident in
troops. The bodies of the victims are as yet     in welcoming the ship was still unclear, but     which 50 people were killed and abut 100
unaccounted for by the Indonesian govern-        he added that he sensed trouble if security      others injured.
ment, and therefore the students will not be     measures were not well prepared amid ru-            Reuter, Jakarta, Jonathan Thatcher, Feb
able to lay wreaths on specific graves.          mours of a possible protest march by the         25 - Indonesia on Tuesday banned from its
   The Mission is a symbolic gesture to          local people.                                    waters a Portuguese ship planning to sail to
remind the Indonesians and the world that           The Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI)            East Timor to mark an army massacre of
the suffering of the East Timorese people        had earlier warned that the ship had to abide    civilians, accusing its sponsors of being
since the 1975 Indonesian invasion has not       by international law if it wanted to enter       troublemakers.
been forgotten and that the ongoing human        Indonesian waters, saying that ABRI would           “The Indonesian government declares the
rights abuses are not being ignored.             not hesitate to drive the ship away if it        territorial waters of Indonesia closed to the
   As East Timor is according to interna-        violated the proper procedures.                  vessel,” the foreign ministry said in a
tional law under the protection of Portugal,        A special task force, comprising police,      statement.
Indonesia has no de jure authority over East     military and immigration officials, was set         “(Jakarta) will certainly not tolerate any
Timor, and the participants will therefore       up earlier this month to see to it that the      blatant violation of its national laws or of
not be requesting visas of the Indonesian        ship’s entry to East Timor fulfilled the in-     international law by a group of people who
government. Indonesia has responded by           ternational requirements and did not violated    have explicitly stated their intention of en-
sending 7 navy vessels to East Timor in or-      Indonesia’s sovereignty or integrity. The        tering Indonesia without regard to existing
der to intercept the Portuguese ferry.           Lusitania Express has on board more than         laws and with the intention to make provo-
   The Americans who will be participating       100 East Timorese students and a number of       cations,” the statement said.
in this mission sponsored by Forum               international newsmen in what the Lisbon            Diplomats said Jakarta, already the object
Estudante, a Portuguese student newspaper,       government claims is a “peace mission”           of international outrage over the shootings,
are:                                             voyage to lay wreaths in the Santa Cruz          wanted to keep the Lusitania Expresso away
   Dean David Targan, Associate Dean of          cemetery in Dili. The ship left Portugal early   with minimum fuss but would probably
the College, Brown University; Jeff Bekes,       this month.                                      force it back into international waters if it
Steven Falbo, Rami el Samahy, and Lorne             The incident caused international furor       defied the ban.
Rider, all students at Brown. Su-lyn Seah, a     which subsided only after Indonesia had             The ship, which has satellite transmission
                                                 given an explanation to some Western             equipment, called at a Sri Lankan port last
Page 36                                                           East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

week and was expected to arrive in East           Toronto, in regards to her participation in           “Why is Indonesia sending navy ships to
Timor around March 3.                             the Peace in Timor mission.                       meet the boat, are they planning to kill us?”
    Diplomats said the converted car ferry’s         Further to your telephone conversation         asked Meira Burguete of the Macau Hoje
safest route to Darwin would be through the       with an officer of this division, the following   newspaper. “By raising the heat they are
Malacca Strait which divides Singapore and        information has been provided by the              attracting more world attention.
Indonesia, then through the Java Sea and the      Canadian Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, in            “They say the boat is not abiding by in-
Sunda Strait – technically international sea      connection with your proposed visit to East       ternational law by coming to East Timor,
lanes though within Indonesian territory.         Timor on board the Portuguese ship, the           when they are not abiding themselves by
    Australia’s ambassador to Jakarta, Philip     Lusitania Expresso:                               being in East Timor when the United
Flood, criticised the ship’s planned visit to        (a) There is a real risk of violence if pas-   Nations says they should get out.”
East Timor.                                       sengers land and a confrontation situation            Paulo Veiga from Lisbon, an organiser of
    “It would be much more sensible if the        develops.                                         the voyage, said in Sydney they would not
Portuguese interests involved came up with           (b) If passengers violate the law by en-       seek confrontation with Indonesian authori-
constructive initiatives instead of negative      tering the country illegally or demonstrating,    ties nor provoke them.
ones like the ship’s visit,” he said in a         they could face consequences under                    “If they say they are going to shoot, we
statement.                                        Indonesian law.                                   will halt, but that does not mean we will give
    He said Australia, one of the few coun-          (c) East Timor is regarded by the              up,” he said.
tries which recognises Indonesian rule in         Indonesians as part of their sovereign terri-         “Our mission is to reach Dili to pay re-
East Timor, could not stop the ship from          tory and visitors will be treated as if they      spects to the students massacred last year.
visiting Darwin but would warn its captain        were on sovereign territory.                      There are students aboard our boat from 25
of the risks involved in going on to Dili.           (d) If trouble erupts when the Expresso        countries with a wreath of flowers, nothing
                                                  arrives in Indonesia there may be very little     more. There is no reason for confrontation.”
TIMOR SEA MILITARY EXERCISES                      the Canadian Embassy can do.                          He said the first priority for the organis-
    Reuter, Jakarta, Menuk Suwondo, Feb 25           You should be aware that there is no           ers, the Peace in East Timor Mission, will be
- Indonesia’s armed forces are holding            Canadian consular or diplomatic mission in        the safety of passengers. Two doctors will
exercises off the coast of East Timor in          Dili, nor is there an Australian consular         be aboard.
preparation for the arrival of a Portuguese       presence there to assist Canadians. We trust
ship to mark last November’s massacre there       the foregoing information will be helpful to      SINK PEACE SHIP, SAY JAKARTA
of civilians by troops.                           you.                                              MP’S (AGE)
    “It’s not yet a full manoeuvre but we’re         Yours sincerely,                               The Age, 28 February 1992 by Terry Friel,
starting an exercise on how to deal with the         J.C. Beaulne Director, Consular                Jakarta. Abridged
ship when it actually comes,” a military          Operations Division
source said on Tuesday by telephone from             PS We have learned that Radio Australia            An Indonesian parliamentary committee
the East Timor capital of Dili.                   today carried a news item to the effect that      has called for a Portuguese peace ship to be
    Three navy ships – a frigate, a troop         Indonesia has barred foreign journalists from     such if it enters Indonesian waters, today’s
landing craft and a patrol vessel – and a         East Timor, and has closed its waters to the      ‘Jakarta Post’ newspaper reported.
military aircraft have been involved in the       Portuguese “peace ship.”                              The House of Representatives (DPR)
exercises since the beginning of the week.           The Canadian Embassy further advised           home affairs commission accused the ship of
                                                  on February 26, that Canadian should be           embarking on a trouble-making mission and
ONTARIO STUDENT JOINS PEACE                       cautioned against boarding the Expresso           said the navy should sink the boat if
SHIP                                              because of the possibility the vessel will try    organisers tried to land in East Timor to lay
                                                  to enter Indonesian waters illegally and the      wreaths in memory of the victims of the Dili
Ontario Federation of Students News                                                                 massacre.
                                                  near certainty that Indonesian authorities
Release/Communiqué February 25, 1992                                                                    “(The) commission rejects the ship be-
                                                  will prevent this from happening by force, if
   (Toronto) The Ontario Federation of            necessary.                                        cause the call would only stir new unrest in
Students has nominated a representative                                                             East Timor,” a commission member, Mr
from their membership to participate in an        PEACE SHIP DEFIES INDONESIA!                      Marcellinus Adang da Gomez, said during a
international vigil in East Timor. Journalists       Reuter, Darwin, Wilson da Silva, Feb 27 -      hearing yesterday.
and student delegates from around the world       Students gathering in Darwin to join a                The Political and Securities [sic] Affairs
will travel to the area to place flowers on the   Portuguese “peace boat” sailing to East           Minister, Admiral Sudomo, also warned
graves of the hundred students who were           Timor said on Thursday they would go              yesterday that the ship, the Lusitania
massacred by the Indonesian military during       ahead despite Indonesia’s determination to        Express, would be dealt with harshly. “The
a peaceful demonstration last November.           block the voyage.                                 authorities will take strict measures against
   The group hopes to remind the world of            “I do not want to die,” said student           it,” he said.
the human rights violation which took place       Hiroto Morii of Japan’s Nagoya Institute of           Yesterday, Indonesia announced that
in East Timor and promote the need for            Technology. “We have no guns aboard, just         journalists would be banned from visiting the
dialogue and international action on this is-     flowers (a wreath). There is no reason for        province, re-imposing a ban that was lifted
sue. The Ontario Federation of Students will      Indonesia to attack us.”                          in 1989. The ban applies to all foreign
be represented on the PEACE IN TIMOR                 Morii is one of 60 students from around        journalists, Indonesian journalists working
mission of Genevieve Appleton, a student at       the world who plan to board the converted         for foreign media, and Indonesian journalists
Ryerson in Toronto.                               car ferry Lusitania Expresso when it arrives      not already based in East Timor.
                                                  in Darwin next week. Organisers say some              It is not clear why the ban was imposed
CANADIAN GOVERNMENT WARNS                         60 journalists are also joining.                  or how long it will last.
AGAINST PEACE SHIP                                   The ship is due to leave Darwin on                 Australia has described the move as un-
                                                  March 3 on a 36-hour trip to East Timor.          fortunate and Australian officials will lobby
   The following letter was sent today (Feb
                                                  Passengers want to lay a wreath at the Dili       the Indonesian Government to continue to
27) by External Affairs and International
                                                  cemetery where Indonesian troops in               allow access by Australian and other foreign
Trade Canada to Genevieve Appleton, a
                                                  November massacred scores of civilians            journalists.
Ryerson Polytechnic film student from
                                                  gathered for a memorial service.
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                             Page 37

    Foreign Minister Gareth Evans has called      “peace boat” that plans to sail to East Timor       The Portuguese government has ex-
on Indonesia to be lenient with independence      despite Indonesia’s plan to stop the venture.    pressed moral support for the Lusitania
activists arrested in relation to the incident.      The Australian government should help         Expresso voyage but has withheld official
He told the news magazine ‘Tempo’ that the        the ship while in Darwin and support and         backing.
East Timorese must be tried “with utmost          protect those on board, said Australian             “Personally I can only admire the efforts
justice.”                                         Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) President         of those who have undertaken this initia-
    “For instance, if they are involved in non-   Martin Ferguson.                                 tive,” President Mario Soares said on Friday
violent organisations, then certainly it is not      “Our government should be indicating...to     after bidding farewell to expedition leader
necessary to face them with military              Indonesian authorities that...we believe the     Rui Marques.
actions.”                                         ship should be given every protection and           Soares’s daughter Isabel was initially due
    “The question is whether they need to be      opportunity to express its point of view in a    to travel on the ship but Marques said she
tried if their violation has only been in-        peaceful way,” Ferguson told reporters.          had withdrawn.
volvement in political organisations,”               The union move came as Australian                Marques said it was foolish for Jakarta to
Senator Evans said.                               Foreign Minister Gareth Evans said               try to stop the Lusitania Expresso landing.
    Describing Indonesia’s response to the        Australia welcomed Indonesia’s findings into     “Every time they make mistakes like this
massacre as encouraging he said that              the incident.                                    another television station appears to send
Australia had not yet ruled out cutting aid.         Indonesia said on Thursday six soldiers       along a crew with us,” he told reporters.
“We do not separate aid from human rights,”       had been found guilty, eight would be court-
he said. ‘Everything depends on who will          martialled and five others were being            PEACE SHIP DEAD IN WATER (UPI)
suffer as a consequence of the withdrawal of      investigated in connection with the shooting.       UPI, Macau, Feb 29 - The voyage of the
such aid.’                                           “It displays a clear sense of responsibil-    Portuguese peace ferry, “Lusitania
                                                  ity on the part of the military for the tragic   Expresso,” to protest killings in East Timor
INDONESIAN MILITARY                               events in Dili. It amounts to a recognition      has been suspended, the Portuguese news
THREATENS TO PREVENT LANDING                      that the military’s behaviour was excessive,”    agency, LUSA, reported here Saturday.
(REUTER)                                          Evans said.                                         Rui Marques, a spokesman for the organ-
                                                     The minister said the Australian embassy      izers making the announcement in Lisbon,
    Reuter, Jakarta, Menuk Suwondo, Feb 28        in Jakarta would monitor any follow-up           refused to give any immediate reason for the
- Indonesia’s military said on Friday it          action by the Indonesian military.               sudden suspension.
would use any legal means to prevent a               Evans said there was a need for Indonesia        LUSA said the organizers have cancelled a
Portuguese “peace boat” landing in East           “to develop a systematic approach” to long-      charter flight carrying student activists and
Timor to mark an army massacre of civilians       term reconciliation in East Timor and future     others, including former Portuguese
last November.                                    security forces must be more sensitive to the    president General Ramalho Eanes, from
    “Security officials will take actions to      needs and aspirations of the East Timorese       Lisbon to Darwin in Northern Australia,
prevent it in any way justified by law,” it       people.                                          from where the vessel was to have departed
said.                                                A spokesman for Prime Minister Paul           March 3 for Indonesian territory.
    The aging converted car ferry, which left     Keating told Reuters there was no comment           “This is not an easy project,” the Peace
Lisbon last month, is due to arrive in            on the request from the ACTU.                    Mission in Timor movement said in a
Darwin, Australia next week to pick up
about 60 journalists and 60 students before                                                        statement issued Friday in Lisbon, adding
                                                  EANES TO JOIN PEACE SHIP                         that only “a small step” was missing to
sailing on to East Timor, a former
Portuguese colony.                                    Reuter, Lisbon, Robert Powell, Feb 28 -      carry out the mission later.
    Students in Darwin said on Thursday           Former Portuguese president Antonio                 The organizers of the sailing told LUSA
they were determined to go ahead with the         Ramalho Eanes will join more than 100 st-        they were still “strongly determined” to go
visit, despite the Indonesian ban.                udents and journalists on a “peace boat” to      ahead with their voyage to East Timor to
    Paulo Veiga from Lisbon, an organiser of      East Timor to protest at a massacre there by     protest shootings at the Santa Cruz ceme-
the voyage, said the students would not seek      the Indonesian army, the organisers said on      tery Nov. 12.
confrontation with Indonesian authorities or      Friday.
                                                      The group plans to fly to Australia over     EAST TIMOR PEACE VOYAGE
provoke them.
    “Our mission is to reach Dili to pay re-      the weekend to join the Lusitania Expresso,      CALLED OFF (JAPAN TIMES)
spects to the students massacred last year.       an aging car ferry, which will try to sail to    1 March, 1992, reproduced in full
There are students aboard our boat from 25        East Timor to lay a wreath at the site of the
                                                  killings on November 12.                         The following news today has shocked East
countries with a wreath of flowers, nothing                                                        Timor supporters in Japan. The same news
more. There is no reason for confrontation.”          The Portuguese passengers were due to
                                                  leave for Darwin in northern Australia on a      was picked up by major Japanese newspa-
    Meira Burguete of the Macau Hoje                                                               pers. The truth has not been confirmed yet.
newspaper said: “Why is Indonesia sending         charter flight on Friday night.
navy ships to meet the boat, are they plan-           “The Lusitania Expresso still has not           Macao (UPI-Kyodo) The voyage of the
ning to kill us? By raising the heat they are     reached Darwin, but we think it will arrive in   Portuguese peace ferry “Lusitania Expresso”
attracting more world attention.”                 Australia on March 6 and leave for Dili on       to protest killings in East Timor has been
    Diplomats have criticised Jakarta for         the seventh or eighth,” said a spokeswoman       suspended, Rui Marques, a spokesman for
making too much fuss about the ship and           for the organisers.                              the organizers announced in Lisbon
focusing more attention on Indonesia and its          Eanes, a former army general who played      Saturday. It was reported in Macao by the
internationally disputed rule in East Timor.      a decisive role in securing democracy in         Portuguese news agency LUSA. Marques
                                                  Portugal after the 1974 revolution, was head     refused to give any immediate reason for the
AUSTRALIAN UNIONS: PROTECT                        of state from 1976 to 1986.                      sudden suspension.
PEACE BOAT! (REUTER)                                  The voyage has been organised by an ob-         LUSA also reported the organizers have
                                                  scure student magazine called Forum              canceled a charter flight carrying student
   Reuter, Canberra, Feb 28 - Australia’s         Estudante, which says it will not seek           activists and others, including former
leading trade union body called on the federal    Indonesian permission to enter East Timor        Portuguese President Gen. Ramalho Eanes,
government on Friday to assist a Portuguese       since Portugal still regards it as Portuguese    from Lisbon to Darwin in Northern
                                                  territory.
Page 38                                                         East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

Australia, from where the vessel was to have    nounced at the last moment the mission had        ment of cancellation of the voyage, but
departed March 3 for Indonesian territory.      been delayed.                                     additional funds has been found and the
   “This is not an easy project,” the Peace         Marques told a news conference Jakarta        protest was back on schedule.
Mission in Timor movement said in a             was holding back authorisation for their             He said the chartered plane was scheduled
statement issued Friday in Lisbon, adding       chartered Portuguese plane to cross               to arrive in Darwin Tuesday and the
that only “a small step” is missing to carry    Indonesian air space.                             “Lusitania Expresso” was to arrive in the
out the mission later.                              The seriously underfunded mission could       northern Australian port Friday after leaving
   The organizers of the peace vessel told      not afford delays and switched to an Asian        Lisbon on Jan. 23.
LUSA that they are still strongly determined    airline, but could not come up with 50 mil-
to go ahead with their voyage to East Timor     lion escudos (360,000 dollars) to pay for the     FRETILIN WARNS INDONESIA ON
to protest shootings at the Santa Cruz          flights.                                          SHIP (REUTER)
cemetery Nov. 12, when Indonesian para-             “Fortunately it has all been resolved, with      Reuter, Darwin, Wilson, March 1 - A
troopers reportedly killed up to 100            the help of anonymous donors, and we leave        Timorese rebel official warned Jakarta on
Timorese demonstrators. The Indonesian          tonight,” said Marques on Saturday.               Sunday against harming the passengers on a
government has claimed 50 were killed.              He said the peace mission would fly to        Portuguese “peace boat” which plans to
                                                Darwin in Australia, from where they plan         dock in East Timor in defiance of an
PEACE-BOAT MISSION NOT                          to sail for Dili in an aging Portuguese car       Indonesian ban.
CALLED OFF (TAPOL)                              ferry.                                               Jose Gusmao, an official of the East
From various agency reports. 29 February            Marques said if the ship’s path were          Timorese Fretilin movement said in the
1992.                                           blocked by Indonesian gunboats the ferry          northern Australian city of Darwin that
                                                captain would stop, but the mission would         Indonesia would suffer if it took drastic ac-
   Contradictory reports during the day         already have achieved its only objective – to
have suggested that the Portuguese peace-                                                         tion against students aboard the vessel, the
                                                focus world attention on the plight of the        Lusitania Expresso.
boat mission to Dili had been called off and    Timorese.
subsequently that it was going ahead.                                                                “I can guarantee Indonesia will not get
                                                    “The strength of our mission is our fra-      away with this,” he told Reuters. “We plan
   First, AFP quoted the mission organiser,     gility,” he said. “We are just students with a
Rui Marques, as telling a press conference in                                                     an assault of force if there is an incident...if
                                                wreath of flowers and a few television            Indonesia opens fire on the passengers.”
Lisbon that a chartered flight due to take a    cameras as our only weapons.”
party of people from Lisbon to Darwin had                                                            “It will be madness for Indonesia to do
                                                    The mission has no official backing but       anything, after all the time they have spent
been cancelled, after talks with the            the governments of students taking part,
Portuguese president, Mario Soares. Earlier                                                       trying to rehabilitate the name of Indonesia
                                                including Portugal, the United States, Japan      since the massacre, Gusmao said.
this week, the Indonesian armed forces an-      and Australia, would be obliged to take ac-
nounced that the boat - now in or approach-                                                          The Peace in Timor Mission, organised
                                                tion if they came to any harm, Marques said.      by the Lisbon student group Forum
ing Darwin - would be prevented from en-            The Portuguese government has given
tering Indonesian territorial waters.                                                             Estudante, plans to dock in Dili with 60
                                                only its moral support.                           students and 60 journalists aboard.
   But later, a BBC report said that, after a       “Personally I can only admire the efforts
24-hour delay caused by financial difficul-                                                          The students, representing groups around
                                                of those who have undertaken this initia-         the world, aim to place a wreath in the Santa
ties, the charter plane was due to leave late   tive,” said Portuguese President Mario
Lisbon Saturday night via Madrid for                                                              Cruz cemetery where the massacre occurred.
                                                Soares, bidding farewell to Marques on               The Lusitania Expresso has been repeat-
Darwin.                                         Friday. His daughter Isabel had planned to
   Asked what would happen if the mission                                                         edly delayed in its voyage from Portugal and
                                                join the peace boat but withdrew.                 is now due to leave Darwin by March 8.
was stopped on its way to Dili where it             However the presence of Eanes, a key
plans to lay wreaths at the Santa Cruz                                                               Organiser Paulo Veiga said all berths
                                                figure in Portugal’s transition to democracy      aboard the vessel were taken and the mission
cemetery where the 12 November massacre         after the 1974 revolution and president from
occurred, one of the organisers, Ana Silva,                                                       would go ahead.
                                                1976 to 1986, ensured the voyage of the              Father Jaime Coelho, a Portuguese Jesuit
said: “We will remain at sea and try to make    Lusitania Expresso would get publicity.
the best of it as news... and then the world                                                      at Japan’s Sophia University, who will
                                                    The ship was due to reach Darwin on           travel aboard the ship, said international
will see that an international students’        March 6 and would leave for Dili the next
mission, a peace mission, is stopped at sea                                                       pressure on Jakarta since the massacre could
                                                day, Marques said.                                help solve the 16-year East Timor problem.
by warships of the Indonesians, acting
against international law.”                                                                          “There has never been a better time to
                                                   UPI, Macau, March 1 - The Portuguese           solve the issue of East Timor,” he said.
   Among those on the flight scheduled to       news agency LUSA and radio reports from
leave Lisbon is General Antonio Ramalho         Lisbon monitored in Macao said a chartered        PEACE SHIP PINUP (REUTER)
Eanes, former Portuguese president.             plane carrying the former president of
                                                                                                     Reuter, Jakarta, March 1 - Pictures of a
                                                Portugal, Gen. Ramalho Eanes, and scores
PEACE SHIP BACK ON COURSE                       more protesters left early Sunday for the         Portuguese “peace boat” which is planning
(REUTER, UPI)                                                                                     to sail to East Timor in defiance of
                                                Australian city of Darwin via Madrid,
                                                                                                  Indonesian authorities have become sought-
   Reuter, Lisbon, Stephen Brown, Feb 29:       Bangkok and Sydney.
                                                                                                  after pin-ups in the tiny territory.
A Portuguese mission to East Timor to              Backers of the voyage of the “Lusitania
                                                                                                     The official Indonesian news agency
protest at a massacre of civilians by           Expresso” announced Friday that the trip
                                                                                                  Antara said on Sunday that pictures of the
Indonesian troops in November was due to        had been canceled, but reversed themselves
                                                                                                  Lusitania Expresso, copied from a Jakarta
go ahead on Saturday despite difficulties       the following day.
                                                                                                  newspaper, were selling for 500 rupiah (25
which threatened to scupper it.                    Organizer Rui Marques, a student news-
                                                                                                  cents) in the impoverished territory.
   Some 90 students and journalists, ac-        paper editor, told reporters during the
                                                                                                     Antara said the price of newspapers had
companied by former Portuguese president        weekend the trip would go ahead as sched-
                                                                                                  also shot up to 4,000 rupiah (two dollars)
General Antonio Ramalho Eanes, were             uled, the Portuguese news agency LUSA
                                                                                                  with the approach of the vessel.
originally due to leave for East Timor on       reported in Macao.
                                                                                                     Newspaper prices had risen to 2,500
Friday but organiser Rui Marques an-               Marques said a lack of money and tech-
                                                                                                  rupiah (one dollar 25) from an average price
                                                nical problems led to the Friday announce-
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                            Page 39

of 600 rupiah (30 cents) soon after the                                                          attorney general said. He said 43 of them
November 12 shooting.                             TRIALS OF CIVILIANS                            would be freed “in not too long a time.”
   “Despite the soaring prices, the newspa-
pers are sold out every day,” Antara said.                                                            IMPENDING TRIALS OF
                                                      RUSHED ‘JUSTICE’
                                                                                                        TIMORESE (ACFOA)
                                              The following letter from TAPOL was pub-
                                              lished in the Far Eastern Economic Review          Release from the Human Rights Office of
                                              on 13 February 1992:                               ACFOA, the Australian Council for
                                                                                                 Overseas Aid, 18 February 1992
                                                  Your correspondents (“Maddening si-
                                              lence,” FEER 30 January] lament the                SITUATION OF EAST TIMORESE
                                              European Community’s lack of response to           DETAINEES IN JAKARTA AND DILI
                                              Indonesia’s efforts to ameliorate human
                                              rights abuses in East Timor. I wonder what             1. According to widely broadcast media
                                              they have in mind.                                 reports today (18 Feb), Indonesia’s
                                                  The new military commander, Brigadier-         Attorney-General, Mr Singgih, has ann-
                                              General Theo Syafei, has given no sign of          ounced that 13 of the 56 East Timorese still
                                              softening; on the contrary, he has warned          detained following the 12 November mas-
                                              that he is “not as patient” as his predeces-       sacre are to be tried, and the rest, numbering
                                              sor.                                               43, are to be released ‘in not too long a time.’
                                                  Indonesia’s Inquiry Commission’s said          Of the 13 facing trial, 5 are in the
                                              nothing about improving human rights. But          Metropolitan Police Station in Jakarta, 8 are
                                              it did recommended that “trials should be          in Dili.
                                              held against all those involved in the 12              Four of this group of 13 face trial on
                                              November incident.” Did it mean that sol-          subversion charges which, if sustained, carry
                                              diers who shot and killed the demonstrators        a maximum penalty of death. These four are
                                              should be court-martialled? If so, nothing of      believed to be:
                                              the kind has happened yet. However, 32 of          Jakarta:
                                              the survivors of the massacre are now              1. Joao Freitas da Camara, resident of
                                              awaiting trial, of whom 14 will face anti-             Jakarta, former student at Atma Jaya
                                              subversion charges which enable very harsh             University, Jakarta.
                                              penalties, including death.                        2. Fernando de Araujo, resident of Denpasar,
                                                  Three others were tried in Dili last week.         Bali, student of Indonesian literature,
                                              Two of the trials lasted a day each, ending in         Udayana University.
                                              seven-year sentences. The third took a little      Dili:
                                              longer and a nine-year sentence was passed,
                                              two years in excess of the term permitted by       3. Francisco Miranda Branco, 41, of Balide,
                                              Article 112 of the Criminal Code under                 Dili.
                                              which the defendant was charged. The speed         4. Gregoria da Cunha Saldanha, 29, of Santa
                                              with which the trials were completed means             Cruz/Audian, Dili.
                                              that procedures which normally take days or            The other nine face what are being de-
                                              weeks to complete were condensed. There is         scribed as ‘lesser charges’ on the basis of
                                              no evidence that the defendants appointed          article 154 and 155 of the Indonesian
                                              defence lawyers of their choice.                   Criminal Code which prohibit ‘hateful,
                                                                             Yours sincerely,    hostile or slanderous public statements
                                                                           Carmel Budiardjo      against the Indonesian Government.’ If
                                                                                                 sustained, these charges carry a maximum
                                                  TIMORESE FACE DEATH                            penalty of 7 years.
                                                                                                     No charges gave been formally laid against
                                                               (REUTER)
                                                                                                 any of the 13 to be tried and no date for the
                                                  Reuter, Jakarta, Feb 17 - Indonesia will       trials has been set.
                                              put 13 civilians on trial soon in connection       ACTION
                                              with November’s army shooting in East
                                              Timor and four could face the death penalty            The dropping of charges and expected
                                              if convicted, Attorney General Singgih an-         release of most of the detainees is a further
                                              nounced on Monday.                                 illustration of the positive impact of inter-
                                                  He said the four, who were students or         national opinion on the Indonesian govern-
                                              civil servants, would be charged with sub-         ment. It is important therefore to maintain
                                              version, punishable by death.                      international protest on this issue, particu-
                                                  Two are from Jakarta and two from the          larly in the absence of any Indonesian gov-
                                              East Timor capital of Dili. “We find enough        ernment action against the soldiers respon-
                                              facts to charge them with subversion,”             sible for the massacre.
                                              Singgih told reporters.                                In particular, the ‘thirteen’ should be the
                                                  Singgih said six others in Dili and three in   focus of very direct concern in the run up to
                                              Jakarta would face lesser charges carrying a       the trials which presumably will take place
                                              maximum sentence of seven years’ jail.             in the coming weeks.
                                                  A total of 56 people – 32 in Dili, 22 in           The following actions might be consid-
                                              Jakarta and two in Bali – were arrested, the       ered:
Page 40                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

a. World-wide presence (people and               but we were given no chance to accompany          documents classified as state secrets to
    Amnesty-type candle) outside Indonesian      them when they were questioned.”                  Portugal.
    government facilities until the prisoners       He said the authorities should released the       The prosecution said Rangel obtained
    are released and UN talks agreed to.         East Timorese who have been detained for          copies of classified documents with the help
b. Sending of many observers from all parts      110 days, far longer than allowed by the          of two other East Timorese and sent them to
    of the world to trials in both Dili and      criminal procedural code, which allows            Portugal via Darwin, Australia, where the
    Jakarta. The International Commission of     suspects to be held no more than 60 days          exiled leader of the East Timorese Fretilin
    Jurists and the International Platform of    without charge.                                   pro-independence movement, Ramos Horta,
    Jurists for East Timor might take re-           Attorney-General Singgih said Monday           was living.
    sponsibility for this.                       that 13 of the total 56 detained East                The courts have heard that Felesmina
                                                 Timorese would be sent to court in Dili and       stole the documents from her office, pho-
c. Intense letter writing campaign to:
                                                 Jakarta in connection with the 12 Nov.            tocopied them and gave the copies to
    President Suharto,                           protest and shootings.                            Araujo, who later handed them to Rangel.
    Istana Negara,                                                                                    The prosecution said Rangel’s actions
    Jalan Veteran, Jakarta, Indonesia                                                              were in aid of a group seeking independence
                                                    LAWYER CALLS FOR DILI
                                                                                                   for East Timor and could have a negative
   Let.Gen. Ismail Saleh,                             DETAINEES TO BE                              political impact on Indonesia.
   Minister of Justice,
   Jl Rasuna Said, Kav. 6-7,
                                                      RELEASED (J.POST)
   Kuningan, Jakarta, Indonesia                  Jakarta Post, 19 February 1992.
                                                                                                      TRIALS OF 13 NEAR (DPA)
                                                    Ponco Atmono, the lawyer of the                   DPA, Jakarta, Feb 24 - Thirteen of the 56
   Let.Gen Ali Said,
                                                 Timorese detained in Dili, has asked the          people arrested after last November’s
   Chief Justice, Supreme Court
                                                 police to release 20 of them and place them       protests in the East Timor capital, Dili, will
   Jl Lapangan Banteng Timur, No. 1,
                                                 under city arrest. He said by 10 March, they      go on trial shortly, Attorney General
   Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia.
                                                 would have been in detention for 120 days.        Mohammad Singgih said Monday.
                                                 He said he would be ready to give a guaran-          Singgih told reporters after meeting
      AUSSIE FM: RELEASE                         tee that they would not run away to the for-      President Suharto that eight would be tried
          TIMORESE!                              est.                                              in Dili and five in Jakarta. The remaining 43
                                                                                                   would be set free. Interrogation had revealed
   AFP, Canberra, Feb 18 - Australian                                                              no evidence against them.
Foreign Minister Gareth Evans renewed calls
                                                    TIMORESE ‘SPY’ TRIAL S                            Four would be charged with violating
Tuesday for Indonesia to release prisoners          AFP, Jakarta, Feb 20 - A state prosecutor      anti-subversion laws, and if found guilty
detained after the November 12 massacre in       has called for a five-year jail term for a sec-   faced the death sentence. They were
Dili.                                            ond East Timorese charged with helping leak       Gregorio Sanana, Francisco Miranda Franco,
   A statement by Evans also repeated            Indonesian documents to Portugal.                 Fernando de Araujo and Joau F. Camoro
Australia’s demand that Indonesia punish            The prosecution at the Dili state court        [names as rendered in original].
those responsible for the massacre.              charged garage mechanic Amaroa de Araujo             Singgih said the five going on trial in
   A spokesman for Evans said the govern-        of having leaked a state secret to Portugal       Jakarta were student leaders who spear-
ment believed no-one should be detained or       together with two other East Timorese.            headed an anti-Indonesia demonstration
penalised for non-violent political activities      The court heard on Wednesday that the          following the incident in Dili.
but that those detainees should be treated       29-year-old defendant had received copies of
humanely.                                        two documents and had forwarded them to             STOP THE SUBVERSION
   “The government remains concerned             an East Timorese businessman.
about a number of issues relating to East           The prosecution in a separate trial at the
                                                                                                    TRIALS, RELEASE ALL EAST
Timor and the 12 November killings,” the         same court Tuesday called for a five-year-jail       TIMORESE POLITICAL
spokesman said.                                  sentence for the defendant’s sister-in-law, a
   Although he said Australia was not
                                                                                                        PRISONERS! (TAPOL)
                                                 civilian employee at the Dili area military
making judgments on those charged, Evans         command who allegedly photocopied the             On 24 February 1992, TAPOL, the
urged Indonesia to allow “proper legal rep-      documents.                                        Indonesian Human Rights Campaign, issued
resentation and a fair trial.”                      Authorities said they concerned an intel-      the following appeal to all East Timor
                                                 ligence report on an interview of East Timor      solidarity groups around the world:
  LAWYERS BARRED FROM                            Governor Mario Viegas Carrascalao by a                Indonesia’s Attorney-General, Singgih,
                                                 Portuguese television network, and a report
   QUESTIONING OF EAST                           on local preparations for a U.N. advance
                                                                                                   today reiterated that four East Timorese are
                                                                                                   to go on trial charged with subversion. He
 TIMORESE DETAINEES (UPI)                        team.                                             made this announcement after meeting
                                                    The third person involved in the leaking       President Suharto. This signifies that he has
UPI. 18 February 1992. Abridged.                 of the documents, a private businessmen, is       obtained presidential clearance and the trials
   A legal group said Tuesday it was denied      currently facing a separate trial at the same     may now be imminent. Urgent action is
permission to accompany detained East            court.                                            needed to prevent these trials from going
Timorese youths when they were ques-                                                               ahead. Everything should be done to inter-
tioned. The 22 were detained in Jakarta soon        AFP, Jakarta, Feb 20 - A state prosecutor      nationalise them.
after staging a protest on 19 November, a        called Thursday for a seven-year jail term for        In addition to the four facing subversion
week after troops opened fire on                 an East Timorese accused of being the leader      charges, 52 East Timorese are still in police
demonstrators in Dili.                           of a group that leaked an Indonesian state        custody - 30 in Dili, 20 in Jakarta and 2 in
   Luhut Pangaribuan of the Legal Aid            secret to a foreign country.                      Bali. The Attorney-General has announced
Institute said: “Police and prosecutor offices      The official Antara news agency said the       that six in Dili and three in Jakarta will be
were fully aware that we were their lawyers,     prosecution at the Dili state court charged       tried on criminal charges for “spreading
                                                 businessman Alfonso Rangel, 48, with              hatred” which carries a maximum penalty of
                                                 having organized the leaking of several
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                 Page 41

7 years. The others, Singgih said last week,          6. If the trials begin, organise a protest      Dili, East Timor, which led to the death of
will be released “soon” but could be re-           action outside the Indonesian embassy or           scores of civilians.
arrested “if new evidence surfaces"; in fact,      other Indonesian office in your country.              The demonstrators, who were arrested by
they are still in custody. There are dozens           Kindly note: Groups are asked to inform         the police on the same day, had called on the
more Timorese being held in various                the Portuguese news agency, LUSA, of any           United Nations to pressure Jakarta into
detention centres in Dili and other parts of       action they take. Fax: (351)1-714-5443.            allowing a process of self determination for
East Timor.                                                                                           East Timor, a former Portuguese colony
   The four men to face subversion charges                EAST TIMOR TRIALS                           which Indonesia invaded in 1975.
are:                                                                                                     Police released all but 22 of the demon-
   1. Joao Freitas da Camara, formerly a                      TO START                                strators in December.
student at Atma Jaya Catholic University,                                                                Attorney General Singgih has said that
                                                   Radio Australia 2/24
Jakarta. He was arrested while participating                                                          four East Timorese, two each in Jakarta and
in a peaceful demonstration in Jakarta on 19           The trials of four East Timorese in            Dili, will face trials on subversion charges for
November 1991. Da Camara was issued with           Indonesia is expected to start soon on             their involvement in the Dili massacre. Nine
a Portuguese passport in October, 1986             charges of subversion. If convicted they           others, also from the two cities, will face
when he took refuge in the Dutch embassy           could face the death penalty.                      criminal charges.
in Jakarta. He therefore already has                   Jakarta announced last week that 13 ci-
Portuguese citizenship.                            vilians, including the four, would face vari-
                                                   ous charges in connection with last
                                                                                                           BANDUNG STUDENTS
   2. Fernando de Araujo, a student of
Indonesian literature at Udayana University,       November’s Dili massacre by Indonesian                    RELEASED (AFP)
Denpasar, Bali, was arrested in Bali on 24         troops.
                                                       Ian MacIntosh reports that speaking to            AFP, Jakarta, Feb 26 - Indonesian
November, 1991. Fernando sought refuge in
                                                   reporters after a meeting with President           authorities have granted the conditional re-
the Japanese embassy in Jakarta in June
                                                   Suharto, Indonesia’s Attorney General said         lease of four of six students jailed for in-
1989 and before leaving, was given an as-
                                                   subversion trials against the four, identified     volvement in a protest against a senior
surance that the Japanese Government
                                                   only by their initials, were expected to begin     minister in August 1989, press reports said
would protect him against action by the
                                                   at the end of this month or the beginning of       here Wednesday.
Indonesian authorities.
                                                   March.                                                The Pelita daily said the four students of
   3. Gregorio da Cunha Saldanha, 29, a
                                                       He said the four were to be charged with       the prestigious Bandung Institute of
nurse, of Santa Cruz/Audian, Dili, arrested
                                                   subversion for their alleged involvement in        Technology (ITB) were Tuesday released
after the 12 November demonstration in Dili
                                                   actions against the government, not only the       from the Sukamiskin jail in nearby Bandung
which ended in the massacre.
                                                   Dili incident. The Attorney General claimed,       where they have been held since separate
   4. Fernando Miranda Branco, 41, of
                                                   without elaborating, that they had also            courts there jailed them for three years each
Balide, Dili, also arrested after the massacre.
                                                   received foreign funding and engaged in            in early 1990.
PLEASE TAKE THE FOLLOWING                          clandestine activity before the November              A series of trials that ended in Bandung in
ACTION:                                            bloodshed.                                         1990 found that the six students were
                                                       It is still not clear whether Australia will   actively involved in the August 5, 1989
   1. Urge your government to call for the                                                            protest, when 200 ITB students demon-
immediate release of the four men facing           send observers to attend their trials. An
                                                   Australian Embassy spokesperson said that          strated against a visit by Home Affairs
subversion charges and of all the East                                                                Minister Rudini.
Timorese now in police custody. In the             Canberra’s position was that they should be
                                                   given access to proper legal representation           The students brandished posters, burned
event that the trials go ahead regardless of                                                          tyres and jeered Rudini, saying he had failed
international pressure, your government            and receive free trials.
                                                                                                      to live up to promises to champion the poor
should be asked to instruct its embassy in                                                            and was using the visit for his own political
Jakarta to monitor the trials as soon as they           TIMORESE PRISONER                             purposes.
begin, in cooperation with embassies of the
EC member-states, Australia, Canada, the                   RELEASES (AFP)                                The courts found the six students guilty
                                                                                                      of trying openly to spread enmity and ha-
US and others, to ensure that a foreign em-           AFP, Jakarta, Feb 28 - The Jakarta at-          tred against the government and of publicly
bassy representative is present at every           torney’s office Friday released 17 of the          insulting it, sentencing five of them to three
session.                                           East Timorese students detained since they         years each, while one received a 39-month
   2. Write to the Portuguese ambassador in        took to the streets here in November de-           term.
your country, urging the Portuguese gov-           manding self-determination for East Timor.            The daily said that under a decree of the
ernment to press for Joao Freitas da Camara        Another five are to face trial.                    justice minister, the four would be on pro-
to be released and allowed to leave for               Jakarta Chief Attorney Siregar told re-         bation until July 9 and were under an obli-
Lisbon. Portugal should be asked to seek the       porters the 17, all East Timorese students         gation to report periodically to the High
assistance of the Dutch embassy in Jakarta         from several cities in Java and Bali, would be     Court.
to do this. (The Netherlands represents            released later Friday and that five others            Releases, on similar conditions, are also
Portugal’s interests in Jakarta.)                  would be put on trial.                             planned for the other two ITB students.
   3. Write to the Japanese ambassador in             Two of the students to face trial have             The two, held at a different prison, would
your country to remind the Japanese gov-           been charged with subversion, which carries        be released in the next few days, it said.
ernment of its pledge to Fernando de Araujo        the death penalty. Three others face criminal
and to seek its intervention immediately           charges of publicly expressing enmity, hate
with the Indonesian authorities on his behalf.     or insult towards the lawful government,
                                                                                                           BIG DILI TRIALS SOON
   4. Do what you can, through the press, to       which can carry up to seven years jail,                             (REUTER)
highlight these trials in the national and local   Siregar said.
press.                                                                                                   Reuter, Dili, East Timor, March 1 -
                                                      The 22 were part of 70 youths claiming          Leaders of an anti-Indonesia demonstration
   5. Ask student organisations in your            to belong to the Movement of East Timorese
country to take up the cases of Camara and                                                            in East Timor in November which ended in
                                                   Nationalist Students in Indonesia, who             an army massacre of civilians will go on trial
Araujo.                                            demonstrated at a busy Jakarta thoroughfare        next week, a local court official said.
                                                   a week after the November 12 massacre in
Page 42                                                            East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

   Official Hyronimus Godang told report-                                                            amine the army’s handling of the 12
ers on Saturday that Gregorio da Cunha                 TRIALS OF MILITARY                            November incident.
Saldanha and Francisco Miranda Branco
would be charged with subversion, which                     OFFICERS                                 [As a trailer, the six senior officers disci-
                                                                                                     plined are Sintong Panjaitan, Warouw, his
carries a maximum penalty of death.                                                                  deputy, the assistant for intelligence, the
   Police said Da Cunha Saldanha led a                                                               commander of Section C and the Dili Kodim
demonstration to Santa Cruz cemetery in the             SOEHARTO PROMISES
                                                                                                     commander. They are held responsible not
East Timor capital Dili on November 12                    PUNISHMENT (AFP)                           for the shooting but for being neglectful and
which the government says led to the army                                                            letting the situation in East Timor get out of
shooting.                                             AFP, Jakarta, Feb 7 - Indonesian               hand. The eight soldiers to be court-
   Officials said six other East Timorese will     President Suharto told a group of German          martialled are those who commanded the
be tried in Dili on lesser charges linked to the   politicians that soldiers responsible for         shooting and acted excessively. We have the
demonstration, which was held in memory            killing scores of people in East Timor in         original document and will post parts of it in
of a Timorese separatist.                          November would be brought to justice, the         the next 24 hours and a more complete
   Indonesia last week banned foreign jour-        German Embassy said Friday.                       translation later on.]
nalists from the former Portuguese colony             Suharto told the five-member German                According to Reuter, of the six, three (not
before the arrival of a “peace boat” which         delegation led by Bundestag vice president        identified by name) have been dismissed
plans to sail there from the north Australian      Hans Klein that “no matter who they are,          from the army, two have been removed from
port of Darwin.                                    those found responsible for the shooting will     active duty and one is temporarily off active
                                                   be dealt with by the courts,” according to a      duty. [The report itself indeed does not say
                                                   communiqué issued at the end of the group’s       which officer obtained which punishment.]
                                                   six-day visit to Indonesia.                           Eight (unnamed) soldiers are being court-
                                                      Klein said he respected “the personal          martialled, four junior officers, three NCOs
                                                   initiative by President Suharto to investigate    and one private. In addition, another five
                                                   the events of November 12, 1991, in Dili and      officers are under investigation.
                                                   to clarify the still unanswered questions,” it        Reuter commented that the announcement
                                                   said.                                             should help appease Indonesia’s major aid
                                                                                                     donors who have demanded that soldiers
                                                        E.C. URGES MILITARY                          should be punished for their role in the
                                                           TRIALS (REUTER)                           shooting.

                                                      Reuter, Lisbon, Feb 13 - The European          MILITARY COUNCIL REPORT
                                                   Community urged Indonesia on Thursday to
                                                                                                                    (FULL TEXT)
                                                   bring to trial all those responsible for an
                                                   army massacre in the former Portuguese               The following is the unabridged transla-
                                                   colony of East Timor three months ago.            tion of the statement made public in Jakarta
                                                      The 12 EC member states welcomed               on 27 February 1992 by Army Chief-of-
                                                   Indonesia’s official inquiry into the incident.   Staff General Edi Sudradjat on “Results of
                                                      An EC statement released in Lisbon said        the Honourary Military Council and the
                                                   the Community was encouraged by Jakarta’s         Plan for Further Action.”
                                                   criticism of the armed forces, its dismissal of   1. As is known, in furtherance of the
                                                   two senior commanders responsible for East           Instruction of the President as Supreme
                                                   Timor and its decision to undertake further          Commander of ABRI [the Indonesian
                                                   investigations.                                      Armed Forces], the Army/ABRI Chief-
                                                      The EC urged Indonesia to identify those          of-Staff established an Honourary
                                                   responsible and bring them to trial and give         Military Council (DKM) to examine the
                                                   “clear information about the number killed           12 November 1991 Incident more thor-
                                                   and the fate of those still missing.”                oughly.
                                                      It also urged Jakarta to treat humanely all    2. An Honourary Military Council is a nor-
                                                   those arrested after the shooting, release           mal thing in the life and tradition of the
                                                   those not involved in violent activities and         Army/ABRI, which is set up as a tempo-
                                                   give a fair trial to those brought to court.         rary body to examine and evaluate
                                                      The EC backed what it termed the                  something that has been done and/or not
                                                   “constructive Portuguese proposal” for di-           done by a person or several officers in
                                                   rect talks with Jakarta.                             relation to their duties and competence
                                                      The EC has already called for an inde-            and also to call them to account.
                                                   pendent inquiry into the massacre but it has
                                                   not imposed any EC-wide sanctions.                3. It was the task of the DKM which was
                                                                                                        headed by Major- General Faisal Tanjung
                                                                                                        to undertake a more thorough
                                                          MILITARY COUNCIL                              investigation, study and evaluation of the
                                                          DECISIONS (REUTER)                            policy of and steps taken by the local
                                                                                                        Command in its handling of the 12
                                                   Reuter. 27 February 1992.                            November 1991 Incident, in order to dis-
                                                      This briefly summarises the results, an-          cover the truth so as to be able to draw
                                                   nounced today by General Edi Sudradjat,              lessons for the guidance of the
                                                   army chief-of-staff, of the Honorary                 Army/ABRI.
                                                   Military Council set up in December to ex-        4. The DKM [Dewan Kehormatan Militer]
                                                                                                        worked from 2 January until 20 February
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 43

   1992. Its method of work and activities            litical interests. Subsequent developments    8. These are the findings and steps taken by
   were as follows:                                   opened the way for the GPK to make its           the Army/ABRI in handling the 12
   a. Examination of documents (including             presence known to the outside world by           November 1991 incident, which are ba-
       the advance report of the National             conducting an escalated series of                sically “an internal correction within the
       Inquiry Commission).                           demonstrations or mass actions starting in       body of the Army/ABRI towards actions
                                                      1989, giving expression to overt anti-           by its members.” These corrections in
   b. Examination and collection of state-
                                                      integration attitudes, even unfurling            essence reflect the “sense of responsibil-
       ments.
                                                      Fretilin posters and flags, leading even-        ity” of the Army/ABRI towards every-
   c. Meetings/interviews of 51 persons.              tually to the burning of a motor-bike and        thing that has been done.
   d. On-field inspection and reconstruction          attack on officials, and even pulling down
       of the incident.                                                                             [Note: Apart from anything in square
                                                      the Red-and-White flag. The attitude
                                                                                                    brackets, all bracketing and quotation marks
   e. Investigation of 6 Investigated Officers        adopted by the GPK (especially in Dili)
                                                                                                    follow the original document.]
       [Perwira Terperiksa], including the            was one reason why the emotions of
       summoning of 18 witnesses.                     some members of ABRI exploded,
                                                      besides other factors that were deliber-       ARMY PUNISHES OFFICERS
5. The Investigated Officers were Officers of         ately created by the GPK. It was this un-                      (REUTER)
   the Local Command, the former:                     controllable explosion of emotions that
    a. Udayana Regional Military                      caused some soldiers to act improperly.           Reuter, Jakarta, Moses Manoharan, Feb
        Commander [Major-General Sintong          c. It should have been possible to know in        27 - The Indonesian army said on Thursday
        Panjaitan].                                   advance that the 12 November 1992             it had punished six senior officers for last
    b. The Commander of Kolakops, the                 Incident would occur because indications      November’s massacre of civilians in East
        Operational Command of East Timor             and preparations for this were already        Timor, in what diplomats said was an at-
        [Brigadier-General Rudolf Warouw].            evident several days beforehand. It is        tempt to calm international outrage.
                                                      greatly to be regretted that the local            Army chief General Edi Sudradjat said
    c. The Deputy Commander of East
                                                      Command failed to take the appropriate        three of the six officers had been dismissed,
        Timor Kolakops [Colonel J.P.
                                                      measures and actions.                         two were taken off active duty and another
        Sepang].                                                                                    had been temporarily suspended. Eight other
    d. Kolakops Assistant for Intelligence        7. After carefully examining the findings of      soldiers of lower rank would be court-
        [Colonel Gatot Purwanto]                      the DKM, the Army Chief-of-Staff has          martialled, he said.
    e. The Commander of Section C. [Colonel           taken the following actions:                      Diplomats said Thursday’s announce-
        Binsar Aruan]                                 There are three kinds of mistakes and/or      ment was an attempt to calm international
    f. The Commander of 1627 Military             offenses committed by the local Command           anger over the killings. The punishments
        Command/Dili [Lieut. Colonel Wahyu        and by those implementing (the action), in        were the most severe meted out to the pow-
        Hidayat]                                  their handling of the 12 November 1991. The       erful military since it brought President
                                                  following measures have therefore been            Suharto to power 26 years ago.
[Note: The original document does not give        taken:                                                “We have learnt a big lesson,” a solemn
the names of the officers.]                           First: Because of their mistakes and ne-      Sudradjat told reporters as he announced the
6. The DKM completed its task and re-             glect, the following punitive actions have        findings of a special military council in-
   ported its findings to the Army Chief-of-      been taken with regard to the six                 vestigating the massacre. He said the pun-
   Staff. The DKM’s findings were reported        “Investigated Officers": three Officers “have     ishments were part of steps to correct in-
   by the Army Chief-of-Staff to the              been dismissed from military service” and         discipline.
   Commander-in-Chief of the Armed                two others “are no longer being given posts           But he also came out strongly against a
   Forces and directly to the President. In       within the structure of the Army/ABRI but         softer line taken in East Timor since 1989 to
   broad lines the findings of the DKM are        are still on active service,” while one Officer   handle separatist sentiment. Sudradjat said
   as follows:                                    is for the time being not being given a post in   this had given the rebels a chance to
a. Operasi Teritorial [Territorial Operation]     the Army structure but is still on active         embarrass Indonesia.
   in East Timor, in force as the basic op-       service.                                              Sudradjat’s view underlined a hard-line
   eration since 1989, was aimed in general           Second: Errors which are the responsi-        approach to East Timor, closed to journal-
   at improving the welfare of the people,        bility of Command, namely the Commanders          ists on Wednesday before the approach of a
   the specific aim being to help and en-         who were in command and who were in               Portuguese vessel carrying protesters.
   courage the East Timorese people to            control of things on the spot as well as              “How are we going to make sure human
   adopt a more dynamic attitude and be-          members who committed offenses against            rights improve there?” questioned one
   come more productive so that their stan-       military ethics and discipline in the form of     European diplomat, concerned that the new
   dard of living could improve.                  actions that were improper, tending towards       tough approach could mean a rise in human
                                                  criminal acts. These errors and/or offenses       rights abuses.
b. However, in its implementation, it is clear
                                                  will henceforth been handled by handing               Sudradjat said the two most senior offi-
   that it was utilised by the GPK
                                                  them over to Military Courts in conformity        cers punished were Major General Sintong
   [Gerombolan Pengacau Keamanan,
                                                  with the procedures in force. The following       Panjaitan, military commander of eastern
   Security Disrupter Gang, the term used
                                                  are being taken to Military Courts: four          Indonesia, and the East Timor commander
   officially for the East Timor resistance] to
                                                  officers, 3 non-commissioned officers and 1       Brigadier General Rudolf Warouw. He
   their own advantage, especially in Dili.
                                                  private.                                          declined to say how they had been punished.
   The persuasive approach adopted by the
                                                      Third: Errors committed by officers who           Four other officers against whom action
   local Command in fact provided the
                                                  did not feel called upon to take actions that     had been taken were Warouw’s deputy and
   opportunity for the GPK to foster anti-
                                                  they should have taken. There are five offi-      his number three, East Timor’s military in-
   integration feelings, particularly among
                                                  cers who need to undergo further investiga-       telligence head and the commander of Dili.
   the youth in Dili. The persuasive
                                                  tion in order to examine whether it is indeed         The eight others, including four junior
   approach based on the theme of “Love”
                                                  true that they did not take actions that they     officers, are being tried in a military court on
   was in fact used as an opportunity for the
                                                  should have taken.                                criminal charges related to the shooting.
   GPK to enhance its influence and mobi-
   lise the masses in furtherance of its po-
Page 44                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

   “The officers directly in control in the      other five-year term it is likely to be his last,   of our continuing concerns about the East
field and their men had violated the ethics of   Sudarsono said.                                     Timorese detainees and the fate of the East
military discipline and will be brought to the      Senior military sources said the military’s      Timorese still missing.”
military court,” Sudradjat said.                 choice for the vice-presidency would become            A British official said 13 of an initial 56
   Five more members of the military, which      known only after the general election.              East Timorese civilians arrested remained in
includes the police, are being investigated.     Sudarsono said he wondered whether the              detention.
   Diplomats said the military council’s         army’s factions would be able to agree on a
findings would probably placate most donor       single candidate.                                   JAPAN PRAISES INDONESIAN
countries.                                          Western diplomats said a retired general
   Thirteen East Timorese civilians have al-     could be an acceptable candidate in the wake          MEASURES (JAPAN TIMES)
ready been charged over the incident.            of this setback to Try, whose image was
                                                                                                     March 1, 1992 [reproduced in full]
   UPI, Jakarta, Feb 27 - Three Indonesian       tarnished by his impassioned insistence in
officers were dismissed and three more given     parliament that few had died in Dili.                  Tokyo welcomes the Indonesian army’s
military sanctions for their role in the East       “The critics ask, how can the military           decision to punish army officers who were
Timor massacre in November which left            ensure stability when they handled a small          in command during last November’s
more than 50 people dead.                        disturbance in East Timor so badly?” a for-         shooting of civilians in East Timor, a Foreign
   The military council which handed down        eign military attaché said.                         Ministry spokesman has announced.
the cases, however, said that troops were           The question strikes at the heart of the            “We believe that those measures taken
under pressure during the incident and that      military’s defence of its dual function role.       against the military personnel involved are,
“the uncontrolled emotion of the demonstra-         Senior military officers say Suharto needs       basically, developments in the appropriate
tors had resulted in the military officers       the military in the next 12 months, using its       direction,” spokesman Masamichi Hanabusa
overreacting.”                                   grassroots influence to secure political            told foreign correspondents.
   A statement from the council said the         stability in the run-up to the June 9 polls.           The spokesman was speaking in reference
massacre could have been averted because                                                             to remarks made Thursday by Indonesia’s
the preparations for the funeral and the size                                                        chief commander of the army, Gen. Edy
                                                 US APPLAUDS PUNISHMENT                              Sudrajat, who said six senior officers in
and scale of the demonstration had been
known to the military several days before.          Reuter, Washington, Feb 27 - The United          charge during the Nov. 12 incident in the
   “It was regretful that the steps and ap-      States is encouraged by Indonesia’s efforts         East Timor capital of Dili will be punished
propriate actions was not taken by the local     to make amends following a massacre of              for not taking “appropriate measures and
commander,” the statement said.                  civilians in East Timor last November, State        action.”
                                                 Department spokesman Richard Boucher                   Eyewitness reports indicate that more
                                                 said on Thursday.                                   than 100 people were killed when troops
PUNISHMENT STINGS AR MY                                                                              opened fire on a crowd of more than 2,000
                                                    “We’ve been encouraged by the
                (REUTER)                                                                             mourners, while a government commission
                                                 Indonesian government’s serious efforts to
   Reuter, Jakarta, Moses Manoharan, Feb         make amends for what it acknowledges was            report said only about 50 were killed.
28 - Indonesia’s powerful military, strug-       an excessive use of force by local military            Three of the officers are to be fired, while
gling to preserve its dominant role in gov-      units,” Boucher said at a briefing.                 two others will be removed from active duty
ernment, has been dealt a stinging blow by                                                           and the remaining officer will be temporarily
the punishment of six senior soldiers for                                                            suspended, according to the Indonesian
                                                     PUNISHMENTS SATISFY                             general.
their role in the East Timor massacre.
   Analysts said on Friday the stain on the               DUTCH, UK                                  JAPAN LAUDS PUNISHMENT
military’s honour comes at a sensitive time         Reuter, The Hague, Feb 28 - The                  (REUTER)
when Indonesia is preparing for general          Netherlands said on Friday Indonesia had
elections in June and a presidential poll next                                                          Reuter, Tokyo, Feb 28 - Japan welcomed
                                                 lived up to its promises by deciding to sack        on Friday the disciplining by the Indonesian
year for which President Suharto is expected     and suspend army officers responsible for a
to stand again.                                                                                      army of soldiers involved in the massacre of
                                                 massacre of civilians in East Timor last year.      civilians in East Timor last November.
   The army said on Thursday it had pun-            The Dutch government said in a state-
ished six senior officers, including two                                                                “We believe that those measures
                                                 ment it was satisfied with the action.              taken...are basically developments in the
generals.                                           The measures against the soldiers showed
   “For the time being, the military will ac-                                                        appropriate direction,” Foreign Ministry
                                                 that the Indonesian authorities had                 spokesman Masamichi Hanabusa told re-
cept it but the long-term implications will      responded to the inquiry’s report that some
become clear only towards the end of the                                                             porters.
                                                 troops in Dili acted outside their authority,          Aid donor nations had demanded that
year,” said Yuwono Sudarsono, a professor        the Dutch said.
of politics at the University of Indonesia in                                                        Indonesia act on a government commission
                                                    The Netherlands, which ruled Indonesia           report which partially blamed the military
Jakarta.                                         for 350 years until 1945, briefly suspended
   Most members of Suharto’s cabinet are                                                             for the killings.
                                                 aid in reaction to the massacre.                       Japan has said it will maintain aid to
from the military. The military’s standing          Britain said on Friday it was also en-
among rural people is still considered to be                                                         Indonesia.
                                                 couraged by the Indonesian army’s action
high, although educated Indonesians have         against the soldiers but that it was concerned
been embarrassed by the East Timor inci-         about several East Timorese still in
dent, diplomats say.                             detention.
   Sudarsono said the punishment of the             “We are encouraged by this further dem-
soldiers could damage armed forces com-          onstration of Indonesia’s commitment for
mander Try Sutrisno’s chances of succeeding      effective follow-up,” a British Foreign Office
Suharto.                                         spokesman said.
   Try is the only obvious military candi-          “We will continue to monitor the situ-
date for the vice-presidency – an important      ation closely to see that the Indonesians live
post because if Suharto does stand for an-       up to their undertakings and to remind them
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                  Page 45

                                                       The mission’s cancellation, informed ob-           For the time being, that is so, thanks to
  U.N. HUMAN RIGHTS                                servers believe, led directly to the massacre.      those who died and the foreign journalists
                                                   The desperate East Timorese, who had been           who were able to report or film their deaths.
 COMMISSION MEETS IN                               planning for months to meet the Portuguese,            But how long will it be, the critics ask,
        GENEVA                                     decided to stage their demonstration any-           before another massacre somewhere else in
                                                   how.                                                Asia overlays this one, and Portugal is
                                                       Senior officials say Indonesia would have       tempted to negotiate a more discreet solu-
PORTUGAL ESPOUSES EAST                             found another pretext to sabotage the               tion?
                                                   mission if Ms Jolliffe’s exclusion has been
 TIMOR’S CAUSE (GUARDIAN)                          accepted. They concede however that their               CLASH AT U.N. HUMAN
The Guardian. 14 February 1992. Byline:            hand was forced when the president of the
                                                   parliamentary assembly publicly announced             RIGHTS COMMISSION (AFP)
John Gittings. Article reproduced in full.
                                                   that the visit was off.
    Portugal is preparing a fierce assault on                                                             AFP, Geneva, Feb 14 - A Portuguese of-
                                                       One of Portugal’s senior journalists,
Indonesia’s occupation of East Timor at the                                                            ficial on Thursday slammed Indonesia’s
                                                   Adelino Gomes of Publico, has written al-
UN Human Rights Commission now meet-                                                                   human rights record, while his Indonesian
                                                   most every day at length on East Timor
ing in Geneva.                                                                                         counterpart on a United Nations commission
                                                   since the massacre. His earlier research had
    But Lisbon’s ex-colonial conscience has                                                            described his statements as “ridiculous.”
                                                   already shown deep ambiguity in Portugal’s
only been fitfully aroused in the 17 years                                                                The clash at the U.N. Commission on
                                                   position. It was seven years (1975-1982), he
since Jakarta seized the territory. If it were                                                         Human Rights came after the Portuguese
                                                   says before the Portuguese president men-
not for last November’s massacre in the                                                                official stated that torture was “a wide-
                                                   tioned East Timor in official discourse.
capital Dili, many critics believe, its official                                                       spread phenomenon in Indonesia and East
                                                   Lisbon’s talks with Jakarta in the mid-80s
concern might have lapsed yet again.                                                                   Timor.”
                                                   were limited to human rights, and Mario
    Advisors close to President Mario Soares                                                              The Portuguese delegate expressed
                                                   Soares (then Prime Minister) still believed
insist Portugal is fully committed to seeking                                                          “surprise” at a claim by his Indonesian op-
                                                   that the East Timorese resistance organisa-
genuine self-determination for the East                                                                posite number that soldiers involved in the
                                                   tion Fretilin was Marxist.
Timorese. They reproach Portugal’s EC                                                                  massacre had been brought to justice.
                                                       For another seven years (1984-91),
partners with failing to regard East Timor as                                                             “To our knowledge... only the innocents
                                                   Lisbon’s goals vacillated between “self-de-
more than ” a problem of human rights.”                                                                were jailed,” the official said.
                                                   termination for the Timorese people” and
    “For six years Portugal has carried out the                                                           The Indonesian representative on the
                                                   “almost nothing” – a cultural centre, com-
struggle by itself, only joined by inter-                                                              commission retorted, referring to Portugal:
                                                   pensation for Portuguese losses and its ex-
national pressure after the massacre at the                                                            “It is ridiculous for a country which held the
                                                   penses in looking after refugees.”
Santa Cruz cemetery,” says a senior official                                                           worst record in the modern history of colo-
                                                       The 3,000 refugees now in Lisbon expect
who admits, nevertheless, that Lisbon has a                                                            nialism to speak out about right, self-de-
                                                   better from Portugal, and government offi-
lot to answer for to the Timorese.                                                                     termination and how to approach human
                                                   cials claim they may still get it.
    The sight of Timorese women in the                                                                 rights.”
                                                       “East Timor’s human rights touches our
Santa Cruz cemetery while the Indonesian                                                                  The Indonesian representative also criti-
                                                   hearts,” says the foreign minister, Joao de
army gunned down the demonstrators shook                                                               cised two American journalists who reported
                                                   Deus Pinheiro. “But the need for self-de-
Portuguese opinion more than any other                                                                 on the massacre, Allan Nairn and Amy
                                                   termination touches our brains.” He warns
news since 1975. “You must understand,” a                                                              Goodman, saying they had originally entered
                                                   Jakarta that Portugal will get “even tougher”
pro-Timor activist explains, “they were                                                                the country with tourist visas.
                                                   if there is no real progress.
praying in Portuguese.”                                But what sort of progress? Lisbon sticks        Copies of Amy Goodman’sand Allan Nairn’s
    A foreign ministry official who has been       to the original 1982 formula that there             UNHRC testimonies are available from
active in talks with Indonesia points out the      should be negotiations between Indonesia            ETAN/US (see masthead).
political significance. “When we left East         and “all interested parties” – interpreted to
Timor only 40 per cent of the population           mean the East Timorese. But these could
was Catholic. Now the figure is close to 90
                                                                                                           BLAMING THE VICTIMS:
                                                   include pro-Jakarta stooges as well as
per cent. Religion is the language of resis-       Fretilin and neutral figures such as Bishop              JURISTS CRITICISE
tance.”                                            Belo of Dili.                                          INDONESIA’S RESPONSE
    More than 20 popular organisations in              It is far from a clear call for independence.
Portugal, including many trade unions and          Privately some Portuguese officials say that        The following press release was issued in
youth movements, are coordinating a new            real self-determination may only have a “1          Geneva on 21 February 1992 by the
campaign for Timorese independence. A              per cent chance.”                                   International Commission of Jurists:
convention on East Timor, with international           They also point to the complicating effect         The Indonesian government is “blaming
supporters including Danielle Mitterand,           of divisions in the exiled community. But a         the victims” of a November 1991 massacre
will be held in March.                             new generation of young East Timorese –             in East Timor in which Indonesian security
    If the government is doing enough now,         represented by those who marched in Dili on         forces killed between 100 and 200 persons,
there is deep cynicism about its tactics be-       12 November – is impatient with these               according to the International Commission of
fore the Dili massacre. The crucial question       divisions.                                          Jurists (ICJ).
is whether Portugal should have cancelled a            Domitiano [probably Donaciano] Gomes,              In a report presented today to the United
parliamentary mission due – after six years        aged 20, who was tortured in Dili before            Nations Commission on Human Rights,
of negotiations with Jakarta – to visit East       fleeing to Lisbon, says his generation will         which is meeting in Geneva, the ICJ cited
Timor.                                             liberate their country first, then choose the       numerous eyewitnesses who stated that the
    Indonesia at the last moment objected to       party to rule it. For them Xanana Gusmao,           killings were not the result of provocation
three journalists on the list. It withdrew its     the resistance leader, is not a political figure    by a violent crowd as claimed by the
objections to two with Portuguese nation-          but a national hero.                                Indonesian authorities, but rather a deliberate
ality, but insisted on banning the Australian-         “Before we struggled alone and we died          and pre- meditated use of force against
born Lisbon journalist, Jill Jolliffe.             alone,” he says with passion. “Now all the          peaceful demonstrators.
                                                   eyes of the world are upon us.”
Page 46                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

   Attention was focused on Dili, East           100,000 Timorese out of a population of           condition of anonymity: “Japan finds itself
Timor, last 12 November when the security        700,000 were reportedly killed. Since 1980,       in a difficult balancing act, trying on the one
forces opened fire on demonstrations seeking     another 100,000 are estimated to have died.       hand to show that it cares about human
independence for the former Portuguese                                                             rights, but on the other, it also has to show
colony, which has been occupied by               ICJ LAMBASTES INDON. (AFP)                        solidarity with its Asian partners such as
Indonesia since 1975. Although the                  AFP, Geneva, Feb 20 - A panel of inter-        Burma, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the
Indonesian authorities assert that the dead      national jurists Thursday lambasted the           worst violators of human rights in the
numbered “about 50,” independent evidence        Indonesian Government for “holding the            world.”
suggests that between 100 and 200 persons        victims responsible” for the East Timor              Hoping to get along well with both
were killed.                                     massacre, in which the army killed dozens of      worlds, Japan tries desperately and some-
   In the days following the massacre, ac-       people last November.                             times not so discretely to block resolutions
cording to the ICJ report, Indonesian               The International Commission of Jurists        which would force it to take a clear stand.
Commander-in-Chief Try Sutrisno stated           (ICJ) said an Indonesian inquiry into the         Hence, the powerful, diminutive Japanese
that pro-independence demonstrators “had         army’s killing of civilians at a funeral in the   ambassador, Mr Katsumi Sezaki, prefers to
to be shot” and “would be shot.”                 Timor capital Dili “failed to meet interna-       have “consensus decisions on most situ-
Nevertheless, in response to a mounting          tionally-recognized standards of impartial-       ations such as East Timor which would
international outcry, the government ap-         ity, credibility and technical competence.”       provide Japan with the perfect win-win
pointed a Commission of Inquiry to invest-          Amos Wako, the Kenyan attorney-gen-            situation,” a human rights expert commented
igate the incident. The Commission released      eral who was appointed by the U.N.                to ETNA.
an advance report in December 1991,              Secretary General to head a fact-finding             However, in the view of many, there is an
claiming that a violent crowd consciously        mission to Indonesia, handed over a report        increasing frustration with the WEAO group
provoked the security forces into                to Boutros Boutros-Ghali on Wednesday,            over Japan’s dual membership, with one
spontaneously over-reacting. It also asserted    U.N. sources announced here.                      diplomat accusing the Japanese of spying in
that the shootings were not ordered by the          Wako hailed the ICJ visit to Jakarta and       the Western group and informing the Asians
army nor reflective of government policy.        East Timor last week, but said that “such         about the tactics of the Europeans. “The
   According to ICJ Secretary-General            diplomatic contacts (are not) a substitute for    Japanese will have to take a stand. We
Adama Dieng, the Jurists’ report “finds that     a full and impartial investigation” of the        cannot go along with their selfish approach,”
eyewitness testimony contradicts the             situation in the former Portuguese colony,        the same expert said.
Commission of Inquiry on every key point.”       which was annexed by Indonesia in 1975.              Some NGOs and government delegations
All the eyewitnesses interviewed by the ICJ         He did not comment on his own report to        are beginning to look seriously into Japan’s
stated that the demonstration was peaceful       Boutros-Ghali.                                    own human rights record both over its
and controlled until, without warning or            The European Community, at a meeting           “horrendous treatment of migrant workers as
provocation, Indonesian security forces fired    of the United Nations Human Rights                well as its own national minorities.”
on the crowd. None of the witnesses saw          Commission here Thursday, declined to en-
demonstrators carrying weapons. Witnesses        dorse a Portuguese proposal to condemn               AUSTRALIAN DIPLOMATS
also reported that the security forces acted     Jakarta for its handling of the East Timor
in a pre-meditated and disciplined manner        situation.                                           LOSE THEIR COOL (ETNA)
throughout the incident.                            But speaking for the EC, Portuguese            Press Release issued in Geneva by ETNA,
   Although the ICJ was not given permis-        ambassador Goncalo de Santa-Clara Gomes           the East Timor News Agency, on 24
sion to visit East Timor, it interviewed eye-    said he favoured a “fair and acceptable in-       February 1992.
witnesses in Australia, Great Britain, the       ternational solution, in line with the legiti-
Netherlands and the United States.               mate wishes of the East Timorese.”                   Australian diplomats seem to be losing
   The ICJ report concluded that the                                                               their cool. Ambassador Walker and his
Commission of Inquiry “failed to meet in-                                                          deputy, the ever charismatic and energetic
ternationally recognised standards of im-         JAPAN UNDER INCREASING                           Bill Barker, seem to be outmanoeuvred by
partiality, credibility and technical compe-        CRITICISM IN U.N. (ETNA)                       the Portuguese every step of the way.
tence.”                                                                                               While Walker and Barker were hoping to
   Moreover, the ICJ criticised the              Press release issued in Geneva by ETNA, the       have a mild alternative resolution on East
Indonesian government for failing to take        East Timor News Agency, on 24 February            Timor tabled before the European
action against those responsible for the         1992.                                             Community’s draft resolution could be ta-
killings. The report notes that “while no            Over lunches and dinners with Latin           bled, the Portuguese delegation anticipated
military officer has yet been tried, dozens of   American diplomats and in the corridors of        their move and outmanoeuvred the
Timorese who participated in the demon-          the Palais des Nations, the usually low-key       Australians. The Australians seemed in-
stration remain in detention.”                   and discrete Japanese diplomats try to im-        censed and accused the Portuguese of being
   Commenting on the visit to Indonesia last     press everyone who cares to listen that the       “discourteous.” Some terse words were
week of the UN Secretary-General’s               way “to help the East Timorese” is not by         overheard between the Australian and
Personal Envoy, Amos Wako, Mr Dieng              having a resolution adopted in the                Portuguese delegations.
said he was “pleased that the Envoy was          Commission of Human Rights.                          Jose Luis Guterres, Fretilin
received by the Indonesian authorities, but          Japan, the largest aid donor and investor     Representative to the United Nations in
we frankly do not see such diplomatic con-       in Indonesia, is certainly a key Indonesian       New York, who with Jose Ramos-Horta is
tacts as a substitute for a full and impartial   ally in the battle this month in the Palais des   lobbying at the Commission, said with a
investigation of the Dili massacre nor for a     Nations over a resolution condemning the          mixture of anger and bewilderment at the
comprehensive study of the human rights          massacre of unarmed civilians on November         Australian behaviour: “Of course I would
situation on the occupied island.”               12, 1991, in Dili, East Timor.                    understand that Australia would be very
   In 1975, Indonesia invaded and occupied           Being an Asian country, Japan sits in the     active if it were to be the target of a reso-
East Timor, part of an island off the north      Asian regional group. But being an indus-         lution, let’s say, dealing with aboriginal
coast of Australia. Since that time, human       trialised country, it also sits in the WEAO       deaths in custody. However, this draft has
rights organisations have documented mas-        (Western European and Others) group. A            nothing to with Australia, so it really con-
sive abuses. From 1975 to 1980, more than        western diplomat commented to ETNA, on            firms that the Australians are once again too
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                           Page 47

eager to court favours with Indonesia. Why                                                       last November’s East Timor massacre had
else would Bill Barker go round lobbying
                                                 CANADA BACKS INDONESIA                          been instigated by agents provocateurs bent
against this draft?”                                AT UNHRC (SOUTHAM)                           on wrecking Indonesia’s international
   There is a growing and widespread un-                                                         reputation.
happiness among human rights activists over     By DAVE TODD. Filed Feb 26, 1992 by                 Canada described the Dili massacre
this behaviour which is seen by many as         Southam News Service, Ottawa.                    Tuesday as a “tragedy.”
inconsistent with Australia’s claim to stand        GENEVA: Canada told the United                  “Developments on this matter and on the
for human rights irrespective of the regime     Nations Human Rights Commission on               situation of human rights in Indonesia need
involved. As one African human rights           Tuesday that it supports Indonesia’s expla-      to be watched very closely,” Park said.
activist put it: “I though Australia would be   nation of a massacre committed by its               The Canadian statement made no refer-
like Sweden, but having learnt of its           troops in East Timor last November.              ence to reports that in the wake of the Nov.
behaviour towards East Timor, Indonesia             But many of the world’s leading human        12 massacre in Dili, the International Red
and Bougainville, not to mention its abhor-     rights organizations consider the Indonesian     Cross was, for many days afterwards, de-
rent treatment of Australian aboriginals, we    government’s report a travesty of justice,       nied access to hospitals where wounded
are beginning to perceive that Australia is     and say the inquiry that it produced failed to   survivors were interrogated by the
one of the more cynical delegations in this     meet even minimum UN standards for the           Indonesian military.
Commission.”                                    investigation of such atrocities.                   Another issue, which human rights
                                                    Dozens of Timorese pro-democracy             groups have stressed at the 1992 UN Human
 ALLEGED COLLABORATOR                           demonstrators were shot dead in the former       Rights Commission session, is that Western
                                                Portuguese colony’s capital of Dili last Nov.    governments have ignored the actual
 OF INDONESIAN SECURITY                         12. The incident occurred during a funeral       composition of the Indonesian government’s
 FORCES ATTENDS UNHRC                           procession for a slain supporter. The event      committee of inquiry.
                 (HORTA)                        was televised around the world because of           Its chairman is a former general who, at
                                                the rare presence of a British camera crew       the height of his career, was a “Red Beret”
Press release issued in Geneva, 24 Feb.         that was filming a documentary.                  commander of the unit responsible for
1992, by ETNA (East Timor News Agency)              “The interim report of the Indonesian        committing some of the worst human rights
                                                commission of inquiry (into the massacre)        atrocities in the early years of Indonesia’s
   Jose Ramos-Horta, Special Diplomatic
                                                and the prompt response of the Indonesian        occupation of East Timor, which began in
Representative of the National Council of
                                                government are very encouraging,” said Anne      1975.
Maubere Resistance (CNRM), who is at-
                                                Park, Canada’s chief delegate to the                The Indonesia report, issued in
tending the 48th session of the UN
                                                UNHRC’s annual session in Geneva.                December, has so far produced the sacking
Commission on Human Rights, has lodged a
                                                    However, the Indonesian government has       of two generals who were in charge of East
complaint with United Nations officials in
                                                announced further efforts to shield East         Timor operations. But last week the
Geneva and the Swiss police authorities over
                                                Timor from outside scrutiny, closing the         Indonesian attorney general’s office began
the presence in the Indonesian delegation of
                                                island to foreign journalists “indefinitely,”    laying subversion charges against people it
an alleged collaborator of Indonesia’s
                                                the British Broadcasting Corp. reported to-      accuses of causing “anti-Indonesia protests”
security forces in East Timor.
                                                day.                                             in East Timor.
   Mr Ramos-Horta expressed his anguish
                                                    Amnesty International said Feb. 6 that
that Mr Guilherme Dos Santos, an East
                                                the official Indonesian report on what hap-
Timorese collaborator with the Indonesian
                                                pened, now praised by Canada, contains a
security forces, was highlighted in a state-
ment he made to the Jakarta Post [1/31/92]      “most shocking” conclusion that unarmed            JOURNALISTS BARRED
                                                demonstrators were responsible for provok-
in which he said: “The government should                                                               FROM TIMOR
                                                ing Indonesian soldiers into committing the
detain and interrogate the 220 East Timorese
                                                killings.
students who had asked US President
                                                    The Canadian government’s statement          ASIA WATCH BLACKLISTED (FEER)
George Bush to send forces to the province.”
                                                Tuesday raises no concerns about any of the
   The call by Mr Dos Santos for the arrest                                                      Far Eastern Economic Review. 20 February
                                                contents of the official Indonesian version,
of the students has caused revulsion in East                                                     1992. Intelligence briefs, unabridged.
                                                noting only that “we shall await with strong
Timor. A priest in Dili, contacted by ETNA,
                                                interest the actual implementation of this
said: “For him to call on the authorities to                                                     MARK OF DISPLEASURE
                                                report, and the assurance that the military
arrest students for having written an inno-
                                                personnel responsible will be brought to            Sidney Jones, the executive director of the
cent letter to the American president is just
                                                justice.”                                        New York-based human rights group Asia
criminal.”
                                                    However, Indonesia’s conclusion that the     Watch, has been barred from entering
   Mr Ramos-Horta, speaking to a group of
                                                Dili massacre was the result of Indonesian       Indonesia after a recent visit to the country.
students in Geneva during the weekend,
                                                troops flaring out of control, as opposed to a   Sidney Jones was informed on 8 February
considered Indonesia’s decision to include
                                                planned attack, is sharply disputed by sur-      when departing from Jakarta’s Sukarno-
Mr Dos Santos in its delegation as a
                                                viving victims of the shooting, backed up by     Hatta airport, that she had been placed on
“demonstration of their true colors. They
                                                what foreign journalists’ cameras recorded.      the Immigration Department’s blacklist. In
make a mockery of the Commission. We
                                                    Portugal’s foreign ministry whose repre-     the past year, Asia Watch has published re-
might next have Pol Pot leading a Cambodian
                                                sentative in Geneva has lobbied Canadian         ports critical of Indonesia’s human rights
delegation to the Human Rights
                                                officials hard considers the Indonesian report   record in the north Sumatra province of
Commission.”
                                                to be “a desperate attempt” to cope with         Aceh and in East Timor, the former
                                                international criticism, one clearly aimed at    Portuguese colony annexed by Indonesia in
                                                salvaging the country’s national reputation      1976.
                                                and retaining its $5 billion a year in foreign
                                                aid intact.
                                                    Only hours before Canada’s Park spoke,
                                                Indonesia’s representative to the UN Human
                                                Rights Commission insisted once again that
Page 48                                                           East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

                                                  for The Japan Times, The Australian and             died since the invasion, according to
   PETER S. GOODMAN                               several U.S. newspapers.                            Amnesty International.
 EXPULSION AND ARTICLES                              A stream of foreign journalists has visited          Jakarta has saturated the dirt-poor East
                                                  the former Portuguese territory without             Timorese with development projects of late
U.S. JOURNALIST FORCED TO                         special permission since soldiers killed            to try to win over the population. But
                                                  scores of civilians on November 12.                 hatred for Indonesia remains strong among
LEAVE EAST TIMOR (AP/AFP)                            It is the first time that a foreign journalist   East Timorese, who view themselves as
AP and AFP. 19 Feb. Slightly abridged.            based in Indonesia has been told to leave           culturally distinct from the rest of the ar-
    A Jakarta-based American freelance            East Timor since it was opened up in 1989.          chipelago. The Nov. 12 incident, in which
journalist said Wednesday that he was                “There is no clear statement but a permit        soldiers fired on unarmed demonstrators,
forced to leave East Timor because he did         is necessary... the regulation stands and they      killing at least 50 people, has renewed in-
not have a travel permit.                         will enforce it now,” a foreign ministry            ternational interest in their plight.
    Peter Simon Goodman was covering the          spokesman said.                                         “Two weeks ago, the soldiers came in the
visit of a UN envoy, Amos Wako, who ar-                                                               middle of the night,” whispered an 18-year-
                                                  DPA ON GOODMAN EXPULSION                            old man in the stifling heat of his plywood
rived in the East Timorese capital of Dili
                                                     DPA, Jakarta, Feb 19 - Indonesian                house at the base of the mountains which
Thursday. Wako came to investigate the
                                                  authorities have ordered a Jakarta-based U.S.       rise above Dili, the dusty port that is the
Nov. 12 incident at a Dili cemetery in which
                                                  journalist out of East Timor.                       capital of East Timor. “They took my
Indonesian troops opened fire on
                                                     Freelancer Peter S. Goodman said he left         brother away for questioning. We have not
demonstrations, killings dozens.
                                                  Dili Tuesday after immigration officials had        seen him since.”
    Goodman told The Associated Press that
                                                  demanded he produce a travel permit. They               His dark Timorese features and tightly-
Indonesian immigration officials questioned
                                                  insisted such a permit was compulsory for           curled black hair seem more African than
him at his hotel last Friday and told him to
                                                  foreign journalists visiting East Timor.            Asian. The young man glanced towards the
leave East Timor. Goodman, who writes for
                                                     There has been confusion about the need          window, a hole sawn out of the wall, and
the Japan Times and other newspapers, said
                                                  for travel permits in East Timor since the          surveyed the scene outside. There was no-
he did not argue and obeyed the order to
                                                  Indonesian government declared in 1989 it           one around so he continued his whispering:
leave the former Portuguese colony.
                                                  was open to visitors, including foreigners.         “We are afraid that he is dead,” he said.
    “I have been honest from the beginning,
                                                  Officials began to demand permits from                  This young man believes his brother has
saying that I have come to East Timor to
                                                  journalists following bloodshed last                become a casualty of intensified security
write about the area,” he said.
                                                  November.                                           operations by Indonesians after the massa-
    The Information Ministry, while claiming
East Timor open to visitors, has advised                                                              cre.
                                                  EAST TIMORESE DEFY TERROR                               Dili is dominated by fear, the streets de-
reporters to obtain travel permits for their
own safety.                                       TACTICS IN THE FIGHT TO BE FREE                     void of activity throughout much of the day.
    Meanwhile [according to AFP], the             (GOODMAN, TELEGRAPH)                                On one recent morning, virtually everyone
Kompas daily also said that Indonesian                                                                had a quick look about to see who else might
                                                  The London Daily Telegraph. 28 February
authorities in Dili had last Tuesday asked                                                            be in the area before saying so much as good
                                                  1992. Dateline: Dili. Byline: Peter Goodman.
journalist Peter Goodman, a free-lancer ac-                                                           morning to a foreigner.
                                                  News item unabridged.
credited as correspondent for Japan Times,                                                                At least 10,000 Indonesian troops remain
                                                  Comment: Peter Goodman is the freelance             in East Timor and Dili has the air of a city
to leave Dili the same day. Goodman had           US journalist who was expelled from East            under siege.
been in East Timor since a 24-hour visit          Timor earlier this month. The Daily                     On a steamy morning earlier this month,
there last week by Amos Wako, a personal          Telegraph, broadly speaking, expresses the          500 soldiers in 20 lorries stood in formation
envoy of the UN Secretary General.                views of the Conservative Party. Just before        in a field in central Dili. All carried full packs
    Kompas said that officials of the local       Ali Alatas visited London, it published a long      and M16 assault rifles slung over their
immigration and information office prevent        article in its ‘Personal Opinions’ Column by        shoulders. Their commander addressed them
Goodman from leaving his hotel in Dili for a      Margaret Coles, giving a very sympathetic           loudly while he stood beneath a flagpole, the
trip to Same in central East Timor.               account of the East Timor question. (We did         red and white of Indonesia lifted by a gentle
    Goodman, who has been in Indonesia for        not post it at the time because of pressure of      breeze. Most East Timorese walking by did
about six months, also writes for several         work.) It is very significant that a right-wing     not even dare look.
other foreign publications, including The         newspaper is giving such sympathetic                    While none of the dozen or so soldiers at
South China Morning Post, The Australian,         coverage to East Timor.                             ease on the sides of the field cared to say
and works for a US radio station in Boston,
Kompas said.                                         [Intro] Indonesian troops are still cracking     where the men were going, several East
    During his stay in East Timor, he tried, to   down hard in East Timor in the wake of last         Timorese said troops have been entering
no avail, to meet with Governor Carrascalao,      year’s massacre. Peter Goodman reports              villages frequently of late.
Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo and East Timor         from Dili.                                              “They go from house to house, warning
Military Operational Commander, Brig-Gen             When Portugal abandoned its East Timor           people not to make trouble,” said an elderly
Theo Syafei.                                      colony in 1975 after more than four centu-          East Timorese as he sat beneath an enor-
                                                  ries, civil war broke out. A nominally-             mous banyan tree on the edge of the
REUTER                                            Marxist guerrilla force gained the upper hand       crumbling broadwalk that fronts the harbour.
   Reuter, Jakarta, Feb 19 - An American          and neighbouring Indonesia invaded, fearing a       “The soldiers come and beat people up.
journalist said on Wednesday the Indonesian       local Cuba in the making. East Timor was            Many are taken away for questioning and
government had expelled him from East             formally integrated as an Indonesian                often disappear. The military has killed
Timor while he was covering the aftermath         province in 1976 but the process has been           many in the last few months.”
of an army massacre in November.                  anything but smooth.                                    Despite the climate of fear and an already
   “I asked them if East Timor was closed            Battling pro-independent guerrillas con-         rich legacy of suffering, East Timorese
and they said no, but I needed a permit to        tinuously, Indonesian forces have been              aspirations for independence remain ex-
enter,” said Peter Goodman, a 25-year-old         ruthless. Up to 200,000 East Timorese,              traordinarily high, as does the willingness of
New Yorker based in Jakarta who reports           roughly one third of the population, have           many to continue the struggle.
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                             Page 49

   “So many of our people have been killed        others will be tried in military courts, along   incident had prompted many journalists to
already,” said a 20- year-old man as he stood     with four soldiers involved in the shooting.     enter the country illegally (sic). They come
in the cemetery where the troops opened fire         The public rebuke of the military was         in as tourists and in so doing abuse the free-
on Nov. 12, a broad sea of crosses                virtually unprecedented, and western gov-        visa facilities provided by the government.
emblazoned with black ink. He lost a brother      ernments have praised Jakarta’s follow up,          “We are aware of the importance of
that day and was himself beaten by                while expressing hope for a full judicial        tourists for generating foreign exchange. But
Indonesian police when they detained him          process. Foreign Minister Ali Alatas visited     national stability is no less important,”
afterwards, he claimed. “Even if we die as        Washington last week on a world tour to          Sudomo told reporters after a two-hour
well, it does not matter. If we give up the       assure officials that Jakarta has learned from   meeting with armed forces commander-in-
fight, we lose everything that is important to    the massacre and intends to prevent further      chief, the attorney-general and the home
us.”                                              incidents.                                       affairs minister. Journalists who came in-
                                                     The closing of East Timor to journalists,     cognito had brought disadvantages for
EAST TIMOR TENSE, ARMY GETS                       however, raised new doubts. As many as           Indonesia, he said.
TOUGH (GOODMAN, NEWSDAY)                          10,000 Indonesian troops are stationed here,        “A working group of officials from the
by Peter S. Goodman, New York Newsday,            and residents say brutality remains a daily      armed forces, the Defence and Security
February 29, 1992 page 14.                        occurrence.                                      Ministry, BAKIN, the Justice Ministry, and
                                                     “It’s very bad here now,” said one man.       the Tourism Ministry is seeking an effective
   Dili, East Timor, Indonesia – “The sol-        “The police are everywhere.” The man, who,       way to monitor their entrance,” he said.
diers came in the middle of the night,” the       like other residents feared to have his name        According to an immigration official, a
18-year-old man whispered in the stifling         published, said soldiers had to used electric    foreign journalist who wants to work here
heat of this dusty port town. “They took          shocks to try to induce him to name people       should obtain a recommendation from the
my brother away for questioning. We have          involved in planning anti-Indonesian             Manpower Ministry and the Information
not seen him since.” After a quick survey         activities. Another man said several of his      Ministry as well as clearance from BAKIN,
outside a window of his plywood house, he         relatives were killed on Nov. 12 and that        before applying for a visa.
continued. “We are a afraid he is dead.”          some family members “have disappeared.”
   The young man spoke earlier this month            Many Dili residents said that before a        EXPECTING SHIP, TIMOR CLOSED
on condition that his name not be revealed.       recent visit by a United Nations special en-     TO JOURNALISTS (AFP)
Like so many others in the capital of East        voy, Amos Wako, soldiers threatened
Timor, the former Portuguese province that                                                         AFP, Jakarta. 26 February 1992. Item
                                                  would-be demonstrators with “extreme con-        summarised.
Indonesia annexed in 1976 and has been            sequences.” The two-day visit passed with-
struggling to assimilate ever since, the man’s    out incident.                                       East Timor has been declared temporarily
family is a casualty of intensified security         Two weeks ago, according to unconfirmed       off-limits to foreign journalists, a week
after an incident Nov. 12, when a memorial        reports, troops entered villages near the        before a Portuguese peace boat plans to visit
procession for a slain anti-Indonesian            capital and took 100 to 180 teenagers to the     Timor. Applications for permits to visit
activist turned into a pro-independence           mountains for “professional training.” None      East Timor needed by foreign journalists and
demonstration and soldiers opened fire,           of the youths has been heard from since.         Indonesians working for the foreign media
killing at least 50 people. Reports put the          Military officials in Dili refused to         were ‘suspended,’ the Department of
toll as high as 200.                              comment and declined to meet with this re-       Information announced. Only Dili-based
   Since then, tensions have been high, fu-       porter, who was forced to leave East Timor       journalists of the Indonesian media were
eled by local anger and international outrage,    – the last foreign journalist to visit the       allowed in East Timor.
and the government recently closed East           province before it was closed.                      The boat, expected to arrive in Dili early
Timor to foreign journalists, in advance of          Indonesia is a tapestry of hundreds of        in March, according to AFP, will first stop
the arrival next week of a Portuguese ship        cultures and languages across more than          in Darwin.
carrying human-rights activists.                  13,000 islands. Jakarta has historically            The Indonesian government this week
   The outcry – several nations protested         feared that if one thread came loose, the        declared its waters closed to the boat,
and three cut off aid – and Jakarta’s effort to   whole nation could quickly unravel.              blasting the planned visit as “provocative”
calm it have changed little here. Residents          Nevertheless, the East Timorese remain        and “politically motivated.” It was in line
said soldiers still enter homes, beating,         committed to independence, “So many our          with “neither peaceful travel nor innocence
torturing and killing those suspected of          brothers have died already,” said a 20-year-     passage” and was “designed to instigate
involvement in the pro-independence               old man, standing in the cemetery where          confrontation, aggravate tension, induce
movement.                                         troops opened fire Nov. 12. He lost a            divisiveness and incite disturbances.”
   Indonesia took over East Timor – pushing       brother that day and said he was beaten by          East Timor military commander Brig. Gen
across from its half of the island – after        police. “Even if we die as well, it does not     Theo Syafei warned that passengers would
Portugal abruptly terminated four centuries       matter. If we give up the fight, we lose eve-    be arrested if they tried to land.
of rule, prompting a civil war in which a         rything that is important to us.”
Marxist group gained the upper hand.                                                               REUTER:
Indonesia has been challenged by pro-inde-        GOVERNMENT TO CURB                                  Reuter, Jakarta, Jonathan Thatcher, Feb
pendence guerrillas and their support base.       JOURNALISTS ENTERING                             26 - Indonesia said on Wednesday it had
As many as 200,000 East Timorese, about a                                                          banned journalists from its troubled province
                                                  INDONESIA AS TOURISTS (JAKARTA                   of East Timor, where a shipload of
third of the population, have died under
Jakarta’s rule the human rights group says.       POST)                                            protesters is scheduled to arrive.
   Since the Nov. 12, massacre, Indonesia         20 February 1992. Abridged.                         “East Timor is closed to journalists for
has labored to restore it international image.                                                     the time being. I don’t know the reason,” a
                                                     Indonesia is seeking an effective way to
A commission appointed by President                                                                government official said. The ban applied to
                                                  curb the increasing number of foreign jour-
Suharto investigated and said the military                                                         local and foreign reporters, he said.
                                                  nalists who enter Indonesia as tourists, fol-
had used excessive force. Gen. Edi Sudradjat,                                                         The Indonesian embassy in Australia had
                                                  lowing the incident in Dili, says a senior
army chief of staff, said yesterday that three                                                     declined to give visas to journalists planning
                                                  minister.
other officers had been dismissed and four                                                         to join the ship.
                                                     Coordinating Minister for Politics and
                                                  Security Affairs, Sudomo, said the Nov. 12
Page 50                                                           East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

    A Jakarta-based U.S. journalist was ex-       Indonesia specialist by background. I have          similar massacres took place in Jakarta in
pelled from East Timor last week on the           been to Indonesia every year for the last 15        1984 and in south Sumatra in 1989, not to
grounds that he did not have a permit to          years, I speak the language fluently, and I         mention the hundreds and perhaps
enter. Previously, foreign journalists had        have a deep affection for the country –             thousands of civilians killed in the special
visited the territory freely.                     which I am now banned from entering.                region of Aceh, on the northern tip of
    In Tokyo, three Japanese students and a           I recently returned from a four-day visit       Sumatra, between 1989 and the present. But
Portuguese professor planning to sail with        to East Timor. The intention was not to             there was no international outcry and
the Lusitania Expresso said there were de-        conduct a human rights fact-finding mission,        therefore no pressure to investigate or halt
termined to make the trip despite Jakarta’s       as the Indonesian government did not grant          abuses. The Indonesian response to the
ban.                                              me permission to go there officially. I got on      killings on November 12 proves that pres-
    “I’m happy to die if I had to, if I could     a plane, as anyone can, and went as a tourist       sure works. The US policy response thus
spread the message around the world that I        to look at the place on which I have written        should be the beginning of a long overdue
was dying for the freedom of East Timor,”         human rights reports for years.                     effort to press the Indonesian government on
one of the students told reporters on                 East Timor remains open (at least to            human rights violations more generally.
Tuesday.                                          tourists; foreign journalists need a travel             –Finally, while the measures taken by
    Local residents say there is still strong     permit.) There was no difficulty getting in or      President Suharto, widely praised abroad,
resentment, especially in the capital Dili,       out. But from the moment my colleague and           appear to have had a major impact on the
against Jakarta rule and against the presence     I arrived in Dili, we were photographed and         balance of power in Jakarta, they have had
of more than 10,000 soldiers.                     followed. The surveillance continued when           no visible impact on the human rights
See also “Alatas: ‘Ban on Foreign                 we returned to Jakarta and ended only when          situation in East Timor. The unchecked
Journalists a Temporary’ Measure” in the          uniformed officials took me out of passport         power of the military is palpable from the
Hague part of Alatas’ itinerary on page 23        control at the airport as I was leaving to          moment you set foot in Dili, from the sheer
above. This is an IPS article dated 27 Feb.,      return to New York and informed me I was            saturation of the place by soldiers to the fear
in which “Minister Alatas told journalists        blacklisted and would not be permitted to           that registers the moment you start talking
that he was not yet fully informed, but said he   return.                                             with anyone to the fact that officers occupy
is sure that the measure was only for ‘the            Although we were not in a position to do        almost all the choice houses along the
time being’.”                                     extensive interviewing, we were able to learn       waterfront. In one neighborhood we visited,
                                                  a fair amount from conversations with clergy        every night from November 12 through
                                                  and others in East Timor, from talks with           December, soldiers would come in by trucks
                                                  East Timorese and lawyers in Jakarta, and           and make the rounds of every house around
  U.S. SENATE FOREIGN                             from the Indonesian press. Based on those           midnight, banging the door with a piece of
 RELATIONS COMMITTEE                              sources, I would like to stress three points:       wood to wake up the residents and do a
                                                      –First, despite all the steps, indeed un-       headcount. These checks continue to the
         HEARING                                  precedented, that President Suharto has             present, though not every night. For the first
                                                  taken to respond to international outrage           week after the massacre, all schools and
                                                  over the Dili massacre, none of the funda-          most shops in Dili were closed, as people
   February 27, 2:30 pm
                                                  mental questions about the massacre has             were too terrified to go out on the streets. In
EVENT: SENATE FOREIGN
                                                  been answered. Only 19 bodies of the much           one school we visited, attendance was still
   RELATIONS COMMITTEE meeting;
                                                  larger number of demonstrators killed by            not back to normal. In one restaurant in Dili,
   Sen. Claiborne Pell, D-RI, chmn –
                                                  Indonesian troops have been found, and              a waiter came up to us and said he would
SUBJECT: Hearing on the crisis in East            those responsible for murder have not been          like to talk, but he would get in trouble if he
   Timor and U.S. policy toward Indonesia         prosecuted. No one should mistake form for          did so, and that while it was possible to ex-
LOCATION: SD-419 Dirksen Senate Office            substance. We acknowledge that Indonesia’s          change words in the restaurant, anyone who
   Building                                       establishment of the National Commission            tried to talk to a foreigner on the streets
PARTICIPANTS:                                     of Inquiry was an important recognition of          would be immediately questioned. If this
Kenneth Quinn, State Department (Did not          the need to address human rights abuses. We         was the situation in early February, imagine
   show)                                          do not believe that the Commission report           what it must have been like immediately
                                                  effectively addressed any of the outstanding        after November 12.
The Right Reverend Paul Moore, retired            issues.
   Episcopal Bishop of New York                       Likewise, it is important that President        EXECUTIONS AFTER NOV. 12
Allan Nairn, freelance writer, New Yorker         Suharto recognized the need to appoint an               The fear has implications for the ability
Representative of Asia Watch (Sidney              Honorary Military Council to investigate            to gather evidence on human rights abuses.
   Jones)                                         military behavior and recommend discipli-           After the initial shooting on November 12,
Representative of Amnesty International           nary measures against soldiers. But we don’t        additional executions were reported of four
   (Geoff Robinson)                               believe the pressure on Indonesia should be         kinds:
                                                  lifted until there is a full accounting for those       – “finishing off” of the wounded by sol-
CONTACT: 202-224-4651.                                                                                diers at the site of the cemetery within hours
                                                  dead and missing, including criminal
                                                  prosecutions of those responsible. The              of the massacre;
      ASIA WATCH SENATE                           Indonesian government has accused us of                 – killing of those who tried to flee Dili
                                                  pre-judging the issue by urging continued           that day or night and were stopped at
          TESTIMONY                               pressure. We say that by putting 13 civilians       checkpoints;
Testimony by Asia Watch, Sidney Jones,            on trial before a single soldier has been               – killing, including by denial of medical
Executive Director. Prepared for delivery         charged, and by blaming the demonstrators           care, that may have occurred at the military
before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations          for the massacre, the Indonesian government         hospital R.S. Wirahusada where no one had
Committee February 21, 1992 [The hearing          itself has done the pre-judging.                    access to the wounded for more than a week;
was postponed until Feb 27.]                          –A second point is that President Suharto           – and finally, execution of witnesses to
                                                  took the steps he did after the Dili massacre       disposal of bodies.
   My name is Sidney Jones. I am the              only because of international pressure. The             We were able to confirm the first kind of
Executive Director of Asia Watch and an           East Timor massacre was not an aberration;          killings. We talked with one member of the
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                Page 51

clergy who had gone to the scene of the            Commission as well. What efforts were             Timorese pro-independence activists who
massacre at 9 a.m., one hour after the             made to interview other residents of that         are accused either of masterminding the
shooting to look for missing seminarians. He       neighborhood about the current whereabouts        demonstration or taking part in a peaceful
saw one severely wounded young man being           of the family? Given the fear of saying           protest of East Timorese students in Jakarta
roughly dragged by the legs along the ground       anything against the army, what assurances        one week later. They are the first East
to a truck piled with corpses. A soldier           could be given to such residents that they        Timorese ever charged with subversion, an
kicked and beat the man until he stopped           could safely give evidence?                       offense which carries the death penalty, al-
moving, then threw him on the truck. When             I was skeptical of accounts of post-mas-       though that penalty is unlikely to be im-
the priest tried to intervene, one soldier said,   sacre killings before going to East Timor. I      posed. Nine others are expected to be tried
“But father, these are just Communists.”           am much more inclined to believe them now.        on the broad charge of “spreading hatred”
The same priest saw other bodies, some still       In a place where the only checks on the           which carries a 7-year sentence. The
moving, buried under corpses and told us           military are a relatively powerless governor      Indonesian government has said it will free
that if they had not died from their wounds,       and a beleaguered Catholic church, where          43 others detained for the last three months
they would have surely suffocated in the           fear prevented many witnesses from giving         because it had insufficient evidence to
truck.                                             testimony to the National Commission of           prosecute, but as of today, they remain in
   The second, third and fourth kinds of re-       Inquiry and still prevents ordinary               police custody.
ported killings have not been proven by hard       conversations on the street, I began to               The two on trial in Dili are Gregorio da
data, but under the circumstances prevailing       understand why we weren’t getting proof.          Cunha Saldanha, 29, and Francisco Miranda
in Dili, such proof would be nearly                                                                  Branco, 41. The government claims it has a
impossible to obtain.                              ARRESTS AND TRIALS SINCE                          600-page dossier against Saldanha, an
   A few points are worth noting here. The         NOVEMBER 12                                       employee of the governor’s office. Joao
National Commission report itself noted that          Arrests did not stop with the November         Freitas Camara and Fernando Araujo are the
some 90 people were missing more than six          massacre. Just before Christmas, one priest       two on trial in Jakarta. Both have been kept
weeks after the massacre. What happened to         working in a seminary in Fatumaca had been        in solitary confinement since their arrest. For
them? Ninety people do not usually                 planning to drive to Dili in a truck, and         the first month of detention, Joao was
disappear without a trace, but soldiers had        offered to take about 30 boys from school         allowed no change of clothes and no access
every reason to believe they could act with        who wanted to go back for the holidays so         to friends, family or his lawyer. He and
impunity. No disciplinary measures were            they would not have to pay for the bus.           Fernando continue to have restricted access
taken against individual members of the            They left about 4 a.m. and were stopped at a      to friends and lawyers.
security forces in the first weeks after the       checkpoint just outside Baucau. The soldiers          There is concern that information ex-
shooting. On the contrary, the initial official    did a thorough search of the students and         tracted under duress will be used to build a
version of the killings was that Fretilin had      found knives and some notebooks with anti-        case against these and other detainees. All
staged a violent demonstration involving the       Indonesian slogans. Five boys were arrested       were interrogated by the military without
killing, later amended to wounding, of two         and spent Christmas in detention in Baucau        lawyers present, and there are credible re-
soldiers. As remarks of army commanders in         where they were reportedly beaten and             ports that many of those in Dili were tor-
Jakarta make clear, there was no sense of          forced to say that the priest had put them        tured. Firsthand accounts have reached us
remorse for what happened. Instead, the            up to carrying weapons. They appear to            that East Timorese detained the day of the
overwhelming sentiment within the army             have been detained for about a week and still     massacre were beaten or tortured and then
seemed to be a determination to wreak              have to report regularly to police. The boys      released. There is no reason to believe that
vengeance on those who took part in the            apologized to the priest after they were re-      those kept in detention for further interro-
demonstration. If a few people disappeared         leased, saying they had no choice but to          gation enjoyed better treatment.
trying to flee Dili to avoid arrest, who was       implicate him.                                        Other arrests that have taken place since
going to ask questions?                               This may be part of a broader effort to        the massacre indicate that tension remains
   None of the wounded were allowed to             intimidate the church leadership. In January,     high. On February 2, what the Indonesian
receive treatment at the civilian hospital after   a former Fretilin fighter named Afonso            press described as a brawl broke out be-
the massacre; those who sought entry there         Rangel who served three years in prison,          tween two groups of young people in a
were transferred to the military hospital by       testified that he had asked a woman               market area of Dili. The press described it as
trucks. No one but military personnel knew         employed at the regional military command         a fight between youths of rival villages
for sure how many people were at that              to steal certain intelligence reports which he    which erupted when one group began staring
hospital; no one but military personnel and        then gave to Bishop Belo, the outspoken           at the other. In fact, the incident appears to
hospital workers were allowed in to see            Bishop of Dili, to smuggle out to resistance      have been similar to the October 28 clash at
them during those first critical days after the    supporters in Australia. According to the         the Motael Church in Dili when pro-gov-
shootings. There are reports of people being       press, his testimony in court contradicted        ernment, army-backed men on motorcycles
taken by trucks from the hospital morgue up        his original interrogation deposition. At least   appear to have provoked a confrontation
to the night of November 15. What efforts          one person named in the testimony whom            with pro-independence youth, and one from
were made by the National Commission of            Asia Watch interviewed said key elements of       each side was killed. In this later case, one
Inquiry or the Honorary Military Council to        it were just not true. There is concern that      person was killed and four youths were de-
interview hospital workers in confidence,          Rangel may have been put up to accusing the       tained.
and what convincing guarantees could they          Bishop as a kind of warning to the church.
give that these workers would be protected                                                           HOW CAN THE U.S. HELP?
                                                   The Indonesian press also commented that
against reprisals?                                 this case may have been used as a way to             1. International Military Education and
   Finally, there is the persistent report of a    test public reaction in Dili before proceeding    Training (IMET) and Economic Support
family having been executed after witnessing       with the much more explosive trials relating      Fund (ESF) assistance to Indonesia should
the dumping of bodies near Tibar. Asia             to the November 12 demonstration.                 be suspended until the US is satisfied that
Watch mentioned their names in a December             These trials are critically important.         there has been a full accounting for all of
12 report, noting that it could not confirm        Although to Asia Watch’s knowledge, no            those killed and missing after the November
the allegation. The story was repeated to us       soldiers are under arrest and no courts-          12 massacre in Dili and that soldiers
when we were in Dili, and we understand            martial have begun, subversion trials have        responsible have been prosecuted. There is
that the report was given to the National          started in Dili and Jakarta of four East          no indication whatsoever that IMET aid has
Page 52                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

contributed to the professionalism and                3. Our embassy in Jakarta should coor-       U.S. SENATE HEARING ON TIMOR
humanitarian values of the Indonesian army,       dinate with other concerned diplomatic           (AFP)
as the State Department asserts. Let me           missions to ensure that there is a fairly
stress again: the Dili massacre was not an        constant round of diplomatic visitors to East       AFP, Washington, Feb 27 - The United
aberration. Look at the attention given to        Timor attending the trials and visiting parish   States said Thursday that it was
Aceh in the latest State Department country       priests in Bobonaro, Suai, Ermera, Fatumaca      “encouraged” by the Indonesian
report. The question is not what training         and Dili, among other places. Visitors should    Government’s announcement of military
officers receive here, but what they do with      try to get a sense from those affected of        sanctions against officers found guilty of
it when they return, and there is no              surveillance and control measures in use by      mistakes in the November massacre of ci-
indication that officers trained here are any     the Indonesian army.                             vilians in East Timor.
less willing to condone abusive behavior than         4. At the United Nations Commission of          The measures were also welcomed by
other officers.                                   Human Rights meeting in Geneva, which            human rights groups here who have been
    Indonesia only receives a small amount of     Assistant Secretary Richard Schifter is at-      active since November in calling for inter-
IMET and ESF aid. The impact of a cut-off,        tending at the moment, the US should back        national pressure to ensure that Jakarta
if it were to come to that, would be              any responsible resolution condemning hu-        carried out a full investigation of the incident
primarily symbolic, but we strongly believe       man rights abuses by Indonesian security         and punished those responsible.
in the importance and effectiveness of sym-       forces in East Timor, Aceh and elsewhere.           Executive Director of New York-based
bolic gestures. I might add that I emphati-           5. The Indonesian government should be       Asia Watch, Sidney Jones said that it was
cally disagree with the approach suggested        strongly encouraged to take other measures,      “the first time in Indonesia that there has
by the General Accounting Office (GAO)            such as:                                         been any prosecutions for human rights
report on the Dili massacre released                  – ensuring that all commanders down to       abuses.”
Tuesday, to amend the Foreign Assistance          the KODIM (district) level receive training         But she said that several “fundamental
Act to allow training of the Indonesian na-       in human rights and humanitarian law from        questions” remained unanswered such as
tional police in crowd control. These police      non-governmental organizations;                  “exactly what happened to the dead and
are part of the armed forces, and they are            – allowing access to Indonesia and East      missing” and what the charges would be
responsible for torture on a routine, sys-        Timor by non-governmental human rights           against those officers found guilty.
tematic basis. Their role in practice is to get   organizations such as Asia Watch, Amnesty           Both Jones and Geoffrey Robinson of
information from suspects by any means            International and the International              London-based Amnesty International gave
possible and to administer summary pun-           Commission of Jurists;                           testimony later Thursday before the U.S.
ishment as they see fit. To give them any             – inviting members of the United Nations     Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
additional training with US funds as long as      Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary            They called for sustained U.S. pressure
the structure in which they operate remains       Disappearances to Indonesia and East Timor       on Indonesia and support for international
unchanged would be utterly irresponsible.         to discuss the problem of disappearances         talks aimed at bringing independence to the
    To sum up, the provision of IMET and          and what steps should be taken to search for     former Portuguese colony which Indonesia
ESF should be made contingent on:                 the missing and prevent such abuses in the       annexed in 1976.
    – a full and credible accounting by the       future.                                          U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT AND
Indonesian government of what happened to             – repealing the broadly worded Anti-
the bodies carted away by army truck from         Subversion Law under which hundreds of           SENATE HEARING (IPS)
the scene of the shooting and from the            people have been arrested for peaceful po-           Washington, Feb 27 (ips) – The U.S.
military hospital.                                litical or religious activities;                 State Department said here Thursday it was
    – criminal prosecutions for murder of             – ensuring that all military command         “encouraged” by recent dismissals of several
soldiers and officers involved in the massacre    posts, from the subdistrict level on up, keep    senior Indonesian military officers following
and deliberate killing of the wounded             records of detainees that are regularly          the report by a commission which
afterwards.                                       transmitted to a central register which can be   investigated the November massacre of
    – the initiation of an investigation by the   checked by families, lawyers and others          about 100 people in East Timor.
government into military abuses in Aceh, a        concerned about the fate of detainees.               But the department’s praise was imme-
full and credible accounting of what hap-         Comment on Asia Watch statement by C.            diately undercut by the chairman of the
pened to the known disappearance cases            Budiardjo, TAPOL.:                               Senate foreign relations committee which
there, and a halt to the current army practice        According to this statement, two East        heard Thursday from representatives of
of summarily executing suspected guerrillas       Timorese in Dili and two in Jakarta are now      human rights groups and a U.S. reporter who
rather than taking them into custody.             on trial for subversion. These trials have in    was beaten by Indonesian troops during the
    2. Our embassy in Jakarta should send         fact not yet begun. The Attorney-General         massacre.
observers periodically to the trials in Jakarta   announced last week that they would be               “Let us be clear, Indonesia’s occupation
and Dili, to send the message that the US is      charged for subversion but no date has yet       of East Timor is illegal,” said Senator
carefully monitoring the follow-up to the         been set for the trials to begin. The trials     Claiborne Pell who opened the hearing.
massacre. If and when courts-martial start, a     may begin very soon.                             “Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor in 1975
civilian member of the embassy should seek                                                         is just as illegal as Iraq’s invasion of
to attend those as well. I understand that an     ALLAN NAIRN’S TESTIMONY                          Kuwait.”
embassy representative occasionally                                                                    He added that Washington should not
                                                     This is available on paper (15 pages) from
attended the political trial of General                                                            recognise Indonesia’s claim to East Timor
                                                  the East Timor Action Network/U.S. (see
Dharsono in 1985, so there is a precedent for                                                      “unless the East Timorese declare in a
                                                  masthead). It will be circulated by computer
this. Congress could request a detailed report                                                     United Nations-supervised referendum their
                                                  as soon as practical.
from the embassy on the trials, the nature of                                                      wish to be Indonesian.”
                                                     Amy Goodman’s testimony, submitted in
the evidence produced in court, who                                                                    The hearing was the first on Indonesia
                                                  writing, is essentially the same as that she
attended as spectators and how the trials                                                          since last November’s massacre. It was
                                                  gave at the U.N. Human Rights Commission
were conducted. The administration should                                                          originally scheduled for last Friday when the
                                                  in Geneva. This is also available on paper
press the Indonesian government to allow                                                           Indonesian foreign minister was in
                                                  from ETAN/US.
foreign journalists and international human                                                        Washington but had to be put off until
rights organizations access to the trials.                                                         Thursday.
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                Page 53

   State Department spokesperson Richard            the President of the Republic and the             HELICOPTERS AND ARMOURED
Boucher told reporters Thursday that the            Governor “for the interest which they have        CARS HUNT FOR XANANA
Indonesian chief of staff had announced that        shown.” Considering that Portugal purports
six senior officers will be disciplined for their   to be “the natural advocate of the Timorese           “Pacification of the territory, demilitari-
responsibility in the massacre, of whom             cause,” the Fretilin leader appealed to the       zation, and the reconciliation of the
three will be dismissed.                            authorities in Lisbon to facilitate “the          Timorese are the cornerstones of a solution
   He said eight other officers and enlisted        participation of Timorese in the political        to the problem,” said Abilio Araujo, referring
men will be court-martialed, and five more          dialogue” with an eye towards self-               back to a plan which he himself presented
officers remain under investigation in the          determination.                                    last October which approves Portugal’s
case.                                                                                                 return to the territory to conclude the
   “We’ve been encouraged by the                    CRITICISM OF PARTS OF THE                         process of decolonization that was inter-
Indonesian government’s serious efforts to          RESISTANCE                                        rupted by the invasion, and the inclusion of
make amends for what it acknowledges was                In his New Years message “addressed to        Timorese in the Portuguese and Indonesian
an excessive use of force by local military         the people of East Timor” – a long document       delegations which would negotiate an ap-
units,” he said.                                    of 15 pages – the highest external leader of      propriate solution to the situation under the
   But Pell mocked the army’s disciplinary          Fretilin condensed a collection of ideas          auspices of the U.N.
actions. He said the dismissal of officers was      concerning the cancellation of the                    This plan gives special salience to the
unlikely to gain more support for Indonesia         parliamentary visit, the role of the Church       figure of a High Commissioner – an entity
in East Timor when the Indonesians planned          and of Bishop Ximenes Belo, and what he           which the President of the Republic does not
to put on trial for subversion 13 Timorese in       called a “crisis in the Timorese party sys-       see in the same light – but to which Araujo
connection with the massacre. Four of the           tem.”                                             continues to be attached, having yesterday
Timorese face the death penalty if convicted.           Referring to the cancellation of the rep-     put forth for the first time in public, as
   Pell, who is sponsoring a congressional          resentatives’ visit, to the incidents at          “having a profile adequate to the post,” the
resolution calling on U.S. President George         Motael, to the Santa Cruz massacre, and to        name of the director of Gulbenkian and the
Bush to exert more pressure on Indonesia to         the subsequent imprisonments (in Timor as         former Minister of Foreign Trade for the
cease alleged abuses of human rights on East        well as in various Indonesian cities), Abilio     A.D., Vitor Sa Machado.
Timor, also denounced the this week’s ban           Araujo maintained that “the sectorial balance         Abilio Araujo reported that operations
by the Indonesian authorities against foreign       was deficient” and spared no criticisms of        with armoured cars and helicopter-trans-
journalists in East Timor.                          the “strategy of social agitation or of the       ported forces have occurred in the central
                                                    pre-insurrectional climate advocated by           mountainous region since the date of the
    ASSORTED ARTICLES                               parts of the resistance in Timor,” which he       massacre – in the area where the Indonesian
                                                    noted as being “responsible for the ex-           military thinks it will find Xanana Gusmao
    IN CHRONOLOGICAL                                aggerated depictions of the clandestine front,    and the commander Ma’ Huno – and in the
          ORDER                                     in East Timor and in Indonesia, victims           Eastern Tip, where the population serves as
                                                    today of even fiercer repression.”                a shield in encirclement operations.
                                                        In contrast to other leaders who have not         Information received by Araujo and due
                                                                                                      to which the Indonesian Minister of
    ABILIO ARAUJO PRESS                             concealed their criticisms of Monsignor
                                                                                                      Transportation found himself in Macau
                                                    Belo, the representative of Fretilin in
   CONFERENCE IN LISBON                             Portugal understood the reasons that led the      participating in a colloquium was, however,
                                                    “esteemed pastor” to appeal to the represen-      denied by an official source in LUSA who
Publico, 15 January 1992. Original                                                                    acknowledged only the presence in the terri-
Language: Portuguese Dateline: (Lisbon)             tatives not to come to Timor. The Church in
                                                    Timor acts “as a factor of social cohesion,”      tory “at the invitation of a private en-
Byline: Adelino Gomes. Text: Full                                                                     terprise” of three Indonesian citizens who
                                                    said Araujo.
Brief Remarks: The article summarizes                   Araujo referred in detail to the “crisis of   were participating in a seminar on water
highlights from a press conference given in         identity and of basic indefiniteness” of          treatment.
Lisbon by Fretilin leader Abilio Araujo.            UDT, divided into two factions – one in
Comment: other exiled Timorese resistance           Australia [headed by Joao Carrascalao and            SUDOMO: GOVERNMENT
leaders do not agree with Araujo, and feel          Domingos Oliveira] and the other in Portugal         WILL ISSUE REGULATION
that the leadership must come from inside the       [led by Paulo Pires] – which have engaged
country.                                            “in a war of expulsions and counter-                      ABOUT NGO’S
                                                    expulsions, both seeking the recognition of
FRETILIN APPEALS IN LISBON FOR                                                                        Pelita. 30 January 1992. News item sum-
                                                    Fretilin.”
                                                                                                      marised.
A WIDENING OF THE NATIONALIST                           Araujo confirmed the existence also of a
                                                    legitimacy dispute within Fretilin, between          Admiral (ret’d) Sudomo, Minister-
CONVERGENCE
                                                    the old administration, laid out in 1984, over    Coordinator for Political and Security
   The head of Fretilin’s external delegation,      which he presides, and a Directory                Affairs, has announced that an implementary
Abilio Araujo, invited persons connected            Committee, recently formed in the interior,       regulation will soon be enacted placing
with the old Apodeti party – the party              which gained public attention last week with      NGOs within the terms of Law No 8 on
supporting integration with Indonesia – to          the arrival at Belem and S. Bento of signed       Social Organisations of 1985.
join the Nationalist Convergence, which             messages, in their names, from two                   He said the purpose was not to turn them
should become “the sole organized and               legendary guerrilla commanders – Hodu and         into ‘yes men’ but to have them regulated
representative voice of the Timorese                Huno, high officials in Fretilin. “There are no   under the 1985 law. “Everyone under the
people.” “They have been receptive to our           differences between us in strategic terms,”       sun must want to be regulated by that law. If
contacts,” he said, although excusing himself       declared Abilio Araujo, underscoring the          an NGO doesn’t want this, then it will have
from giving names. Abilio Araujo – who              unity of all tendencies in such matters as the    to dissolve.”
acknowledged the existence of divisions             referendum on self-determination,                    He said that up to the present, many
within Fretilin, similar to what has happened       independence, democracy, pluralism and a          NGOs were breaching the conditions laid
within UDT – was delighted by the Pope’s            multiparty parliamentary system.                  down in the 1985 law, for instance in re-
references to Timor last weekend, and hailed                                                          ceiving funds from abroad without first con-
Page 54                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

sulting the government. The law stipulates       of great value for the East Timor people,         Chinese merchant class to control the in-
that social organisations can be disbanded if    especially those in more remote regions. He       digenous peasants indirectly. Europe indus-
they violate the regulations. This includes      saw the operation in one area in particular,      trialized on the plunder from Asia
receiving money from abroad and helping          Iralafae, Lautem district. “It looked good,”      (especially England, whose early leadership
foreign bodies without the knowledge of the      he said, “as it deals with basic requirements     in industrialization was paid for by gold
government. They can also be disbanded for       like clean water.”                                plundered from India).
doing things that disrupt the public interest.      The following interview took place with            The history of the islands is a continual
                                                 our correspondent:                                process of genocide, it seems, right down to
    WOLF AND HALL SAY                            SP: Your discussion with the governor went        the present century. Sukarno was the leader
                                                    on for 5 hours. What did you discuss?          of the revolution which ousted the Dutch
 INDONESIAN AID COULD BE                         DG: It was just a chat, a courtesy visit. I       after the end of World War II. The coup of
  CUT OFF UNLESS HUMAN                              gave him my impressions of Opster.             1965 is supposed to have been US backed,
                                                                                                   and placed a regime in power headed by the
   RIGHTS ABUSES CEASE                           SP: Did you meet the military commander?          military leader Suharto (still in power to-
Press release from U.S.Representative            DG: Yes, that was also a courtesy visit.          day). The forces, goals and relationships set
Frank R. Wolf. 4 Feb.1992. Unabridged.           SP: What about Bishop Belo?                       up under colonialism motivate the genocides
                                                                                                   occurring today.
    Concerned with continuing reports of         DG: I don’t know whether he will have time            The resources have changed over time but
serious human rights violations against the         to receive me. I am due to have a meeting      the methods have not. In the 60’s the
people of East Timor, Indonesia, US                 tomorrow.                                      Indonesia regime invaded Western New
Representatives Frank R. Wolf (Republican        SP: Did you come to East Timor just to take       Guinea and perverted the right of self de-
- VA) and Tony P. Hall (Democrat - OH)              a look at Opster?                              termination in oil and timber rich West
have written to the Indonesian ambassador,                                                         Papua (they named West Irian, or Irian
                                                 DG: I have been military attaché in
His Excellency Abdul Rachman Ramly,                                                                Jaya). The text books for Indonesian chil-
                                                    Indonesia for a year and a half and ha-
urging that human rights abuses cease im-                                                          dren talk about Irian as a vast empty wil-
                                                    ven’t visited East Timor till now. I
mediately to forestall a cut off on US aid and                                                     derness (sound familiar?). And the indige-
                                                    wanted to take a look at development
trade benefits to that nation.                                                                     nous Melanesian people in Irian are having
                                                    going on here and Opster was one of the
    Wolf and Hall have been following de-                                                          their rich agricultural land usurped and given
                                                    things I wanted to see.
velopments in East Timor closely since the                                                         to Javanese transmigrants.
incident last fall in which Indonesian se-       SP: What is your impression of Opster?
                                                                                                       More information can be found in the
curity forces gunned down citizens who           DG: I think it is very good indeed. It is a       following books:
were marching peacefully in a funeral pro-          very correct type of activity for the East         The war against East Timor by Carmel
cession. Since then several human rights            Timorese, especially those living in the       Budiardjo and Liem Soei Liong. Published:
organisations have reported further abuses          countryside. In my opinion, this operat-       London : Zed Books ; Totowa, N.J.
and gross violations against the East               ion should continue. The armed forces              West Papua, the obliteration of a people.
Timorese, including arbitrary arrests, severe       and the people cooperate and the people        By Carmel Budiardjo and Liem Soei Liong.
beatings, torture, rape and murder.                 are the ones to benefit. It deals with basic   Published: London (8a Treport Street,
    Wolf and Hall are also concerned with           needs like water and foodstuffs. It’s very     London, SW18 2BP) : TAPOL, c1983.
reports that at least 14 East Timorese face         useful indeed for the more needy people.           Colonial policy and practice; a com-
subversion charges, which could carry the           I hope this will continue.                     parative study of Burma and Netherlands
death penalty.                                                                                     India. By Furnivall, John Sydenham.
    “By all accounts, those charged with                                                           Published: New York University Press
subversion and those mercilessly shot down        INDONESIAN GENOCIDE IN                           [1956]
last November were unarmed and did not              THE CONTEXT OF THE                                             –––––––––––––-
engage in any violence,” said Hall. “It is
abhorring that these people now face such            QUINCENTENNIAL OF                                 On December 7th of 1975, Indonesia in-
serious charges – and possibly death –               COLUMBUS’ VOYAGE                              vaded the previous Portuguese colony of
simply by expressing their political beliefs.”                                                     East Timor, cutting short their decolonial
    “If the East Timorese prisoners of con-      By Lisabeth Ryder, UCLA, 6 Feb 1992.              process and usurping their right to self-de-
science are not soon free and the human             When Columbus set sail he was heading          termination. In the ensuing war, Indonesian
rights abuses do not stop,” said Wolf,           for the “Spice Islands” in the “East Indies” –    forces employed a “Slash and Burn” strat-
“Congress may very well decide to cut off        which is present day Indonesia. The Spice         egy, devastating crops and endangering the
all forms of US assistance to Indonesia, and     Islands are the Moluccas, on the eastern end      food supply. One third of the indigenous
such action would be very unfortunate for        of the archipelago. In fact the Moluccas are      population, who are Melanesian – not
the peoples of that nation.”                     approximately 50 km of the tip off the New        “Asian"– , approximately 200,000 people,
                                                 Guinea Island.                                    were killed in the years following 1975 from
                                                    Just after Columbus’ voyage, the               military exercises as well as famine.
  AUSTRALIAN ATTACHÉ:                                                                                  Recent massacres in East Timor have
                                                 Spanish, Portuguese, English and Dutch all
TERRITORIAL OPERATIONS                           converged on the Moluccas, the only source        prompted concerned people to form a East
   GOOD FOR THE EAST                             of cloves, nutmeg and mace, and waged war         Timor Action Network since US military
                                                 to control the monopoly. During this period,      hardware and aid is being used by the US
TIMORESE (SUARA PEMBARUAN)                       populations of whole islands were decimated       sponsored Suharto regime to kill these
                                                 as the Dutch patrolled the area cutting down      people. Below is included a bulletin and
Suara Pembaruan. 5 Feb.1992. Dateline:
                                                 spice trees to keep the price up. The entire      contact numbers for those who wish to op-
Dili. Abridged. Original language:
                                                 population of Banda was devastated and the        pose an ongoing genocide and show soli-
Indonesian
                                                 island was repopulated by the Dutch from a        darity with the continuing victims of 500
   Australia’s military attaché to Indonesia,    neighboring island.                               years of colonialism since 1492.
Brigadier-General David Gross, regards the          The Dutch, during their rule 1500-1949,
Indonesian armed forces’ Territorial             exploited the indigenous aristocracy and
Operations (Opster) in East Timor as being
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                              Page 55

                                                   grand-looking Indonesian Embassy building.       vention prohibiting offensive demonstrations
      AUSSIE TV ON TIMOR                           It all looked very peaceful (if cold and wet).   outside embassies.
Extracts from Australian television news               - Studio Newsreader intro: East Timorese        But the East Timorese challenged that in
broadcasts, forwarded by peg:sahabat:              demonstrators have mounted a new protest         the courts and now Sen. Evans is rewriting
                                                   outside the Indonesian embassy in Canberra,      his order. The protestors say that means
8 FEB 1992. ABC-TV NEWS SYDNEY.                    defying a Federal Govt. ban. Foreign             their protest was legal, so today they came
CRAIG MCMURTRIE                                    Minister Gareth Evans ordered the removal        back – setting their new memorial in con-
                                                   of more than 100 white crosses from outside      crete.
    Accompanied by pictures of the rainy           the embassy weeks ago after deciding they           - Ines Almeida - E Timorese protester:
Port Botany (Sydney) docks, and later some         offended the dignity of the Indonesian           We feel very angry and outraged by the
file vision of Ali Alatas and of the massacre.     presence in Australia.                           Aust. Govt. attitude towards what we call a
    - Studio Newsreader intro: Indonesia is            - Alan Sunderland [reporter]: About 70       peaceful demonstration.
bracing itself for the visit tomorrow of a         Timorese demonstrators, most of them from           - B C: Police say they have no plans to
special U.N. envoy over the Timor massa-           Sydney, gathered outside the embassy at          remove the candle yet – they’re awaiting
cre. The visit comes as Jakarta continues to       lunchtime today. Braving the cold, rainy         instructions from the Federal Govt.
shrug off criticism of its enquiry.                weather, they quickly erected a large metal
    And it comes as Sydney waterside work-         candle holder, cementing it into the ground
ers have again put Australia’s relations with                                                             ACEH: INDONESIA’S
                                                   where the white crosses had been a few
Indonesia to the test. At Port Botany today        weeks earlier.                                        FORGOTTEN TERROR
they disrupted the unloading of a container            Describing the candle as a traditional                   (INDEPENDENT)
ship carrying Indonesian cargo.                    Timorese symbol to remember the dead,
    - Craig McMurtrie [reporter]: The              members of the Timorese community then           Independent on Sunday. 9 February 1992.
Singapore-registered (unintelligible - “Anro       held a short memorial service to honour          Byline: Margot Cohen, a freelance journalist
Timosek”?) arrived at Port Botany to be            those killed in the November Dili massacre.      based in Jakarta. Unabridged.
greeted by dismal weather and a deserted               - Father John Armstrong - Catholic           [The article is illustrated by a photo of
dock. 100 waterside workers refused to             Church, Queanbeyan [near Canberra]: We           Tiwaha, the mother of Mohamad Jafar
unload the container ship because it’s carry-      come today to pay tribute to those who           (mentioned in the article), and baby boy.]
ing Indonesian cargo. They’re protesting at        have died; to place ourselves in the presence
what they call the cover-up of the Dili mas-                                                            [Intro: In north Sumatra, large numbers of
                                                   of God, and in the presence of each other.
sacre.                                                                                              people are disappearing. Margot Cohen in
                                                       [praying]
    - Jim Donovan - New South Wales                                                                 Banda Aceh charts the horror overshadowed
                                                       - Bishop Pat Power - Aux. Catholic
Waterfront Workers’ Union: One would                                                                by the East Timor massacre.]
                                                   Bishop, Canberra: The people who lived in
hope that the truth should come out of what                                                             Silence cloaks the mass disappearances,
                                                   darkness have seen a great light. On those
took place in Dili, and if it doesn’t then we’ll                                                    unmarked graves and fatherless children in
                                                   who live in the land of the shadow of death,
continue to take the actions to make sure                                                           Indonesia’s northern province of Aceh. It is
                                                   a light has shone.
that it does come out.                                                                              a silence born of fear, resignation and se-
                                                       [hymn singing]
    - C.M.: The union is also concerned about                                                       crecy.
                                                       - A.S.: The demonstrators who say they
Australia’s response to the massacre, but by                                                            As a three-year military campaign grinds
                                                   have the full support of Australia’s 5,000-
mid-afternoon its members relented.                                                                 to a close in time for elections in June, most
                                                   strong Timorese community, maintain that
    It’s not the first time waterfront workers                                                      Acehnese remain reluctant to speak openly
                                                   the Federal Govt. was wrong to remove the
have taken action over the Dili massacre –                                                          of the excesses aimed at the 3.4 million local
                                                   original crosses from outside the embassy,
late last year the Seamen, Firemen and                                                              people. Unlike East Timor, Aceh has had no
                                                   and the candle should be allowed to stay.
Deckhands Union [unclear - one union or a                                                           dramatic British television reports or
                                                       - Ines Almieda - East Timorese com-
group?] refused to bring an Indonesian ship                                                         wounded American journalists to bear wit-
                                                   munity: We intend to keep it as long as East
alongside, here at Port Botany.                                                                     ness. The corpses have appeared one by
                                                   Timor is not free. As long as East Timor is
    But as international criticism grows,                                                           one, receiving clandestine burials from
                                                   not independent we’ll continue to pressure.
Indonesia is hitting back. Foreign Minister                                                         Muslim villagers. The military has never
                                                       - A.S.: Late this afternoon, Police said
Ali Alatas has condemned an Amnesty                                                                 released figures on the numbers of Acehnese
                                                   they’d received no instruction to remove the
International report attacking Jakarta’s in-                                                        arrested or killed. The local press has been
                                                   candle.
vestigation of the massacre.                                                                        warned against probing too deeply.
    - Ali Alatas: I was deeply disappointed        9 FEB 1992 ABC-TV NEWS                               International human rights groups,
with the report because of its sweeping,           CANBERRA, BRENDA CONROY                          Indonesian soldiers, Acehnese intellectuals
sweeping, rejection of everything that we                                                           and villagers estimate that the death toll
                                                      - Studio Newsreader intro: Australia’s        ranges from several hundred to more than
have been trying to do to find the facts of        East Timorese community has rebuilt its
the matter and in order to overcome a very                                                          2,000 victims.
                                                   protest outside the Indonesian Embassy in            No-one knows whether most of them
difficult and tragic event.                        Canberra. 124 crosses commemorating the
    - C.M.: The focus of the Dili row is now                                                        were hard-core rebels, sympathisers, or
                                                   Dili massacre were taken away by police a        apolitical peasants caught between sides.
shifting back to Jakarta with tomorrow’s           fortnight ago, so protestors have now set
visit of U.N. special envoy Amos Wako.                                                              The military maintains that only rebels re-
                                                   their demonstration in concrete.                 sisting arrest have been killed, and denies
9 FEB 1992 . SBS-TV NEWS                              - Brenda Conroy [reporter]: Australia’s       accusations of murder or torture. It blames
CANBERRA. ALAN SUNDERLAND                          East Timorese community is “digging in”          the separatists for attacks on civilians.
                                                   outside the Indonesian embassy, building a           Prospects for an investigation into the
   Accompanied by pictures of the em-              new memorial to their countrymen shot by         killings appear dim, given the lack of do-
bassy, the priests preaching, the people           Indonesian soldiers in Dili last November.       mestic and international pressure on
present (mostly Timorese-looking) praying             Their first protest of 124 crosses was        President Suharto’s New Order government.
and cementing the lightstand with the candle       seized by police on orders from Foreign          Some Indonesian officials recognise that East
in it into the ground between the footpath         Affairs Minister, Senator Gareth Evans. He       Timor, a former Portuguese colony that
and the roadway, directly in front of the          said it contravened the international con-       Indonesian invaded and conquered in 1975,
                                                                                                    is an international concern, but insist that
Page 56                                                            East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

Aceh is an “internal” matter. In rushing to             One soldier based in Banda Aceh re-          attacks and army reprisals, disappearances
congratulate the President on a December            counted that a fellow soldier had been buried    remain unresolved, suspected guerrillas
report chastising the East Timor-based              alive, and a pregnant woman smashed to           continue to be shot on the spot rather than
troops, the diplomatic community has let            death along with her foetus.                     taken into custody, large numbers of people
other human rights issues drop.                         Most villagers have had little sympathy      are believed to remain in unacknowledged
    For Abdurrahman Ed, a 57-year-old illit-        for these violent methods, especially when       detention and trials which violate
erate rice farmer in the remote Acehnese            the military counter-attacked with curfews       international norms of fairness continue to
village of Teungoh Reuba, life is far from          and constant surveillance. Yet, the goals of     take place. Asia Watch also remains
normal. Fishing in a worn plastic bag, he           the movement – articulated in two previous       concerned for the well-being of the few
pulled out a black- and-white snapshot of           rebellions in the 1950s and the 1970s – still    dozen refugees who returned “voluntarily”
his only son, 28-year-old, Mohamad Jafar.           hold a certain appeal, especially for under-     to Aceh after fleeing to Malaysia in 1991.
Jafar was detained by the military in August        employed Acehnese youth.                         No international organization had access to
1990, suspected of helping the rebels. Two              Free Aceh supporters point out that their    these people before they left Malaysia to
witnesses said they saw Jafar beaten with           land is bursting with natural resources, yet     ensure that they indeed were returning of
wood and electric cable, blindfolded and            many villagers are impoverished and edu-         their own accord or after their arrival back in
loaded into a car. Nothing has been heard of        cational opportunities are limited. (Aceh        Aceh, to ensure that they faced no reprisals.
him since.                                          provides 15 per cent of Indonesia’s exports,        In sharp contrast to the sacking of several
    “Is Jafar alive, or not? If not, it should be   including roughly US$3bn (1.4 bn) worth of       army officers for failing to prevent the
report,” said Mr Ed, squatting on the floor         oil and gas.) They accuse the big industries     killings of unarmed demonstrators in East
of a thatched house with no running water or        in the city of Lhokseumawe of favouring          Timor, eleven Indonesian officers in Aceh,
electricity. Down a muddy path, Jafar’s own         Javanese and foreign workers over Acehnese.      including nine members of the army special
wooden house stands empty, his rice                 With a separate state they could reclaim the     forces, Kopassus, were given special pro-
thresher gathering rust and cobwebs. Jafar’s        province’s abundant resources, they argue,       motions in January 1992 for their role in
20-year-old wife, Siti Gade, must now work          and everyone would be rich. In addition they     suppressing the conflict with a ruthlessness
all day in the fields, leaving her three small      could impose the full force of Islamic law,      that involved large number of extrajudicial
children in the care of a relative.                 which might befit a land historically known      executions, arbitrary detention and torture of
    While most families in Aceh cling to            as “the terrace of Mecca.”                       civilians. With no significant exile population
anonymity for fear of military reprisals, Mr            Government, military and Muslim leaders      or interested external parties to focus
Ed dared to confront the authorities directly.      in Aceh have collaborated closely in an effort   attention on Aceh, no direct involvement of
With the help of the Indonesian Legal Aid           to dispel such visions. A breakaway Aceh         the United Nations, and no spectacular
Foundation, which had supported him in a            could seriously threaten Indonesia’s delicate    incidents in recent months to attract the local
previous land dispute, he appealed to the           union of diverse islands and ethnic groups.      and international media, there has been no
armed forces commander, General Try                 To satisfy local demands, the central            international pressure on the Indonesian
Sutrisno, and the governor of Aceh, Ibrahim         government has allocated 709bn rupiahs           government to account for deaths and
Hassan, in a letter dated 15 November. So           (200mn) this year, to develop Aceh, more         disappearances over the last two years or
far, he has had no reply.                           than any other province will receive.            investigate the behavior of the armed forces
    Inquiries through unofficial channels have          But as Indonesia has learned in East         in Aceh. The much-needed attention to the
also been frustrated. One East Acehnese             Timor, development funds can often fail to       East Timor massacre and its aftermath
woman – who prefers to remain unnamed –             blot out memories of human rights abuses.        should not obscure other violations by the
spent four months looking for her husband,          And for some Acehnese, East Timor’s cur-         Indonesian army. In particular, a full and
who was seized by the military last April           rent high profile has only sharpened their       impartial investigation into abuses in Aceh
near the town of Peureulak. Whenever she            sense of injustice.                              should be set in motion.
got word of a corpse abandoned along a road             They see East Timor’s governor speaking
or stream, she rushed to the scene.                 out against the killings, while their own                 JERRY BROWN &
Eventually she gave up, concentrating on the        governor remains silent. They see East
four small children she must bring up alone.        Timor’s military commanders disgraced,                    PERTAMINA (LBO)
    Usually, people in Aceh do their utmost         while the military officer responsible for
                                                                                                     Left Business Observer, 10 Feb 1992.
to help bereaved relatives. But in some areas       Aceh, Major General H.R. Pramono, is in
where military surveillance has been                line of a promotion.                             INDONESIAN CONNECTION.
particularly intense, anyone who helps a                Yet it remains unclear who would come
relative of a suspected rebel falls under           forward if any inquiry were to be launched.         Next stop after Lorenz’ book was a call
suspicion. “You see the kids, malnourished,         “I wouldn’t want to be involved,” said one       to someone who’s been following Brown for
thin,” said a local aid worker. “But you            Banda Aceh businessman, whose younger            20 years, Sacramento Bee political col-
cannot do anything, you just look. It’s             brother disappeared last year. “Here, there      umnist, Dan Walters. Walters offered the
hopeless.”                                          are no guarantees.”                              following as the perfect Jerry Brown anec-
    Military and civilian officials accuse the                                                       dote. At first, Brown opposed Proposition
rebel movement, which calls itself Aceh             COMMISSION OF INQUIRY NEEDED                     13, the 1978 property tax- limitation initia-
Merdeka or “Free Aceh,” of cruelty. The             FOR ACEH (ASIA WATCH)                            tive that has contributed a lot to California’s
movement whose network reaches from                                                                  current fiscal crisis. But when it passed,
                                                    By Asia Watch [Introduction only]
Sweden to Malaysia to Libya, boasts a core                                                           Jerry declared himself a “born-again tax
of Acehnese guerrillas well-versed in ter-              As the international community con-          cutter.” Localities, stripped of $7 billion in
rorist tactics. In 1989 and 1990 they har-          demned the massacre in East Timor on             revenue almost overnight, hacked away at
assed and killed some Javanese migrants who         November 12, 1991 and pressed the                services. When the legislature passed an
resettled in Aceh as part of a government           Indonesian government to account fully for       emergency $30 million appropriation to
plan to reduce population pressure on Java.         the killings, other human rights abuses at-      keep some local libraries open, the born-
They burned government schools, calling             tributed to the Indonesian military went         again Brown vetoed it. Days later, however,
them tools of Javanese colonialism, and             largely ignored. In Aceh, for example, where     Jerry quietly allowed a $30 million tax break
complained that the girls’ short-skirted            as many as 1,000 may have died since mid-        for the horse racing industry to become law.
uniforms insulted Islam.                            1989 in a combination of separatist guerrilla    Millions for bookies, nothing for books, as
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                              Page 57

Walters put it. But it wasn’t just horse rac-     make disapproving noises about the mas-          disclosed that Indonesian soldiers had killed
ing; Jerry’s administration was a font of         sacre, they have bent over backwards to          sixteen members of his family, including his
goodies for Hollywood, booze merchants,           accommodate the Indonesians. Lynda               wife and son.
and Indonesian oil interests, too.                Chalker, for example, gave dangerous cre-            Most of the East Timorese leaders fled
   The last connection is interesting, given      dence to the Indonesian government ap-           the island after Indonesia invaded the
Brown’s current speechifying about human          pointed national commission of inquiry by        Portuguese colony and annexed it as its 27th
rights. His father, Edmund G. “Pat” Brown         describing it repeatedly in parliament as        province, but Gama, who said he led the
Sr., has lawyered and lobbied for the             “independent.” Dominated by high-ranking         fight back between 1975 and 1985, did not.
Indonesian state oil company, Pertamina,          military and government figures, the com-            “We chose the jungle. we fought and are
since the 1960s, when he first buddied up to      mission was discounted from the outset by        still fighting with rusty rifles, which was left
the country’s savage military regime              genuinely independent observers like             by the Portuguese colonial army, and with
(recently famous for yet another massacre in      Amnesty, which this week stated that it was      primitive weapons like spears and bows and
East Timor). Indonesian oil made the Brown        “fatally flawed and that its findings are un-    arrows,” Gama said.
family rich. Though Jerry refused any direct      acceptable.”                                         But after ten years of isolation in the
partnership interest, Pertamina contributed           The truth, of course, is that, while the     jungle and no hope of beating the Indonesian
$70,000 to his first gubernatorial campaign,      pious rhetoric of “good government” has          army, the guerrilla-leaders decided to change
and insofar as he lives off subsidies from his    grown of late, short-term commercial and         their strategy. “We came to the conclusion
father, continues to keep him in crusades.        political expediency continue to dictate         that our struggle for independence must be
Jerry’s administration also issued a couple       government policy in practice - just as it did   brought under the attention of the
of regulations that had the effect of assuring    when it allowed the sale of arms to Saddam       international community,” he said.
that Indonesian oil continue to be burned in      Hussein’s Iraq or supported the factions             In January 1985 he duly surrendered to
California power plants. [For full details, see   fighting side- by-side with Pol Pot’s Khmer      the Indonesian troops near the village of
Walters’ column in the October 15, 1990           Rouge in Cambodia.                               Manotutu in what he described as a
Bee.] But when asked what he thought about               Ann Clwyd, Shadow minister for over-      “strategic move.”
the Indonesian regime by WBAI’s Amy                  seas development and co-operation, House          Gama said that dressed in a guerrilla-
Goodman, who was recently injured by the                      of Commons, London SW1A 0AA          uniform and accompanied by his bodyguard,
Indonesians in East Timor, Brown professed                                                         he went to a roman catholic priest and a
to know nothing of the situation.                 “WINDS OF CHANGE” IN THE                         member of the regional parliament and asked
                                                                                                   them to accompany him to the headquarters
                                                  AIR, SAYS GUERRILLA EXILE                        of the Indonesian army where he
 OPPOSITION DOUBTS UK
                                                                      (IPS)                        surrendered.
     GOVERNMENT                                                                                        “There I was surrounded by high-ranking
                                                     Amsterdam, Feb 12 (IPS/Bob Mantiri) -
  COMMITMENT TO AID                               The “winds of change” which have swept
                                                                                                   officers of the local command. they asked me
                                                                                                   why I surrendered. I answered, ‘I am sick of
CONDITIONS (FINANCIAL TIMES)                      over the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, will       fighting and I don’t want to risk the life of
                                                  one day reach the Indonesian archipelago, an     the villagers anymore. So if you want to kill
12 Feb 1992 Letter to the Editor                  East Timorese resistance leader in exile has     me, go ahead.’”
   Sir, Lynda Chalker, you report, says that,     predicted.                                           Looking back now, Gama believes sur-
“where human rights are systematically               “Incidents like in Dili and other parts of    rendering was the right thing since he is now
abused, or where aid is feeding corruption        Indonesia, where the army had to suppress        able to “tell the world” about the situation
rather than mouths, we shall have no alter-       pro-independence feelings, are just signs that   on the island.
native but to cut it” (Chalker coy of making      Indonesia is undergoing the same process             “Now I am lobbying in Brussels, Geneva,
aid commitment, February 7). Coming two           like in the former Soviet Union and              Paris, Lisbon and other European capitals
days after the Indonesian foreign minister’s      Yugoslavia,” said Paulino Gama, com-             for support for the national resistance
visit to Britain, The statement could not         mander-in-chief of the guerrilla army of the     movement,” Gama said.
have thrown into starker relief the yawning       National Resistance Movement (NRM) of                “On the military front we keep the
gap between the Conservative government’s         East Timor.                                      Indonesian army busy with guerrilla warfare
many words on ” good government,” and its            The 38-year-old Gama added: “against          and in the diplomatic arena we are continu-
lack of action.                                   that background it is a logical development      ously exposing the human rights records of
   Last November’s Dili massacre by the           that in the near future East Timor will be       the (Gen Tni) Suharto government. by doing
Indonesian army in East Timor, horrific           free and independent.”                           so we keep Jakarta under international
enough in itself, hardly came out of the blue.       The interview with “Commander                 pressure,” Gama said.
It was, in Amnesty International’s recent         Paulino” as he is sometimes called took place        According to Gama the NRM is the only
words, part of the “long-standing and             somewhere in a European city. He asked IPS       freedom movement which is fully backed by
continuing pattern of human rights violations     not to disclose his whereabouts since he         the East Timorese people.
in East Timor and Indonesia.” It was a            tops the list of the most wanted men in              “Our people are not backing Fretilin
pattern that I witnessed first hand when I        Indonesia. “The Indonesian intelligence has      anymore, because that front’s ideology is
visited three years ago, and one that con-        offered a high reward for my capture,” he        based on Marxist-Leninism. That is against
tinues. The Indonesian reaction to the Dili       claimed.                                         our culture. The ideology of our movement
massacre has itself consisted of yet further         The resistance movement smuggled him          is founded on our national heritage, our
violations, including imprisonments, torture      out of the country last year, after he was       cultural identity,” Gama explained.
and extrajudicial executions. If this does not    released from a four-year prison term, served        The importance of Fretilin as a resistance
measure up to Lynda Chalker’s yardstick of        in a re-education camp. “I was brainwashed       movement within East Timor has somewhat
“systematic abuse” of human rights, I fail to     every day. After four years the intelligence     diminished in recent years. This is largely
see what does. And yet she and the prime          people thought they had destroyed my             because the guerrilla war has moved from the
minister still refuse to withhold British aid     patriotism, but they only enhanced it,”          jungle and the mountains to the villages.
to Indonesia which last year grew to 22.7m.       Gama stressed.                                       To attract the younger, urban generation,
   While the intense pressure of world               The guerrilla-leader, who had lived in        unable to identify with the colonial past,
opinion has forced the British government to      Baucau on the eastern side of the island,        some members of the Fretilin leadership felt
Page 58                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

there was a need to change the Marxist           senior commanders responsible for East            States, Canada, Belgium, France, Italy, the
ideology of the resistance group.                Timor and to proceed with further investi-        Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, and the
   The restructuring of the resistance           gation into the actions of the armed forces on    United Kingdom.
movement caused a split in the leadership        12 November and into the fate of those               The meeting was held to coincide with the
and in 1989, the NRM was formed with             unaccounted for. They welcome the condo-          annual session of the United Nations Human
Xanana Gusmao as its leader.                     lences expressed by the President of the          Rights Commission. Several participants in
   In reference to the Dili incident last Nov.   Republic of Indonesia to the people of East       the meeting, including four eyewitnesses to
12, when Indonesian troops were reported         Timor and his commitment that such an             the November 12 Santa Cruz massacre in
to have shot dead 50 demonstrators, Gama         incident must not happen again.                   East Timor, testified at the Commission.
said: “They will go down in our history as          “Although they view favourably these           The meeting urged the Human Rights
martyrs, who are paving the way to our           developments, expressing the hope that they       Commission to pass a resolution
freedom.”                                        will be followed by concrete and effective        condemning Indonesia and support a full,
   “The massacre in Dili,.. he added was a       steps to improve significantly the human          independent inquiry into the event, before,
means of “suppressing the urge for freedom       rights situation in East Timor, the               during and after the bloodbath. Members of
among the East Timorese people.”                 Community and its Member States remain            the meeting will be lobbying their
                                                 concerned about other aspects of the ques-        governments in Geneva and at home.
       TIGHT MONEY HITS                          tion. Referring to the measures already taken        Two East Timorese, Jose Ramos Horta,
                                                 by the Indonesian Government, they hope           special representative of the National
      INVESTMENT (REUTER)                        that further investigations will result in all    Council of Maubere Resistance (CNRM),
                                                 those responsible being identified and, where     and Mari Alkatiri, deputy chief of the
   Reuter, Jakarta, Menuk Suwondo, Feb 12        appropriate, disciplined or brought to trial,     Fretilin External Delegation, addressed the
- Indonesia’s clamp on the supply of money       and that these investigations will also           meeting on the current situation and strate-
to fight inflation, coupled with poor            produce clear information about the number        gies of the East Timorese resistance.
infrastructure, has reduced investment in the    killed and the fate of those still missing.          For the first time, a member of the
country, Chairman of the Investment                 “They welcome the involvement of the           Indonesian opposition from within
Coordinating Board Sanyoto Sastrowardoyo         United Nations in this process and the ap-        Indonesia participated in the meeting and
said.                                            pointment of Mr Amos Wako, as the per-            outlined conditions in Indonesia and per-
   He told parliament that approved do-          sonal representative of the Secretary General     spectives of the struggle for democracy
mestic investment last year fell sharply to      of the United Nations, to undertake a visit to    there.
only 804 projects from 1,329 in 1990 while       Indonesia and to East Timor in November              The meeting reaffirmed its support for
foreign investment dropped to 376 projects       and look forward to a report on his visit.        peace talks without preconditions, as pro-
from 432.                                        They note with satisfaction that the              posed by East Timorese resistance leader
   “The fall was due to the government’s         Indonesian authorities have indicated their       Xanana Gusmao. It welcomed the
tight money policy and a lack of infrastruc-     willingness to cooperate fully with him.          Portuguese government initiative in urging
ture. The situation has made businessmen            “The Community and its Member States           the restarting of UN-supervised negotiations
more selective in their investment,” he said.    call on the Indonesian authorities to ensure      including Timorese representatives. The
   The tight money policy, in force for          that all the East Timorese arrested on the        composition of the Timorese delegation
nearly two years, has sent interest rates        occasion of the Dili shooting are treated         should be decided by the resistance leader-
soaring while more recent controls on foreign    humanely, that those not involved in violent      ship inside East Timor.
borrowing have made it much harder for local     activities are released without delay, and that      Promoting peace talks and the release of
companies to get funding from overseas.          those brought to court are assured of proper      political prisoners were the top priorities of
                                                 legal representation and fair trials.             a plan for 1992 activities. The meeting was
  E.C. TWELVE STATEMENT                             “The Community and its Member States           worried about the fate of more than 60
                                                 support the endeavours by the Secretary           young Timorese arrested after peaceful
Full document, as filed by Agence Europe,        General of the United Nations to achieve a        demonstrations in Dili and Jakarta in
Brussels, on 14 February 1992.                   just, comprehensive and internationally ac-       November.
[Comment: The lowest common denomina-            ceptable settlement of the question of East          In response to a message from Xanana
tor, as typified probably by Netherlands and     Timor, with full respect for the legitimate       Gusmao, the meeting expressed support and
the UK, seems to have set the tone of this       interests and aspirations of the East             greetings to him and to the Timorese resis-
statement. They cant even get some of their      Timorese. They support the start of a dia-        tance and, to strengthen communications,
facts straight. And no-one seems to have         logue without preconditions between               conveyed the results of our discussions.
taken a blind bit of notice of Amnesty’s         Portugal and Indonesia under the auspices of
assessment of the Indonesian inquiry report.     the United Nations Secretary General, as          REPORT OF EAST TIMOR ACTION
Not a murmur of the steadily worsening           contained in the constructive Portuguese          NETWORK - U.S.
human rights situation in East Timor. What       proposal.”                                        To the International Consultation of
a disappointment!]                                                                                 Solidarity Groups, Geneva, 14 Feb. 1992
   “The Community and its Member States,              INTERNATIONAL EAST                              Following the Nov. 12 Santa Cruz mas-
recalling their Declarations issued on 13               TIMOR SOLIDARITY                           sacre, East Timor received more attention in
November and 3 December 1991, on the                                                               the U.S. than it has for many years.
violent incident which occurred in Dili on 12               MEETING
                                                                                                   Especially in the Northeast and New York
November have continued to follow very                                                             (where witnesses Amy Goodman and Allan
closely the situation in East Timor.             PRESS RELEASE, 17 FEBRUARY                        Nairn live), many people who had not heard
   “The Community and its Member States          1992. ISSUED IN GENEVA.                           of East Timor for a long time were reminded
are encouraged by the prompt response                                                              of the need to work on it. With the U.S.
which the summary report of the National            Representatives of East Timor solidarity
                                                 groups from thirteen countries held the           being Indonesia’s largest weapons supplier,
Investigation Commission elicited from the                                                         we realized that we had to mobilize popular
highest Indonesian authorities, especially       twelfth annual consultation in Geneva from
                                                 14 to 16 February. Participants came from         sentiment to pressure the U.S. government
their criticism of the actions of the armed
forces, the decision to dismiss [sic] the two    Indonesia, Australia, Japan, the United
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                            Page 59

to cut aid to Jakarta and to support                potential exists for one in nearly every
Timorese self-determination.                        city that has a public community meeting.
                                                                                                  ANGER OVER SALE OF NAVY
    Initially with PeaceNet and other com-       * Building a rapid response network. The           VESSEL TO INDONESIA
puter networks, and expanding through hu-           first test of this will be Alatas’ upcoming             (UK INDEPENDENT)
man activist networks, we developed a de-           visit.
centralized, grassroots, national coalition of                                                    17 Feb 1992. By Mark Watts. Full text.
                                                 * Researching and documenting the true
people and autonomous groups. A confer-                                                              Britain is to sell a Royal Navy ship to
                                                    extent of U.S. governmental and quasi-
ence at Cornell University in early December                                                      Indonesia despite concern about human
                                                    governmental support for the Suharto re-
drew over 200 people, and other public                                                            rights abuses in the country and its forcible
                                                    gime.
meetings have been held at about a dozen                                                          occupation of neighbouring East Timor.
universities and communities in New York,        * Researching and pressuring U.S. compa-            A television documentary last month
Connecticut, New Jersey, and New England.           nies which do business with Indonesia,        showed Indonesian troops killing scores of
Many more (including Harvard and Brown              including Reebok, Nike, McCormick             mourners at a funeral procession in East
Universities) are planned.                          spice, and others.                            Timor last November. Estimates of the
    After repeatedly requesting a meeting        * Organizing protests at visible symbols of      number of people killed vary from 50 to
with the Indonesian U.N. Ambassador, we             the Indonesian government. The most           180.
picketed his Mission on December 10                 obvious ones are connected with invest-          The British government was about to an-
(Human Rights Day). The Indonesian of-              ment and tourism. On February 24-25,          nounce the sale of the support ship ‘Green
ficials were very upset, we were encouraged         there will be an action at a Indonesian       Rover’ in January but decided not to do so
by the effectiveness of a relatively small,         trade/tourism show in Los Angeles.            after the ‘First Tuesday’ documentary was
simple event.                                    * Distributing information and media on East     screened on ITV.
    Two organizing meetings in 1992 have            Timor. We have reprinted nine volumes            Lord Avebury, chairman of the parlia-
attracted people from five states and have          (about 350 pages) of NGO and press            mentary human rights group, said: “If the
helped ETAN/US to coordinate and grow,              reports since November 12. We are devel-      announcement had been made at the time of
and we are discovering many people with             oping an introductory packet, and will be     the ‘First Tuesday’ programme there would
long experience on Timor and Indonesia. As          selling and renting videos, audio tapes,      have been a public outcry, but even with the
word of our existence gets around, people           books, pamphlets, and other materials. A      lapse of time of a few weeks there will still
are coming forth who once worked on East            Resource and speakers list will be printed    be absolute outrage.”
Timor, and had become discouraged or                shortly. We are encouraging letters to the       He will raise the issue with Douglas
moved on. They recognize that now is the            editor, op-ed pieces, and other use of        Hurd, the Foreign Secretary. Another mem-
time to demand that the U.S. and Indonesian         existing media, locally as well as in the     ber of the parliamentary human rights group,
governments end the occupation.                     U.S. and Indonesian national press.           the Labour MP, Alice Mahon, will also
    Years before ETAN/US was formed, a           * Outreach to natural constituencies. We         highlight the sale in the Commons this week.
few people had been lobbying the U.S.               have good contacts in academia, peace and        Lord Avebury, Ms Mahon, Ann Clwyd,
Congress and mainstream media, and that             justice movements, the Portuguese-            Labour’s shadow overseas development
work paid off with of good editorials in the        American community, and environmental         minister, and the European Parliament have
New York Times, Washington Post, and                groups; and will reach out to labor,          called for a ban on arms sale to Indonesia.
other papers. The U.S. Congress passed a            Christian, human rights, and others.             The government claims the amount of
non-binding resolution criticizing Indonesia                                                      arms Britain sells to Indonesia is small and
in the closing days of the 1991 session, and     * Pressuring government officials from the
                                                                                                  says all sales must have an export licence.
52 (out of 100) Senators signed a bipartisan        grassroots. One of our Portuguese student
                                                                                                  Lord Cavendish of Furness, a government
letter to President Bush urging a change in         members met with President Soares and
                                                                                                  whip in the House of Lords, told Parliament
U.S. policy towards Indonesia. There will be        presented him with 300 pages of recent
                                                                                                  in November: “Exports of defence equip-
hearings on East Timor soon in the Senate           material on East Timor. Although
                                                                                                  ment to Indonesia are currently extremely
Foreign Relations Committee in the next few         ETAN/US’s main focus is not lobbying,
                                                                                                  modest, amounting to 3.5m in the current
weeks, and legislation may be introduced to         we will provide local support for
                                                                                                  year.”
curtail U.S. aid to Indonesia.                      Washington-based efforts.
                                                                                                     The ‘Green Rover’ contract alone is
    ETAN/US is working in several areas:         * Participating in and strengthening inter-      worth about 11m. The ship, a 7,200-tonne
* Continuing to build our network, drawing          national links like the meeting this          460ft vessel, will go to Swan Hunter,
    on previously-active and new people. We         weekend. We are considering joining the       Tyneside, in April for a four-month refur-
    have done several mailings and written          International Federation on East Timor,       bishment.
    article for progressive publications.           and will try to support activities at the        The Minister of Defence confirmed the
    WBAI/Pacific radio did many hours of            U.N. in New York later this year.             sale. A spokesman said: “The sale of defence
    programming.                                    ETAN/US, formed with strong encour-           equipment is considered on a case by case
* Organizing more community meetings,            agement from our neighbors to the north, is a    basis; we take all relevant factors into
    including one in New York in April.          rapidly growing, enthusiastic movement.          account. That includes the issue of
* Keeping in contact and strengthening           While we may not be able to fully imple-         Indonesian occupation of East Timor.”
    working relationships with North             ment all the ideas listed above, we will try.       Indonesia annexed the former Portuguese
    Americans who are working on East            We are grateful for advice, criticism, and       colony in 1976.
    Timor through lobbying and mainstream        contacts from those who have been in this
                                                 struggle far longer than we.
    media. While ETAN/US is a broad, multi-
                                                    Charles Scheiner, East Timor Action
                                                                                                  TORIES DEFEND INDONESIA
    sectoral, grassroots effort, we appreciate
    those who work in more rarefied areas.       Network / U.S., P.O. Box 1182, White               ON KILLINGS (LETTER TO
                                                 Plains, NY 10602 USA. Tel +1/914-428-                         LONDON TIMES)
* Encouraging the formation of decentralized     7299 fax +1/914-428-7383
    local groups to work on East Timor, and                                                       17 Feb 1992. Letter reproduced in full.
    providing local organizers with impetus,
                                                                                                  Sir,
    resources, and ideas. Several such groups
    have already been formed, and the                                                                Lord Avebury’s comments (February 4)
                                                                                                  on the visit of the Indonesian foreign secre-
Page 60                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

tary should not go unchallenged. He is a         The best hope is that this report receives as    consulate. This includes the cutting off of
longtime opponent of the Indonesian gov-         little attention as possible.                    the supply of water and the suspension of
ernment and has chosen to put the worse                                                           mail delivery to the consulate. On December
interpretation on the shootings in Dili on               MORE KILLINGS IN                         7, the 16th anniversary of the invasion of
November 12, 1991.                                                                                East Timor by Indonesia, there was a rally
   The independent commission which in-                  EAST TIMOR (ASA)                         and overnight vigil.
vestigated the shootings found that “a num-                                                           In Malaysia, Kamal’s home country,
                                                 Asian Student Association News, Feb 19.
ber of foreigners took an active part” in the                                                     there was also a memorial service. Tian, who
                                                 Courtesy New Liberation News Service
demonstration. It had been reported that                                                          helped organize ASA activities in Australia
“some foreigners who claimed to be inde-            In order to woo back foreign aid invest-      last year, was arrested by Malaysian police
pendent journalists” had been seen “waiting      ment, cut off by Canada and the European         for displaying a postcard “Stop the Killings
before daybreak with their video equipment       Economic Community following the                 in East Timor.”
at certain places as if they had known before    November 12 massacre in East Timor, the              In Japan, there were also a number of
that there would be a protest march that         Indonesian government recently released a        demonstrations. A speaking tour of 2 East
day.”                                            preliminary report blaming the military of       Timorese activists is currently being organ-
   The commission concluded that “about          using “excessive force.”                         ized which will bring them to 40 Japanese
50” people were killed, not “more than 100          There are indications that western gov-       cities.
young people” as Lord Avebury put it.            ernments will take this as a good enough             In Hong Kong, there were two demon-
After it reported, the two generals respon-      excuse for the resumption of aid and in-         strations. The one on December 6 by a
sible for security in the region were dis-       vestment, and return to their shortsighted       number of the East Timorese community
missed from their posts. It severely criti-      policy of business as usual.”                    who are living in nearby Macau who came to
cised the actions of a number of security           It is important to emphasize that the         Hong Kong in support of the demonstration.
personnel which, it said, exceeded acceptable    November 12 massacre was not an isolated         There was also a demonstration in the
norms and their failure to implement proper      event. It was part of a pattern of massacres,    Philippines.
riot-control procedures, causing deaths and      disappearances, killings and other heinous           ASA will continue to campaign against
other casualties.                                human rights abuses committed against East       this illegal occupation of East Timor by
   As far as one can tell the commission         Timorese by the Indonesians. Some 300            Indonesia and will be focusing in particular
seems to have done its honest best, and          people were arrested after the November 12       on Japan and Australia for their economic
whilst we all condemn the incident and those     massacre. A few days after the massacre, it      and military links with the Indonesian re-
responsible this is hardly a case of Indonesia   was reported that 60 to 80 East Timorese,        gime.
continuing “to defy the rule of international    including many witnesses of the November             Several Australian companies will soon
law.”                                            12 massacre, were shot by the military.          begin exploration in the Timor Gap after an
           Yours faithfully,                        Students are the major targets. A majority    agreement signed recently by the Indonesian
                                                 of those killed in the November 12 massacre      and Australian governments. This was
          Richard Alexander, leader, all-        were students in their early twenties and        despite Australia’s condemnation of the
          party parliamentary delegation to      even younger. Students who protested             November 12 massacre. Japan is the biggest
          Indonesia, April 1989)                 against the massacre in Jakarta were also        foreign aid donor and the biggest foreign
          Patrick Nicholls, Joint Secretary,     arrested and charged for subversion. If          investor in Indonesia. STOP PRESS: ASA
          All-Party Indonesia Group,             convicted, they will be executed by the          received information that 8 students arrested
                                                 Indonesian government.                           in Jakarta for protesting against the East
          House of Commons, 6 Feb 1992.             The recent report released by the             Timor massacre have been sentenced to
                                                 Indonesian government was a complete             death under Indonesia’s Subversion Act. All
                                                 whitewash. Therefore, ASA calls for further      those arrested are also reportedly to be
   GAO REPORT ON TIMOR                           actions from our members and friends on          badly tortured. 5 of the 26 presently
    MASSACRE RELEASED                            East Timor to support the right of self- de-     detained in Jakarta are reported to be missing
                                                 termination of the East Timorese people;         while in police custody.
   The General Accounting Office (GAO),          stop all the killings and arrests, and for the       ASA News is the publication of the
the investigative arm of Congress, has re-       immediate withdrawal of Indonesian troops        Asian Students Association. They can be
leased the following document:                   from East Timor.                                 reached at 511 Nathan Rd 1/F, Kowloon,
   Security Assistance: Shooting Incident in                                                      Hong Kong; (852) 388 - 0515.
                                                 EAST TIMOR UPDATE
East Timor, Indonesia GAO/NSIAD-92-
132FS - February 18, 1992                            The November 12 massacre of some 200
                                                 people in Dili by Indonesian soldiers high-        INDONESIAN INVESTMENT
   To obtain copies of GAO reports or tes-
timony, the news media only may call 202-        lighted once again the brutality of the             DISINCENTIVES (REUTER)
275-2812. Others should contact GAO’s            Indonesian occupation of East Timor since
                                                 its invasion in 1975.                               Reuter, Jakarta, Jonathan Thatcher, Feb
document distribution center at 202-275-
                                                     Numerous protest actions against the         19 - A shortage of management talent and a
6241.
                                                 massacre took place in Asia. In Australia,       surfeit of government red tape are the biggest
   GAO reports are currently free to the
                                                 there was a memorial service for Kamal           hurdles to doing business in Indonesia, a
public. You may ask to be placed on any of
                                                 Bamadhaj, a Malaysian student studying in        local American Chamber of Commerce
several GAO distribution lists.
                                                 Sydney who was amongst those shot dead           (Amcham) survey said.
Comment: The report is terrible, from the                                                            The survey of 131 members said these
                                                 on November 12. Kamal was a student ac-
Timorese point of view. Although the in-                                                          two problems were significantly worse than
                                                 tivist in the Network of Overseas Student
vestigator went to East Timor, she refused to                                                     others such as poor infrastructure, tight
                                                 Collectives in Australia (NOSCA), an ASA
talk to any Timorese people. She refused to                                                       credit and preference given to domestic
                                                 member. Kamal participated in a number of
check reports of arrests and killings after                                                       businesses.
                                                 ASA activities in Australia last year.
November 12, saying they could not be                                                                The survey differs from the government’s
                                                     Around the clock pickets were set up at
confirmed. Most of the Indonesian                                                                 view which is that tight domestic money
                                                 the Indonesian Consulate and Australian
Government’s assertions are taken as truth.
                                                 trade unions have resolved to black ban the
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                             Page 61

policy and poor infrastructure are the main      7. Senopati II, Colmera, red berets barracks         At the end of the session, a period will be
deterrents to investors.                         8. Senopati I, Farol, red berets barracks         reserved for questions.
   Foreign business people complain that                                                              Sponsors: Progressive Students Alliance;
                                                 9. A house near the new building of the
despite government attempts to reduce the                                                          Graduate Students Council; Portuguese
                                                    college at Fatumetan.
amount of paper work, getting approval to                                                          American Club, Bethlehem; LEPOCO
do anything involves tortuous bureaucracy                                                          (Lehigh Pocono Committee of Concern)
and often bribery.                                    OECF (JAPAN) FUNDS
                                                     SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN                              PROVIDENCE, RI PUBLIC
  MORE DETAILS ON THE                                        TIMOR                                      MEETING MARCH 13
 SITUATION IN EAST TIMOR
                                                 Jakarta Post. 19 February 1992. News item            Brown University’s Watson Institute for
    AFTER 12 NOVEMBER                            abridged.                                         International Studies and People Interested
     MASSACRE (CNRM)                                 More than Rp 3.5 billion out of Rp 14.5       in Development Alternatives present:
Press release by the National Council of         billion (some US$7.7 million) allocated for       WITNESS TO SLAUGHTER: A
Maubere Resistance, 19 February 1992,            school building projects in East Timor since      REPORT ON THE SILENT GENOCIDE
Geneva, Switzerland.                             1990 has been obtained from the Japanese
                                                 Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund                IN EAST TIMOR
   Extracts of a document compiled by one        (OECF), says an official.                            With Allan Nairn, Amy Goodman,
eyewitness smuggled out of East Timor.               Bambang Utojo, spokesman of the               Benedict Anderson, Prof. of Int’l Studies,
This seems to be the most comprehensive          Ministry of Public Works, told Jakarta Post       Cornell; Ronald Machtley, U.S.
account of what happened in Dili in the days     that the OECF had provided Rp 900 million         Representative, Rhode Island. Smuggled
following the 12 November massacre of East       for the construction of a junior high school      video tape of the massacre will be shown.
Timorese civilians by the Indonesian forces.     (SMP) and four classes of a senior high           Friday, March 13, 1992, 7 pm sharp.
* 189 were killed at Santa Cruz cemetery.        school (SMA).                                        Salomon Center for Teaching Brown
* 36 were buried collectively in Hera.               The money was allocated last December         University, Main Green; a reception will
* A large number were buried in Taci-tolu        and the projects will start in the coming fis-    follow in Petteruti Lounge, Faunce House.
   and Tibar.                                    cal year beginning in April,” said Bambang.           Co-sponsored by: Office of the Dean of
* More than twenty were cremated in a                OECF provided nearly 2.66 billion in          the College; Office of the Chaplains; Dept of
   ‘tank’ in the military hospital in Lahane.    loans for an SMP and an SMA building last         Anthropology; Dept of Portuguese and
                                                 year, and this money had all been used for
* A large number of young people, boys and                                                         Brazilian Studies; Wayland Collegium; East
                                                 construction, he said.
   girls, were raped and killed.                                                                   Timor Action Network
* On 14 November, at 23.30, four boys and
   three girls were murdered in Fatu-ahi.             LEHIGH UNIVERSITY                            DA COSTA, SYAFEI REMARKS
   This was witnessed by many people in                (BETHELEHEM, PA)                                            (REUTER)
   the area.                                         CONFERENCE MARCH 3
* On 15 November, around 23.00, five                                                                   Reuter, Jakarta, Feb 21 - A captured East
   young people were murdered in Kai-koli,                                                         Timorese guerrilla leader has acknowledged
                                                 THE HIDDEN GENOCIDE OF EAST                       organising the demonstration there last
   Dili. The bodies had been cut in pieces
   and stacked into five bags and thrown         TIMOR: EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS                        November which ended in scores of deaths
   into the water. Witnesses reported this to    OF THE MASSACRE                                   when Indonesian soldiers opened fire, press
   the local International Red Cross delegate.                                                     reports said on Friday.
                                                     Place: Rauch Business Center (corner of           “I was sick at the time but I was the main
* On 27 November, at 19.30, nine youths          E. Packer Av and Taylor St.) Room # 91            adviser,” the daily Kompas quoted Jose da
   were killed and their bodies carried to       (Basement) Lehigh University Bethlehem,           Costa, captured in the East Timor capital of
   Hera.                                         PA 18015                                          Dili last month, as telling local reporters on
* On 28 November, it had rained heavily. A           March 3, 1992 7:30 PM                         Thursday.
   box containing 20 human hearts was                Speakers : Amy Goodman and Allan                  Da Costa was second in command of the
   found by local people in the river near the   Nairn - reporters who witnessed the mas-          Fretilin guerrilla movement.
   Salesian Mission Bispo Madeiros. It had       sacre by Indonesian soldiers.                         Da Costa, presented to the press by the
   been washed down the river from the               The Right Reverend Paul Moore, Bishop         military with his wife and child, said his
   hospital backyard following the torrential    of New York (Ret.)(Protestant Episcopal           capture had aborted another planned dem-
   rain.                                         Church) and his wife,                             onstration for February 5.
                                                     Brenda Moore, who both visited E.Timor
* On 30 November, 11.35, Indonesia mili-                                                               In an interview last month, East Timor
                                                 about two years ago, will report about the
   tary cut off the ears of a 19-year old be-                                                      governor Mario Viegas Carrascalao told
                                                 role of the Christian church as the support-
   cause he did not have an identity card.                                                         Reuters pro-Indonesia extremists with the
                                                 ing institution of the hopes of E. Timor
   The afore-mentioned document also refers                                                        probable backing of a fifth column within the
                                                 people (who are mainly catholic).
to a number of detention centres in and                                                            Indonesian military had been behind the
                                                     The video of the massacre will be shown
around Dili where prisoners are being held                                                         massacre.
                                                 at the beginning of the session, as well as the
and tortured:                                                                                          A military investigation into the incident
                                                 videotaped interventions of José Luis
1. Be Mos                                                                                          is expected to be completed within the next
                                                 Guterres (representative of Fretilin, the pro-    two weeks, but another probe by the gov-
2. Police Sector, West Dili                      independence resistance group in East             ernment has laid much of the blame on the
3. Headquarters of Poliwil, regional police      Timor) and Prof. Benedict Anderson (Aaron         army.
   HQ, Comoro                                    Binenkorb Professor of International Studies          The newly-appointed military com-
4. HQ of Polres, the district police             at Cornell University and an expert on            mander of East Timor, Brigadier-General
                                                 Indonesia and East Timor) at the December
5. Kodim, the district military command                                                            Theo Syafei, who heads more than 10,000
                                                 9/91 conference at Cornell University.
6. Nusra Bhakti, the military intelligence HQ                                                      troops there, dismissed the Fretilin threat
Page 62                                                           East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

and called its leader, Xanana Gusmao, a           BRIG. GEN THEO SYAFEI: I WILL                         other parties. It is wrong to see this as a
thief.                                            HUNT THEM DOWN (TEMPO)                                UDT government, and then vote for an
   “A sergeant or corporal is enough (to deal                                                           Apodeti government.
with him). I never heard of him buying even       Tempo. 22 Feb 1992. Original language:
                                                                                                     Q: So, are some organisations going to be
a bicycle for himself, let alone a car like our   Indonesian. The interview of Theo Syafei,
                                                                                                        banned?
officials,” he said.                              commander of Kolakops, (Operational
   “He burns houses and steals goats. He is       Command in East Timor ), full text.                A: No, as long as they are not Fretilin or its
a thief, I should not chase him.”                                                                       underlings. If anyone mentions anti-inte-
                                                  Comment: The Kolakops commander clearly
   Syafei said he would not tolerate Fretilin                                                           gration, that’s where I draw the line and I
                                                  disputes the KPN conclusion about the
and called for its remaining members,                                                                   will hunt them down.
                                                  troops that opened fire on 12 November. He
thought to number fewer than 100, to give         also confirms that an ‘Elang’ intelligence         Q: It is being said that there have been many
up.                                               task-force was indeed created in late 1990.           errors in detection because the intelligence
   His plea was backed by da Costa, ac-           We reported on this as part of the army’s             has been given faulty information.
cording to the official Antara news agency in     preparations for the aborted Portuguese            A: It’s true that, prior to the 12 November
a report of his news conference in Dili.          parliamentary visit.                                  incident, informers were often ridiculed.
   “After all, life in the jungle has become                                                            This means that they were admitting that
                                                  Q: The news of the visit of Amos Wako (to
very, very difficult while Fretilin leaders                                                             they were agents or ‘intel.’ The less
                                                     East Timor) came at very short notice.
staying abroad have always been able to                                                                 agents or ‘intel’ are known to the public,
                                                     Did the arrangements for security keep
enjoy a nice living,” it quoted the captured                                                            the more successful their work. There
                                                     you very busy?
guerrilla as saying.                                                                                    was a special ‘intel’ task force here called
                                                  A: No. People here were busy talking about            Satgas Elang, but I have disbanded it.
DA COSTA COMMENTS (AFP)                              the visit of the Portuguese ship. They
                                                     paid no attention to Wako, whose visit          Q: Regarding the Dili incident. What about
    AFP, Jakarta, Feb 21 - A guerrilla leader                                                           the troops who were said to be without
arrested in January in East Timor has called         here was announced so suddenly.
                                                                                                        any command. Do you know who they
on his comrades to lay down their arms,           Q: Why didn’t you meet Wako?                          are?
saying the movement was losing support,           A: That was not my key task. It was my
the Jakarta Post reported Friday.                                                                    A: In the armed forces, anything done by an
                                                     task to see whether or not there would be          officer is the responsibility of that officer.
    East Timor Liberation Front (Fretilin)           a demonstration. If I had stayed with
deputy leader Jose da Costa also told                                                                   During (the incident) there were no
                                                     Wako, I would have wasted a lot of time            unorganised troops.
Indonesian journalists Wednesday in his first        for keeping an eye on the community.
public appearance since his arrest that he                                                           Q: Have you been investigating the dis-
had masterminded the November 12                  Q: You are considered to be very stern,               crepancy in the casualty figures of the Dili
demonstration in Dili but did not elaborate.         rather different from your predecessor,            Incident?
    Da Costa was quoted as saying of his             Warouw. Why is that?
                                                                                                     A: I have not extrinsically (sic) or specifi-
detention, “I was neither bullied nor beaten      A: At the present stage, I need to be very            cally received any instructions about this
during the interrogation. They (security of-         firm. The community here must be made              from the commander-in-chief, but it may
ficials) treated me humanely.” Recently his          to realise that I am responsible for the           be intrinsic.
organisation was convinced da Costa had              situation. I have to restore the situation. I
been tortured to make him talk.                      have told people here. Fretilin is irre-
    Fretilin “had planned to launch another          sponsible. After their incitements, after          DUTCH COLUMNIST HITS
(anti-Indonesia) demonstration on February           all the casualties, where is their sense of
                                                     moral responsibility? They didn’t sur-
                                                                                                           OUT AT SUHARTO
5, but failed to do so because I was arrested
on January 23,” the Jakarta Post quoted da           render or do anything else. They washed                   (NRC HANDELSBLAD)
Costa, who remains in detention, as saying           their hands of it and left.                     22 Feb 1992. By the paper’s leading political
in the presence of Dili chief of police           Q: What else have you done?                        commentator, Van Lennep.
Colonel Ishak Kodijat.
                                                  A: I have placed four teams in every village,      Comment: Suharto’s crude reprimand of the
    “Now is not the time to launch a war
                                                     with a strength of 40 to 60 men, for vil-       Dutch government, delivered when he
(against the Indonesian Army),” da Costa
                                                     lage construction. This is because people       accepted the credentials of the new Dutch
reportedly said. “People’s support has sub-
                                                     in the slum villages (desa-desa yang ku-        ambassador to Indonesia, van Roijen, has
sided and we are short of ammunition. I am
                                                     muh) are being incited every night. They        infuriated many establishment figures in the
fed up with the war.”
                                                     are being fed with promises and their           Netherlands. Van Lennep, who would nor-
    “We don’t know when it will end. Let’s
                                                     hopes are running high; what makes              mally never comment on the question of East
have a brighter tomorrow for the sake of our
                                                     things so fertile are the many people who       Timor, was clearly cut to the quick.
families,” said da Costa, whose wife and
                                                     are out of work. The slum houses will be
three-month-old baby were at his side.                                                                  For some time now I have found the
                                                     replaced with decent housing. In those
    Da Costa, 35, said 200 Fretilin guerrillas                                                       sudden uproar about the ‘bloodbath in Dili’
                                                     villages where there are no sports activi-
were still in hiding in East Timor’s moun-                                                           when between eighty and a hundred people
                                                     ties, I will provide money and equipment.
tains and jungles and 40 were living in Dili.                                                        died in East Timor rather strange. It came
                                                     I have asked for a shoe factory to be built,
The Post said he had sent a messenger with a                                                         after sixteen years during which the populat-
                                                     providing 2,000 jobs, as well as a garment
letter urging them to surrender.                                                                     ion of East Timor fell from 600,000 to
                                                     factory to absorb 1,000 unemployed. In
    Da Costa, whose remarks were translated                                                          400,000 through murder, disappearances and
                                                     Dili, there are 8,000 people looking for
from the local Tetum language into                                                                   extrajudicial executions, putting East Timor
                                                     work, so this would absorbed almost half.
Indonesian, reportedly also spoke out                                                                among the top five in the league of mass
against a planned trip by some 100 people         Q: What about their political aspirations?         atrocities, far exceeding atrocities by Saddam
aboard a ship which has sailed from Portugal      A: If they have aspirations, they should           Hussein and Yugoslavia.
for Australia, from where it is due to set out       channel them through the PPP, the PDI or           Fortunately for them, neither Saddam
for the former Portuguese colony of East             GOLKAR. If they are against the present         Hussein nor Serbia get ten billion dollars
Timor on March 3.                                    government and regard it as a GOLKAR            from the industrial bloc.... But every person
                                                     government, they should vote for the            killed is an occasion for world opinion - in-
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 63

cluding the Netherlands which also supplies       legs were chained. They called it the ‘the        seeking to offer its products to world mar-
aid - to open their eyes about the atrocities     gramophone’ because, they said, everybody         kets.
of the Indonesian army.                           would start dancing if the handle was turned.        CONTACT: Union Bank, Los Angeles
   But Suharto is the stumbling block. He         I was stripped to my underpants. They said           Ken Green, 213/236-5017
wants the flow of money to continue but he        ‘it makes you to feel it more intensely.’
has gone on the offensive, in particular          Then came interrogations and shocks, but          EAST TIMOR ACTION NETWORK
against Holland, speculating that he can          this time the shocks were so severe that I        TO PROTEST AT INDONESIAN
arouse the guilt feelings of a former colonial    fainted after an hour. They took me back to       BUSINESS FORUM
power. Unfortunately for him, Portugal            my room.... After this they gave me weaker
which has stood up for human rights in East       shocks in a wooden chair using clamps                                          21 February 1992
Timor since the invasion in 1975, has just        attached to my nipples.”                             For more than sixteen years, East Timor a
taken over the presidency of the European             Two weeks later, “We were beaten and          former Portuguese colony located 400 miles
Community.                                        immersed in big tanks filled with excrement.      north of Darwin, Australia has been under
   The UN, which has not recognised the           Sometimes they opened the doors and let           military occupation by the Government of
annexation, has been approached by the            soldiers in, just back from fighting in the       Indonesia. Since the December 1975
presidency.                                       mountains, to beat us up. They came very          invasion, about 200,000 East Timorese
   On 14 February, Indonesia attacked the         early in the morning, in combat gear, dirty       (almost one third of the population) have
UN special rapporteur Prof. Kooijmans -           and dusty, to do the bashing. They shouted:       died as a direct result of the ongoing
who also happens to be Dutch - about his          ‘We were looking for communists but they          occupation according to a variety of sources
critical report issued on 24 January. The         seem to be in Dili and not in the mountains.’     including Amnesty International.
Indonesians claim the report was leaked be-           “Sometimes they put a gun against our            On 12 November 1991, during a funeral
fore being officially made public and said it     temples, ready to shoot. They told us that        procession for a pro-independence activist in
was ‘outrageous’ that Kooijmans did not           women were raped in front of other prison-        Dili, the capital of East Timor, the
devote enough attention to the punishment         ers. One was a woman from Iliomar, a very         Indonesian army fired upon thousands of
of Indonesian government officials who went       beautiful woman, whose husband, a guerrilla       mourners at Santa Cruz Cemetery killing
too far during the interrogation of prisoners.    commander, was killed when he was                 anywhere between 100 and 200 defenseless
   The UN has made no reference to the            arrested. She was taken to a special room,        East Timorese. Many Western journalists,
prosecution of such civil servants in             raped and became pregnant. Her name was           including Amy Goodman of WBAI in New
Indonesia for the simple reason that nobody       Justina Moniz.”                                   York and Alan Nairn of The New Yorker,
has ever been tried on these grounds.                 Suharto, a befriended Head of State, who      were eyewitnesses to the massacre. Recent
Further, the Indonesians complained that          longs for Dutch development aid, felt the         reports from East Timor by journalists and
(Prof. Kooijmans’) report exceeded his            need to tell our new ambassador when ac-          human rights organizations such as Asia
mandate in dealing also with the lack of          cepting his credentials: “No country should       Watch indicate that human rights abuses
freedom of expression and the freedom to          impose its values on another country.” He         such as torture, unjustified detention, and
assemble.                                         calls this “the same as the denial of human       extrajudicial executions are probably con-
   May I be allowed to exceed my brief and        rights.”                                          tinuing to take place. All agree that a climate
report about the thousands of cases of tor-           Regarding the bloodbath in Dili, one          of intimidation and absolute terror exist
ture, executions and disappearances since         eyewitness said: “After a command, the            throughout East Timor.
1975, basing myself on the Amnesty                military started to shoot at the demonstra-          Despite Indonesian Government state-
International report on East Timor issued         tors from a distance of 10 metres for about       ments that they regret what took place in
before the bloodbath, in August 1991.             five minutes (these were people at a ceme-        Dili on November 12th and that they have
   The report runs to 26 ghastly pages.           tery attending a funeral). The first row of       taken steps to correct the “excesses”
Those who join a demonstration can be             demonstrators fell, after which the military      committed by its troops such as the re-
picked up. In a section entitled Torture and      started to look for those still alive. Those      placement of the top military officials in
Maltreatment, Amnesty reports that iron           still moving were killed with knives.”            East Timor, the Santa Cruz Massacre must
rods, clubs, bare fists, pieces of wire and           An irritated Suharto regards reports in the   be seen as simply one incident in 16 years of
bamboo are used to beat detainees; wounds         Netherlands about all this as “interference.”     Indonesian state terrorism in East Timor.
are inflicted with lighted cigarettes, assaults                                                     Despite many United Nations resolutions
and sexual torture, razor blades, starvation,      LOS ANGELES INDONESIA                            calling upon the Government of Indonesia to
immersion for long periods in dirty water,                                                          withdraw from East Timor and for an
electric shocks and death threats. These          BUSINESS PROMOTION AND                            internationally- supervised plebiscite of self-
reports are similar to reports from Aceh and          DEMONSTRATION                                 determination, the Indonesian Government
what was formerly New Guinea.                                                                       refuses to budge.
   We give the floor to Donaciano da Costa           Business Wire, Los Angeles, Feb 21 - A            The East Timor Action Network Los
Gomes, a student, who was arrested after          delegation of 50 Indonesian business ex-          Angeles Branch (ETAN/L.A.) along with
the demonstration during the Pope’s visit in      ecutives and government officials will visit      many human rights activists from the Los
October 1989. After 40 students managed to        Los Angeles the week of Feb. 24 in an effort      Angeles area will be gathering in front of the
find sanctuary at the residence of the bishop     to promote business between the United            Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Downtown
of Dili, they were arrested, despite negotia-     States and Indonesia.                             Los Angeles on Monday, 24 February 1992
tions between the governor and the military          Union Bank is a major host to the dele-        from 12-pm to picket the Indonesian
commander. They were taken to                     gation, which is headed by the Indonesian         Government’s Business and Tourism
SENOPATI II, one of the two buildings of          ambassador to the United States.                  Forum. ETAN/L.A. will also be passing out
the military intelligence in the Farol district      The delegation is seeking to offer its         leaflets to passers-by to begin educating the
in Dili.                                          markets to U.S. businesses and develop            public about Indonesian atrocities in East
   “They gave me two kinds of electric            markets in the United States for Indonesian       Timor and U.S. Government complicity in
shocks . It started at midnight. I think it was   products.                                         these crimes. (Please see attached articles.)
the 28th or the 29th of November. I had              In recent years, Indonesia has undergone       Finally, ETAN/L.A. will be collecting
been under interrogation for 7 hours.... I had    substantial industrial expansion and is           petition signatures calling upon President
to sit on the metal chair and my arms and                                                           George Bush to end all military and
Page 64                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

economic assistance to the Indonesian            during the 6 pm newscast. During the                  One Indonesian soldier – there are more
Government and to help bring about a             newscasts, I was misidentified as the              than 10,000 in predominantly Roman
process of decolonization leading to self-       spokesperson for the “New York-based East          Catholic East Timor – had reminded him that
determination in East Timor.                     Timor Action Network” rather than for the          President Suharto was his leader not the
                                                 L.A. branch. In any case, the publicity for        Pope.
REPORT ON DEMONSTRATION AT                       the demo and on East Timor, in general, was           The driver’s willingness to joke about life
INDONESIA TRADE/TOURISM                          certainly an unexpected surprise.                  in Dili set him apart from many residents
PROMOTION IN LOS ANGELES                            All in all, I would say that the day was a      who prefer not to talk to outsiders.
                                                 success. Despite the relatively small num-            “People are still in shock,” said one
By Matthew Jardine, East Timor Action            bers at the demo, given the fact that it was a     resident describing the impact of November
Network, Los Angeles                             Monday afternoon and we didn’t have                12, when soldiers shot and killed scores of
February 25, 1992                                enough time to do adequate outreach, our           civilians.
   We held a demonstration yesterday in          presence was definitely felt. Many people,            “The bishop, the governor – they all ask
front of the Westin Bonaventure, from about      for the first time, have heard about East          me to stop talking to the press,” said one
12 noon to 2 pm with, at its height, 12-15       Timor and the Indonesian Government                priest who has been under intensive inter-
people participating. We handed out about        knows that the numbers of people working           rogation since the shooting.
200 flyers and collected about 25 signatures     to stop their gross human rights abuses in            Asked if this visit by a foreign journalist
on the ETAN petition to George Bush. With        East Timor and throughout the archipelago is       would cause any problems, he shrugged. “I
our megaphone and our visible presence,          growing.                                           hope not.”
complete with some very well made and               I’m looking forward to the next demo. I’m          Only 19 bodies have ever been found,
effective posters, we were certainly noticed.    sure that we can get a significantly bigger        according to official records. Some people
The Indonesian consul pulled into the hotel      crowd the next time. Some of us are already        joke grimly that East Timorese have gone off
toward the beginning of the demonstration        talking about some sort of action out in front     fish because the other bodies were tossed
and practically ran into the hotel; he           of the Indonesian Consulate in LA or in            into the sea.
certainly saw and heard us.                      front of Garuda Airlines.                             Originally, Indonesia’s military com-
   What was pleasantly surprising was that                                                          mander-in-chief Try Sutrisno told parliament
a number of people (most of whom were               INDONESIA NETS $2.4BN                           that 19 died, a statement greeted with
pretty conservatively attired) stopped and                                                          derision.
talked to us and asked questions; many                FOR TOURISM IN 1991                              “People take their birthday or something
seemed quite sympathetic to our message.                                                            so they can remember the figure. These
                                                    DPA, Jakarta, Feb 24 - Indonesia earned
Most people had, not surprisingly, never                                                            people took 19 and 91 (for the year),” said
                                                 2.4 billion dollars from tourism in 1991, a
heard of East Timor. Some were very sup-                                                            governor Mario Viegas Carrascalao, in an
                                                 17.9 per cent gain on revenues the year be-
portive and encouraged us to continue our                                                           interview last month.
                                                 fore, Minister of Tourism, Post and
efforts. There were, of course, a few who                                                              Even the huge number 50 displayed out-
                                                 Telecommunications Susilo Sudarman re-
didn’t want to give us the time of day, but                                                         side the bishop’s house, to mark the half-
                                                 ported Monday.
none gave us any real problems.                                                                     century of the Catholic diocese in East
                                                    Despite the Gulf war, Indonesia did not
   A number of individuals who appeared to                                                          Timor, has become a target of jibes.
                                                 suffer a decrease in foreign tourist arrivals
be Indonesian business and/or government                                                               “The bishop put it there to show every-
                                                 last year contrary to the experience of other
people were very eager to take our pictures.                                                        body the official death count,” sniggers one
                                                 countries in the region.
Some didn’t hesitate to approach within 5                                                           resident.
                                                    However, in view of the world ranking,
feet of our group and try to snap a photo.                                                             Everybody has a theory to explain what
                                                 Indonesia was still at the 38th compared
Many of us covered our faces with the                                                               really happened on November 12, and more
                                                 with Malaysia as the seventh-largest in the
posters lest we make the job of Indonesian                                                          importantly why.
                                                 world with 7.4 million tourists visiting that
intelligence any easier.                                                                               For some, usually in the government, it
                                                 country last year.
   For the most part the hotel security and                                                         was part of the campaign by a small band of
                                                    France was on the top of the list with 50
the LAPD were very polite and cooperative.                                                          independence guerrillas to turn East
                                                 million tourist arrivals.
Only with about 15 minutes left in the demo                                                         Timorese further against Jakarta. Some
                                                    He said Indonesia expected some 2.9
did the LAPD (for the 2nd time) arrive on                                                           diplomats speculate that Indonesia does not
                                                 million foreign tourists this year, compared
the scene and tell us that we could no longer                                                       finish them off in part because the army
                                                 to 2.5 million visitors in 1991.
use the megaphone (LA has a very loosely-                                                           wants to keep the place as a training ground.
worded ordinance on amplified sound that                                                               Diplomats say the army was taken aback
leaves the matter largely to the discretion to     THE MOOD IN DILI (REUTER)                        by the level of resentment against Jakarta
the police officer on the scene). Apparently                                                        that surfaced last year among Timorese too
                                                     Reuter, Dili, East Timor, Jonathan             young to remember the invasion in 1975.
the hotel people called the police as they       Thatcher, Feb 24 - “Soldiers still get angry          Up to a third of the population is esti-
couldn’t take our yelling any longer.            with me. I tell them it was made in Japan,         mated to have died from war, starvation and
   Despite our having called many media          not Portugal,” the driver said of his aged taxi.   disease since that year.
outlets, no one from the press showed up.            The road was visible through the floor as         Others offering explanations for the
However, I had spoken to Amy Goodman             the taxi rattled through the East Timor            November massacre, including the governor,
on Sunday, and I called KPFK (the LA             capital of Dili.                                   doubt the initial army version that the
Pacifica affiliate) newsroom on Monday at            Indonesian steering columns, like its          shooting was a spontaneous reaction by so-
5:30am to see if they could do any last          politics, are on the right. The taxi, for some     ldiers to defend themselves.
minute publicity for us. Since Monday is a       at least, has a sinister air.                         Carrascalao supports the theory that
day of relatively little news, they had some         “They say my car is communist,” the            some sort of military fifth column, possibly
available air time for the morning news. I       driver said. Then, with a grin, he showed a        guided by someone with powerful political
was interviewed on the phone for 4-5             picture of Pope John Paul dangling from his        connections, conspired to use extreme
minutes on East Timor and the day’s dem-         key chain. “They complain about my key             rightists to stir up the crowd of mourners on
onstration; the interview was played in its      ring too.”                                         November 12.
entirety on the 8:30 am newscast and a
slightly amended version was broadcast
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                                  Page 65

   He laments he has no proof but thinks         people and he is encouraging them,” Mr               The health and education services for the
others do.                                       Ferreira said.                                       everyday people have had to be drastically
   Some say it was a plot to get all the anti-      He said the video was a complete                  reduced to finance these funny money
Indonesians in one group so the army could       whitewash of East Timorese history and the           schemes.
wipe them out in one go.                         November massacre.                                       The record of these high fliers in sys-
   Leading members of government are                The video was produced and narrated by            tematically opposing the recognition of the
dragged into the theories. One scenario has a    a Darwin cinematographer, Mr Mike                    rights of Australia’s First People is infa-
senior minister masterminding the shooting       Atkinson, in conjunction with Indonesian             mous. Much Northern Territory produce is
while another says it was masterminded to        National Television. It concentrates on anti-        spiritually tainted with the stench of geno-
undermine him.                                   Indonesian demonstrations in Australia,              cide.
   Some Indonesians cannot understand why        suggesting that they were the work of “left-             The task which confronts us all is to bring
the East Timorese, historically a fractious      wing politicians and trade unions” with              the high fliers back to earth. Locked in their
group and racially different from the bulk of    negligible support from Australia’s East             high rise suites, they are out of touch with
the population, do not shut up, get on with      Timorese community.                                  the consequences of the decisions they
their lives and be grateful that Jakarta pumps                                                        make. It is up to us to send them the
in so much aid money.                            BOYCOTT NORTHERN TERRITORY                           message.
   “I can’t understand it. Why do they want      GOVERNMENT! BOYCOTT                                      The people in the Northern Territory
independence?” questioned a senior               DARWIN! BOYCOTT KAKADU!                              have been unable to shake off the effects of
Indonesian editor.                                                                                    Malcolm Fraser’s experimental self-gov-
   “The people are crazy here. It’s a really                                           Feb 27, 1992   ernment in the N.T. for over a decade.
awful place,” said a government worker from         The Country-Liberal Party Northern                    Our brothers and sisters in Timor - our
modern Jakarta who had spent nearly one          Territory government, led by Marshall                nearest neighbour to the N.T. - call for help.
year in East Timor, one of the world’s           Perron, has endorsed the Indonesian elite’s          It is time to direct our energies to bringing
poorest territories.                             genocidal actions towards the people of our          our house to order.
                                                 neighbouring Timorese people.                            The best way to reach them is by refusing
   CHIEF MINISTER OF N.T.                           While the rest of the world was loudly            to trade with them until they bring their
                                                 condemning the Indonesian government for             behaviour back into line with normal notions
   (AUSTRALIA) ATTACKED                          the Dili massacre, and the Indonesian elite          of human respect. We must target the
    OVER DILI VIDEO (AGE)                        was desperate for any endorsement,                   faceless Darwin based businessmen who
                                                 Marshall Perron was on a state visit to              keep Perron in office. They trade on the
By Chips MacKinolty. 24 Feb 1992                 Indonesia, and met with President Suharto.           attractions of the Territory to justify their
Comment: Abridged. The allegation that the       Even the United States was making noises             behind the scenes dealings.
‘anti-Indonesian’ (sic) demonstrations in        about not doing business with Indonesia.                 A boycott of Kakadu - the star
Australia received little support from the          In this climate, Perron arrived and ann-          attraction of the Perron government -
East Timorese community is untrue.               ounced a memorandum of understanding in              would be a good start. a boycott of Darwin
                                                 the name of the people of the Northern               for all conferences and conventions
    East Timorese representatives in Darwin      Territory but really between the Northern            would be a good second move.
have condemned the involvement of the            Territory and Indonesian elites. The Perron-             Support the people, boycott the
Northern Territory Chief Minister, Mr            Suharto understanding did not focus on the           Northern Territory government.
Perron, in a 30-minute video about the           protection of human rights and the protec-
Timor massacre released by the Indonesian        tion of the environment.
government.                                                                                           IPB APPEAL FOR PEACE AND
                                                    Rather, it spoke of “the strategic and
    The video, released two weeks before the     commercial importance of increasing eco-                      JUSTICE
delivery of the Indonesian commission of         nomic co-operation between the two regions
inquiry report on the 12 November Dili                                                                An appeal to International Peace Bureau
                                                 for mutually beneficial development and
massacre, gives the Indonesian version of the                                                         groups and other peace organizations
                                                 growth.”
incident.                                           It constitutes a agreement between those          Geneva, 26 Feb 1992.
    According to the video, entitled ‘New Era    who seek to exp loit the resources of the
of East Timor,’ “a number of foreigners were                                                              The world’s most violent conflict, in per
                                                 earth to the benefit of a few and at the cost        capita terms, is raging in the tiny territory of
involved inciting the demonstrators,”            of us all. It sells the lives of little people, so
including foreign journalists.                                                                        East Timor. Since Indonesia invaded in
                                                 that the members of Perron’s and Suharto’s           December, 1975, one third of the population
    The video says that idle and impression-     families can grow very big indeed. This was
able young people were involved in Dili. The                                                          have been killed. 250,000 dead out of a
                                                 not what the Indonesian people sought when           population of 680,000. And yet the world
narration says that “on the way to the           they over-turned colonial rule, and there is
cemetery the demonstration became very                                                                has just gone along with it.
                                                 growing opposition to elitist Jakarta                    On November 12 of last year, a memorial
out-of-control and one officer and one sol-      ‘independence.’
dier was stabbed.” There was no reference to                                                          procession for a pro- independence youth
                                                    Perron also appeared recently in an               killed by Indonesian soldiers assembled in
civilian deaths.                                 Indonesian public relations video playing the
    Mr Perron features in the video as a                                                              the East Timor capital of Dili. As it reached
                                                 endorsement role once again for the                  the cemetery, Indonesian soldiers opened
leading supporter of closer relations with the   Indonesian elite. The film maker who put
Indonesian government.                                                                                fire, killing up to 200 people. After a brief
                                                 this nasty piece of work together was em-            wave of condemnations, the world again fell
    Mr Alfredo Ferreira, a Fretilin represen-    ployed by a company which involves the
tative in Australia, said yesterday that Mr                                                           silent.
                                                 wife of the Speaker of the Northern                      Amnesty International, Asia Watch, and
Peron was a hypocrite.                           Territory’s Legislative. Keep it all in the
    “He is quite happy to be seen as a very                                                           other respected human rights groups and
                                                 ‘family,’ eh?                                        church organizations around the world have
good and reliable friend of the generals who        The Country-Liberal Party consists of
ordered our people shot. He should stand                                                              pointed out that this massacre was just one
                                                 high fliers who have virtually bankrupt the          in a long, almost unending series, of atroci-
trial alongside those generals. He has con-      Northern Territory economy with curious
doned the Indonesians’ actions against our                                                            ties committed by the Indonesian military
                                                 deals involving casinos and five star hotels.        dictatorship in East Timor, a territory the
Page 66                                                          East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992

United Nations does not recognize as under        Indonesian Armed Forces should be vigilant       information about the incident, and inter-
Indonesian control.                               because East Timor will be dissatisfied and      national organizations should send fact-
    Pro-independence groups are not wild-         will threaten the safety of those who want       finding groups to investigate it.
eyed communist guerrillas. They are a group       to enter Dili.                                      “The United Nations is the best organi-
of Catholics and nationalists who are only                                                         zation to inquire into the incident interna-
trying to gain their country’s right to live in       BOB MUNTZ SPEAK S IN                         tionally,” Muntz said. “It would be desirable
peace and to self-determination as a distinct                                                      that each government ask the U.N. to do so.”
people. Both rights are guaranteed under the            JAPAN (JAPAN TIMES)
Charter of the United Nations.                                                                          THE WAR NO LONGER
                                                  Source: Japan Times, Feb. 28, 1992
    Resistance leader Kay Rala Xanana
Gusmao has proposed peace talks without           Bob Muntz, an Australian eyewitness of the                FORGOTTEN
preconditions between Indonesia and the           massacre, is in Japan, to speak in cities such      (DARWIN REFUGEES, REUTER)
Timorese, under the auspices of the United        as Tokyo, Sendai, Hiroshima, Osaka and
Nations. The call has been backed by many         Nagoya. On 27 he spoke at a joint meeting of         Reuter, Darwin, Wilson da Silva, Feb 28 -
human rights, labour and church organiza-         Amnesty International Diet Group and Diet        “When I heard on the radio the Indonesians
tions, and was endorsed at the IPB’s annual       Members Forum on East Timor in the               had invaded, I cried,” said Alfredo Ferreira.
general assembly in Toronto last September.       morning, and at a press conference in the        His eyes misted as he looked out of the
We are now appealing to all peace groups to       afternoon. Muntz’s visit is being reported by    window of a small brick hall in the far north
support the call, by writing to their             various media.                                   of Australia, where exiled Timorese meet to
governments and to UN Secretary General                                                            dance, sing and weep.
Boutros Boutros- Ghali.                           EYEWITNESS TO DILI ATTACK                            “All of a sudden, I was without a nation,”
    We are also appealing for groups to           RAPS JAKARTA                                     he said.
pressure their governments to ban all weap-                                                            “They had taken my country from me.”
                                                     An Australian activist on Thursday said           Ferreira, of Timorese and Portuguese
ons sales to Indonesia as long at is engaged in   the Indonesian government and military           parents, was one of East Timor’s privileged,
aggressive and brutal wars in East Timor and      should be held responsible for the recent        a clerk in the Portuguese colonial
its other occupied territories like Western       mass killing in Dili in East Timor.              administration. Now the truck driver is one
New Guinea and Aceh. The United Sates                The accusation came from Bob Muntz, a         of 10,000 Timorese in Australia, exiles from
and Britain are the major weapons suppliers       project officer for an Australian-based non-     one of the world’s forgotten wars.
to Indonesia, but all Western countries are       governmental organization who claims to              It took an army massacre of between 50
guilty to some degree. And all can send a         have witnessed the Indonesian army shoot-        and 180 people in November in the East
message by announcing weapons sales bans.         ing.                                             Timor capital of Dili, less than an hour’s
    East Timor symbolizes all that is wrong          He was speaking at a news conference in       flight from Darwin, to return the 16-year-old
with the “New World Order” which sup-             Tokyo given by the local branch of Amnesty       impasse over Indonesia’s rule to inter-
posedly protects the rights of small nations      International.                                   national prominence.
against the powerful. Please consider adding         Muntz alleged the Jakarta government’s            Australia is a vital base for the rebels.
your voice to those calling for peace and         interim report on the case cannot be reliable    Letters, tapes and telephone calls are re-
justice for East Timor.                           because it is not objective. He said at least    ceived from a clandestine network in East
    The International Federation for East         100 East Timorese were killed while the          Timor, and money is funnelled back, os-
Timor has applied to join the IPB this year,      government report estimates 50 deaths and        tensibly for humanitarian purposes.
and its member organizations will be happy        91 injured.                                          Guerrilla leader Xanana Gusmao regularly
to provide any additional information you            According to an Amnesty International         reports armed actions, or issues orders to
may need.                                         report, the incident occurred Nov. 12 when       supporters in Australia.
    – East Timor Alert Network PO Box 562,        about 2,000 demonstrators gathered at a              Thousands fled. Many like Fatima, who
Station P, Toronto, M5S 2T1, Canada.              cemetery in Dili, the capital of the             declined to give her full name to avoid en-
                                                  Portuguese territory annexed by Indonesia in     dangering her family, are still not free of the
   TIMORESE FLUNKY FOR                            1976, to commemorate two young Timorese          memories.
      JAKARTA(RRI, BBC)                           killed in an earlier clash with police.              Living in the mountains with rebels for
                                                     Indonesian soldiers suddenly fired on         four years, she said she witnessed several
    RRI, Feb 27, as monitored by BBC -            them and killed several hundred people, the      atrocities and torture.
Text) Salvador Jimenez Suarez, a member of        report says.                                         Taken captive while pregnant, she said
parliament from East Timor, describes as             The Indonesian government’s interim           she bore a child in a military hospital but
correct the Indonesian government’s decision      report says the incident started because the     never saw it again.
to reject the planned entry of the Portuguese     demonstrators acted provocatively toward             “They wanted us to say Indonesia was
ship “Lusitania Expresso” into Indonesian         the troops.                                      good, that we wanted to join with them –
waters, as well as its berthing in Dili, East        “It was impossible to provoke the soldi-      that was impossible. We aren’t assassins, we
Timor. Speaking to RRI in Jakarta last night      ers because the people were about 80 meters      don’t kill children,” she said softly.
[26th February] he said the ship’s voyage is      from them,” Muntz said. “They suddenly               Kim, who also did not want his name re-
a provocative act by Portugal, which is           opened fire on unarmed people without any        vealed, bears bullet scars from rebel battles.
trying to bring about chaos in East Timor.        warning.”                                        He dreams of liberating his land. “What we
    [Suarez recording] We all know that              According to Muntz, the demonstrators,        need is money. We are weak now, but with
Portugal itself abandoned East Timor in an        who marched peacefully from Dili to the          money we can be stronger.”
irresponsible manner. Portugal left the           cemetery, were about to go home when the             Some 200,000 people, a third of East
province while it was in a chaotic situation.     army fired.                                      Timor’s population, have died from fighting,
Therefore, the majority of East Timor peo-           They had no place to hide during the one-     disease and famine since the Indonesian
ple prefer to integrate into the Republic of      hour shooting and over 100 people are            invasion, said Australian anthropologist Pat
Indonesia, and now Portugal wants to inter-       thought to have been killed, he said.            Thatcher of Melbourne’s Monash
fere in the province’s affairs. Even if they         Muntz said the interim report was in-         University.
are finally allowed to enter the province, the    adequate because the government has not
                                                  contacted any foreign witnesses to obtain
East Timor Documents, Volume 10. February 8-29, 1992                                                                               Page 67

    Thatcher interviewed 800 Timorese in             Belo said he would not elaborate on the        strongly felt than what has moved dozens of
Australia and East Timor, as part of a de-        best form of autonomy for East Timor,             other territories to nationhood. Yet
tailed seven-year study.                          adding that it required further study.            Indonesia holds its possession fast and is
    “Every single Timorese family I spoke to         “But I give three points for the central       wary of a precedent of unraveling in its vast
suffered at least one death because of the        government to consider. First, the Catholic       archipelago. Nor are its neighbors close to
invasion,” she said.                              tradition (and) second, the cultural tradi-       mobilizing for East Timor’s choice. Australia
    “They (Indonesians) underestimated the        tion,” the bishop said.                           leans to putting Indonesia back, at a faster
tenacity of the Timorese. These are tough            “Third, leadership should be handled to        pace, on its pre-massacre track of investing
and they’re hardy people who live in a            local East Timorese,” the Suara Pembaruan         resources, opening the place up (it’s now
guerrilla heaven,” she said.                      daily quoted Belo as saying.                      again off limits to journalists) and looking for
    Indonesian forces killed five Australian         Belo said, however, that the people of         ways to bring along the Portuguese.
journalists in the invasion. No Indonesian        East Timor should understand the concept             At America’s distance, it’s easy enough
soldiers have been brought to trial, and          of “one archipelagic nation.”                     both to forget about East Timor and to raise
    Ferreira said he was apolitical until the        “The problem is we need an explanation         calls for its self-determination. Something of
invasion.                                         that other people from other provinces are        an Asian success story, Indonesia gets little
    Now he is a major Fretilin organiser in       not foreigners.”                                  foreign aid of the sort that might be used as
this northern tropical city. However,                Belo told the reporters that Jakarta’s         leverage. Yet this is the age of decolonizing
Timorese are deeply split.                        decision to maintain a heavy security pres-       the colonies of the Third and Communist
    “I was the first casualty in the battle for   ence in East Timor was no longer effective,       worlds. The conscious green light that the
independence, but I won’t be the last,” said      and that “what we need now is a psycho-           United States gave Cold War ally
Goncalo Pinto, a commercial artist whose          logical, social and humanistic approach.          Indonesia’s original takeover gives
chest bears the scars of bullets fired by            “I do not understand why there are more        Americans an extra obligation.
Portuguese troops early in the 1975 anti-         armies in East Timor when there are no more          The administration is still treating East
colonial unrest.                                  enemies. Or do civilians stand as the             Timor as a human rights issue. Congress
    Pinto represents the centre-right             enemies?”                                         does better, seeing it as a political issue.
Timorese Democratic Union (UDT), the                 Indonesian forces in East Timor are es-        Indonesia’s sordid show in East Timor casts
separatists who initially took power in 1975      timated at between 15,000 and 30,000, while       a shadow over its future promise.
only to be ousted by Fretilin. UDT says           the remaining guerrilla forces of the East
Fretilin committed atrocities against unarmed     Timor secessionist movement Fretilin are           IRIAN JAYA FAMINE (REUTER)
UDT supporters in the civil war.                  thought to number between 200 and 1,000.
    Fretilin represents mostly educated in-                                                            Reuter, Jakarta, March 1 - Hundreds of
digenous Timorese and some of the Mestizo                      EAST WHAT?                           people are being evacuated by helicopter
middle-class. UDT is mostly made up of                                                              from part of the Indonesian province of Irian
wealthy Portuguese settlers, indigenous             (WASHINGTON POST EDITORIAL)
                                                                                                    Jaya stricken by a famine that has killed
Timorese royalty, and the bulk of the edu-        Feb 29, 1992                                      nearly 150 people, the national news agency
cated Mestizo middle class.                                                                         Antara said on Sunday.
    The groups meet in separate halls, raise          EAST TIMOR. Last fall Indonesia was              It quoted Demianus Dimara, head of Irian
separate funds to promote the Timorese            trying to work out a first visit by a             Jaya’s social affairs office, as saying 613
cause, organise separate demonstrations and       Portuguese parliamentary delegation so that,      people had been rescued from the Elelim area
operate separate clandestine networks.            it hoped, Portugal would finally reconcile        near Jayapura by Saturday and that the
    All recognise Gusmao. Years ago,              itself to loss of its South Pacific backwater.    operation was continuing.
Gusmao quit Fretilin and merged guerilla          Indonesian colonial power had replaced               The agency said the famine had killed 148
forces as a single Timorese resistance.           Portuguese colonial power there, brutally, in     people.
    Danilo Lemos, a Darwin car salesman and       1975. In anticipation of the visit, nationalist      The territory, part of the huge island of
once a part-time Fretilin supporter, was          feeling surged in East Timor. The agitation       New Guinea, was taken over by Indonesia
galvanised by November’s massacre. “If we         led to the army’s massacre on Nov. 12 of          from the Dutch in 1963.
accept what exists now, then we are all           anti-Indonesia demonstrators and to the
Indonesian. We want our own identity, we          consequent and still-current spurt of world
are Timorese.”                                    concern.
                                                      Indonesia’s shrewd foreign minister, Ali
                                                  Alatas, was in Washington the other day to
BISHOP BELO INTERVIEW IN                          douse the political fires. The Nov. 12 inci-
  INDONESIAN PRESS (AFP)                          dent, he said, was provoked by a minor
                                                  losing faction of Portugal’s “boys.” The
    AFP, Lisbon, Feb 29 - East Timor Roman        authorities are investigating and disciplining
Catholic Bishop Carlos Belo said Indonesia        the army vigorously. East Timor has already
should give East Timor autonomy because of        gone through several valid acts of self-
its different historical and cultural             determination.
background.                                           But these assertions by the minister
    “This sounds a political matter, but I        won’t do. Resentment over Portugal’s bu-
have to make it nationally widespread that it     gout of 1974 is not a sufficient reason to
would be better if East Timor gains its           keep blaming Portugal now. An essentially
autonomy,” Belo said in a rare interview          military government’s investigation of its
with Indonesian journalists.                      own army lacks full credibility. The past
    “I hope the Indonesian Government con-        elections that Indonesia cites as acts of self-
siders and studies the historical, cultural and   determination do not rise to what is required
religious background of East Timor.”              in 1992.
                                                      Timor’s three-century Portuguese past
                                                  gives it an identity no less distinct and

								
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