Chapter 3 Air Temperature by tyndale

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									                                              Chapter 3: Air Temperature
1. The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between
a. the time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature.
b. the time of minimum temperature and the time of maximum solar radiation.
c. the time between the minimum and maximum temperatures for a day.
d. the time of minimum and maximum solar energy received at the surface for a given day.
e. sunrise and sunset.

2. During the afternoon the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above
occurs on a
a. clear, calm afternoon.                                      c. cloudy, calm afternoon.
b. clear, windy afternoon.                                     d. cloudy, windy afternoon.

3. The greatest variation in daily temperature usually occurs
a. at the ground.                                                 c. at the top of a high-rise apartment complex.
b. about 5 feet above the ground.                                 d. at the level where thermals stop rising.

4. In summer, humid regions typically have daily temperature ranges and maximum temperatures than drier
a. smaller, lower             b. smaller, higher            c. larger, lower          d. larger, higher

5. In most areas the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs
a. around noon.                                                c. in the early evening after 6 pm.
b. in the afternoon between 2 and 5 pm.                        d. just before the sun sets.

6. Everything else being equal, the lowest air temperature on a winter night will occur above a
a. surface covered with vegetation.                             c. bare surface.
b. surface covered with snow.                                   d. surface covered with water.

7. Which of the following is generally true at night?
a. the earth emits and absorbs energy at equal rates              c. the earth does not emit any energy
b. the earth emits more energy than it absorbs                    d. the earth does not absorb any energy

8. The lowest temperature is usually observed
a. at the time of sunset.                 c. several hours before sunrise.              e. several hours after sunrise.
b. near midnight.                         d. around sunrise.

9. Which of the following is generally true during the day?
a. the earth does not emit any energy                             c. the earth emits more energy than it absorbs
b. the earth emits and absorbs energy at equal rates              d. the earth absorbs more energy than it emits

10. In clear weather the air next to the ground is usually      than the air above during the night, and     than the air
above during the day.
a. colder, warmer                b. colder, colder                c. warmer, colder                d. warmer, warmer

11. One would expect the lowest temperatures to be found next to the ground on a
a. clear, damp, windy night.            c. clear, dry, calm night.               e. rainy night.
b. cloudy night.                        d. clear, dry, windy night.

12. Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in
the newspaper was only 35o F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that
a. temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground.
b. the thermometer was in error.
c. the newspaper reported the wrong temperature.
d. the thermometer was read before the minimum temperature was reached for that day.
e. the thermometer was read incorrectly.

13. Warmer-than-average overnight temperatures are probably not associated with
a. humid conditions.                                        c. a strong radiation inversion.
b. windy conditions.                                        d. cloudy conditions.

14. At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed?
a. at sunset                 d. toward the end of the morning
b. near sunrise              e. between 2 and 5 pm when the air temperature reaches a maximum
c. at noon

15. Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are a
a. clear, calm, dry, winter night.                                 d. cloudy, windy, moist, summer night.
b. clear, calm, moist, summer night.                               e. clear, windy, dry, summer night.
c. cloudy, calm, moist, winter night.

16. Assuming that the night will remain clear, calm, and unsaturated, the predicted minimum temperature is 32o F.
Suddenly the wind speed increases and remains gusty throughout the night. The minimum temperature will most
likely be
a. about the same as predicted, but will occur earlier in the night.
b. higher than predicted due to the release of latent heat.
c. much lower than predicted due to radiational cooling.
d. higher than predicted due to mixing.
e. lower than predicted due to forced convection.

17. The primary cause of a radiation inversion is
a. infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface.      d. solar radiation reflected by the earth's surface.
b. infrared radiation absorbed by the earth's surface.     e. infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere & clouds.
c. solar radiation absorbed by the earth's surface.

18. An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is
a. there is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation.
b. the light-colored sand radiates heat very rapidly at night.
c. dry air is a very poor heat conductor.
d. free convection cells are unable to form above the hot desert ground.
e. the ozone content of desert air is very low.

19. The deepest radiation inversion would be observed
a. at the equator any day of the year.                             d. on a desert in winter.
b. in polar regions in winter.                                     e. in a deep valley during the summer.
c. at the top of a high mountain in winter.

20. A radiation inversion is most commonly observed
a. when it is raining.                  c. at sunset.                                    e. in the upper atmosphere.
b. during the afternoon.                d. just above the ground.

21. On a clear, calm, night, the ground and air above cool mainly by this process.
a. evaporation            b. reflection            c. convection            d. conduction                e. radiation

22. Orchard heaters and wind machines are most useful in preventing damaging low temperatures from occurring next
to the ground on
a. clear, windy nights.                 c. cloudy, snowy nights.                e. rainy nights.
b. cloudy, windy nights.                d. clear, calm nights.
23. Thermal belts are
a. pockets of warm air resting on a valley during the afternoon.
b. pockets of cold air resting on a valley floor at night.
c. warmer hillsides that are less likely to experience freezing conditions.
d. cold, below-freezing air found at the top of a mountain.

24. In a hilly region the best place to plant crops that are sensitive to low temperatures is
a. on the valley floor.                                             c. on the top of the highest hill.
b. along the hillsides.                                             d. in any dry location.

25. Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called
a. isobars.                    b. isotherms.                        c. thermals.                         d. thermographs.

26. If tonight's temperature is going to drop into the middle 20s (oF) and a fairly stiff wind is predicted, probably the
best way to protect an orchard against a hard freeze is to (assume that cost is not a factor)
a. use helicopters.                         c. sprinkle the crops with water.           e. pray for clouds.
b. use wind machines.                       d. put orchard heaters to work.

27. Wind machines can prevent surface air temperatures from reaching extremely low readings by
a. blowing smoke over an orchard or field.
b. increasing the evaporation rate from fruits and vegetables.
c. mixing surface air with air directly above.
d. reducing the rate of cooling by evaporation.
e. increasing the likelihood of condensation on fruits and vegetables.

28. Two objects A and B have the same mass but the specific heat of A is larger than B. If both objects absorb equal
amounts of energy
a. A will become warmer than B.                              c. both A and B will warm at the same rate.
b. B will become warmer than A.                              d. A will get warmer, but B will get colder.

29. If energy is added to an object, the smallest temperature change will occur when the object has
a. large mass, small specific heat.                             c. small mass, small specific heat.
b. large mass, large specific heat.                             d. large mass, small specific heat.

30. Which of the following statements is true?
a. If you travel from Dallas, Texas to St. Paul, Minnesota in January, you are more likely to experience greater
temperature variations than if you make the same trip in July
b. Annual temperature ranges tend to be much greater near the ocean than in the middle of the continent
c. If two cities have the same mean annual temperature, then their temperatures throughout the year are quite similar
d. all of the above are true

31. Which of the following is not a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land?
a. solar energy penetrates more deeply into water
b. water has a higher heat capacity
c. a portion of the solar energy that strikes water is used to evaporate it
d. it takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1o C than it does to raise the temperature of
water 1o C.

32. When you observe large changes in the temperature of an object even though only small amounts of energy are
added or removed, you might conclude the object has low
a. albedo                                                    c. density
b. thermal conductivity                                      d. specific heat
33. Two objects have the same temperature. Object A feels colder to the touch than object B. This is probably
because the two objects have different
a. thermal conductivities.                                   c. specific heats.
b. densities.                                                d. latent heats.

34. The largest annual range of temperatures are found
a. at polar latitudes over land.                                c. at middle latitudes near large bodies of water.
b. at polar latitudes over water.                               d. at the Equator.

35. If you subtract the daily minimum from the daily maximum temperature you have the
a. daily average temperature                                c. number of heating degree days
b. daily range of temperature                               d. number of cooling degree days

36. This is used as an index for fuel consumption.
a. growing degree-days                                          c. heating degree-days
b. consumer price index                                         d. mean annual temperature

37. How many heating degree-days would there be for a day with a maximum temperature of 30o F and a minimum
temperature of 20o F? (Assume a base temperature of 65o F)
a. 65                   b. 45                   c. 40                  d. 35                   e. 10

38. How many cooling degree-days would there be for a day with a maximum temperature of 95o F and a minimum
temperature of 65o F? (Assume a base temperature of 65o F)
a. 30                        b. 20                         c. 15                        d. 0

39. Suppose peas are planted in Indiana on May 1. If the peas need 1200 growing degree-days before they can be
picked, and if the mean temperature for each day during May and June is 70o F, in about how many days will the peas
be ready to pick? (Assume a base temperature of 40o F)
a. 11                    b. 30                    c. 40                   d. 70                   e. 120

40. The wind-chill index
a. relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind.
b. indicates the temperature at which water freezes on exposed skin.
c. takes into account humidity and air temperature in expressing the current air temperature.
d. tells farmers when to protect crops from a freeze.
e. determines how low the air temperature will be on any given day.

41. In calm air the air temperature is -10o C, if the wind speed should increase to 30 knots (with no change in air
temperature) the thermometer would indicate
a. a much higher temperature than -10o C.                         c. a temperature of -10o C.
b. a much lower temperature than -10 C.                           d. a temperature of -30o C.

42. The air temperature is 45o F, the wind is blowing at 30 MPH, and the wind chill temperature is 15o F. These
conditions would be equivalent to
a. a 15o F air temperature and 0 MPH winds.                   c. a 30o F air temperature and 15 MPH winds.
b. a 30 F air temperature and 45 MPH winds.                   d. a 15o F air temperature and 30 MPH winds.

43. Hypothermia is most common in
a. hot, humid weather.      b. cold, wet weather.               c. hot, dry weather.            d. cold, dry weather.

44. Which of the following is usually a liquid-in-glass thermometer?
a. radiometer                                                  d. minimum thermometer
b. thermistor                                                  e. thermograph
c. electrical resistance thermometer
45. A thermometer with a small constriction just above the bulb is a
a. maximum thermometer.                  c. electrical thermometer.                  e. bimetallic thermometer.
b. minimum thermometer.                  d. thermocouple.

46. When would be the best time to reset a minimum thermometer?
a. just after the time of minimum temperature             d. just before sunrise
b. just after the time of maximum temperature             e. around noon
c. just before sunrise

47. A thermometer that measures temperature and records it on a piece of chart paper is called a
a. minimum thermometer.                                      c. thermograph.
b. thermistor.                                               d. maximum thermometer.

48. This instrument obtains air temperature by measuring emitted infrared energy.
a. radiometer                             c. electrical resistance                d. thermistor
b. bimetallic thermometer                 thermometer                             e. thermograph

49. The thermometer that has a small dumbbell-shaped glass index marker in the tube is called a
a. bimetallic thermometer.              c. electrical thermometer.                e. minimum thermometer.
b. maximum thermometer.                 d. thermocouple.

50. The thermometer most likely to contain alcohol.
a. bimetallic thermometer                c. maximum thermometer                      e. minimum thermometer
b. radiometer                            d. thermograph

51. When a liquid thermometer is held in direct sunlight
a. it will accurately measure the air temperature.
b. it will measure a much higher temperature than that of the air.
c. it will measure a much lower temperature than that of the air.
d. it will measure the temperature of the sun rather than the air.

52. The largest annual ranges of temperatures are found:
a. at polar latitudes over land                                 d. at the Equator
b. at polar latitudes over water                                e. in the Northern Central Plains of the United States
c. at middle latitudes near large bodies of water

53. Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and
from month to month:
a. at the North Pole                                          d. on a small island near the equator
b. in the center of a large land mass                         e. high in the mountains in the middle of a continent
c. along the Pacific coast of North America

54. An ideal shelter for housing a temperature-measurement instrument should be
a. white                        b. black                     c. green                           d. yellow

55. During the long Arctic winter, radiation inversions are
a. rare                                    b. occasional                             c. frequent

56. The temperature of the soil is strongly influenced by solar radiation. At what depth within the soil would you
expect to find the smallest annual variation in temperature?
a. 1 centimeter                                                  c. 5 centimeters
b. 2 centimeters                                                 d. 10 centimeters

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