In Costa Rica, approximately 9% of galls are induced by ldh17437


									range from simple inconspicuous swellings
to complex tissue and organ modifications,
including abnormal internal cyst growths
without external swelling and organ regrowth.

By dissecting the galls, one
can find highly differen-
tiated tissue layers or
simply no differentiation.

Usually, Lep. galls are induced by                                                          Possible general mechanisms, from observations:
the larva hatching from an egg laid                                                         1. Mechanical damages made by feeding
on host plant surface. The                                                                  2. Silk spun in chamber
mechanism remains unknown.                                                                  3. Liquid secreted from the spinneret and injected in
                                                                                            surrounding tissue
                                                                                            4. Frass (fecal excrement)
For the past five years, galls induced by             Sites                            Elevation                  Habitat type                sp. #
Lepidoptera were collected across Costa La Selva OTS Station                            0-500m                lowland rainforest                4
Rica. Some of the major investigation     ACG Santa Rosa Station                        0-500m                 lowland dryforest                3
sites are listed in the table.            El Ceibo Station, San Ramón                 500-1000m       low to mid-premountain rainforest        29
                                               San José, El Zurquí                    1000-1500m      mid to high premountian rainforest       21

In Costa Rica, approximately Monteverde, Vara Blanca                                  1500-2500m          mid-elevation cloud forest           30
                                    Cuericí, Villa Mills                              2500-3200m          high elevation cloud forest          16
9% of galls are induced by          Torre, Chirripó                                   3200-3800m                   "paramo"                     0
Lepidoptera. In Costa Rica approximately 1100 arthropod-induced galls have been recorded (Hanson & Gómez-Laurito 2004).
   Distribution of arthropod-     In Costa Rica,                                                                    Species number among families
  induced galls in Costa Rica     approximately 100 species                                                                  in Costa Rica
                                  of gall-inducing Lepidoptera                                                                Family             # sp.
                                  belonging to at least 10
                                                                                                                   Nepticulidae                       1
                                  families and 8 superfamilies
                                  have been found.                                                                 Gracillariidae                     3
                                  Miller (2004) reports some 323 (176
                                  identified) belonging to at least 20                                             Glyphiptrigidae                    1
                                  families from the world, including
                                  two species from Costa Rica.                                                     Elachistidae                       4
                              They were found on ca. 80                                                            Coleophoridae                  50+
                              species belonging to 21
Host plant family association plant families, all dicots.                                                          Cosmopterigidae                10
                   All    Only
   Plant Fam.     leps   Mompha Sterculiaceae           2        0       relations among                           Sesiidae                           5
                                                                         the 46
Melastomataceae   50       47   Asteraceae              1        0       superfamilies                             Tortricidae                        5
Myrsinaceae       12        0     Boraginaceae          1        0       currently
                                                                                                                   Alucitidae                         3
Gesneriaceae       5        0     Curcurbitaceae        2        0       recognized
                                  Lamiaceae             1        0
                                                                                                                   Thyrididae                         1
Malvaceae          4        0
Fabaceae           4        0     Lythraceae            1        1       Taken and modified                        unknown                        12
                                                                         slightly from Kristensen
Clusiaceae         3        0     Polygalaceae          1        0       and Skalski 1999                       More than half of these
Solanaceae         3        0     Rosaceae              1        0       Galling is unknown in butterflies or   lepidopterans are
                                                                         any other lineage of Macrolepidoptera. undescribed species of
Amaranthaceae      2        2     Sapindaceae           1        0
Moraceae           2        0     Urticaceae            1        0       The galls were found primary           Mompha HÜBNER
Rubiaceae          2        1      Vervenaceae       1         0         on stems, leaf veins, and leaf         (Coleophoridae: Momphinae)
                           Many inducers spend their entire larval       petioles. Others were found on nearly all of which occur on
                           and pupal stages inside their galls,          flowers, fruits, and roots.            Melastomataceae.
                           while others pupate away from the gall.
                                                                                As in general, all of these gallers are mono- or stenophagous, and some
                                                                                could be potential biological control agents for invasive weeds.
                                                                                                              For example, some Melastomataceae
                                                                                                              species have been invasive in the Pacific
                                                                                                              Islands, e.g. over 60% of the Tahiti is
                                                                                                              heavily invaded by Miconia calvescens, and
                                                                                                              now also threatening also the Hawaiian
                                                                                                              forest. The Mompha species below is
                                                                                                              considered as one of the high priority
                                                                                                              potential biological control agents.

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