Middle School Instructional Procedure Sample Lesson The instructional Procedure

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					                 Middle School Instructional Procedure: Sample Lesson

The instructional Procedure is designed to assist language arts and content area teachers in
developing lesson plans that incorporate effective instructional practices. This procedure may
be completed during a single period schedule or block schedule of two to three days.


Plan Instructional Focus             Plan instructional focus
                                     •   Select appropriate tested SSS benchmark/objective
                                     •   Choose appropriate strategy/question task card



LA.6.1.7.7, LA.7.1.7.7, LA.8.1.7.7 Recognizes use of comparison and contrast in text.

Question Task Card:         Middle School Task Card
                            Compare/Contrast




                                              Teacher-Directed Instruction Grade Level Text
                                                      Literary or Informational Text
Teacher-Directed instruction
                                     Before: Activate/Build Background Knowledge
                                     During: Read/reread selection together
Grade-Level Text                             Read Aloud/Shared Reading/Buddy Reading/Silent
                                              Reading
                                     After:   Use text to teach strategy that supports the Benchmark.
                                              Formulate a model question using task card



Informational Text: The Two Sides

Summary of Text:
       The text focuses on the similarities and differences between the north and the south
during the time before the Civil War as the two sides prepared for battle. In addition, the text
discusses the advantages and disadvantages for both the north and the south during the Civil
War.

Before Reading:      Activate/Build Background Knowledge

•   ABC Listing - Ask students to use a sheet of notebook with the letters of the alphabet listed
    down the left margin of the page. Ask students to list everything they know about
    photosynthesis next to the letter that it begins with. Tell them to do this silently. Give them
    2 minutes.
•   Think Pair Share - Ask students to turn to a partner and combine lists. Give them 2
    minutes.

                                                               Division of Language Arts/Reading 2008
             MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS                                                  MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS
Design questions that require students to find the main idea of the                Design questions that require students to understand the pattern of
passage. Support answers with details and information from the text.               organization or text structure in a passage. Support answers with
                                                                                   details and information from the text.
                                MAIN IDEA
                    (LA.6.1.7.3, LA.7.1.7.3, LA.8.1.7.3)
                                                                                            PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION/ TEXT STRUCTURE
          •    What is the main idea of this article?                                              (LA.6.1.7.5, LA.7.1.7.5, LA.8.1.7.5)
          •    What would be another good title for the article?
                                                                                        •    What would an additional paragraph at the end of this passage
          •    Which accomplishment/idea was most valuable?                                  most likely be about?
          •    Which sentence gives the best summary?                                   •    What is the connection between              in paragraph _____
          •    Which statement best describes the lesson/moral of this story?                and         in paragraph     ?
          •    What is the primary topic in the article?                                •    Why does the author connect the ideas of      and       ?
          •    What is the essential message in the article/story?                      •    How has the order in which the author arranged this passage about
          •    What is the central idea of the article?                                                  helped the reader understand               ?
          •    What is the main goal of                           ?                     •    Why did the author begin this passage by saying                   ?
                                                                                        •    Why did the author use                      to develop this text?
                   RELEVANT SUPPORTING DETAILS                                          •    Why did the author conclude this passage by saying “          ?”
     •    Which sentence best characterizes                     ‘s attitude             •    What would happen if                 had been changed to          ?
          toward       ________?                                                        •    What happened after                         ?
     •    How does                        support the idea that             ?           •    How did the author organize the _____ paragraph?
     •    How can the reader prove the idea that                is the main idea
          of this text?




             MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS                                                 MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS
Design questions that require students to identify/understand plot                 Design questions that require students to determine the validity and
development, point of view, setting, conflict/resolution, and tone in a            accuracy of information in a passage. Support answers with details
passage. Support answers with details and information from the text.               and information from the text.
  CHARACTER & PLOT DEVELOPMENT/ POINT OF VIEW/SETTING/
                                                                                               VALIDITY & ACCURACY OF INFORMATION
               CONFLICT RESOLUTION/ TONE
                      (LA.6.2.1.2, LA.7.2.1.2, LA.8.2.1.2)
                                                                                                   (LA.6.6.2.2, LA.7.6.2.2, LA.8.6.2.2)
                      (LA.6.2.1.7, LA.7.2.1.7, LA.8.2.1.7)
                                                                                        •    On which facts are the opinions about                   based?
                                                                                        •    What are the reasons behind the author’s opinion that ________?
     •    What is the main conflict in the essay?
                                                                                        •    How does the author use (word, phrase, etc.) to strengthen the
     •    When is the central conflict between ____ and _____ introduced in the
                                                                                             opinion/argument that                                  ?
          story/poem?
                                                                                        •    According to the information, what is the MOST VALID argument for
     •    How does _____'s character change from the beginning to the end of
                                                                                                                    ?
          ___________?
                                                                                        •    Which statement best supports the idea that            ?
     •    What words/phrases create the tone of _____?
                                                                                        •    What is the greatest benefit of                        ?
     •    How does the setting add to the feeling that ______?
                                                                                        •    What evidence supports _________________________?
     •    What word best describes the character?
                                                                                        •    What is the best evidence that                         ?
     •    What pair of words best describes _______?
     •    How do the character’s responsibilities affect how he/she reacts?
     •    How do ______’s comments contribute to the development of the
          story/article?




 Division of Language Arts/Reading                                     Page 1 of 3                                       Last Updated 12-17-08
               MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS                                                      MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS
Design questions that require students to identify similarities and                      Design questions that require students to organize, locate, interpret,
differences in a passage. Support answers with details and information                   and synthesize information. Support answers with details and
from the text.                                                                           information from the text.

                          COMPARE/ CONTRAST                                                       ORGANIZATION, INTERPRETATION & SYNTHESIS OF
                     (LA.6.1.7.7, LA.7.1.7.7, LA.8.1.7.7)                                                          INFORMATION
                                                                                                         (LA.6.6.2.2, LA.7.6.2.2, LA.8.6.2.2)
     •    How are                  and                    similar?
     •    How are                  and                    different?
     •    Why does the author compare and                 in this passage?                    •     Based on all information given, how does each part add to the idea
     •    How does the comparison between                              and        help              that                                ?
          to illustrate                 ?                                                     •     How do                 and                      suggest the central
     •    What advantage did                    have over                         ?                 idea that                           ?
     •    In what way is                        an appropriate comparison?                    •     According to the information given (including the chart, graph, etc.)
     •    Why did                  have more              than        ______?                       about                               , which pair of
     •    What do                  and                    have in common?                           ______________would_________________?
     •    How is                   ‘s attitude toward                                         •     People who read this article will learn to/that                        ?
           like his/her attitude toward                                ?                      •     How does the concept in article              relate to the concept in
     •    How does the concept in article               relate to the concept in the                the article     ? Use details from          and        to support your
          article           ? Use details from         and        to support your                   answer.
          answer.




                                                                                                     MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS
               MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS                                         Design questions that require students to locate and analyze text
Design questions that require students to identify the author’s purpose or               features and understand how text features aid the readers
point of view. Support answers with details and information from the text.               understanding. Support answers with details and information from the
                                                                                         text.
                 AUTHOR’S PURPOSE/ POINT OF VIEW
                   (LA.6.1.7.2, LA.7.1.7.2, LA.8.1.7.2)                                                              TEXT FEATURES
                                                                                                             (LA.6.2.2.1, LA.7.2.2.1, LA.8.2.2.1)
     •    How does the author persuade the              to        ?                                          (LA.6.6.1.1, LA.7.6.1.1, LA.8.6.1.1)
     •    What is the author’s point of view about                ?
                                                                                              •     How has the order in which the author arranged this passage about
     •    What is the author’s purpose for saying                 ?
                                                                                                                  helped the reader understand             ?
     •    How does the author’s experience lead to                ?
                                                                                              •     Why did the author begin this passage by saying                 ?
     •    The author wants the reader to think                   .
                                                                                              •     Why did the author use subtitles in the passage?
     •    With which statement would the author most likely agree?
                                                                                              •     How does the caption under the photograph help the reader to
     •    Which feature would the author value the most?
                                                                                                    understand___________________?
     •    What is the author’s attitude toward                             ?
                                                                                              •     How doe s the photograph of______________ help the reader
     •    Which statement best describes what the author probably thinks about                      understand _______________?
                                  ?
                                                                                              •     How do the photograph(s) and caption(s) help the reader
     •    What kind of article did the author write about _____________?                            understand___________________?
                                                                                              •     Explain how the (chart/ map/ diagram/ sub-heading/ caption/
                                                                                                    illustration/ graph) aid the readers understanding.




 Division of Language Arts/Reading                                           Page 2 of 3                                          Last Updated 12-17-08
               MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS                                          MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS
Design questions that require students to describe the cause or effect of    Design questions that require students to determine the meaning of a
an action, or a cause/effect relationship in a passage. Support answers      word in context, including the use of prefixes, suffixes, root words,
with details and information from the text.                                  multiple meanings, synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and word
                                                                             relationships. Support answers with details and information from the
                             CAUSE/ EFFECT
                                                                             text.
                    (LA.6.1.7.4, LA.7.1.7.4, LA.8.1.7.4)

                                                                                 VOCABULARY/ CONTEXT CLUES/ MULTIPLE MEANINGS
     •    What caused                       to              ?
     •    What was the effect of                                       ?                      (LA.6.1.7.3, LA.7.1.7.3, LA.8.1.7.3)
     •    Why did                 happen to                            ?                      (LA.6.1.6.8, LA.7.1.6.8, LA.8.1.6.8)
     •    How did the conflict between               and                                      (LA.6.1.6.9, LA.7.1.6.9, LA.8.1.6.9)
          begin?
     •    What is the main reason/cause that                                     •  In this text, what does “                              “ mean?
          happens?                                                               •  What does the author mean by saying, “                  ?”
     •    Which factor forces/influences                               ?         •  Which words help the author convey the meaning that           ?
     •    Why does the author describe the character as                ?         •  Which word(s) add to the idea that                      ?
                                                                                 •  What does the author imply by saying “                  ?”
                                                                                 •  How did the author organize the ___ paragraph?
                                                                                 •  The origin of           is the root                     , meaning
                                                                                                     .
                                                                                      What does                         mean?
                                                                                 •  Read the quotation from the article:
                                                                                    “                                           “
                                                                                    In which sentence does the word                         have the
                                                                                    same meaning as in the quotation above?
                                                                                 •  Read the quotation from the article:
                                                                                                 “                                          “
                                                                                   What does the phrase reveal about the narrator’s opinion of the
                                                                                    situation?




 Division of Language Arts/Reading                                 Page 3 of 3                                    Last Updated 12-17-08
•   Think Pair Square - Ask each pair to join another pair and have the four of them combine
    their lists.
•   Reflect and have a few students share the combined lists with the class.

During Reading:        Read/Reread Selection Together

•   The teacher may begin reading the text aloud. Then ask students to buddy read a few
    paragraphs of the text. Have students finish the passage reading silently.
•   Ask students to selectively underline the key details related to the process of
    photosynthesis and the process of human respiration.


After Reading:         Use text to teach strategy that supports the benchmark

•   Two-column note - Have students develop a two-column note listing the details about the
    north and the south leading up to and during the Civil War


                                       North                                       South




Formulating an FCAT-like question using a Question Task Card

•   Have students generate discussion about the similarities between the north and the south
    leading up to and during the Civil War.
•   Question Task Card - Have students formulate a question using appropriate Task Card.


                                         MIDDLE SCHOOL QUESTION TASK CARDS
             Design questions which require students to identify similarities and differences in a passage. Support
             answers with details and information from the text.

                                                      COMPARE/CONTRAST
                                                 (LA.6.1.7.7, LA.7.1.7.7, LA.8.1.7.7)

                 •    How are                  and                    similar?
                 •    How are                  and                    different?
                 •    Why does the author compare and                 in this passage?
                 •    How does the comparison between                              and        help to illustrate         ?
                 •    What advantage did                    have over                         ?
                 •    In what way is                        an appropriate comparison?
                 •    Why did                  have more              than        ______?
                 •    What do                  and                    have in common?
                 •    How is                   ‘s attitude toward
                       like his/her attitude toward                                ?
                 •    How does the concept in article               relate to the concept in the article       ? Use details from
                      and        to support your answer.




                                                                                      Division of Language Arts/Reading 2008
Question on Overhead:       How was the north different from the south during the Civil War?


                                       Teacher Modeling/Thinking Aloud
Teacher Modeling/Think Aloud           • Teacher and students analyze question by
                                          discussing what is necessary to fulfill the
                                          requirements of the task
                                       • Teacher and students examine text to support
                                          response


•   Read the question aloud and ask students to carefully examine the question.
•   Tell students to go back to the passage and the two-column note and underline the parts
    where the answer might be found. Initially the teacher will model and guide the students
    through this process.
•   As the students gain experience, the teacher may gradually reduce support until students
    are able to accomplish this task independently. Discuss possible answers.



Write Answers to the Questions           Write Answers to the Question
                                         • Students write individual answers
                                         • Students share written responses in
                                            pairs/groups


•   Students will use details and information from the text, their two-column note, and the class
    discussion to write a response to the question.
•   After completing their written response, students will share with a partner, adding missing
    information to their individual answers.




                                  Improve Responses to FCAT Tasks
                                  Compare and Justify
                                  • Guide students in discussing whether the answers fulfill the
                                     requirements of the task and are supported by the text
                                  Develop Better Responses
Improve Responses to FCAT
                                  • Use student responses to build and model complete
                                     paraphrased text-based answers




                                                              Division of Language Arts/Reading 2008
Tasks

Compare and Justify
•   After students have compared responses, continue with a whole class discussion of
    whether student responses fulfill the requirement of the task. Go back to the text to find
    support for student responses.


Develop Better Responses
•   Use student responses to build and model top score responses.
•   Use the overhead to model a complete paraphrased text-based answer.
•   Elicit responses from the whole class to develop the top score answer.
•   Model the building of a top score response by showing students how to infuse text-based
    information into the response.


Develop Better Responses

Example of a Top Score Short Response Performance Task


        How was the north different from the south during the Civil War? Use details and
        information from the passage to support your answer.

During the Civil War, the north and the south were different. According to the article, north was

a more industrial area whereas the south was more agricultural and had more farms.

Additionally, the northern soldiers were better equipped than soldiers from the south. The

southern soldiers were fighting in their own territory, and the northern soldiers were fighting on

unfamiliar ground.




                                                           Division of Language Arts/Reading 2008
                                           Applications for Ongoing Instruction
                                           •   Students practice responding to similar questions
                                           •   Students apply the strategies independently with
Applications for Ongoing                       various forms of texts
                                           •   Teachers develop assessments using the FCAT
Instruction                                    format




Students practice responding to similar questions.

•   Have students select and write a response to another question stem from the Question
    Task Card

       Example:
            What is the effect of comparing the north and the south during the Civil War?

Students apply the strategies independently with various texts.

•   Have students use ABC listing and think-pair-share-square to activate background
    knowledge in other forms of text.
•   During the reading process, ask students to use selective underlining to understand
    important text concepts.
•   After reading the text, ask students to develop other types of two-column notes to illustrate
    comprehension of key ideas from the passage.

Teachers develop assessments using the FCAT format.

•   Teachers and students should develop FCAT-like questions using their subject area
    textbook reading selections.
•   Teachers need to focus instruction on the following:
        • reading text carefully;
        • understanding what the question is asking;
        • understanding and respond to all parts of the question;
        • referring to the text to answer the question;
        • paraphrasing the information;
        • using brief, selective, key quotes to help support responses;
        • explaining all quoted information as it relates specifically to the task;
        • using appropriate information from text photos, captions, and introductory pieces to
           support responses; and
        • answering completely.

Teachers should continuously assess, analyze, and prioritize the strengths and weaknesses in
students’ responses to performance task items in order to make adjustments for further
instruction. Mini-lessons focusing on targeted benchmarks should be taught so students will
have more opportunities to practice developing responses to performance task items.


                                                             Division of Language Arts/Reading 2008